PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB India: Drainage Textbook Questions and Answers

Map Work :

Question 1.
Show in the outline map of India :
(i) Ganga
(ii) Brahmaputra
(iii) Wular and Sambhar Lakes
(iv) Gobind Sagar Lake
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Question 2.
Show in the outline map of India:
(i) Ganga with its tributries, three each on both sides.
(ii) Two peninsular rivers flowing towards west.
(iii) Three peninsular rivers flowing towards East and ending up in Bay of Bengal.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Objective Type Questions :
Answer the following questions in a single word to one sentence length :

Question 1.
Which among the following is not tributary of Ganga (Ganges) :
(i) Yamuna
(ii) Beas
(iii) Gandak
(iv) Son.
Answer:
(ii) Beas.

Question 2.
Which of these lakes is not natural :
(i) Renuka
(ii) Chilka
(iii) Dali
(iv) Ranjit Sagar.
Answer:
(iv) Ranjit Sagar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 3.
Which drainage system is biggest in India :
(i) Ganga
(ii) Godawari
(iii) Brahmaputra
(iv) Indus.
Answer:
(i) Ganga.

Question 4.
Which is biggest delta of the world?
Answer:
Sundarban delta.

Question 5.
What is meant by Doab?
Answer:
The region between two rivers is called Doab.

Question 6.
What is length of Indus and how much of its portion lies in India?
Answer:
The total length of river Indus is 2800 km. and its 700 km. lies in India.

Question 7.
Name three peninsular rivers ending up in Bay of Bengal.
Answer:
Godawari, Krishna, Kaveri, Mahanadi.

Question 8.
In how many parts can be divide drainage system in India?
Answer:
Indian drainage system can be divided in four parts-Himalayan rivers, Peninsular drainage system, Internal drainage system and Lakes.

Question 9.
River Indus originates from which glacier?
Answer:
River Indus originates from Bokhar Chu glacier which is situated in Tibet.

Question 10.
Name any two seasonal rivers.
Answer:
Vetuma, Kalinadi, Subarnekha etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 11.
Which is birth place of Mahanadi? Name its two tributaries.
Answer:
The place of origin of Mahanadi is Dandakaranya in Chattisgarh. Seonath, Mang, Ong etc. are its tributaries.

Question 12.
Name five natural lakes of India.
Answer:
Dal lake, Chilka, Surajtal, Wooler, Khajiar, Pushkar etc.

Short Answer Questions :
Give short answers for the following questions :

Question 1.
Pollution is increasing in Ganga. What is being done to check it?
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that pollution in Ganga is continuously increasing. Its major reason is industrial waste, pesticides etc.

The government has taken many steps to stop pollution in Ganga such as :

  • In April, 1980, Central Government made Ganga Action Plan and started the work of cleaning Ganga.
  • In continuation with Ganga Action Plan, the government in 2009, created National Ganga Basic Authority and its major objective was to stop pollution in Ganga.
  • In 2014, the Central Government created a special ministry for the cleaning of Ganga and a minister was also appointed for the same purpose.
  • Till now, the Central Government has spent hundreds of crores for the cleaning of Ganga.

Question 2.
Write a note on Internal drainage in India.
Answer:
A number of rivers flow in India and many of these rivers fall into any sea. But there are few rivers which are unable to reach any sea and end midway within the country. They are known as Internal drainage system of India. Its most important example is river Ghaghar which flows for 465 km and then ends in Rajasthan. In the same way rivers flowing in Rajasthan and Luni river of Rajasthan are also few of its examples.

Question 3.
Which is Wridha’ Ganga? Name its tributaries.
Answer:
The Godavari is the longest of the Peninsular rivers. It has an extensive drainage basin. Its drainage basin extends through Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Because of its large size and extent, it is compared to river Ganga. It has got the same cultural significance in the peninsular India as the Ganga has in the northern plain. Therefore, it is referred to as Dakshina Ganga or Vridha Ganga.

Question 4.
On which river ‘Dhuandhar falls’ lies? Name its tributaries also.
Answer:

  • DhuailtMlr Falls is on Narmada river which is formed at a place called Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Major tributaries of river Narmada are the Shakkar, the Dudhi, the Tawa, the Ganjal, the Hiran, the Choral etc.

Long Answer Questions :
Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Which are Himalayan and Peninsular rivers? Differentiate between their characteristics.
Answer:

  1. Himalayan rivers: These rivers originate in the Himalayas mountain and they are called perennial rivers as they have water throughout the year. For example, Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra etc.
  2. Peninsular rivers: Those rivers which are in the peninsular plateau or in south India are called Peninsular rivers. For example, Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.

Difference:

Himalayan Rivers

Rivers of the Peninsula

1. These rivers rise from the snow covered Himalayas and hence these are perennial. 1. The Peninsular rivers are seasonal. They get supply of water from summer rainfall.
2. These rivers do not have any waterfalls. Hence these are not useful for generation of water power. 2. These rivers make waterfalls and cataracts on the plateau. Hence these are useful for hydroelectric projects.
3. The Himalayan rivers have large basins and extensive catchment areas. Therefore, these have a large volume of water. 3. The peninsular rivers have small basins and small catchment areas. Therefore these do not have a large volume of water.
4. These rivers flow over plains. Therefore these are useful for irrigation and navigation. 4. These rivers flow on rocky areas and are not used for irrigation and navigation.
5. These rivers pass through deep gorges and before entering the plains they have meandering courses on plains. 5. These rivers flow through shallow river valley having straight courses.
6. These river form vast alluvial plains by depositing sediments. 6. These rivers do not bring fertile alluvium and do not form alluvial plains.
7. Many important towns have developed on the courses of these rivers. 7. Very few towns have developed on the banks of these rivers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 2.
Describe three drainage systems of India and explain any” one of them in detail.
Answer:
Three river systems in India are Himalayan rivers, peninsular rivers and coastal rivers. Their description is given below:

I. Himalayan Rivers :

  • River Indus. This river originates from Bokhar Chu glacier in the north of Mansarovar lake. It flows from south-east to north-west in Kashmir. On its way, Indus forms many deep gorges. While going through Pakistan, it falls in the Arabian sea. Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum are its major tributaries.
  • River Ganga. River Ganga originates from Gangotri glacier at a place called Go-mukh. Later on Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers meet the Ganga. While flowing through Shiwalik mountains, it reaches Haridwar. Finally, it falls into the Bay of Bengal. Its major tributaries are Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghra, Gandhak, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Son, etc.
  • River Brahmaputra. This river originates from Angsi glacier in Kailash mountain of Tibet. While flowing through Tibat, India and Bangladesh, it meets the river Ganga. Here the water of Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers
    flows with the name of Padma river. In the end, while forming Sunderban delta, it falls into the Bay of Bengal. It forms the Majuli island (Assam) which is the largest inter riverine island in the world. Manar, Subansri, Kameng etc. are the tributaries of Brahmaputra.

II. Peninsular Rivers :

  • Mahanadi: This river originates from the Bastar hills at Dandakarnia in Chhattisgarh. While going through Chattisgarh and Odisha, it falls into Bay of Bengal.
  • Godawari: This river originates from the northern side of western ghats. While going through Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, it falls into Bay of Bengal.
  • Krishna: This river originates from Mahableshwar near western ghats. It also falls into Bay of Bengal while going through Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its tributaries are Bhima, Tungabhadra etc.
  • Kaveri: This river starts from the southern side of western ghats (Talakaveri) and falls into Bay of Bengal. On its way, it flows through Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
  • Narmada: This river originates from Amarkantak and goes through Maikal hills and finally falls into Arabian Sea.
  • Tapti: This river originates from the Betul district of Madhaya Pradesh in the Satpura range. It also falls into Arabian Sea.

III. Coastal Rivers :
There lie three seas on the southern part of India and these are Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. The rivers flowing along with the coast of these seas are known as coastal rivers. Their length is quite less and they flow through a very short span of length. They are-filled with water in the rainy season. Major coastal rivers are Veluma, Palar, Mandavi, Dapaira, Kalinadi, Sheravati, Netravati, Periyar, Painani, Subarnekha, Kharkai, Palar etc,

Question 3.
What are economic benefits of North Indian and South Indian rivers? ‘
Answer:
1. Cultural Importance. Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout the human history. The areas along the banks of rivers have witnessed great cultural and economic progress since ancient times. Rivers are an integral part of our folklore and folk songs.

2. A Natural Resource. Water from the rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for human, agricultural and industrial activities.

3. Agricultural Areas. Rivers and their associated alluvial soils provide the most productive agricultural lands of the country. The Ganga, the Kaveri and other deltas have traditionally been the rice growing areas. An agriculture dependent on the vagaries of the monsoons, irrigation from rivers has been the backbone of the development of Indian agriculture.

4. Settlements. The valleys contain dense and concentrated settlements. Most of the large cities are located on rivers. Not only do rivers provide us with essential water supplies, but they also receive, dilute and transport “wastes from settlements.

5. Industrial Development. Industrial development has flourished along rivers as many industrial processes rely on water – as a raw material, as a coolant and for the generation of hydro-electricity.

6. Transportation. Rivers provide primary channels of inland transportation, not only directly in the form of navigable waterways, but also indirectly through their valleys, where roads, railways lines and other routes are built.

7. Tourism. Recreation, tourist promotion and fishing are also being developed along waterfronts.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide India: Drainage Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which is the-largest river basin in, India?
(a) Ganga
(6) Yamuna
(c) Mahanadi
(d) Godawari.
Answer:
(a) Ganga.,

Question 2.
Which is the longest river of India?
(a) Yamuna
(6) Ganga
(c) Brahmaputra
(d) Godavari.
Answer:
(c) Brahmaputra

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 3.
The drainage system with branches resembles a tree :
(a) Trellis
(b) Radial
(c) Dendritic
(d) Rectangular
Answer:
(c) Dendritic.

Question 4.
The Ganga and the Yamuna rivers meet at :
(a) Kanpur
(b) Varanasi
(c) Patna
(d) Allahabad.
Answer:
(d) Allahabad.

Question 5.
Sunderban delta is formed by :
(a) Ganga
(b) Kaveri
(c) Godavari
(d) Narmada.
Answer:
(a) Ganga.

Question 6.
Which is a trans-Himalayan river?
(a) Ganga
(b) Chambal
(c) Sutlej
(d) Beas.
Answer:
(c) Sutlej.

Question 7.
Which river is called Dakshin Ganga?
(a) Mahanadi
(b) Godavari
(c) Krishna
(d) Cauvery.
Answer:
(b) Godavari.

Question 8.
Where is Dal lake located?
(a) In Arunachal
(b) In Kerala
(c) In J & K
(d) In Rajasthan.
Answer:
(c) In J & K.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 9.
Which lake is located in Orissa?
(a) Chilka
(b) Sambhar
(c) Vembnad
(d) Kolleru.
Answer:
(a) Chilka.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Total length of the river Ganga is _________ km.
Answer:
2525

Question 2.
Ghaghra, Gandhak, Kosi, Sone are the tributaries of river _________
Answer:
Ganga

Question 3.
Brahmaputra enters India at a place called _________
Answer:
Namcha Barva

Question 4.
Total length of the river Brahmaputra is _________ km.
Answer:
2900

Question 5.
_________ island is the largest inter riverine island in the world.
Answer:
Mojuli

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 6.
Luni river originates at _________ in Rajasthan.
Answer:
Pushkar.

True/False:

Question 1.
Sabarmati river originates from Dabar lake.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Length of Luni river is 495 km.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Krishna river is also known as Vridha Ganga.
Answer:
False.

Question 4.
Coastal rivers are quite long.
Answer:
False.

Question 5.
Gobind. Sagar lake is made behind Bhakhra Dam.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Ganga Action Plan was made in 1980.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by Drainage?
Answer:
The web of rivers flowing in any area is called drainage.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 2.
What is Doab?
Answer:
The region between two rivers is called Doab.

Question 3.
What is water divide?
Answer:
An upland area separating two drainage basins is called a water divide.

Question 4.
What do you mean by Drainage Basin?
Answer:
The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.

Question 5.
What is Drainage Pattern?
Answer:
When flowing water on land forms different patterns, it is called drainage pattern.

Question 6.
Name the types of drainage pattern.
Answer:
Dendritic pattern, Trellis pattern, Radial pattern and Rectangular pattern.

Question 7.
In which four parts can we divide Indian drainage system?
Answer:
Himalayan rivers, Peninsular rivers, Coastal rivers and Internal drainage system.

Question 8.
Which are the major water divides of India?
Answer:
Himalayan Mountain ranges and Deccan Plateau of South.

Question 9.
Name the tributaries of river Indus.
Answer:
Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum.

Question 10.
Name the tributaries of river Ganga.
Answer:
Yamuna, Son, Ghaghra, Ghandhak, Betwa, Kosi etc.

Question 11.
Which rivers are the examples of Antecedent Drainage?
Answer:
Indus, Sutlej, Alakhnanda, Ghandhak, Kosi and Brahmaputra.

Question 12.
What do we call river Indus in Tibet?
Answer:
In Tibet, river Indus is called Singhi Khamban or Sher Da Mukh.

Question 13.
What is the total length of river Indus?
Answer:
2880 km.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 14.
Which river is known as the holy river in India?
Answer:
River Ganga is considered as the holy river in India.

Question 15.
Which delta is formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers?
Answer:
Sunderban Delta.

Question 16.
What is the total length of Ganga river?
Answer:
2525 km.

Question 17.
From where Brahmaputra river originates?
Answer:
Brahmaputra river originates from Angsi glacier in Kailash mountain, Tibet.

Question 18.
What do we call Brahmaputra river in Tibet?
Answer:
Brahmaputra river in Tibet is called Tsangpo.

Question 19.
At which place Brahmaputra river enters India?
Answer:
Brahmaputra river enters India at Namcha Barva.

Question 20.
Name the tributaries of Brahmaputra.
Answer:
Subarnagiri, Kamera, Dhangiri, Dihang, Lohit etc.

Question 21.
What is the name of main stream of river Ganga?
Answer:
Bhagirathi.

Question 22.
Which southern rivers flow in the west direction?
Answer:
Narmada and Tapti rivers.

Question 23.
Which southern rivers flow in the east direction?
Answer:
Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna and Kaveri.

Question 24.
What do you mean by Inland drainage system?
Answer:
Many of the rivers in country ends in land or in any lake, They do not fall in any sea and it is called Inland drainage system.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 25.
Name any three rivers of Inland drainage system.
Answer:
Ghagar river, Luni river, Saraswati river etc.

Question 26.
Where are natural lakes available in the peninsular plateau?
Answer:
Lonar (Maharashtra), Chilka (Odisha), Pulikat (Tamil Nadu), Periyar (Kerala), Kelur (Seemandhra) etc.

Question 27.
What is the length of Chilka lake and where is it situated?
Answer:
The length of Chilka lake is 30 km. and it is situated in Odisha.

Question 28.
When and why was Ganga Action Plan launched?
Answer:
Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1986 to stop the pollution in Ganga.

Question 29.
What is the total length of Mahanadi?
Answer:
858 km.

Question 30.
What is the length of Godawari, Krishna, Kaveri and Narmada?
Answer:
Godawari: 1465 km, Krishna: 1400 km.
Kaveri: 800 km., Narmada: 1312 km.

Question 31.
Name the tributaries of Godawari.
Answer:
Dhanganga, Vangaga, Vardha, Indrawati, Manjra, Sabri etc.

Question 32.
Name the tributaries of Kaveri.
Answer:
Herawati, Hiranegi, Amravati, Kabani.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 33.
Name the tributaries of river Tapti.
Answer:
Girna, Mindola, Poorna, Panjag, Shipra, Arunavati etc.

Question 34.
Tell something about Luni river.
Answer:
Luni river starts from Pushkar, Rajasthan. Its length is 465 km and it ends in the Kutch of desert.

Question 35.
Name the major lakes of Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer:
Dal lake and Wooler lake.

Question 36.
Name the Salty lake of Rajasthan.
Answer:
Sambhar Lake.

Question 37.
Which chemicals are thrown in the rivers?
Answer:
Cadmium, Arsenic, Lead, Magnesium, Zink, Nickel etc.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why Himalayan rivers are called the perennial rivers?
Answer:
The meaning of perennial is the one which flows throughout the year. Himalayan rivers get water in summer as well as in winter. During rainy,season, they get rain water. During summer season, the snow of Himalaya gets melted and water comes in the rivers. That’s why Himalayan rivers are called the perennial rivers. Ganga and Brahmaputra are such rivers.

Question 2.
Name the three main Himalayan river systems. Also write two tributaries of each one.
Answer:
There are three Himalayan river systems and they are :

  1. Indus River System. Its major tributaries are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab etc.
  2. Ganga River System. Its major tributaries are Yamuna, Ganga, Gomti, Gandak, Sone etc.
  3. Brahmaputra River System. Its major tributaries are Dibhang, Lohit etc.

Question 3.
Give a brief description of Brahmaputra river.
Answer:
The Brahmaputra is the longest river in India, with a length of about 2880 kms. It rises near Mansarover lake in Tibet and enters India through Dihang gorge in Arunachal Pradesh. It flows parallel to the Himalayas in Tibet where it is known as ‘Tsangpo’. After Namcha Barwa (7767 m), it takes ‘U’ turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through Dihang gorge. Dihang gorge is about 13000 metres deep. After the confluence of Lohit, Dihang and Dibang streams, it is called the Brahmaputra. It carries huge amount of silt with it. In northern Bangladesh, it is called Padma. Further south, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra meet and the joint stream is known as Jamuna and in central part, it is called Meghna. It is often compared to a slowly moving lake due to sluggish flow. It is known for its notorious floods in upper Assam. It forms the largest delta of the world, known as ‘Sunderbans’. It is the home of ‘Royal Bengal Tiger’.

Question 4.
Write a note on Ganga river system.
Answer:
The Ganga is the most sacred river of India. The story of the Ganga from her source to sea from old times to new is the story of India’s civilisation and culture. The Ganga has its source near Gomukh glacier, near Gangotri. The Ganges is formed by two head streams namely Alaknanda and Bhagirathi. It enters the plains near Hardwar. The Yamuna meets this river at Allahabad known as Sangam. The Ganges is the master stream of the area—South of Farakka, the river divides into a number of channels to form ‘Sunder Ban’ Delta. The Ramganga, Ghaghra, Gandak, Baghmari join the Ganges from its left. The Yamuna and the Son join it from the south. It is 2525 km long. Hardwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata are situated along the Ganga.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 5.
Describe the .west flowing rivers of peninsular plateau.
Answer:
The rivers flowing to the west of Peninsular plateau are: Mahi, Sabarmati, Narmada and Tapti.

  1. Mahi. Mahi river emerges from Vindhya mountains. It total length is 533 kilometres. It falls into the right side of Gulf of Khambhat, near gulf of Cambay.
  2. Sabarmati. Sabarmati emerges from Mechhva near Udaipur. This seasonal river is 416 km. long. After passing through Gandhi Nagar and Ahmedabad, it falls into Gulf of Cambay.
  3. Narmada. It emerges from Amarkantak Plateau, and after travelling 1312 km, falls into the south of Gulf of Cambay without forming any delta.

Question 6.
Describe the east flowing rivers of peninsular plateau.
Answer:

  1. Damodar River. The Damodar, 530 km long, rises from Chhota Nagpur plateau. On account of its floods, it is called ‘River of Sorrow’. D.V.C. Project is a multipurpose project to get benefits from this river.
  2. The Mahanadi. It is 857 km long. It emerge from Amarkantak Plateau. It is a navigable river and forms a fertile delta.
  3. The Godavari. It is 1440 km long and rises from the Western Ghats. It is the longest river of the Peninsula. It forms a fertile delta on the East Coast.
  4. The Krishna. It is 1400 km long. It rises near Mahabaleshwar in Western Ghats. Its tributaries – Bhima and Tungbhadra are important.
  5. Kaveri. It rises in Brahmgiri in the Coorg district. It is 800 km. long. It is useful for irrigation, navigation and water power development.

Question 7.
State few characteristics of Himalayan rivers.
Answer:
These rivers have large basins. These make deep gorges. These were formed due to down cutting during period of uplift of Himalayas. These are perennial rivers as these get water from rainfall and from the melting of snow. These deposit silt and sand to form plains.

Question 8.
Write a note on the Indus river system.
Answer:
The Indus River System. The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarovar. Flowing west, it enters India in the Ladakh through a picturesque gorge. Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Shyok and the Huzana, join it in this region. It flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges from the mountains at Attock. The famous five rivers of Punjab—the Satlej, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum enter the Indus a little above Mithankot in Pakistan. Beyond this, the Indus flows southwards eventually reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The total length of the river is about 2900 km. ranking it amongst the longest rivers of the world. A little over a third of the Indus basin is located in India in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab and the rest is in Pakistan.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India Drainage 1

Question 9.
Write a note on Lakes in India.
Answer:
There are not many lakes in India. Dal, Wular, Sambhar, Chilka, Pulikat, Lonar etc. are the major lakes in India.

  • Out of all the lakes, seven are in the Nainital district of the Kumaon Himalayan region.
  • Dal and Wular lakes are in North Kashmir. These are quite good for entertainment purposes.
  • Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan and Lonar lake in Maharashtra are salt water lakes.
  • Chilka lake in Odisha is India’s largest salt water lake.
  • Pulikat lake near Chennai is quite famous.
  • Kolleru lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India and is located between Krishna and Godavari Deltas.
  • There are many long lakes along the coast of Kerala.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 10.
Why do the rivers have no deltas on the Western Coast, even though they transport lot of sediments with them ?
Answer:
The Narmada and Tapti are the main rivers flowing westward on the western coast. These rivers carry a large amount of sediments with them. But these rivers do not form any delta near their mouths. These rivers form estuaries.

The west coasts are not marked with favourable conditions required for the formation of a delta. The lower courses of these rivers have steep slopes. The rivers have a swift current. The rivers are unable to deposit their sediments at their mouths. These rivers do not have any large tributaries to add to their sediments. These rivers flow through rift valleys. Most of sediments are deposited in these troughs. Due to subsidence, deep estuaries are formed near their mouths. Thus these rivers have no delta on the west coast due to lack of favourable physical conditions.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the Inland Drainage System in India.
Answer:
Most of rivers do not reach the oceans. These are dried on the way or fall into lakes. So inland water resources form inland drainage. This system is studied on two bases :

On the basis of source : These systems developed from Himalayas and Aravallis.
(a) Himalayan System. This system is found in Shiwaliks and Ladakh.

  • Ghaggar river rises to a height of 1500 metres in Morni Hills over Panchkula and enters plains. It reaches upto Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan upto Hanumangarh. But due to evaporation, it is lost on the way Sukhna, Tangri, Markanda, Saraswati are its tributaries.
  • Jaintia Rao and Patiali Rao are small seasonal streams near Chandigarh.
  • Sub-Himalayan rivers in Terai region go underground.
  • Aksaichin river in Ladakh is also an example of inland drainage system.

(b) Aravalli Region:

  • Seasonal streams flow on the west and enter lakes of Sambhar, Jaipur, or in sand dunes.
  • Luni River enters Rann of Kutchh.

(c) Destination Basis. Many small streams reach into lakes, which are found in Himalayas, Thar desert, and peninsular India.

  • Lakes of the Himalayas,
    (a) Dal lake, Wular, Anantnag, Sheshnag, Verinag lakes in Kashmir
    (b) Bheem Tal, Chanderpal Tal, Nainital, Punatal, etc. lakes in Kumaon.
  • Lakes of Thar Desert. Sambhar, Salt lake, Javadi, Choparward, Sai pad, Jasmand lakes.
  • Peninsular India lakes. Lonar in Maharashtra, Chilka (Odisha), Pulicat (T.N.), Periyar (Kerala).

Question 2.
Describe the drainage system flowing into the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.
Answer:
1. The Ganges. The Ganges has its source near Gomukh glacier, near Gangotri. The Ganges is formed by two land streams namely Alaknanda and Bhagirathi. It enters the plains near Haridwar. The Yamuna meets this river at Allahabad known as Sangam. The Ganges is the master stream of the area. South of Farakka, the river divides into a number of channels to form ‘Sunder Ban’ Delta.

2. The Brahmaputra System. The Brahmaputra river is the master stream of this system. It is 2880 km long. It flows parallel to the Himalayas in Tibet and is known as Tsangpo. It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through Dihang gorge. It is known for its notorious floods and silt deposits. It joins Padma river in Bangladesh to form a large delta.

The Drainage System flowing into Arabian Sea.

1. The Indus Drainage System. It is one of the world’s largest systems. It comprises the rivers of Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. Indus., Jhelum and Chenab flow in Pakistan.

  • The Sutlej: It originates from Rakshas Tal near Mansarover lake across the Himalayas. It forms a deep gorge. It is 1448 km long and feeds the Bhakhra Canal.
  • The Beas: It originates from the Beas Kund near Rohtang Pass. It is 460 km long. It lies within the boundaries of Punjab state.
  • The Ravi: The Ravi rises in Dhauladhar Hills. It enters the plains near Madhopur. It is 720 km. long and forms a natural divide between India and Pakistan.

2. Other Rivers. Narmada and Tapti make estuaries along the west coast. These are rift valleys. Sabarmati, Luni, Mahi are other rivers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage

Question 3.
Describe the different drainage patterns.
Answer:
The streams of an area form patterns. These drainage patterns depend upon :

  1. Relief of Area
  2. Structure of Area
  3. Climatic conditions of Area

The streams form the following patterns :
1. Dendritic pattern. It consists of a single main stream. The tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. These follow the slope of the area. Ganges river is dendritic in pattern. The word dendritic is derived from the Greek word dendran.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India Drainage 2

2. Trellis pattern. In this the main stream is joined by short flowing streams. These streams join the main stream at right angles. It makes a rectangular pattern. Narmada river makes a Trellis pattern.

3. Radial pattern. In this, the stream flows in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure.

4. Inland drainage. In this pattern, the rivers do not reach an ocean. It falls into a lake or an inland sea. It is formed in desert at Rajasthan.

5. Rectangular pattern. It is developed on a strongly connected terrain. The drainage follows the joint patterns.

India: Drainage PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Drainage system: Major rivers and their tributaries of a particular region form a definite pattern of drainage. This pattern is called drainage system of that region.
  • Tributaries: The river which gets submerged in the main river is called the tributary of that main river.
  • Major Rivers of India: Major rivers of India can be divided in two main parts i.e. Himalayan rivers and rivers of Peninsular Plateau. Major Himalayan rivers are Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Major rivers of peninsular plateau are Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari, Tapti and Narmada.
  • Lakes: Major lakes in India are Dal, Wooler, Sambhar, Chilka, Pulikat etc. They get water either from rain or from the melting ice of glacier. Few lakes are quite important from entertainment point of view.
  • Importance of Rivers: Rivers give us water to drink and for irrigation. We can get hydroelectricity by making dams on rivers.
  • River pollution: Throwing of unnecessary particles and chemicals in river water creates river pollution. Then, this water is not fit for human consumption.
  • Ways to stop river pollution: Proper utilization of river water, making borders at agricultural fields and by making National Water Grid, we can stop river pollution.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 3a India: Drainage Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography Textbook Questions and Answers

Map Work:

Show the outline map of Punjab:
(i) Hoshiarpur Shiwalik and Ropar Shiwaliks.
(ii) Bet region of river Sutlej.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Activity:
Prepare three lists of districts of semi-mountainous, plains and south-western sandy regions to display in your classroom.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Objective Type Questions:
Answer the following questions in a single word to one sentence length.

Question 1.
What are old alluvial plains known as?
Answer:
Bhangar.

Question 2.
What do you understand by khadar or Bet?
Answer:
Khadar or Bet are the plains of new alluvial soil. This soil exists in the lower areas of river banks.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 3.
In how many classifications can we divide Punjab plains?
Answer:
The plains of Punjab can be divided in five parts:

  1. Plains of Cho region,
  2. Flood plains,
  3. Naili,
  4. Alluvial Plains,
  5. Sand dunes in alluvial plains.

Question 4.
In which direction sandy highlands fall in Punjab?
Answer:
Sand dunes in Punjab are available in south-west side along with the Rajasthan border.

Question 5.
What is meant by Changa?
Answer:
The Kandi region near Anandpur Sahib is known as Changar.

Question 6.
Which of the following is right and which is wrong:
1. The outermost range of Himalayas is Shiwaliks.
Answer:
True.

2. Kandi region falls in south of Roopnagar and Patiala.
Answer:
False

3. Hoshiarpur Shiwalik falls between Sutlej and Beas.
Answer:
True.

4. Alluvial plains of Ghagar in south-east Punjab are known as Nally.
Answer:
True.

Short Answer Questions:
Give short answer for the following questions:

Question 1.
Explain characteristics of Kandi region. In which districts of Punjab does it fall?
Answer:
There exist open plains in the west of Punjab’s Shiwalik hills and in the east of Nurpur Bedi Tehsil of Roopnagar district. In local language, they are called Kandi areas.

This area or region is spread in 5 lakh hectare area of 5 districts and 22 blocks of Punjab which becomes 10% of Punjab’s total area.

Features:

  • The soil of this region is not smooth and is full of Chos.
  • This region is spread in the narrow bets of 300-400 metres along with Shiwalik.
  • After every kilometre, there exists one Cho or Nala.
  • This region is spread between the districts of Chandigarh, Hoshiarpur, Roopnagar (Ropar) etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 2.
What are seasonal Choes? Give examples of these rivelets.
Answer:
Few Chos flow in the rainy season. They become dry in the summer season. Such Nalas are known as seasonal Chos. There exist a number of seasonal Chos in Roopnagar of Ropar Shiwalik. Here they are called Rao and Ghare.

Question 3.
Write a note on origin of alluvial plains of Punjab.
Answer:
Punjab’s 70% land is surrounded with alluvial plains. These plains are the part of Ganga and Indus plains. They originated due to the soil brought up by the parennial rivers of the Himalaya mountain. Indus and its tributaries such as Sutlej, Ravi and Beas have played a very important role in its formation. Their height is 300 metres to 2000 metres from sea level.

Question 4.
Write a note on Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwaliks.
Answer:
Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwalik mountain range is spread in the Gurdaspur and Pathaiikot districts. Dhar Kalan Block of Pathankot district is completely situated in the Shiwalik hills. The average height of these hills is around 1000 metres.

The hill slopes of this region are cut down due to fast flowing water with which deep trenches become gullies. The seasonal rivers flowing in this region, Chaki Khad and its tributaries flow into Beas river.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
What type of land has Punjab?
(a) Mountains
(b) Plains
(c) Plateau
(d) Desert.
Answer:
(b) Plains.

Question 2.
The Shiwalik hills of Punjab originated due to the collision of
(а) Gondwana land and Dabar plains
(b) Angara land and Shiwalik plains
(c) Gondwana land and Eurasia plate
(d) Angara land and Eurasia plate.
Answer:
(c) Gondwana land and Eurasia plate.

Question 3.
Another name of Bari Doab is:
(a) Malwa
(b) Chaj
(c) Naili
(d) Majha.
Answer:
(d) Majha.

Question 4.
Terai region which is full of Chos in Punjab is known as
(a) Kandi
(b) Bari Doab
(c) Bet
(d) Bolla.
Answer:
(a) Kandi.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 5.
Alluvial plains of Ghagar are called
(a) Cho
(b) Naili
(c) Tethys
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Naili.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Sand dunes exist in the __________ region of Punjab.
Answer:
south-west

Question 2.
Kandi region is __________ % of the total region of Punjab.
Answer:
10

Question 3.
Kandi region near Sarsa river is known as __________
Answer:
Ghere

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Questions 4.
70% of Punjab’s land is __________ plains.
Answer:
Alluvial

Question 5.
Punjab plains are the parts of __________ and __________ plains.
Answer:
Ganga, Indus.

True/False:

Question 1.
Punjab’s Shiwalik range touches Rajasthan.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Talwara is the highest block of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwalik hills are spread from Ravi to Beas.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
Ropar Shiwalik’s length is 1900 kms.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 5.
The region between Ravi and Sutlej rivers is known as Bari Doab.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
On which side of Punjab the Shiwalik hills are situated?
Answer:
East and North-west side.

Question 2.
The Shiwalik hills of Punjab touch the boundaries of which state?
Answer:
Himachal Pradesh.

Question 3.
What is the average height of Shiwalik hills of Punjab?
Answer:
600 metres to 1500 metres.

Question 4.
Which block of Pathankot district is completely situated in the Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwalik hills?
Answer:
Dhar Kalan.

Question 5.
Which is the highest block of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik?
Answer:
Talwara (741 metres).

Question 6.
Name two major Chos of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik.
Answer:
Kot – Mairan.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 7.
Due to which river, the continuity of Ropar Shiwalik range breaks down?
Answer:
Due to a tributary of Sutlej river-Sarsa.

Question 8.
In which physical units the alluvial plains of Punjab are divided?
Answer:
Bari Doab, Bist Doab, Sij Doab.

Question 9.
Where can we find the Dhaiya of changing course of rivers?
Answer:
At Philaur.

Question 10.
What do we call the higher regions away from rivers in the alluvial plains of Punjab?
Answer:
Bang.

Question 11.
What is the, approximate length of Shiwalik hills of Punjab?
Answer:
280 km.

Question 12.
What do we call the southern part of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik?
Answer:
Kataar di Dhaar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 13.
Give length and breadth of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik.
Answer:

  • Length – 130 kilometres
  • Breadth – 5 – 8 kilometres.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“There exists diversity of land in Punjab.’ Give exmaple.
Answer:
If we look at the physical map of India, we can observe that it is a plain but from physiographic point of view, there exists too much diversity of land over here. The most fertile plains of the world lie in Punjab. In the east and north-east of Punjab, there exist Shiwalik hills. Sand dunes are also there in the south-west region of Punjab.

Question 2.
Discuss the spread of Shiwalik hills in Punjab.
Answer:
Shiwalik. hills are the part of outer Himalaya. These mountains are spread for 280 km. along with the boundary of Himachal Pradesh in the eastern Punjab.

Shiwalik hills are divided into three parts:

  1. Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwalik. These hills are spread upto Ravi and Beas rivers.
  2. Hoshiarpur Shiwalik. These hills are spread upto Beas and Sutlej rivers.
  3. Ropar Shiwalik. They are spread upto Sutlej and Pathar rivers.

Question 3.
Where and how was Kandi region of Punjab formed?
Answer:
Kandi region is formed in the foothill plains of Terai region of Shiwalik. Alluvial-Pankh played an important role in their formation. These geo-compositions meet each other in Terai plains and create the Kandi region. The underground level of water in this region is quite low.

Question 4.
Give four features of Ropar Shiwalik.
Answer:

  1. This range of Shiwalik lies between Sutlej and Ghagar rivers. It is spread in Roopnagar district and towards south-west direction and towards north-west direction of the boundaries of Himachal Pradesh.
  2. These mountains start from the north of Nangal and are stretched upto Ghaghar river near Chandigarh.
  3. The length of this range is 90 km. Its continuity breaks down due to Sarsa river, a tributary of Sutlej.
  4. Like other Shiwalik ranges, this range is also full of Chos.

Question 5.
Make a list of Alluvial plains of Punjab according to Doabs.
Answer:
Alluvial Plains of Punjab:

Bari Doab

Bist Doab

Sij-Doab

(Beas-Ravi) (Beas-Sutlej) (Sutlej-Y amuna)
Ravi Sakki Kiran West Doab Kotkapura Pathar
Sati-Kiran-Udiyar Manjri Doab Naili
Tendiara-Kasoor Dhak Doab Puadh
Kasoor-Patti Bet/Khadar Flood Plains
Patti-Beas Sand Dunes

Question 6.
How were Shiwalik mountains (hills) formed?
Answer:
The outermost range of the Himalayas is called the Shiwaliks. They extend over a width of 10-50 km and have an altitude varying between 900-1100 metres. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located farther north. Shiwalik hills were formed from the Tethys sea like Himlayas. With the collision of Eurasia plate with Gondwana land, the land moved up and took the form of mountains.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Question 7.
Which is the largest area of Punjab Plains? Name the districts included in it.
Answer:
The largest area of Punjab’s Plains is Malwa. It includes many districts of Punjab such as Firozpur, northern part of Faridkot, Moga, Ludhiana, Barnala, Sangrur, Patiala, Western Roopnagar, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali), Fatehgarh Sahib etc.

Question 8.
Name any two Doabs of Punjab and write about the districts included in them.
Answer:
Bari Doab and Bist Doab are the two major Doabs of Punjab. Their description is given below:

  1. Bari Doab. The region between Ravi and Sutlej rivers in Punjab is known as Bari Doab. It is also known as Majha region. It includes the districts of Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Taran Taran.
  2. Bist Doab. The region between Beas and Sutlej rivers is known as Bist Doab. It includes the districts of Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Hoshiarpur and Sahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahar).

Question 9.
Give a brief description of the Sand Dunes situated in the south-west part of Punjab.
Answer:
Along with Rajasthan border in the south-west of Punjab, we can find Sand Dunes at many places. Such sand dunes are available in the southern parts of Bathinda, Mansa, Fazilka, Faridkot, Sangrur, Muktsar and Patiala. Few sand dunes are also available in the central part of the Ferozpur disctrict. The slope of these sand dunes is not gentle.

The climate of this region is semi dry. Efforts are on to flaten the sand dunes to provide land for agriculture. The hardworking farmers of Punjab have developed agriculture over here with the help of irrigation. That’s why the natural physical feature of this region has disappeared.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
In how many parts can we divide the surface of Punjab? Explain in detail about the Shiwalik hills.
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that Punjab is famous in the whole world for its large fertile plains. But Punjab is not only a plain region. There is lot of great diversity in its land. There exist Shiwalik hills in the east and north-east direction of Punjab. Sand dunes are also there in the southwest region of Punjab.

The surface of Punjab can be divided in following parts:

  1. Shiwalik hills
  2. Large Alluvial plains
  3. Sand Dunes of south-west.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab Physical Features or Physiography 1

Shiwalik hills are the part of outer Himalayas. These mountains are spread in the east of Punjab for 280 km. along with the borders of Himachal Pradesh. The average breadth of this mountain range is 5-12 km. and average height from sea level is 600-1500 metre.

Parts of Shiwalik Hills. Shiwalik hills can be divided in three parts:

  1. Upto Pathankot Ravi and Beas, Gurdaspur-Hoshiarpur Shiwalik.
  2. Upto Beas and Sutlej rivers.
  3. Upto Sutlej and Ghaghar, Ropar Shiwalik.

Their description is given below:
1. Gurdaspur-Pathankot Shiwalik. This mountain range is spread in Gurdaspur and Pathankot districts. Dhar Kalan block of Pathankot district is completely situated in the Shiwalik hills. The average height of these mountains is 1000 metre. The mountain slopes of this region are cut down due to fast flowing water which forms the gullies. This region has many seasonal rivers such as Chaki Khad and they meet the Beas river.

2. Hoshiarpur Shiwalik. The region of Hoshiarpur Shiwalik is spread between Beas and Sutlej rivers and in Hoshiarpur, Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahar and Nurpur Bedi of Roopnagar district). Its length and breadth is 130 km and 5-8 km respectively. Hills in the north are quite wide but they are narrow in south.

The highest block in this region is Talwara and its height is 741 metres. These slopes of Shiwalik are the victims of Gully erosion. After almost every kilometere, we can find a Cho. Due to head-ward erosion of these Chos, these hills are cut down at many places. In the south of Hoshiarpur, they are called ‘Katar di Dhar’. Its middle part is situated in the east of Garhshankar. Kot, Mairan, Dalle di Khad are major Chos of this region.

3. Ropar Shiwalik. This range of Shiwalik is situated between Sutlej and Ghagar rivers. It is spread in the Roopnagar district in the north-west to south-east along with the borders of Himachal Pradesh. These mountains start from the north of Nangal and are sretched up to Ghaghar river near Chandigarh.

The length of this range is 90 km. Its continuity breaks down due to Sarsa river, a tributary of Sutlej. Like other Shiwalik ranges, this range is also full of Chos. Here these are called as Rao and Ghere.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography

Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • After looking at the physical map of Punjab, it seems Punjab is a plain but there are many differences in its physiographic features.
  • The plains of Punjab are one of the most fertile plains of the world.
  • The plains of Punjab can be divided in five parts – the plains of Cho region, the flood plains, Naili, Alluvial plains and Sand Dunes.
  • The meaning of Doab is the region between two rivers.
  • Shiwalik hills touch the Himalayan region of Punjab.
  • For studying Shiwalik range, it is divided into many parts such as Gurdaspur-Pathankot, Hoshiarpur, Ropar etc.
  • The meaning of Kandi is that region pf Terai which is surrounded by Chos.
  • Another name of Bari Doab is Majha.
  • Mano, Bet, Changar, Ghad, Bela etc. are the names of lower areas near the rivers. Naili is the local name of alluvial plains made by Ghagar river.
  • The peasants of Punjab have completely changed the natural form of southern-western region. Now people do agriculture on this land with different means of irrigation.
  • Two types of soil, Khadar and Bhangar, are available in the alluvial plains.
  • Khadar is the new alluvial soil which is quite fertile. Bhangar is the old soil where stones and pebbles are scattered everywhere.
  • The regions of Bari and Bist Doab are made up of alluvial soil. Here both Khadar and Bhangar soil is available.
  • The Flood plains are the areas made by the soil brought up by the floods in the rivers which gets scattered on the banks of river.
  • Shiwaliks are the hills of outer Himalaya. These are situated in the East and North-East directions of Punjab.
  • Punjab Government has notified Dera Bassi, Chandigarh-Ropar- Balachaur-Hoshiarpur-Mukerian and whole of the Kandi region.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 2b Punjab: Physical Features or Physiography Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB India: Physiographic Units Textbook Questions and Answers

Map Work:

Show on the outline map of India :
(i) Karakoram, Pir Pajal, Shiwalik, Satpura, Patkai Bam, Khasi and Garo mountain Ranges.
(ii) The mountain Peaks of Kanchanjunga, Godwin-Austin, Dhaulagiri, Guru Shikhar and Anai Mudi.
(iii) Any five passes and three plateau regions.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Objective Type Questions:
Answer the following questions in a single word to one sentence length :

Question 1.
Name any two physiographic region of India.
Answer:
On the basis of physiography, India can be divided in five parts :

  1. Himalaya Mountain,
  2. Northern Plains,
  3. Peninsular Plateau,
  4. Coastal Plains,
  5. Indian Islands.

Question 2.
If you visit Guru Shikhar, in which mountain range you shall be there?
Answer:
Mount Abu (Aravali Mountain).

Question 3.
What is the length and breadth of Northern Plains of India?
Answer:
The length of northern plains is 2400 km and breadth is 150-300 km.

Question 4.
In how many categories the India archlipelogos are divided in?
Answer:
Indian islands are mainly divided in two parts- Andaman-Nicobar islands and Lakshdweep islands.

Question 5.
Which of following is not a part of plains?
(i) Bhabar
(ii) Bhangar
(iii) Khayal
(iv) Kallar.
Answer:
(iii) Khayal.

Question 6.
Which among the following is not a lake?
(i) Saddle
(ii) Sambar
(iii) Chilka
(iv) Vembanand.
Answer:
(i) Saddle.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 7.
Which of the following is odd?
(i) Sharda
(ii) Kaveri
(iii) Gomati
(iv) Yamuna.
Answer:
(ii) Kaveri.

Question 8.
Which of the followinis not a range of Himalayas?
(i) Rakashposhi
(ii) Dafla
(iii) Zaskar
(iv) Nilgiri.
Answer:
(iv) Nilgiri.

Short Answer Questions :
Give short answers for the following Questions :

Question 1.
Write a note on the formation of a Himalaya.
Answer:
Millions of years ago, the Himalayas were occupied by a geosyncline known as Tethys. It was sandwiched between two long and large landmasses—Angara land on the north and Gondwana land on the south. The Tethys sea stretched over the Northern plains in east-west direction. For millions of years, sediments were deposited in Tethys sea. These sediments were folded to form the Himalayas. The landmasses of Angara land and Gondwana land drifted slowly towards each other. The horizontal forces worked from two opposite directions resulting in compression. It led to sinking of the ‘Tethys Sea”.

The Indian plate was driven northwards and pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. When the two plates came closer, the Tethys sea’s crust fractured. The sediments buckled and folded to form the mighty fold mountains of the Himalayas. It has been observed that the “Himalayas are still rising”.

Question 2.
Describe the Khadar plains. How are they different from the Bet areas?
Answer:
Khadar is a plain made up with new alluvial soil. This plain is made up of deposition of sediments of Himalayan rivers which spread over the region. This soil is quite fertile. Such plains with same soil are called Bet in Punjab. So, Bet is the local name of plains with Khadar soil.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 3.
Write a note on the Central Himalayas.
Answer:

  1. Lesser Himalaya is also known as Himachal or Central Himalaya. Its average height is 3500′ metres to 5000 metres and breadth of the mountains of this range is 60-80 km.
  2. Ranges. This part of Himalaya has many ranges such as Pir Panjal and Naga Tibha in J&K, Dhauladhar and Kumaon in Himachal, Mahabharat in Nepal, Kumaon and Mussoorie in Uttrakhand and Thimpu in Bhutan.
  3. This region of Himalaya has many beautiful places where people come and enjoy for sometime such as Shimla, Srinagar, Mussoore, Nainital, Darjeeling etc.

Question 4.
What is the difference between Eastern and Western Ghats?
Answer:

Western Ghats

Eastern Ghats

1. The Western ghats form a continuous chain from Gulf of Cambay to Kanyakumari. 1. The Eastern ghats form a discontinuous chain of low hills from Orissa to Coromandel coast.
2. These consist of Sahyadri, Nilgiris, Annamalai and Cardamom hills. 2. The Eastern ghats are known by local names.
3. The main passes in Western ghats are: Thai ghat, Bhor ghat and Pal ghat. 3. There are wide gaps in Eastern ghats, through which rivers flow.
4. The average height of Western ghats is 1000 metres. The highest peak is Anaimudi (2965 metres) in Kerala. 4. The average height of Eastern ghats is 450 metres. These merge with western ghats in Nilgiris.

Question 5.
Describe the Indian Archipelagos and write the names of the Islands.
Answer:
There are 267 Indian islands and they can be divided in two parts :
1. Andaman & Nicobar islands. These islands form two major groups in Bay of Bengal. These are Andamans and Nicobar islands. These islands extend between 6° and 14° N latitudes for a distance of 600 kms. These islands are 214 in number. The Nicobar group consists of 15 islands extending between 6° N to 10° N latitudes. Ten-degree channel separates the Andaman group of islands from the Nicobar group. These islands form a union territory of India with Port Blair as its capital. Indira Point in the Nicobar islands is the southernmost point of the Indian Union. These islands form the summits of the submerged hills of the ocean floor.

2. Lakshadweep islands. These islands are situated in the Arabian Sea and lie 320 km off the coast of Kerala between 8° and 12° North latitudes. These are coral islands.

Question 6.
Differentiate between Bhabar and Terai.
Answer:

Terai

Bhabar

1. Terai is a broad long zone south of Bhabar plain. 1. Bhabar is a long, narrow plain along the foothills.
2. It is a marshy damp area covered with thick forests. 2. It is a pebble studded zone of porous beds.
3. It is 20-30 kms. wide. 3. It is 8-16 kms. wide.
4. Many streams re-emerge here from the Bhabar area. 4. Streams are lost in the region due to porous rocks.
5. It is suitable for agriculture. 5. It is unsuitable for agriculture.

Long Answer Questions:
Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Explain in detail mountain ranges of peninsular plateau.
Answer:
The Deccan Plateau is the oldest structure of India. It is the core of the geology of India. It is surrounded by oceans on three sides. Therefore it is often called Peninsular plateau. It covers an area of about 16 lakh sq. km. The average altitude of the’plateau varies from 600 to 900 metres. Its limits are formed by the Aravallis in the North, Rajmahal Hills and Shillong plateau in the East. The southernmost point is known as Kanyakumari. It is an ancient, stable, hard block formed by Igneous and Metamorphic rocks. It was a part of Gondwana land.

Division of Peninsular Plateau. A series of low hills, known as Satpura ranges between 21° N to 24° N latitudes divides the Peninsular plateau into two parts :
(a) Malwa Plateau
(b) Deccan Plateau

(a) Malwa Plateau. The Malwa plateau covers a large part of central highlands. It extends from Aravallis in the West to Ganges valley in the North and East, and Vindhyas in the South. The Aravallis are residual mountains or Relict Mountains. Its highest peaks sire Mt. Abu (1158 metres) and Guru Shikhar (1722 metres). This plateau includes Bundelkhand, Baghelkhandand, Chambal valley. The Vindhyan plateau consists of long, narrow ridges made up of quartzite rocks. It extends upto Mahadeo Hills, Kaimur range, Maikal range, Rajmahal hills in the East. In the East lies Chotta Nagpur plateau drained by Damodar river. This plateau is the storehouse of minerals of India.

(b) Deccan Plateau. This plateau lies South of Narmada river. It is surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides-Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and Satpuras. Narmada and Tapti valleys are rift valleys between Satpuras and Vindhyas. Karnataka Plateau lies between Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Deccan plateau is a tilted plateau with a general eastward slope. It covers an area of about 70 lakh sq. km. Its average height varies between 500 metres to 1000 metres. The rivers have divided this plateau into many sub-divisions.

N. W. Deccan plateau is made up of lava and is known as Deccan trap.
1. Western Ghats. Western Ghats extend from Tapti valley up to Kanyakumari for about 1500 kms. It has three passes-Thal ghat, Bhor ghat and Pal ghat. These ranges rise abruptly from the coast. Short swift streams flow towards the west and do not form deltas. The average height is about 1200 metres. Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers rise from Western ghats and flow towards East.

2. Eastern Ghats. Eastern Ghats extend for about 800 kms from Mahanadi valleys upto Nilgiris. These are not continuous ranges. Rivers form wide gaps. Javadi, Shevroy and Nallamalai hills are found in the Southern part.

3. Nilgiris. Western ghats and Eastern ghats join together to form a knot known as Nilgiris. Anai Mudi (2698 metres) is the highest peak. Anaimalai, Palni, and Cardamom Hills are found in the southern part.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 2.
Describe the formation of Ganga-Brahmputra plains and write their regional distribution.
Answer:
Northern Plain of India :
This great plain extends in between the Himalayas and the Peninsular plateau extending from Punjab Plains to Assam Valley. It is 2400 km. long and 240 to 320 km wide. Its average height is 150 metres. It covers an area of 7.5 lakh sq. km.

It is an alluvium filled trough. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought from the Himalayas by the Ganga, Sutlej and by the. rivers of the peninsular plateau. Therefore it is called an alluvial plain. It is a dead flat lowland. The maximum height is 283 metres near Ambala. It has fertile alluvial soils of Khadar and Bangar. It is agriculturally a very productive part of India.

Division of Northern Plain :

  1. Bhabar and Terai. It is a long, narrow zone along the foothills. It is a pebble studded zone. Swampy areas occur in Terai.
  2. Punjab Plain. This plain has a slope in the South-West direction. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments by Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers. Chos (Seasonal streams) cause soil erosion in the foothills of Shivalik.
  3. Ganga Plain. This plain has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought by the Ganga and its tributaries. It can be divided into three regions :
    (1) upper Ganga plain,
    (2) middle Ganga plain and
    (3) the lower Ganga plain. It occupies an area of about 3.5 lakh sq. km. Sunderban Delta is formed in the lower Ganga plain. This fertile delta is the largest delta of the world.
  4. Brahmaputra Plain. This plain is situated in the eastern part and is often known as Assam valley. The Brahmaputra river forms a large delta in Bangladesh. The river forms a narrow, deep gorge called ‘Dihang gorge’ which is 12,000 metres deep.

Question 3.
Describe the Indian Coastal Plains.
Answer:
Coastal plains are spread along with Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. They can be divided in two parts-Western coastal plains and Eastern coastal plains.

Western Coastal Plain

Eastern Coastal Plain

1. West Coast is a narrow alluvial plain with a width of 50-80 kms. It is uneven and wet. 1. The Eastern Coast has a wide plain with well developed delta 80 to 120 km. wide. It is level and dry.
2. Beautiful lagoons are found on the Malabar Coast. 2. The Eastern Coast has only two or three lagoons.
3. The short swift rivers do not make any deltas on the Western Coast. The Tapti and Narmada make estuaries. 3. The large rivers make wide deltas on the Eastern Coast. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery make well-developed deltas.
4. Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Mangalore and Cochin are major ports on West’coast. 4. Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradeep and Kolkata are major ports on the East coast.
5. Western Coastal plains receive rainfall in summer season due to advancing monsoon winds. 5. Many of the Eastern coastal plain areas recieve winter rainfall due to retreating monsoon winds.

Question 4.
Differentiate between the advantages of Himalayan mountains and Peninsular plateau.
Answer:
Himalaya mountain and Deccan plateau are the twq important physiographic divisions of India. Both these make India prosperous in their own way. Their comparison of advantages is given below :

Advantages of Himalaya Mountain :

  1. Rainfall: The monsoon winds coming from the Indian ocean get struck with Himalaya and give lot of rainfall to the region. They also give rainfall to the northern plains.
  2. Many rivers: Almost all the rivers flowing in northern India originate in Himalaya mountain such as Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlej, Brahmaputra. These are perennial rivers and the melting snow of Himalaya gives water to such rivers.
  3. Fruit and Tea: The slopes of Himalaya are quite productive for producing tea and different types of fruit.
  4. Useful Wood. Dense forests are there on Himalaya. These forests are our wealth. Wood obtained from these forests is quite useful for us and many industries are dependent upon them. This wood is also used for construction of houses as well.
  5. Good grasslands: Many green grasslands are available on Himalayas. Many tribal communities rear animals on such grasslands.
  6. Places of entertainment: There are many beautiful valleys in the Himalayan region. Kashmir valley is such beautiful valley which was known as heaven on earth. The valleys of Kullu and Kangra in Himachal Pradesh and Kumaon in Uttrakhand are other major valleys of this region. People often visit such places to relax.

Advantages of Deccan Plateau :

  • Deccan plateau is rich in mineral resources. 98% of the country’s mineral wealth is available in the region. Coal, iron, manganese etc. many minerals are available in this region.
  • Its soil is quite useful for the growth of cotton, tea, rubber, sugarcane, coffee, spices etc.
  • Its rivers form many waterfalls which are quite useful for the production of hydroelectricity.
  • This region is quite famous for the forests of saal, sagvan, chandan etc.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide India: Physiographic Units Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
The height of Mount Everest is
(a) 9848 m.
(b) 7048 m.
(c) 8848 m.
(d) 6848 m.
Answer:
(c) 8848 m.

Question 2.
Jog waterfall is on:
(a) Ganga river
(b) Sharavathi river
(c) Yamuna river
(d) Chenab river.
Answer:
(b) Sharavathi river.

Question 3.
Most of the part of Himalaya is spread in:
(a) India
(b) Nepal
(c) Tibet
(d) Bhutan.
Answer:
(c) Tibet.

Question 4.
Himalaya mountain originated from:
(a) Tethys sea
(b) Pacific Ocean
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Bay of Bengal.
Answer:
(a) Tethys sea.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 5.
The part between Ravi and Reas rivers is known as:
(a) Bist Doab
(b) Peninsular Plateau
(c) Chaj Doab
(d) Malabar Doab.
Answer:
(a) Bist Doab.

Question 6.
Konkan plain is spread
(a) From Daman to Goa
(b) From Mumbai to Goa
(c) From Daman to Bengaluru
(d) From Mumbai to Daman.
Answer:
(a) From Daman to Goa.

Question 7.
Major peak of Western Ghats is :
(a) Guru Shikhar
(b) Vabulamals
(c) Konkan Shikhar
(d) Mount Kg.
Answer:
(a) Guru Shikhar.

Question 8.
The plain made by Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Ganga river system is known as:
(a) Southern plain
(b) Eastern plain
(c) Northern plain
(d) Tibetan plain.
Answer:
(c) Northern plain.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The average height of Trans Himalaya is ________ metres.
Answer:
6000

Question 2.
________ is the highest peak of the world.
Answer:
Mount Everest

Question 3.
The end point of Indian peninsular plateau is ________
Answer:
Kanyakumari

Question 4.
Thai ghat, Bhor ghat and ________ are the passes of western ghats.
Answer:
Pal Ghat

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 5.
Chilka lake is India’s largest ________ lake.
Answer:
saline

Question 6.
________ river becomes a boundary between two parts of a great plateau.
Answer:
Narmada

Question 7.
________ Himalaya is the longest and highest range of India.
Answer:
Great

Question 8.
Malabar coast is spread from Goa to ________
Answer:
Mangalore

Question 9.
The plain of Chhattisgarh is made by ________ river.
Answer:
Mahanadi.

True/False:

Question 1.
Trans Himalaya is also known as Tibetan Himalaya.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Most of the places of entertainment of Himalaya are situated in Great Himalaya.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Kaveri and Krishna played a very important role in the formation of northern plains.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 4.
There are 3 passes in western ghats: Thai Ghat, Bhor Ghat and Pal Ghat.
Answer:
True.
Question 5.
Western Ghats are also knwon as Suhadris.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the size of the Himalayan Mountain range?
Answer:
Himalayas are a convex curve. Its central part is bent along Indo-Nepalese border and looks like a bow.

Question 2.
How did Himalayan mountain regions originate?
Answer:
Himalayas have arisen out of Tethys sea.

Question 3.
Name the major peaks of Trans Himalayas.
Answer:
The main peaks are Mount Kg, Godwin Austin, Hindon Peak, Broad Peak Geyserabam, Rakaposhi, Harmush.

Question 4.
Which mountain peaks are found at the height above 8000 metres in Greater Himalayas?
Answer:
Mount Everest (8848 metres),Kanchenjunga (8598 metres), Makalu (8481 metres), Dhaulagiri (8172 metres), Manalasu, Naga Parbat and Annapurna.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 5.
Name the young and old moutains of India.
Answer:
Himalayas are young mountains. Old mountains include Aravallis, Vindhyas, Satpuras.

Question 6.
Where are rift valleys located in India?
Answer:
Rift valleys are found over peninsular India like Narmada and Tapti valleys.

Question 7.
What is meant by delta?
Answer:
A triangular shaped land formed in the lower course of a river is called a delta.

Question 8.
Name some important deltaic regions of India.
Answer:
The main deltas are: Ganga Brahmaputra, Godawari Delta, Kaveri Delta, Krishna Delta and Mahandi Delta.

Question 9.
Which passes are found in the Himalayan Mountains?
Answer:
The main passes in Himalayas are Burzel, Zojila, Nanak La, Chang La, Khurnak La, Baralg., Shipki La, Nathula, Takla Kot.

Question 10.
Name the important mountain ranges of lesser Himalayas.
Answer:

  1. Pir Panjal in Kashmir
  2. Dhauladhar to Kumaon in H.P.
  3. Mahabharat ranges in Nepal
  4. Mussorie in U.P.
  5. Thimpu in Bhutan.

Question 11.
Which hill stations and valleys are found in Lesser Himalayas?
Answer:
Shimla, Dun, Path Doon, Kothri Doon, Udhampur, Kotli.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 12.
Name the main Doon valleys of our country.
Answer:
Dehra Dun, Patli Doon, Kothri Doon, Udhampur, Kotli.

Question 13.
Name the major Eastern off-shoots of Himalayas.
Answer:
Patkoi Bum, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Tripura. .

Question 14.
Which landform features formed by rivers are found in the Great Northern plains?
Answer:
Alluvial cones, Fans, Meanders, River terraces, Natural leaves and Flood plains.

Question 15.
Which inter-fluves are formed in the North-Western Plains?
Answer:

  1. Bari Doab (Majha),
  2. Bist Doab (Doaba),
  3. Malwa,
  4. Haryana Plains.

Question 16.
What is the size of the Brahmaputra plain?
Answer:
Brahamputra plain is 640 km long and 90-100 km wide. This narrow plain slopes from N.East to West.

Question 17.
What is the extent of Aravalli mountain range? Give the name of its highest peak.
Answer:
Aravallis extend from Delhi to Gujarat. It is 725 km long. Guru Shikhar 1722 metres high is the highest peak.

Question 18.
Name the major peaks of western ghats.
Answer:

  1. Vania Mala (2339 metres),
  2. Kudremukh (1849 metres),
  3. Pushpagiri (1714 metres),
  4. Kalsubai (1646 metres).

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 19.
Name the southern mountains of the Eastern Ghats.
Answer:
Javadi, Gingee, Shevroy, Kalaimalais, Panchmalais, Godumalai are the hills of Eastern ghats.

Question 20.
Which hill stations are found in the Deccan plateau’s hilly region?
Answer:
Doda Beta, Ootacumand (Udagmandlam), Kodaikanal.

Question 21.
Name the Islands in the Arabian sea.
Answer:
This group of islands is called Lakshadweep. It includes Amini Divi, Central (Lacca deep), Minicoi in South.

Question 22.
Where is the Southern frontier point of India located?
Answer:
Indira Point (Near Great Nicobar).

Question 23.
Give any three uses of the coastal plains to the entire country.
Answer:

  1. Natural Bays and Ports are found.
  2. Many lagoons are found.
  3. It is a rich fishing ground.

Question 24.
Which river becomes a boundary between two large Indian plateaus?
Answer:
Narmada River.

Question 25.
Which are the Island groups of India and where are they situated?
Answer:
Andaman Nicobar and Lakshdweep are two Island groups and they are situated in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively.

Question 26.
Which range of Himalaya is called Shiwalik?
Answer:
Outer Himalaya range.

Question 27.
Which rivers played an important role in the formation of Northern plains of India?
Answer:
Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Ganga river system.

Question 28.
What do you call the coastal region from Goa to Mangalore?
Answer:
Malabar Coast.

Question 29.
From where to where the Konkan coast is stretched?
Answer:
Konkan coast is stretched from Daman to Goa.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 30.
Which region of India is quite rich in mineral resources?
Answer:
Peninsular Plateau.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give any two proofs of Himalayas’ successive upliftment.
Answer:
Himalayas were formed about 400 lakh years ago in the Tethys sea. Rivers continued depositing sediments in the Tethys sea between the Tibet and Indian Plateau. Both the plates—Eurasian and Indian—drifted towards each other. It resulted in folds in sediments and began to rise. The Himalayas are still rising. Thus the Himalayas were formed due to this uplift.

Question 2.
Do we find any similarities between Himalayan mountain and the Deccan Plateau?
Answer:
The following similarities are found between the Himalayas and the Southern plateau.

  • The Himalayas came into existence due to presence of the Southern plateau.
  • The hills, faults and folds of the southern peninsula have been formed due to pressure from the Himalayas.
  • Many minerals are found in both areas.
  • Forests are found in both areas for use in the country.

Question 3.
Are the Himalayan mountains still in youth or young stage?
Answer:
There is no doubt about the fact that Himalayas are still young fold mountains. They have been folded out of sediments deposited by rivers. Folds were formed in sediments due to the drifting of two blocks on either side. It increased the height of Himalayas. Himalayas are still rising. These mountains were formed at a later stage as compared to other mountains. So these are called young mountains.

Question 4.
Which alluvial plains have been formed in the Great Himalayas?
Answer:
The following are the alluvial plains included in Northern great plain:

  • Khadar plains
  • Bangar plains
  • Bhabar plains
  • Terai plains
  • Barren plains.

Question 5.
Write a geographical note on the Thar Desert.
Answer:
Thar Desert extends from southern borders of Punjab and Haryana to Rann of Kutch (Gujarat). It is a plain and arid area. Aravallis form its eastern boundary. It has international boundary of Pakistan in the West. It is 640 km. long and 300 km. wide. In ancient period, this region was under sea. Proofs show that this desert was once a fertile area. But due to low rainfall and deforestation, it has been changed into areas of sand dunes.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India Physiographic Units 1

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 6.
What could be the different divisions of Indian islands on the basis of location? Explain with examples and diagrams.
Answer:
On the basis of location, Indian islands can be divided into the following two groups:

  1. Islands situated away from the coast. There are about 230 islands found in groups. Such Coral islands exist in Arabian Sea and are called Lakshdweep islands. Amandivi, Lakshadweep, Minicoy are other islands. Andaman-Nicobar islands, Norcadam, Barren islands are found in Bay of Bengal.
  2. Islands situated near the coast. The new moor islands Sorat, Wheeler islands are found near Ganges delta. Other islands are Bhasara, Diu, Palmbam, Mandapam, Elephanta.

Question 7.
What is the contribution of coastal plains to entire country?
Answer:
(t) Coastal plains are known for rice, dates, coconuts, spices, ginger, cardamoms, etc.
(ii) It leads in the international trade.
(Hi) High grade fishes are caught in these coastal areas,
(iv) Beaches along Goa, Mumbai, Tamilnadu are a great attraction for the tourists,
(v) Salt is prepared on the marshy areas of west coast.

Question 8.
‘The western coastal plains of India are not only narrow, but are also without Deltaic deposit. Explain.
Answer:
The western coastal plain is narrow. It has no deposition of sediments.

  • There are not many rivers which fall into Arabian sea. The western ghats are not well dissected. Most of large rivers fall into Bay of Bengal and deposit sediments on plateau.
  • The rivers are swift and short. So the rivers (Narmada, Tapti) do not make any deltas ; but estuaries are formed.

Question 9.
What is the contribution of the Himalayan Region to the development of the country as a whole?
Answer:
The following are the advantages of the Himalayas to India:

  1. Useful Rivers. All the important rivers such as the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Satluj, the Brahamputra etc. rise in the Himalayas.
  2. Useful Wood. On account of heavy rainfall, dense forests are found in the Himalayas. Teak, deodar and pine are some of the trees, the wood of which is of great use.
  3. Minerals. Many types of minerals are found in the Himalayas.
  4. Fruits and Tea. The slopes of the Himalayas are very favourable for the growth of various fruits and tea. Assam is known for good quality of tea.
  5. Fodder and Medicinal Herbs. Many varieties of medicinal herbs and grasses for fodder grow over most of the parts of Himalayas.

Question 10.
How does the peninsular plateau affect the other physical region of India?
Answer:

  1. Peninsular India is a part of old Gondwana land. The rivers rising out of it helped in the formation of Himalayas. After that it helped in the formation of Northern plains.
  2. On both sides of the plateau, there are many dams. These dams provide water for irrigation to the plains and power for industries.
  3. The forests of this area meet the needs of the other parts of the country.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 11.
Differentiate between
(i) Terai and Bhabar
Answer:
Difference between Terai and Bhabar region :

Terai

Bhabar

1. Terai is a broad long zone south of Bhabar plain. 1. Bhabar is a long narrow plain along the foothills.
2. It is a marshy damp area covered with thick forests. 2. It is a pebble-studded zone of porous beds.
3. It is 20-30 kms wide. 3. It is 8-16 kms wide.
4. Many streams reemerge here from the Bhabar area. 4. Streams are lost in the region due to porous rocks.
5. It is suitable for Agriculture. 5. It is unsuitable for Agriculture.

(ii) Bangar and Khadar
Answer:
Difference between Bangar and Khadar :

Bangar

Khadar

1. The older alluvium of the high plain is called Bangar. 1. The younger alluvium of the flood plain is called Khadar.
2. This area stands above the level of the flood plain. 2. Flood water spreads a new layer over it every year.
3. It is composed of calcarous Kankars and clay. (Dahia) 3. It is composed of fertile alluvium. (Bet)

(iii) Chos and wasteland
Answer:
Difference between Chos and Wasteland :

Chos

wasteland

1. The seasonal streams flowing down the Shiwaliks are called Chos. 1. Wasteland include Ravines formed by chos.
2. These deposit sand and make the soil infertile. 2. These are not fit for agriculture.
3. These are active during rainy season along Shiwaliks. 3. These are also called Badland.

(iv) Estuarty and Delta.
Answer:
Difference between Estuary and Delta :

Estuary

Delta

1. An estuary is a funnel shaped channel at the mouth of a river. 1. A delta is a triangular shaped land formed at the mouth of a river.
2. An estuary is a long narrow channel. 2. A delta resembles the Greek letter delta (∆).
3. Narmada and Tapti rivers make estuaries on the West coast. 3. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is the biggest delta in the world.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 12.
Throw some light on the surface features of Great Himalayas.
Answer:
The Himalayas extend from Indus Valley to Dihang Gorge in the East. Its main characteristics are:

  • It is the longest and the highest mountain range of the country. It includes old rocks of granite, gneiss crystalline metamorphic rocks.
  • It has Mount Everest 8848 metres high, the highest peak of the world.
  • The peaks of the Himalayas are always snow-covered.
  • Many passes make routes across it.
  • It includes important valleys of Kathmandu and Kashmir.

Question 13.
Explain in brief about the Great plains in India.
Answer:
The great plains of India are also known as Satluj-Ganga plains. Alongwith Himalaya mountains, they are spread from west to east direction. They are spread from Rajasthan to Assam. Except few of its western desert region, whole of the northern plain is quite fertile. It is formed by the alluvium brought about by the perennial rivers. That is why, they are also called Alluvium plains.

It can be divided in four parts :

  1. Punjab-Haryana plains
  2. Thar desert plain
  3. Ganga plain and
  4. Brahmaputra plain. Northern plains are quite helpful in the progress of the country. Many crops are grown here which make India a self-sufficient country.

Question 14.
Compare Western and Eastern Coastal plains.
Answer:

Western Coastal Plain Eastern Coastal Plain
1. West coast is a norrow alluvial plain with a width of 50-80 kms. It is uneven and wet. 1. The Eastern coast has a wide plain with well developed delta 80 to 120 km., wide. It is level and dry.
2. Beautiful lagoons are found on the Malabar coast. 2. The Eastern coast has only two or three lagoons.
3. The short swift rivers do not make any delta on the western coast. The Tapti and Narmada make estuaries. 3. The large rivers make wide (jeltas on the Eastern coast. Mahanada, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery make well develped deltas.

Question 15.
Compare Deccan Plateau with Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Answer:

Deccan Plateau Indo-Gangetic Plains
1. Location. It is a triangular plateau bounded by Vindhyas, Western ghats and Eastern ghats. 1. It is an alluvial plain stretching from Punjab to Assam valley.
2. Relief. The relief of this plateau is uneven. Its average height above sea level is more than 600 metres. 2. This is a level plain about 200 metres high above sea level.
3. Climate. The climate here is hot and humid. 3. Here the summers are hot and winters are cold.
4. Crops. Jowar, Bajra, Spices and Groundnut are grown here. 4. Rice, Wheat, Cotton and Sugarcane are mostly grown here.
5. Rivers. Cauvery, Mahanadi, Godavari, Narmada and Tapti are main seasonal rivers here. 5. Ganga, Yamuna and Brahmaputra are the main perennial rivers.

Question 16.
What do you mean by Trans Himalayas?
Answer:
Trans Himalayas. These mountains lie beyond the great Himalayas. These include Karakoram, Ladakh, Kailash and Zanskar ranges, K2 or Mt, Godwin Austin (8611 metres) i.e. Baltro Glacier (60 km.) and Siachen Glacier (72 km.) Most of its part is in Tibet. That’s why it is also known as Tibetan Himalaya. Its total length is 1000 km and breadth is 40 km. Its average height is 6000 metres. K2 is the second highest peak of the world.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India Physiographic Units 2

Question 17.
Write a note on Outer Himalayas.
Answer:
Shiwalik Ranges. The southernmost range of the Himalayas is known as the Shiwaliks or outer Himalayas. Its average height is less than 1000 metres. Although these extend from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh, yet these are not continuous ranges. These are made of loose, unconsolidated sediments broguht down by rivers. Soil erosion by chos is at its worst in this region. In between the Shiwaliks and the lesser Himalayas, longitudinal valleys called Duns are found such as Dehradun.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 18.
Which mountain ranges constitute the Purvanchal?
Answer:
The Brahmaputra marks the easternmost geographical limit of the Himalayas. The Himalayas, making a hairpin bend, extend southward. The mountains situated along the eastern boundary of India are called Purvanchal. These mountains are of medium height. These include Patkoi and Naga Hills in the north, Lushai hills in south, Mizo hills in Mizoram. These also include Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills in Meghalya. These mountains are less spectacular than western mountains.

Question 19.
Divide Northern plain into four regions based on variations in relief.
Answer:
On the basis of relief, the Northern plain is divided into four sections :
Bhabar plain. It is located in the foothills of mountains. Rivers are lost in this section.
Terai plain. South of Bhabar, lies the Terai belt. The rivers reappear in this swampy and marshy region.
Bangar plain. The flood plain formed by old alluvium is called Bangar plain.
Khadar plain. The new young deposits of flood plain is called Khadar.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Divide the relief of India and explain in detail any one region.
Answer:
India is divided into following physiographic divisions :

  1. Himalayan Ranges
  2. Northern Great Plain
  3. Peninsular India
  4. Coastal Plains
  5. Indian Islands.

Himalayan Ranges. The Himalayas are spread over the northern boundary of India like an arc, from west to east. The length of these mountains is about 2500 kilometres and breadth is between 250 to 400 kilometres. Mount Everest (8,848 metres) is the highest peak of the Himalayas.

The Himalayas can be divided into three parts :
1. Northern Kashmir Himalayas. The north-western part of the Himalayas is known as the Kashmir Himalayas. Karakoram, Laddakh, Zaskar and Kailash are the main ranges of the Kashmir Himalayas.

2. Main Himalayas. Main Himalayas consist of the following :

  • Greater Himalayas or Himadri. This range spreads from East to West. Mount Everest (8,488 metres), the highest peak of the world lies in the range. Jojila, Jailpa la and Lingshila are some of the important passes in this range.
  • The Himachal Range or Lesser Himalayas. The average height of this range is 3500 to 4500 metres and its breadth is 60 to 80 kilometres. Hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie and Nainital are situated on this range.
  • Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas. The average height of these hills is 900 to 1200 metres and breadth is only 10 to 50 kilometres.

3. Off-shoots of the Himalayas. The Himalayas turn to the south on the eastern and western flanks. They are respectively known as the Eastern and the Western Himalayas in the east and the west.
(a) Eastern Himalayas. The Himalayas consist of the famous hills of Patkoi, Naga and Manipur. They are very low hills and are fully covered with forests.
(b) Western Himalayas. In the West, Suleman and Kirthar ranges are dominant. They have many important passes like Khyber, Tochi and Bolan.

Question 2.
Write a note on the origin and structure of the Himalayas. Are they still rising?
Answer:
Millions of years ago, the Himalayas were occupied by a geosyncline known as Tethys. It was sandwiched between two long landmasses: Angara land on the north and Gondwana land on the south. The Tethys sea stretched over the Northern plains in east-west direction. For millions of years, sediments were deposited in Tethys sea. These sediments were folded to form the Himalayas. The land masses of Angara land and Gondwana land drifted slowly towards each other. The horizontal forces worked from two opposite directions resulting in compression. It led to sinking of the Tethys sea.

The Indian plate was driven northwards and pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. When the two plates came closer, the Tethys sea’s crust fractured. The sediments buckled and folded to form the mighty fold mountains of the Himalayas. It has been observed that the ‘Himalayas are still rising.’

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 3.
Give a detailed description of the size, origin and regional division of India’s Northern plain.
Answer:
Extent. This great plain extends in between the Himalayas and the Peninsular plateau. It is 3200 km long and 150 to 300 km wide. Its average height is 150 metres. It covers an area of 7.5 lakh sq. km.

Formation. It is an alluvium filled trough. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought from the Himalayas by the Ganga, Satluj and other rivers.

Main Characteristics :

  • It is a dead flat lowland. Its maximum height above sea level is 263 metres.
  • It has a gentle gradient.
  • It has a huge depth of alluvium.
  • A large number of rivers flow in this plain dividing it into Doabs.
  • It has fertile alluvial soils namely Khadar and Bangar soils.

Division of Northern Plain :

  1. Bhabar and Terai. It is a long, narrow zone along the foothills. It is a pebble-studded zone. Swampy areas occur in Terai.
  2. Punjab Plain. This plain has a slope in the South-West direction. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments by Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers. Chos (seasonal streams) cause soil erosion in foothills of Shivaliks.
  3. Ganga Plain. This plain has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought by the Ganga and its tributaries. It can be divided into three regions: upper Ganga plain, middle Ganga plain and the lower Ganga plain. It occupies an area of about 3.5 lakh sq. km. Sunder Ban Delta is formed in the lower Ganga plain.
  4. Brahmaputra Plains. These plains are situated in the Eastern part and are often known as Assam valley. The Brahmaputra river forms a large delta in Bangladesh.

The Great Indian Desert plain of the west. This covers the western part of the Aravali mountains. This region has a sandy land, so it is also known as the Thar desert. This region gets very little rainfall, due to which the agriculture is not developed here. There are many saltwater lakes like the Sambhar, Didwana and Panchpadra, from which salt is extracted.

The formation of Northern Plain.
The northern plain lies in between the Himalayas and the peninsular India. It has been formed by the filling of the depression formed by Tethys sea. The Himalayan rivers after eroding the Himalayas deposited huge amount of silt and deposition in the ever shrinking Tethys sea. This depression has been filled gradually to form northern plain or the Indo-Gangetic plain. The Himalayan rivers have deposited silt to form Ganges delta in Bangladesh. Due to continuous deposition, the delta is still advancing towards sea.

Question 4.
Compare and contrast the geomorphological features of the Himalayas with those of the Indian plateau.
Answer:

The Himalayas

Indian Plateau

1. The Himalayas are young new fold mountains. 1. The Indian plateau is an ancient crystalline tableland.
2. These mountains have been formed due to folding by different earth movements. 2. This plateau has been formed as a horse.
3. The relief features show young age of the Himalayas. 3. The plateau is old and well dissected.
4. Parallel mountain ranges are formed in the Himalayan region. 4. Rift valleys are formed due to faulting.
5. These mountains are the loftiest mountain system of the world with the highest mountain peak Mt. Everest 8848 mts. above sea level. 5. It is an old eroded crystal rock with the highest peak Anaimudi 2695 mts. above sea level.
6. These mountains extend in an arc. 6.            This plateau is triangular in shape.
7. Deep gorges and U-shaped valleys are formed. 7. Narrow deep river valleys are formed on the plateau.
8. These have been formed out of Tethys sea in Mesozoic period. (276 million years ago.) 8. This plateau has been lifted out of the sea in the preCambrian period. (1600 million years ago.)
9. It is made up of sedimentary rocks. 9. It is made up of igneous rocks.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units

Question 5.
Write a note on the following :
(i) Vindhyachal
Answer:
Vindhyachal. This range extends from east to west in the north of river Narmada. It separates Northern India from Southern India. Its average height is 300 metres. It starts from Gujarat in the west and goes upto Bihar in the east passing through the Vindhya Pradesh.

(ii) Satpura
Answer:
Satpura. This mountain range spreads between the Narmada and the Tapti rivers. They extend from Gujarat in the west to Amarkantak in the east. Dhupgarh (1350 metres) is the highest point of these ranges.

(iii) Aravali Hills
Answer:
Aravali Hills. Aravali mountain range is extended from Delhi to Gujarat in 800 km. Their direction is southwest and now these are small residue parts of hills. Their highest peak is Mount Abu. (1722 m.)

(iv) Nilgiri Hills.
Answer:
Nilgiri Hills. The western and eastern ghats join each other in the south where they are known as the Nilgiris. Doda Beta (2637 metres) is the highest peak in the Nilgiri. They are also known as Blue mountains.

India: Physiographic Units PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • The branch of science which studies the factors responsible for the formation of landscapes is known as Geomorphology.
  • India’s total landfarm is divided into plains (43%), mountains (29.3%) and plateau region (27.7%).
  • According’ to surface, India can be divided into five parts:
    (i) Himalaya mountain,
    (ii) Northern plains,
    (iii) Plateau region,
    (iv) Coastal plains,
    (v) Islands.
  • Around1 12 crore years ago, there was a sea called ‘Tethys’ where presently Himalaya mountain is situated.
  • The highest mountain peak of the world is Mount Everest and of India is Godwin Austin (Kg).
  • Famous passes of the subcontinent are in Himalayan region. Central Himalaya is famous for its hill stations.
  • Bhabhar, Terai, Bangar, Bhoor etc. are different types of plains.
  • Bist Doab and Bari Doab are in India and Chaj Doab is in Pakistan.
  • The meaning of Sunderban is the forest full of Sunderi trees.
  • Plateau of Central India, Malwa Plateau and Southern Plateau are the plateau regions of India. These are the parts of peninsular plateau.
  • Thai ghat, Bhor ghat and Pal ghat are the famous passes of western ghats.
  • The plateau region of eastern ghats is full of minerals.
  • Kutch, Konkan, Malabar, Coromandel and Northern Circars are the parts of Coastal plains.
  • There are around 267 islands in the Indian island groups. They can be divided in two groups-Andaman-Nicobar islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshdweep islands in Arabian Sea.
  • Malwa plateau is triangular in shape. Chota Nagpur plateau is famous for minerals and is a part of Malwa plateau.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 2a India: Physiographic Units Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Punjab: Size and Location Textbook Questions and Answers

Map Work :

Show in outline map of Punjab:
(i) Six districts of Punjab adjoining the international border.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

(ii) The capital and 22 District headquaters of Punjab.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Objective Type Questions :
Answer the following questions in a single word to one sentence length :

Question 1.
What is literary meaning of word Punjab?
Answer:
The word Punjab is made up of two Persian words-Punj and Aab which mean five rivers.

Question 2.
Give full form of PEPSU.
Answer:
Patiala and East Punjab States Union.

Question 3.
What are Latitudinal and Longitudinal extent of Punjab?
Answer:
The Latitudinal extent of Punjab is 29°30′ N to 32°32′ N and its Longitudinal extent is 73° 55′ E to 76°50′ E.

Question 4.
What are ancient names of Ravi, Beas and Satluj?
Answer:
Purushivi, Vipasha and Satudari are the ancient names of Ravi, Beas and Satluj respectively.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 5.
Which of the following districts do not touch International boundary?
(i) Pathankot
(ii) Faridkot
(iii) Fazilka
(iv) Taran Taran.
Answer:
Faridkot.

Question 6.
Which Pair among the following is not correct :
(i) Batala : Agricultural Implements Industry
(ii) Jalandhar : Sports Material in Industry
(iii) Abohar : Musical Instruments Industry
(iv) Gobindgarh : Iron Furnaces Industry
Answer:
Abohar : Musical instruments Industry.

Short Answer Questions :
Give short answers for the following Questions:

Question 1.
Name any six non-private Universities of Punjab and their place of location.
Answer:

  1. Guru Nanak Dey University-Amritsar
  2. I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University-Kapurthala
  3. Punjab University-Chandigarh
  4. Punjab Agriculture University-Ludhiana
  5. Central University of Punjab-Bathinda.
  6. Punjabi University-Patiala.

Question 2.
What is the geographical location of Punjab and its neighbourhood?
Answer:
Present Punjab is extended from 29°30’ North Latitude to 32°32 North Latitude and 73°55’ East Longitude to 76°50’ East Longitude. Total geographical area of Punjab is 50,362 Sq. km which is 1.6 % of India’s total area. Punjab holds 20th position among Indian states from geographical point of view. Present Punjab is situated in the north-east of Punjab. Pakistan is in its north direction and Himachal Pradesh is in north-east direction. Haryana is situated in its south and Rajasthan is situated in its south-west direction.

Question 3.
How many divisions, districts, tehsils and blocks are there in Punjab?
Answer:
There are 5 divisions, 22 districts, 91 tehsils and 150 blocks in Punjab.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab Size and Location 1

Question 4.
Write a note on PEPSU.
Answer:
The complete name of PEPSU is Patiala and East Punjab States Union. It was constituted on 15th July, 1948 by combining the principalities of Patiala, Nabha, Malerkotla, Jind, Kapurthala, Nalagarh and Kalsia. In 1956, all the Indian states were reorganised and PEPSU was added into Punjab.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 5.
If we want to go to Fazilka from Pathankot without touching any border district, what way shall you follow?
Answer:
For this, we have to cross through the following districts : Pathankot → Hoshiarpur → Kapurthala → Moga → Faridkot → Shri Muktsar sahib → Fazilka.

Long Answer Questions :
Answer the following Questions in detail:

Question 1.
Introduce with geographical history of Punjab.
Answer:
The boundaries of the Punjab territory varied from time to time throughout its history.

  1. According to the Rig-Veda, the boundaries of Punjab included the regions covered by the rivers Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Saraswati.
  2. During the Mauryan and Kushan periods, the boundaries of Punjab extended upto Hindukush mountain ranges and Taxila.
  3. During the Sultanate period (1206-1526), the boundaries of Punjab extended from Lahore to Peshawar, During the Mughal period (1526-1707), the Punjab was divided into two provinces, namely, Lahore Suba and Multan Suba.
  4. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the boundaries of Punjab extended from the river Satluj to Peshawar.
  5. The British named the territory of Lahore kingdom of Maharaja Dalip Singh (son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) as the Punjab after annexing it to the British Indian Empire.
  6. After the partition of India, a major part of the Punjab was transferred to Pakistan.
  7. On the basis- of language, Punjab was divided into three states namely Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 2.
Give summarised information about any five districts falling in malwa region.
Answer:
The description of major districts of Malwa region is given below :

  1. Barnala. Once Barnala was a part of the Patiala kingdom. In 2006, it was made a separate district. According to census survey of 2011, Barnala was the least populated district of Punjab.
  2. Bathinda. Bathinda is known as the heart of Malwa region. Its mention also exists in the writings of famous traveller Ibn Battuta. First female Muslim ruler Razia Sultan stayed in Bathinda for some time. Presently Bathinda is a major railway junction.
  3. Faridkot. Faridkot district was made in 1972 on the name of famous Sufi Saint Baba Farid. In 1995, two more districts were carved out of the same district.
  4. azilka. Fazilka was the 21st district situated in the cotton belt. This district is famous for the production of Kinnow and other fruits.
  5. Firozpur. Firozpur is one of the historical cities and quite an old district. It was also a district even before independence.
  6. Ludhiana. Ludhiana was established in 1480 by the Lodhi rulers. Now it is famous for hosiery goods and for Punjab Agriculture University.
  7. Mansa. Mansa was made a district in 1992. It is famous for the production of cotton. It is also known as the land of white gold.
  8. Moga. It was made 17th district of Punjab in 1995. During the British times, it was the second largest centre of Christians after Ludhiana.
  9. Shri Muktsar Sahib. It is one of the historical cities and was made a district in 1993.
  10. Sangrur. Sangrur was the capital of Jind principality.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 3.
Which centres have developed as cottage or small scale Industries in Punjab, Introduce those?
Answer:
From industrial point of view, Punjab is a developing state. Its industries are continually developing. Many of its cities, places are important because of their small scale industries. Their brief description is given below.

  1. Batala. Batala is a city in Gurdaspur district. It was developed because of the industries of agricultural implements.
  2. Mahilpur. It is one of the towns of Hoshiarpur district and is famous for its football industry.
  3. Tanda. Tanda is also in Hoshiarpur district. It is famous for the industries of furniture and musical instruments.
  4. Sansarpur. It is one of the villages in Jalandhar district and is quite famous as nursery of hockey players.
  5. Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar. This city is also known as Mohali and is a major centre of many small industries.
  6. Ludhiana. Ludhiana is one of the largest districts of Punjab. It was developed with the development of Hosiery and Cycle industry.
  7. Jalandhar. It is one of the main districts of Punjab and has developed as a centre of furniture and sports goods.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Punjab: Size and Location Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What was the name of Punjab during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
(a) PEPSU Suba
(b) Tak Pradesh
(c) Lahore Suba
(d) Panjnad.
Answer:
(c) Lahore Suba.

Question 2.
Which country is situated in the West of Punjab?
(a) Pakistan
(b) China
(c) Myanmar
(d) Bhutan.
Answer:
(a) Pakistan.

Question 3.
Which of these districts is not included in Doaba region of Punjab?
(a) Jalandhar
(b) Amritsar
(c) Hoshiarpur
(d) Kapurthala.
Answer:
(b) Amritsar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 4.
Which of these districts of Punjab was also a district even before 1947?
(a) Faridkot
(b) Ludhiana
(c) Patiala
(d) Firozpur.
Answer:
(d) Firozpur.

Question 5.
Which of these districts is the smallest district of Punjab?
(a) Sangrur
(b) Patiala
(c) Pathankot
(d) Fazilka.
Answer:
(c) Pathankot.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
There are ___________ administrative divisions in Punjab.
Answer:
5

Question 2.
There are ___________ districts in Punjab.
Answer:
22

Question 3.
The earlier name of Roopnagar was ___________
Answer:
Ropar

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 4.
Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar is known by the name of ___________
Answer:
Mohali

Question 5.
Total area of Punjab is ___________ sq. km.
Answer:
50,362.

True/False:

Question 1.
Razia Sultan stayed for sometime in Bathinda.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Jalandhar is known as Riyasti city.
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
In Rigveda, Punjab was known as Sapt Sindhu.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
PEPSU was formed in 1948.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 5.
States were reorganised in 1950.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Punjab is known as the place of which civilisation?
Answer:
Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question 2.
With which name Punjab was known in Rigveda?
Answer:
Sapt Sindhu or land of seven rivers.

Question 3.
Who gave the name of Pentapotamia to Punjab?
Answer:
Greeks.

Question 4.
What is meant by Pentapotamia?
Answer:
Land of five rivers.

Question 5.
Presently, how many and which rivers flow through Punjab?
Answer:
Three rivers – Sutlej, Ravi and Beas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 6.
When was PEPSU state organised?
Answer:
15 July, 1948.

Question 7.
Tell the expansion of Punjab during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
During the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab was spread from Kabul (Afghanistan) in north west to Sutlej river.

Question 8.
According to Cunningham, why was Punjab called the Tak Pradesh?
Answer:
Due to the living place of Tak tribe over here.

Question 9.
When did present Punjab come into being?
Answer:
1st November, 1966.

Question 10.
According to the recommendations of Shah Commission, which two new states were created by dividing Punjab?
Answer:
Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 11.
When were all the Indian states reorganised?
Answer:
In 1956.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 12.
What was the impact of reorganisation of states on the PEPSU province in 1956?
Answer:
In 1956, PEPSU province was added to Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the importance of geographical location of Punjab on Indian subcontinent? Explain.
Answer:
Punjab is a part of the land of five rivers. Its geographical location is quite important for Indian subcontinent. Punjab is known as the maker of Indian history and civilisation. It was a living place of the Indus Valley civilisation which was one of the ancient civilisations of the world. Aryans, Greeks, Kushanas, Turks, Mughals and Afghans entered India only through Punjab. Its people changed the form of Indian history, culture and civilisation.

Question 2.
Name the districts included in Majha region and Doab region of Punjab.
Answer:
1. Districts of Majha region.

  • Shri Amritsar,
  • Gurdaspur,
  • Pathankot and
  • Taran Taran Sahib.

2. Districts of Doab region.

  • Hoshiarpur,
  • Jalandhar,
  • Kapurthala and
  • Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 3.
Write the names of districts in the Puadh region and give brief description of Sahihzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali).
Answer:
Districts. 1. Fatehgarh Sahib, 2. Patiala, 3. Roopnagar and 4. Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali).
Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali). This city was made a district in 2006 and became the 18th district of Punjab. Presently it is better known with the name of Mohali.

Question 4.
Briefly explain any two districts of Puadh region.
Answer:
Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala are the two important districts of Puadh region their brief description is given below :

  1. Fatehgarh Sahib. This city was made a district in 1992.
  2. Patiala. It is one of the Princely cities and was the capital of PEPSU province till 1955. It is quite famous for its educational institutions. Two more districts were carved out of Patiala.

Question 5.
What was the earlier name of Roop Nagar? Briefly explain this district.
Answer:
The earlier name of Roop Nagar was Ropar. It is quite an old city. It existed even in 11th century. It is situated on the banks of river Satluj. This city was one of the border cities during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Question 6.
Write about any two important districts of Majha region.
Answer:
Shri Amritsar Sahib and Taran Taran Sahib are two important districts of Majha region. They are situated on the north-west border of Punjab.

  1. Shri Amritsar Sahib. The meaning of Amritsar is Sarovar of Amrit. Its earlier name was Chak Ramdas. For years, this city remained famous as a trading centre.
  2. Taran Taran Sahib. Taran Taran Sahib was made a district in 2006 A.D. This city was founded by the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 7.
In which region of Punjab, the districts of Gurdaspur and Pathankot are situated? Explain briefly about them.
Answer:
Gurdaspur and Pathankot are situated in the Majha region of Punjab.

  1. Gurdaspur. This city was founded in the 16th century. In one of the famous towns of Gurdaspur, Kalanaur, the coronation of Mughal Emperor Akbar took place. Batala is now another famous district carved out of Gurdaspur.
  2. Pathankot. This district was formed in 2011 A.D. It is mainly a Terai region and the smallest district of Punjab.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on the Hoshiarpur and Jalandhar districts of Punjab.
Answer:

  1. Hoshiarpur. This district is situated in Doab region and is a mixture of semi-mountainous and plain region. One of its town Mahilpur is famous as a nursery of football. Its another town Tanda is famous for its furniture and musical instruments.
  2. Jalandhar. Jalandhar is one of the historical cities of Punjab. It is one of the media centres and is famous for its sports industry. One of its villages, Sansarpur, is known as a nursery of Hockey players.

Question 9.
Write about any two districts of Doab region.
Answer:
The following two districts are included in the Doab region of Punjab :

  1. Kapurthala. Kapurthala was one of the princely states before Independence. After 1947, Kapurthala became famous for J.C.T. Institution and Pushpa Gujral Science City, Kapurthala.
  2. Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawan Shahar). In 1995, Nawan Shahar was made a district. Later on, this district was given the name of Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar.

Question 10.
Why is Bhatinda district of Punjab famous?
Answer:
Bhatinda is known as the heart of the Malwa region of Punjab. The mention of this city is also available in the writings of famous traveller Ibn Battuta. First female Muslim ruler Razia Sultan also stayed at Bhatinda for some time. Presently it is one of the important railway junctions.

Question 11.
Tell something about the least populated district and the district producing citrus fruits in Punjab.
Answer:
These districts are Barnala and Fazilka.

  1. Barnala: This city was once a part of the Patiala Kingdom. In 2006, it was made a separate district. According to the census survey of 2011, it was the least populated district of Punjab.
  2. Fazilka: It is the 21st district of Punjab situated in the cotton belt of Punjab. Due to its equatorial climate, Fazilka is famous for producing Kinnow and other citrus fruits.

Question 12.
Name any two districts of Punjab which were once related with the princely states.
Answer:

  1. Sangrur. Sangrur had been full of diversities and was once the capital of Jind princely state. Its southern part is attached with the Puadh region.
  2. Patiala. Patiala was also one of the princely states. Till 1955, it had been the capital of PEPSU province. It is famous for its educational institutions. Two new districts were carved out of Patiala.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 13.
Write the names of Tehsils/Sub-divisions and Sub-Tehsils of the Gurdaspur district.
Answer:
Tehsils.

  1. Gurdaspur,
  2. Batala,
  3. Dera Baba Nanak.

Sub-Tehsils.

  1. Kahnuwan
  2. Kalanaur,
  3. Dma Nagar,
  4. Naushera Majja Singh,
  5. Dhariwal,
  6. Shri Hargobindpur,
  7. Qadian,
  8. Fatehgarh Churivan.

Question 14.
Write the names of Sub-Tehsils and Blocks of Amritsar district.
Answer:
Sub-Tehsils:

  1. Majitha,
  2. Attari,
  3. Tarsikka,
  4. Lopoka,
  5. Ramdas.

Blocks:

  1. Tarsikka,
  2. Raiya,
  3. Ajnala,
  4. Chaugavan,
  5. Majitha, Verka, Jandiala Guru,
  6. Harshi China,
  7. Attari.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 15.
Write the names of Sub-Tehsils of Jalandhar district of Punjab. Which of these tehsils are blocks as well?
Answer:
Sub-Tehsils:

  1. Adampur,
  2. Bhogpur,
  3. Kartarpur,
  4. Mehtpur,
  5. Lohiya,
  6. Noormahal,
  7. Goraya.

Out of these, Bhogpur, Mehtpur and Noormahal are blocks as well.

Question 16.
Write the names of Sub-divisions (Tehsils) of Ludhiana district. Write the names of any four new blocks of this district.
Answer:
Sub-divisions (Tehsils):

  1. Ludhiana east,
  2. Ludhiana west,
  3. Jagraon,
  4. Payal,
  5. Samrala,
  6. Raikot,
  7. Khanna.

Blocks:

  1. Machiwara,
  2. Doraha,
  3. Raikot,
  4. Khanna.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the political history of Punjab from 1947 to 1966.
Answer:
With the partition of India in 1947, Punjab was also divided. Due to partition, most of Punjab’s fertile land went over to Pakistan. Its only 34% part remained in India. Most parts of rivers also went over to Pakistan. Indian Punjab is known as Eastern Punjab.

Establishment and end of PEPSU State. On 15th July, 1948, many princely states were collaborated and were made a part of the PEPSU state and these princely states were Patiala, Nabha, Malerkotla, Jind, Kapurthala, Faridkot, Nalagarh and Kalsia. Full form of PEPSU was Patiala and East Punjab States Union. In 1956, all the Indian states were reorganised. Then PEPSU state was made a part of Punjab.

Reorganisation of Punjab. On 1st November, 1966, on the recommendations of Shah Commission, Punjab was again divided and new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were carved out of Punjab.

Question 2.
Write in detail about the districts and cities of Majha region.
Answer:
Major districts of Majha region are Shri Amritsar Sahib, Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Taran Taran Sahib.

  1. Shri Amritsar Sahib. The meaning of Amritsar is Sarovar of Amrit. Its earlier name was Chak Ramdas. For years, this city remained famous as a trading centre.
  2. Gurdaspur. This city was founded in the 16th century. In one of the famous towns of Gurdaspur, Kalanaur, the coronation of Mughal Emperor Akbar took place. Batala is now another famous district carved out of Gurdaspur. It is famous for the making of agricultural implements.
  3. Pathankot. This district was formed in 2011 A.D. It is mainly a Terai region and the smallest district of Punjab.
  4. Taran Taran Sahib. Taran Taran Sahib was made a district in 2006 A.D. This city was founded by the fifth Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location

Question 3.
Write in detail about the districts of Doaba region of Punjab.
Answer:
The districts of Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Shahib Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahar) are included in Doaba region of Punjab. Their description is given below :

  1. Hoshiarpur. The district is situated in Doab region and is a mixture of semi mountainous and plain region. One of its town Mahilpur is famous as a nursery of football. Its another town Tanda is famous for its furniture and musical instruments.
  2. Jalandhar. Jalandhar is one of the historical cities of Punjab. It is one of the media centres and is famous for its sports industry. One of its villages, Sansarpur, is known as a nursery of Hockey players.
  3. Kapurthala. Kapurthala was one of the princely states „before Independence. After 1947, Kapurthala became famous for J.C.T. institution and Pushpa Gujral Science City, Kapurthala.
  4. Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahar). In 1995, Nawanshahar was made a district. Later on, this district was given the name of Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar.

Punjab: Size and Location PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Punjab is considered as the creator of Indian history and civilisation. It was the birthplace of Harappa and Indus valley civilisation which was one of the most famous ancient civilisations of the world.
  • With the Indian partition in 1947, Punjab was also divided. Indian Punjab was called the eastern Punjab. Due to partition, most of its fertile land went over to Pakistan. Only 34% of its total land remained in India.
  • In the formation of Punjab’s civilisation, Aryans, Greeks, Kushanas, Mughals and Afghans played a very important role.
  • The ancient names of Punjab were Saptsindu, Panjnad, Lahore Suba, Pentapotamia, Tak Pradesh etc.
  • Present Punjab is only 20% of the undivided Punjab.
  • From 1948 to 1956, many of the Punjab’s areas were included in the PEPSU area. . . ,
  • There are 5 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 91 Tehsils and 150 blocks in punjab.
  • Pathankot is the smallest district of Punjab.
  • The ancient names of Ravi, Beas and Satluj were Purushvi, Vipasha and Satudari respectively.
  • Kapurthala, Patiala, Sangrur, Nabha and Malerkotla were principality cities of Punjab.
  • Ludhiana district touches the boundaries of seven districts of Punjab.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 1b Punjab: Size and Location Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
20 century is called The Golden Era of democracy. A trend towards democracy started among the Europeans. British and America remarked that first world war was fought for the security of demoracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries came into existence after 1st World War. These countries preferred to adopt democrative system. Those countries who were prey to imperialism expressed their desire to demolish imperialism and establish democracy.
But this golden period of democracy soon disappeared and democracy had to face adverse circumstances. After 1st World War, democracy had to face a set back in Italy and Germany due to the birth of two movements which were not in favour of democracy. The advent of ideology of Nazism in Germany and Facism in Italy proved disastrous for democracy. Both the ideologies were in the favour of dictatorship. Due to these ideologies, the tragedy of second world war happened between 1939-45.
(а) Which century is known as the Golden Era of democracy and why?
Answer:
20th century is known as the Golden Era of democracy because this was the time when European people started looking towards democracy. Even the first World War (1914-18) was fought for the security of democracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries were formed after the war and they all adopted the democratic set-up.

(b) Why did the Golden period of democracy end very soon?
Answer:
The Golden era of democracy ended after first World War because it faced adverse circumstances. Nazism and fascism started in Germany and Italy respectively and dictatorship established over there. This dictatorship encouraged the imperial policy and that’s why second World War started which lasted till 1945.

Question 2.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Like India, there was colonialism in Ghana, (African Continent) : Firstly, it was known as Gold Coast. It was among the first country of Africa which got independence from the Britishers in 1957. This country inspired other countries of Africa for independence. A great personality of Ghana, who was the son of a goldsmith (Name- Kqame Nkrumah)-led this freedom movement and got his country freed. He became 1st Prime Minister and later on became the President of Ghana. He was a friend of Pt. Nehru. He inspired the people of other countries of Africa continent to establish democracy. He got himself elected as President for the ‘lifetime’. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy 3Military dictatorship was established in Ghana. Like Ghana the Countries which adopted democracy after Independence could not retain it continuously but in India working of democracy is still continue after independence.
(a) Tell something about Ghana’s struggle for independence.
Answer:
Ghana was earlier known as Gold Coast which is situated in Africa. Ghana was also a victim of Colonialism and was under the occupation of the British. Kagame Nkrumah led the freedom struggle of Ghana and got the country independent from the British in 1957 A.D.

(b) Briefly tell about Kqame Nkrumah.
Answer:
Kqame Nkrumah was the son of a goldsmith. He led Ghana’s freedom struggle against the British and got his country independent. He became the first Prime Minister of Ghana and later on became the President for the lifetime. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy. Military dictatorship was then established in Ghana.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power. In democarcy the people control the government. Sometime democracy is called as the rule of masses (entire public). But it is merely a hypothesis as all the people are not of the same opinion. Democracy is sometimes called the government of the majority. This is also not appropriate. For example, many times an anarchist becomes successful to win the support of the majority on the basis of violence or misuse of power. Shall we call such a government as democratic?
The freedom to elect is the root or base of democracy. The existence of democracy lies in the difference of opinion. Every person has .his own view to solve national problems. In democracy difference of opinion is shown through ballots and not bullets. There is no place for violence in democracy. In election any ideology becomes successful to win the support of majority of people and becomes successful to hold political power.
(a) What is meant by democracy?
Answer:
Democarcy is a type of government in which government is elected for a fixed period of time through Universal Adult Franchise and this government works for the welfare of people. In this way democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power.

(b) Give features of democracy?
Answer:

  • Democracy is a type of government.
  • Right to choose is the main base of democracy.
  • Government is elected for a fixed period of time.
  • Every person has the right to cast one vote and value of each vote is same.
  • Democracy allows us to correct our mistakes.

Question 4.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian. In democracy the principle of ‘One person—one vote—one value’ is applicable. Therefore, we can’t call Fiji as a democractic country.
Now we will take an example of Mexico. It became independent in 1930. Mexico holds elections after every six years to elect its President. The power of government never remains in the hands of military or dictator. But until 2000 every election was won by PRI party. Other parties were free to contest the election. But being in power, PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) party was known to use unfair means. Government officials and officers were forced to attend meeting of PRI Party. Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI Party. The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leader might not be successful to cast their votes. All these examples reveal that only periodical elections are not sufficient but free and fair poll is essential. If a party wins the election by unfair or suppressive means we will not call it true democracy.
(а) What is meant by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the elections must take place impartially and without any impact or pressure. Ruling party must not use unfair means to win 6ver the votes and people must choose their representatives without any fear.

(b) Which unfair methods were used in Mexico to win elections?
Answer:
From 1930 to 2000 A.D., only one party in Mexico won elections and the party was PRI. It used following unfair means to win elections.

  • Government officials were forced to attend meetings of PRI.
  • Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI.
  • The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leaders might not be successful to cast their votes.

Question 5.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
India became independent on 15 August, 1947. But the process of making constitution for India had been started before independence. Leaders of India adopted Parliamentary democratic system for India which is the main feature of our constitution. The constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was elected indirectly. It took two years, eleven months and eighteen days to frame the constitution.
The demand for the Constituent Assembly for framing Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. The British Government accepted it in 1940. The election of Constituent Assembly was made on Nov. 19, 1946 indirectly from the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 389, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces (British India) and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.
(a) From whom and when India got independence?
Answer:
India got independence from the British on 15th August 1947 A.D.

(b) Give two main features of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:

  • Indian Constitution is the written constitution and is the lengthiest in the world.
  • Parliamentary form of government is adopted in India.

(c) How were the members of the Constituent Assembly elected?
Answer:
The demand for framing the Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. According to the recommendations of the Constituent Assembly, the members of Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces of the British India and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
The Preamble to the constitution states the objects which the constitution seeks to establish and promote. It is the window of the constitution from which we can have a glimpse of objectives, principles and features of our constitution.
It is considered to be a part of constitution because it can be amended like other articles of constitution. Though the preamble is not enforceable in a court of Law, it provides a key to the understanding and interpretation of the constitution.
The Preamble declares India as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political. It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all. It declares fraternity assuming the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.
(a) What is meant by the Preamble?
Answer:
Preamble is nothing but the nutshell of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble tells us about the basic objectives and features of the constitution. The Preamble is known as the part of the Indian Constitution.

(b) What is the importance of the Preamble of the Constitution?
Answer:

  • The Preamble declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.
  • It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political.
  • It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all.

Question 7.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
The constitution of India is the largest and the most comprehensive of all the written constitutions of the world. Originally, it consists of 395 Articles and 8 schedules. Now it exists of 12 schedules and many new articles have been added under the original articles. It is extended due to a number of amendments. After 42nd constitutional amendment two new parts 4A & 14A were added to it. The 9th schedule was added in 1951 under first amendment. The 10th schedule regarding ‘Anti Defection Law’ was added in 1985 by 52nd Constitutional Amendment. The 11th schedule regarding power, authority and responsibility of Panchayati Raj Institution was added under 73rd constitutional amendment in 1992. The 12th schedule was added in 1992 under 74th Constitutional Amendment. It is realed to local self-government in Urban area (Municipalities.)
(a) Why is the Indian Constitution lengthiest in the world?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is lengthiest in the world as originally it had 395 articles and 8 schedules. Later on many new schedules and articles were added in it. Now there are 450 articles and 12 schedules in it. Every minute detail is given in it. Many Constitutional Amendments were added in it and that’s why it has become more lengthy.

(b) What were 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments?
Answer:
To establish local Self Government in the country, 73rd and 74th Amendments were made in the Constitution. According to 73rd Amendment, a three tier structure of Local Self Government was established in rural areas. According to 74th Amendment, Local Self Government was established in urban areas.

Question 8.
Read the source and answer the following questions
In Parliamentary System, Head of the state is President, Governor General, King or Queen. In India, France and Austria, President is the head of the State. In Canada, Australia, New Zealand Governor-General is the head of state while in Japan, England, Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Norway King or Queen is the head of the State. The head of these-countries are titular or nominal executive. The main features of the Parliamentary System is that constitutionally head of the country has enormous powers but practically he does not use these powers. Practically, the cabinet exercises these powers. The hea,d of Parliamentary form of Government is like India’s President. The cabinet runs the administration in the name of State Head but the entire responsibility of Government lies on its shoulder.
(a) What do you mean by Parliamentary form of government.
Answer:
Parliamentary form of government in which government is elected from within the Parliament. It means that the Parliament will be elected by the people and then government will be elected from within the Parliament. The Parliament will keep control over the government which will take Parliament’s permission for every work.

(b) Give features of Parliamentary systeng.
Answer:

  • In Parliamentary system there is a Head of the State such as the President of India. He is the nominal Head of the country.
  • Constitutionally, Head of the country is given enormous powers but practically, he does not use all of his powers.
  • Council of Ministers uses all the powers of the Head of the country. In this way Council of Ministers is responisble to run administration of the country.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
Read the source and answer the given questions :
In the Parliamentary system, Prime-Minister leads the cabinet. In the lower house of the Parliament-Prime Minister is the leader of the party with majority. Therefore, he is the leader of the Parliament also. Chief of the state appoints ministers at his recommendations. He presides over the meetings of the cabinet. He decides dates and agenda of cabinet meetings. He consults the cabinet but his decision is final on disputable issues. He distributes the departments among ministers. The Prime- Minister coordinates and supervises the works of ministers. If any minister does not cooperate or is not agreed at his policies then he has to resign. If he does not resign then Prime-Minister can request the President to remove him from his designation. He is the main spokesman of the Government. He informs the President about the decision of the cabinet. He takes the opinion of the President on some specific and important matters. Though he is not bound to follow the opinion of the President yet he thinks over it very seriously.
(a) What is the role of Prime Minister in Parliamentary System?
Answer:
Prime Minister holds the most important position in Parliamentary system because he is the Real Executive Head of country. The President acts only on his advice. Even the President appoints council of ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. He is answerable to the Parliament for his government’s acts. He is actually spokesperson of government.

(b) Discuss functions of Prime Minister.
Answer:

  • He gets his Council of Ministers appointed by the President.
  • He divides different departments to Ministers. He can change their departments and, if required, can remove them.
  • He acts as a link between the President and Council of Ministers.
  • He informs the President about the decisions of the cabinet.
  • He represents India at International level.
  • He presides over the meeting of Council of Ministers.

Question 10.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
All the ministers of the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Parliament. If the parliament passes ‘Censure Motion’ against one minister then whole Council of Ministers, have to resign. If a policy is framed for one department in the Council of Ministers then its responsibility lies on the whole Council of Ministers.
Every minister is personally responsible for his department. If the work of any department is not up to the mark the Prime Minister can ask the minister, of the concerned department to resign. If the minister does not submit his resignation then the Prime Minister can ask the President to remove that minister.
(a) What do you mean by Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers is that they are collectively responsible towards Parliament. If a non-confidence motion passes against any minister, the whole of the Council of Ministers will have to resign. It is often said that the Council of Ministers swim and sink together.

(b) What is individual responsibility of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of individual responsibility of Ministers is that every minister is responsible for the functioning of his department. If any minister’s department is not working properly, he can be called for an explanation. Members of Parliament can ask any question related to their department and it is must for the ministers to reply. In this way ministers are individually responsible to the Prime Minister and Parliament for the functions of their respective departments.

Question 11.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Fair and free election is the pillar of democracy. Fair and free election implies that voters should cast his/her vote without any fear or pressure. Secondly, he should not misuse his vote under any temptation. The election commission played a significant role in holding fair and free elections. The evils of elections cannot be eradicated till the voter is not awaken. Undoubtedly, the government made many reforms in this direction, for example under the Anti defection act there is complete prohibition on defection. If a winning candidate changes his party then his candidature will be cancelled. But defection still survives in one or the other form. Before election many candidates are competent for election ticket. Those candidates who are not alloted tickets by their party, join other political parties.
(а) What do you mean by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the voters must cast their vote without having any fear or pressure. Secondly, they must not sell their vote in lieu of money or anything else. Free and fair elections is one of the important base of democracy and in its absense, democracy cannot work smoothly.

(b) What steps have been taken to eradicate evils of elections?
Answer:
Many evils prevail in election system such as use of money, threatening voters, defection of leaders from one party to another etc. Many efforts are made to remove these evils such as:

  • According to Anti-Defection Laws, no elected M.P. or M.L.A. can change his party. If he will, his membership would be cancelled.
  • While filling a nomination form, a candidate will have to fill an affidavit containing information about his wealth, moveable and immoveable property and criminal cases pending against him. It tells the people about the character of that leader.
  • Each political party has to file Income Tax Return so that people must come to know that how money comes to parties.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 12.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Periodical Election is an essential feature of the Parliamentary democracy. To establish democracy without election is merely a hypothesis. The basic principle of democracy is to entrust the every citizen right to vote at his/her will. There is clear provision in our constitution about the election of President and Vice President. For the remaining elections, Parliament makes provision from time to time. Single voter list is prepared for the election of Lok Sabha, the State Legislative Assemblies and Local bodies. On the basis of regional representation people of all religions and groups elect the candidate. No constituency is made on the basis of any particular religion or group.
(а) What do you mean by Regular or Periodic Elections?
Answer:
The meaning of regular or periodic elections is that the elections must be conducted after a fixed period of time which can be different in different countries. In India, it is 5 years. If elections are not conducted after a fixed period of time, it is a great danger to democracy. So, periodic elections are must and people must get regular chance to elect their leader.

(b) What is the relation of democracy and elections?
Answer:
Democracy and elections are directly related as the former cannot be maintained without the presence of later. In democracy, representatives are directly elected by the people and democracy sustains only because of elections. If there are no elections, there is no democray. The main base of democracy is to provide the people right to elect their representatives. In this way they both are closely related to each other.

Question 13.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
While living in sociey man enjoys many facilities. For example, he is having freedom of speech and expression. He can convey his ideas through speech and writings. He can move freely throughout the territory of India. He can practise any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business. He can profess or practise any religion. Man can celebrate his rituals and festivals collectively. People have been blessed with the facility to live with their family. But man can enjoy all these facilities while living in the society. In simple language, these facilities can be named as rights. But, no one can enjoy that facility which is not in the interest of the whole society. So, Rights are those genuine demands by Individual or group of Individuals which are recognised by society and state.
(a) What do you mean by Rights?
Answer:
Rights are those genuine demands by an individual or a group of individuals which are recognised by society and state. In other words, rights are such conditions which are must for an individual to live a happy life. In their absence, we cannot live a happy and prosperous life.

(b) What is the importance of Rights in our lives?
Answer:
Rights play an important role in our lives because :

  • Rights are the facilities to give us a better life.
  • Rights give us equality in society.
  • Only with rights, we can express our feelings and can do anything whatever we want.

Question 14.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
In Indian constitution there are some motives for the personality development of citizens and to ensure their honour. Therefore, the maker of our constitution tried to fulfil these motives by enlisting the fundamental rights in the constitution. The democractic nature of any country is known by the fundamental rights entitled to the citizens of that country.
Indian citizens did not have fundamental rights before independence. But demand of fundamental rights was raised time to time in India’s freedom movement. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak asked the British Government to pass the ‘Swaraj Bill’. The Bill included right to freedom of thought and expression, equality before law and some other rights for Indian people. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through ‘Nehru Report’. But the British Government rejected all these demands. In the Government of India Act 1935, the list of fundamental rights for Indian citizens was not incorporated.
(a) How can we come to know that any country is democratic or not?
Answer:
We can only come to know about any country is democratic or not by looking at the fundamental rights provided to the people. If people are provided with all the fundamental rights we can call that country as democratic.

(b) What was the condition of fundamental rights before independence?
Answer:
Before Indian Independence, people had no rights at all because the British government always followed repressive policies. That’s why many a times, basic rights were demanded from the government. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded from the government to pass Swaraj Bill and certain rights as well. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through Nehru Report. But the British Government did not accept the demands. Even rights were not included in the Government of India Act, 1935. But after 1947, when Indian constitution was formed, people were given all the fundamental rights.

Question 15.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Art. 25 provides freedom of conscience and faith in any religion. This right has been given to justify the aims of India’s being secular as mentioned in the preamble of our constitution. Right to freedom of religion is given to foreigners also.

Art. 26 provides :

  • Establish and maintain institution for religious and charitable purposes and to preach any religion.
  • Manage its own affairs in matters of religion and administer such moveable and immoveable .property in accordance with law.

Art. 27 refers that the state cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.
Under Art. 28, no religious instructions can be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds. However educational institutions of private sector can give religious education. But they can’t compel any students to participate in it.
(a) What is Right to Freedom of Religion?
Answer:
All the citizens of India are given right to freeedom of religion under Articles 25-28. According to this right, citizens are free to adopt, profess and propagate their religion. No one can force them to adopt any other religion.

(b) Explain Articles 26 and 27 of the Indian constitution.
Answer:
Article 26 :

  • It establishes and maintains institutions for religious and charitable purposes and preaches any religion.
  • Manages its own affairs in matters of religion and administers such moveable and immoveable property in accordance with law.

Article 27: It refers that the State cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 16.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Power of Judicial review means to sit on judgement over the order of the executive and Laws of the Legislature for their constitutional validity. If any order passed by the executive and a Law passed by a legislature violates the constitution or is not in accordance with the constitution the Supreme Court can declare such an order or Law null and void. The power of judicial review has been entitled to the Supreme Court due to Federal System of the government and of fundamental rights in constitution. This power of judicial review ensures that centre and state government should work in their jurisdiction and should protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
(а) What is meant by the power of Judical Review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is given to judiciary in India. According to this, if judiciary feels that any law made by the Parliament is against the basic structure of the constitution, it can declare that law null and void or illegal. In this way judiciary can review any law which is its power of judicial review.

(b) What is the importance of the power of Judicial review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is quite important because it helps in helping Legislature and Executive under control. If legislative passes any bill against the basic provisions of the Constitution, Judiciary can declare that bill illegal and can restore the basic provisions of the Constitution. Supreme Court is known as the Guardian of the Constitution and through the power of judicial review, constitutional provisions are protected. Due to this power of Judiciary, Central and State governments never violate their jurisdiction and fundamental rights of the citizens.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Punjab is also the land of the great Sikh Gurus. It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world and Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the ‘Khalsa Panth’. Inspired by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire. The contribution of Punjab’s martyrs and freedom fighters is also remarkable in Indian National Movement.
(а) ‘Punjab is the land of the great Sikh Gurus’. Give two examples in favour of the statement.
Answers:

  • It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world.
  • On this land, Guru Gobind Singh Ji established Khalsa Panth.

(b) How and who founded a sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab?
Answer:
A sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab was founded by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. First of all, by taking inspiration from Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire.

Question 2.
At the time of independence, Indian Punjab (Eastern Punjab) had Ambala, Amritsar, Bhatinda, Ferozepur, Jullundur, Gurdaspur, Gurgaon (Gurugram), Hissar, Hoshiarpur, Kangra, Kapurthala, Mohindergarh, Patiala, Rohtak, Sangrur and Simla disticts.
On 1 November 1966, District Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Mohindergarh and Jind Tehsil became a part of Haryana State. District Simla, Kangra and Una Tehsil became a part of Union territory of Himachal Pradesh of that time.
(a) What is meant by Eastern Punjab at the time of independence? Name four districts included in it.
Answer:
At the time of independence, areas of Punjab which became part of India, were given the name of Eastern Punjab. It included drainage system of the Sutlej and Beas rivers. Now it is known as Punjab. Four districts of this region are Ambala, Amritsar, Bathinda and Jalandhar.

(b) Which areas were included in Punjab at the time of reorganization of states in 1956?
Answer:
In 1956, Malwa region was dismantled and was made a part of Punjab. This region is spread from Sutlej to Ghagar rivers.

(c) When was Punjab reorganised on linguistic basis? What was its impact on Punjab?
Answer:
On 1st Nov. 1966, Punjab was reorganized on a linguistic basis. According to it, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Some mountainous regions of Punjab were given to Himachal Pradesh.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Dialects of Punjabi
According to a survey conducted by Punjabi University, Patiala, there are 28 dialects of Punjabi language. These include Indian Punjabi dialects like Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri. Majhi is spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts of Punjab. The Taksali version of Punjabi is the closest to this language. Doabi is spoken in Jalandhar, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts. Ferozepur, Fazilka, Faridkot, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Barnala, Mansa and Ludhiana districts are the areas where mainly Malwai dialect is spoken. The areas of Puadhi dialect are Ropar, Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala. Dogri is predominantly spoken in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir province.
(a) How many dialects of Punjabi language are there? Which of these is the main Indian Punjabi dialect?
Answer:
There are 28 dialects of Punjabi. Out of all these only Majhi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri are the main Indian Punjabi dialects.

(b) Which version of Punjabi is closest to this language? In which districts of Punjab, this dialect is spoken?
Answer:
The Majhi version of Punjabi is closest to this language. This dialect is mainly spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts.

(c) Name three districts each where Doabi, Malwai and Puadhi are spoken.
Answer:

  • Doabi: Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur.
  • Malwai: Firozepur, Moga and Bathinda.
  • Puadhi: Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala.

Question 4.
Sacred Thread Ceremony
At the age of nine, according to the Hindu traditions, (Janeu) the sacred thread ceremony was performed. When the family purohit Pandit Hardyal wanted to put the sacred thread, Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear it. In this way at the age of 9, he challenged the religious and social orthodoxy.
(a) When was the sacred thread ceremony performed?
Answer:
According to the Hindu traditions, at the age of nine, the sacred thread ceremony was performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

(b) Explain the sacred thread ceremony performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread which was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.

Question 5.
In order to get him interested in worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu gave Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji some rupees. He sent him to the nearest town-Chuharkana to do business. On his way, the Guru met a group of Faqirs (ascetics) who were huftgry for several days. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding them. When Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji returned home and narrated the incident to his father, he was very disappointed. This incident is called the Sacha Sauda (True Transaction).
(a) What is meant by Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is True Transaction which Guru Nanak Dev ji did by spending his Rs. 20 in feeding the hungry Faqirs.

(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in his education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sachha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Guru Nank Dev Ji visited the holy place at Mecca. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went off to sleep with his feet towards Kabba. The qazi (Ruknaudin) objected to this, calling Guru Ji a Kafir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji very politely told him to move his feet in the direction where Allah did not exist. The qazi did not have an answei ) this and realized his mistake. In this way, Guru Nanak Dev Ji spread the message that God is Omnipresent. When the qazi asked him which religion was better Hinduism or Islam, Guru Ji replied that without good deeds, both will weep and wail.
(a) Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his 9th udasi?
Answer:
Guru Ji completed his fourth Udasi from 1517-1521 A.D. During this Udasi, he visited western Asia. He visited places such as Multan, Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, Qandhar, Kabul, Jalalabad, Peshawar etc.

(b) Which incident did happen with Guru Ji at Mecca? What message did Guru ji give to the people?
Answer:
Guru ji reached Mecca while preaching during his Journey. Mecca is a religious place of Muslims. There he fell asleep with his feet towards Kabba. Qazi Rukandin objected to it but Guru Ji remained calm. Then he said, “You put my feet on the side where Allah is not there.” Then Qazi started thinking and realised his mistake. With this incident, Guru gave a massage that God is omnipresent.

Question 7.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca Madina. An arrogant Muslim Faqir named Wali Qandhari lived on a steep hill there. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Despite the pleas of the town people, he did not allow the flow of water. He also refused water to Bhai Mardana. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji came to know of it he pushed aside a rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. In a fit of rage Wali Qandhari threw a rock at Guru Nanak Dev Ji but Guru Nanak Dev Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. This place is known as Gurudwara Sri Panja Sahib (now in Pakistan).
(a) What name is given to the Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji? What was the objective of these Journeys?
Answer:
The Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are known as Udasis. The main objective of these Journeys was to remove superstitions and to show the people correct path of religion.

(b) Discuss in short the incident happened with Guru Ji at Hasan Abdal.
Answers :
Guru Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca. Here Guru Ji encountered an arrogant Muslim Faqir Wali Qandhari. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Guru Ji pushed aside the rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. Wali Qandhari became angry and threw a rock at Guru Ji but Guru Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. Then he became a disciple of Guru Ji.

Question 8.
Event of Sayyidpur (Eminabad)
During the fourth travel (Udasi) in 1520 A.D. when Guru Nanak Dev Ji was at Sayyidpur (Emnabad), Babur invaded it. Mughal soldiers committed a lot of atrocities on the people of Sayyidpur and looted them. They imprisoned numerous people. In his bani, Guru Nanak Dev Ji mentioned about the atrocities committed by Babur on the people of Punjab.
(a) What was the earlier name of Sayyidpur? When did Guru Ji reached here during his fourth Udasi?
Answer:
The earlier name of Sayyidpur was Emnabad. During his fourth Udasi, Guru Ji reached here in 1520 A.D.

(b) Explain Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur. From which Guru’s Bani do we get its information?
Answer:
We get information about Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur from Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Bani. When Guru Ji reached here, Babur had already attacked Sayyidpur. His soldiers mercilessly killed many females, males and children and looted everything. The people of Sayyidpur were also subject to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad. Babur, who had conquered Central Asia, was the first Mughal Emperor in India. He was the descendant of Taimur on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He wrote his autobiography, Tuzk-i-Baburi in his mother tongue, Turkey.
(a) Give a brief description of Babur. When did he first attack on India?
Answer:
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur. He lived in Central Asia. He was the descendent of Taimur from his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He was the first Mughal Emperor whose first attack on India was in 1519 A.D.

(b) What is the name of autobiography of Babur? In which language it is written?
Answer:
The name of autobiography of Babur is Tuzk-i-Baburi and it is written in Turkish language. It is also known as Babur-Nama.

Question 10.
True Service yields Fruit in the End
At Khadoor Sahib Sri Guru Amardas ji led a life of service and devotion. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji. Sri Guru Angad Dev ji was impressed by the devotion of Sri Guru Amardas ji and made him his successor. On the other hand, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Sri Guru Angad Dev ji, considered themselves as suitable for Guruship and were jealous of Sri Guru Amar Das ji. Baba Buddha ji told the two that Guruship is not an ancestral property, only true service yields fruit in the end. Due to intense and selfless devotion of Sri Guru Amar Das ji, Sri Guru Angad Dev ji appointed him the successor of Gurudom.
(a) When did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi? What was his age at that time?
Answer:
Guru Amardas Ji became third Guru in 1552 A.D. and he was of 73 years of age at that time.

(b) How did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi?
Answer:
Guru Amardas Ji was a disciple Sikh of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Even in’his old age, he was always busy in serving Guru Angad Dev Ji. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Guru Angad Dev Ji. At this time, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Guru Angad Dev Ji considered themselves as suitable for Guruship. They were jealous of Guru Amardas ji. On the instane of Baba Buddha Ji true service yielded fruit and Guru Angad Dev ji appointed Guru Amardas Ji as the successor of Gurudom.

Question 11.
Guru Ji established manji system to spread and promulgate Sikhism. He established 22 Manjis. The head of the Manji was called a Manjidar. These Manjidars used to act as a bridge between Guru ji and Sikh Sangat. The Sangat used to send their offerings to Guru Ji through these Manjidars. Thus, the Sangat of distant areas was connected with the Guru Ji. This system contributed a lot in the systematic development of Sikhism.
(a) Which Guru Ji started Manji System? Briefly explain.
Answer:
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji . The number of his Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees.

(b) Which two Manjis were kept under women devotees? Name them.
Answer:
The Manjis of Kabul and Kashmir were kept under women devotees. They were Mai Seva and Mai Bhagbari respectively.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 12.
Having failed in his various attempts to attain Guruship Prithia (Prithi Chand) started a new sect known as ‘Meena Sect’. Prithia’s son Mehrbaan, was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father. He composed the ‘Janam Sakhi’ of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which is considered an important work.
Questions :
(а) Who was Prithia (Prithi Chand)? Why did he not get Gurugaddi?
Answer:
Prithia was the eldest son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He considered his right over Gurudom but he was selfish, dihonest and deceiver. That’s why Guru Ram Das Ji refused to give him Gurudom.

(b) Briefly describe the functions of Mehrbaan, the son of Prithia.
Answer:
Mehrbaan was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father Prithia. He collected the information about the life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and composed the Janam Sakhi. His Janam Sakhi is considered as an important work.

Question 13.
There are 1430 pages (organs) of Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Guru Granth contains the Bani (hymns) of six Gurus, 15 saints, 11 Bhattas, 4 Sikhs. It includes 974 hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 63 hymns, of Guru Angad Dev Ji, 907 hymns of Guru Amardas Ji, 679 hymns of Guru Ram Das Ji, 2218 hymns and 116 Shabads of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, 116 Shabads and 2 Shalokas of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The Bani of Kabir (weaver), Farid (Sufi Saint), Ravidas (Cobbler), Surdas (Brahmin), Namdev (Dyer), Jaidev (Brahmin), Trilochan (Vaish), Dhanna (Peasant), Pipa (Masons), Sain (Barber), Sadna (Bucther), Parmanand, Ramanand etc. also included in the Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They all belonged to different castes and religion. It includes hymns of Bal, Dal, Nal, Sal, Ganga Das, Mathura, Bheekha, Kirt, Harbans (Bhatts) and compositions of Guru Sikhs Mardana, Satta, Balwand and Sundar.
(а) How many pages are there in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji? What name is given to them?
Answer:
There are 1430 pages in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They are known as organs.

(b) Write a note on the compilation of Shri Adi Granth Sahib Ji?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji bestowed upon the Sikhs a sacred and religious book by compiling the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled Adi Granth Sahib at Ramsar. Bhai Gurdas Ji assisted Guru Sahib in its compilation. The work of compilation was completed in 1604. Guru Sahib included the hymns of the first four Gurus followed by the hymns of Bhakti Saints and finally the sayings of Bhatt Bahiyah. Guru Arjan Dev Ji included his own Bani in the holy book.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 14.
Ancient Regime (French ‘Old Order’)
Before the French Revolution, the Bourbon family of kings ruled France. Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution under the regime, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate and province. French society was divided into three orders : clergy, nobility and others (the third estate).
(a) When did the French Revolution take place? Which dynasty ruled over France before the revolution?
Answer:
The French Revolution took place in 1780 A. D. and the Bourbon family ruled over France before its revolution.

(b) What type of social condition of France was there at that time?
Answer:
Before the French Revolution, French Society was divided into three classes First Estate i.e. the Clergy, Second Estate i.e. Nobility and Third Estate i.e. the General Public :

  • The First Estate included the Clergy. They did not pay any taxes. They were on the higher posts even without having the ability.
  • The Second Estate included major Nobles who had large pieces of land.
  • The Third Estate included lawyers, doctors, teachers etc. They did not get any of the higher posts even if they had the ability to do so. The common public was also included in this. They had to pay taxes to the state as well as to the Church. They had to do begar and were exploited for many years.

Question 15.
Enlightenment: Age of Reason
The 18th century has been called the “Age of Reason”. The French philosophers asserted that man was not born to suffer as Christianity preached, but he was born
to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored Him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’ and understood its laws and faith in ‘Reason’.
(а) Why is the 18th century known as the Age of Reason. Name three French philosophers attached with this age.
Answer:
18th century is known as the age of reason because nothing in this age was accepted with reason or challenge. Everything was checked on the basis of reason.

(b) Which views were given by the French philosophers of this age?
Answer:
The French philosophers believed that man was not born to suffer but he was born to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’.

Question 16.
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. It was a symbol of old regime.
(a) What was Bastille? Which day is known as Bastille day and why?
Answer:
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. 14th July is celebrated as the Bastille day because on this day people attacked Bastille and it fell down.

(b) Discuss the fall of Rastille in the French Revolution and its importance.
Answer:
On 14th July 1789, angry mob attacked the Bastille-prison at Paris. This prison was the symbol of the autocratic powers of monarchy. On the same day, the king ordered the army to enter the city. A rumour spread that the king was about to order the army to fire the poeple. So, around 7000 men and women assembled in front of the town hall. They organised a public army. In search of arms, they forcibly entered the public buildings. So, hundreds of people stormed into the prison of Bastille where they expected lot of arms and ammunition. In this conflict, the commander of Bastille died. Political prisoners were released although they were only seven in number. Fortress of Bastille was destroyed.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 17.
Olympe de Gouges
She was one of the most important among the politically active women in revolutionary France. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitled to. She criticized the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. She was tried by the National Convention, which charged her with treason. Soon after this she was executed.
(a) Who was Olympe de Gouges? How did she die?
Answer:
Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important politically active women in revolutionary France. She was tried by the National convention which charged her with treason. Soon after this, she was executed.

(b) Write briefly about her political activities.
Answer:
Olympe de Gouges opposed the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens. It was so because, it excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitiled to. She also criticised the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. That’s why she was tried by the National Convention finally executed.

Question 18.
Liberalism-These responses are basically the responses of thise people who accepted and wanted radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.
Conservatism-These people were in the favour of change but they wanted that it should be introduced gradually without altering the basic structure of the society.
Socialism-It gives stress on the welfare of whole society. Instead of individual profit, it stresses on social welfare.
(a) Define Conservatism.
Answer:
Conservatism:Conservatism never likes changes but if change is necessary then it should be introduced gradually and due respect should be given to the old regime or it should come without changing the basic structure of society.

(b) Define Liberalism.
Answer:
Liberalism:Liberalism believes in bringing change in society and its radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.

Question 19.
Industrialization in Russia
In order to make Russia a great power the Tsar began a policy of rapid industrialisation in late 19th century. A number of steel, iron and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. Mostly foreign owned these industries emoployed a number of workers. Men, women and children started going to factories due to industrialization. Poor working conditions, low wages etc., combined with a new sense of common identity fostered by Socialism led most of these workers to form unions of their own.
(a) What is meant by the word Tsar? When did the system of Tsar start in Russia?
Answer:
The word ‘Tsar’ literally meant ‘Supreme ruler’. Tsardom in Russia began in 1547 A.D.

(b) With what objective, the Tsar started the industrialisation in Russia? What was its impact on the labour class?
Answer:
At the time of Russian Revolution, Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II. To make Russia a great power, he began a policy of rapid industrialisation in the late 19th century. Many iron, steel and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. But most of these industries were owned by foreign industrialists. They employed many Russian workers who were greatly exploited. Poor working conditions and low wages combined these labourers. Under the influence of Socialism, they formed their unions and a sense of common identity.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 20.
Duma: derived from the Russian word meaning ‘to think’, the Russian parliament. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar so much that he agreed to the formation of a Duma in 1906 to advise him and to create legislation. The present day, Russian Parliament is also known as Duma.
(a) What is meant by the word ‘Duma’? Why did the Tsar of Russia establish Duma?
Answer:
Duma is a Russian word which means ‘to think’. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar and he was forced to form the Duma.

(b) What was Duma? What were its functions?
Answer:
Its function was to advice the Tsar and to make laws for the Russian people. Duma was an elected Parliament which advised the Tsar to perform his functions. But Tsar only let conservatives to enter Duma. He kept liberals and revolutionaries away from Duma.

Question 21.
Bolsheviks Party Leader Lenin
The Bolsheviks, another group, were convinced that in a country like Russia where there were no democratic rights, no parliament, such a party organized on Parliamentary lines could not work and could not be effective. The leader was Lenin who devoted himself to the task of organizing the Bolshevik Party. He was influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx and Engels, and was regarded as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement after Marx.
(a) Who was Lenin?
Answer:
Lenin was the leader of Bolshevik party in Russia. He is considered as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement, after Karl Marx.

(b) Explain briefly the work done by Lenin. What was his April thesis?
Answer:
After the fall of Czar, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and organized the revolution against the Provisional Government. He described the Russian empire as a prison of nation.

Under the leadership of Lenin, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies

  • to end the war,
  • to transfer land to the tillers, besides
  • giving all powers to the Soviets and equal status to all. This was April’s Thesis.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 22.
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution refers to rapid technical changes in the process of production of a number of goods, during 1750-1850 (First in England and later in other countries of Europe and U.S.A.). With the invention of new sources of power and machines, the production got replaced by machines instead of doing it by hand or tools. Industrial Revolution increased the need of raw material and food, this led to substantial deforestation in most of the regions of the world. The tremendous deforestation has deeply affected the life of forest dwellers and the Environment.
(а) What is meant by the Industrial Revolution?
Answer:
Industrial revolution was a technological revolution that took place during 1750’s to 1850’s. Many changes came in the production system during this period in England and other European countries.

(b) What was the impact of the industrial revolution on forests, forest society and atmosphere?
Answer:
Due to the industrial revolution, handmade tools were replaced by machines which increased the production of goods to a great extent. The demand of raw materials was greatly increased in the industrial nations of Europe. The demand of food items also increased with increase in population. Finally, for the development of agriculture, there started cutting down of forests. Deforestation started everywhere which had a really bad effect on the atmosphere.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
We require a number of goods and services in our daily life. For example, we need food to satisfy our hunger, clothes to cover our body, houses for shelter, vehicles for transportation, television or radio for our entertainment, services of a doctor for treatment etc. These goods and services are called ‘means’ to satisfy our wants. When one of our wants is satisfied, there are other new wants that need to be satisfied. So our wants are unlimited and the means to satisfy these unlimited wants are limited and scarce. Man has to decide how to satisfy his maximum wants with available limited and scarce resources.
(а) What do you mean by Economics?
Answer:
Economics is a science concerned with the allocation of scarce means of resources in such a manner that consumers can maximize their satisfaction, producers can maximize their profits and society can maximize its social welfare.

(b) State the basic concepts of Economics.
Answer:
Following are the basic concepts of economics :

  • Goods. Goods are those visible things that satisfy human wants. Otherwise speaking, anything capable of satisfying a want is called a good. For example, radio, fan, mobile phone etc. are goods.
  • Services. In economics, besides goods, services such as teaching by teacher, treatment given by a doctor etc. also satisfy human wants. They don’t have physical existence.
  • Utility. Wants satisfying power of a good is called utility. In other words, utility is the ability of a good to satisfy a want.
  • Price. Price can be defined as the value of goods and services which can be expressed in terms of money.
  • Wealth. All those goods and services for which we have to pay a price for their consumption are called wealth.

Question 2.
In ordinary sense ‘Labour’ means any type of physical or mental work done for any purpose. But in economics ‘Labour’ means all human efforts, physical as well as mental, done for the sake of monetary gain. If a student plays a game for pleasure or a mother looks after her child out of affection, then these activities are not considered as labour because they have not done the work with the objective of earning money. But when a cricketer coach or a football coach gives coaching to players or a nurse attends to a child in hospital, such efforts are called ‘labour’ because these have been done to gain monetary remuneration.
(а) What is labour? State its features.
Answer:
Labour means all humans efforts, physical as well as mental, done for the sake of monetary gain.

Features:

  • It is the only active factor of production.
  • Supply of labour can be increased or decreased.
  • In India, labour is available in abundance.
  • Labour can be bought or sold.
  • Labour is mobile.

(b) Who will provide labour for farming?
Answer:
In the village, some families are small. Farmers, along with their families, use to cultivate their own fields. Thus, they themselves provide the labour required for farming. Besides this, some landless families work as labourers in the fields of big landlords to earn their living. Some farmers with very small landholdings have to give up their land to big landlords for the repayment of their loans taken from the big landlords. These farmers become landless and have to work in the fields of big farmers. In this way, big landlords and farmers with average landholdings engage labour for the work in the field.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Capital means all those man-made goods which are used in further production of goods. It is the produced means of production or in other words, it is used as an input in producing other goods. A building is not capital if it is used for private housing. But it is called capital if it is used for productive purpose. For example, a factory building, which is used for producing various goo^p is a capital. Money kept in the bank as deposits is capital because the bank lends the .money to producers who use it as capital although the depositor also gets interest on it. A T.V. set used in the reception of a company is capital but when used in a residential house is not capital.
(a) What is Capital? State its features.
Answer:
Capital means all those man-made goods which are used in further production of goods.

Features :

  • It is a man-made factor.
  • It is a secondary factor of production.
  • It is transferrable.
  • Capital involves depreciation.

(b) State need of capital in farming.
Answer:
Much money is needed to implement the modern farming methods, for instance: to buy seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machine equipment etc. for agriculture.

Large and medium scale farmers earn more as compared to the small scale farmers. So these farmers, out of their own savings from farming, arrange for the capital needed in farming. Small scale farmers have to take loans on high rates of interest from the large scale farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders. Sometimes, they have to mortgage their houses or small landholdings to repay the loans. If they are unable to repay the loans, their property is seized. Government has opened special institutions such as RRBs, Cooperative Societies, Lands Development Bank and NABARD to provide capital to the farmers. To fulfil the need of capital, farmers have to take loans from these institutions.

Question 4.
Efforts made by a nation, an organization or any individual to raise their incomes are known as resources. Some resources like air, minerals, soil, water etc. are natural. These are used to satisfy human needs and are called ‘natural resources. The size of the population of a country along with its efficiency, educational qualities, productivity etc. is known as ‘human resources. Human resources is the most important resource because it makes the natural resources more useful. A country with highly educated and trained people can efficiently increase its productivity. Most of the developing and backward countries of the world are economically backward not because they lack natural resources but due to lack of quality in human resources.
(a) What is human capital formation?
Answer:
A country’s working population, with their existing productive skills and ability, contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product. This is referred to as human resources. So when investment in the form of education, training and medical care is made in human resources, human capital is formed which adds to the country’s Gross National Product which leads to the economic development of a country. Investment in human capital in the form of education and training yields higher incomes earned because of higher productivity by the more educated and better-trained people.

(b) Why is investment in human resources essential?
Answer:
Human Capital is superior to other resources like land and physical capital which are not useful at their own. Human resources can make use of land and capital. So, a large population is not a liability. It can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital. For example, by spending on education and health for all, training of industrial and agriculture workers in the use of modern technology etc. development of a country can be increased.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 4.
Unemployment refers to a situation in which people are willing to work at the current wages but cannot find work. The workforce population includes people from 15 years to 59 years. So, whenever a country’s unemployment is determined, persons who are not able to work, for example, patient, old people, small children, students etc. are not included. According to Statistics and Programme Implementation Department of Government of India’s National Sample Survey Report, the state of Kerala has the highest rate of unemployment and the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat have the lowest rate of unemployment.
(а) State the types of unemployment.
Answer:
There are many types of unemployment. We have unemployment in rural and urban areas, though the nature of unemployment differs in both areas. In case of rural areas there is seasonal and disguised unemployment. Urban areas have educated unemployment.

Seasonal unemployment means when people find jobs during some months and during remaining months they are unemployed. In the agriculture sector people remain employed during the sowing and harvesting season but after this for nearly 5 to 7 months they remain unemployed.

Disguised unemployment means more people are engaged in a particular work than required. Even if some men are relieved from work the total productivity will not decline.

In case of urban areas the rapidly increasing number of schools and colleges lead to educated unemployment as the job opportunities have not increased at the same rate.

(b) State the effects of unemployment.
Answer:
Unemployment leads to the wastage of manpower resources. Unemployed people become a liability for society rather than an asset. Unemployment increases poverty. There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth as they are unable to financially support their family. The dependency of the unemployed on the working population adversely affects the quality of life of a society. There is a general decline in its health status and rising withdrawal from the school system. An increase in unemployment is an indicator of a weak economy. So unemployment is a serious problem because unemployed people have become a liability on society.

Question 6.
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, like food, clothing, shelter, education and health facilities. Man struggles to fulfil these minimum basic needs. If the minimum basic needs are not fulfilled then there is loss of health and efficiency among those living in poverty in the country.
(a) State the measures of poverty.
Answer:
Poverty has two measurements

  1. Relative Poverty. The economic conditions of different regions of countries is compared under relative poverty. Per capita income and national income are the two indicators of relative poverty.
  2. Absolute Poverty. It refers to income and consumption levels in a country. If the daily intake of calories by a person is less than the required calories (2000-2500) per day then the person is absolutely poor.

(b) State the meaning of the poverty line.
Answer:
Poverty line is the method to measure the minimum income required to satisfy the basic needs of life. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. People living below the poverty fine are considered poor.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 7.
The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas, though the calorie needs vary depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does. Due to the hard work done by the people living in rural areas, they require more calories than the urban people.
(a) What are the indicators of poverty?
Answer:
Keeping in view the different aspects of poverty, social scientists are trying to use a variety of indicators to measure poverty. Usually, the indicators used to measure poverty are related to the levels of income and consumption. But social scientists have also included social indicators like illiteracy level, malnutrition, lack of access to health care, lack of job opportunities, and lack of safe drinking water. Social exclusion can be a cause as well as consequences of poverty. Sometimes people under social exclusion are deprived of equal opportunities.

(b) What are the income levels of measuring poverty line in India?
Answer:
(a) Lack of feeling of security in the backward classes is yet another indicator on which the analysis of poverty is based.
(b) On the basis of 2011-12 data, people below the consumption expenditure of? 816 per person per month in rural areas and? 1000 in urban areas are called poor.

Question 8.
Poor segment of the society needs food security at all times as the low purchasing power of the poor people does not allow them to buy food as per their requirements. There is a need for food security due to continuous and rapid growth in population. Besides this, during natural calamities like drought etc. production of food grain decreases because Indian agriculture mostly depends upon the monsoon. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas due to which prices go up. Many people are unable to buy food at high prices. If this situation continues for a long period, it may cause a situation of stravation.
(а) What is food security? What are its dimensions.
Answer:
Simply speaking food security means accessibility and affordability of food to all the people at all times.

Following are the main dimensions :

  • Availability of food means there should be food production within the country.
  • Accessibility of food means that sufficient quantity of food should be within the reach of people.
  • Affordability of food means that a person has enough money to buy sufficient food. Sufficient stocks of food should be maintained by the government to meet the shortage of food during natural calamities like drought, floods etc.

(b) Who are food insecure?
Answer:
There is a large segment of people who suffer from food and nutritional insecurity in India but the following people are more food insecure than others :

  • The landless people who depend on others for their food supplies.
  • Traditional artisans who provide traditional services.
  • Petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars.
  • In urban areas, the food insecure persons are those who are employed in all paid occupation and casual labour market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure their bare survival.
  • After a natural calamity people migrating from the affected areas are the most food-insecure people.
  • Malnutrition prevails more among women and children and they constitute a significant segment of the population affected by food insecurity.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Read the following quotes carefully and answer the given questions : The Indian Republic is a large country with a large geographical spread. India is a distinct geographical unit, in which a distinct culture has developed. It is the seventh largest country in the world. Where as in terms of population, it ranks second in the world after China. It is clear from this that 17.5% (2011 data) population is on 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. On the northern border of China, there are mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas which extend parallel to each other. She makes India a separate territory from Asia. The vast fertile plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers provide food security to our country. The peninsular plateau is a storehouse of natural minerals. Surrounded by many major rivers, lakes and vast oceans on all three sides of the world, India holds the status of an independent landform or subcontinent.
(A) What is the place in the world in terms of area and population of India?
Answer:
India ranks seventh in the world in terms of area. In terms of population, India is second.

(B) Why is India called the sub-continent?
Answer:
India is located to the South of the continent of Asia. Part of Asia is a distinct geographical entity. It is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan mountains. India has been given the status of a sub-continent due to its’ features. The Indian sub-continent consists of countries other than India including Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives etc.

Question 2.
Plains of Punjab-Haryana-These plains are spread over an area of about 640 Kilometres from northwest to south-east. Their average width is up to 300 km. The total area of this ground is up to 1.75 lakh km. This plain is made up of alluvial deposits of Indus and its tributaries: Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this ground, including Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doaba (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Sindhu (middle) area of the river).
(A) Write about the extension of the plain of Punjab-Haryana?
Answer:
The plain of Punjab-Haryana has spread about 640 km from North-West to South-East. Its average width is 300 km. Its total area is 1.75 lakh square kilometres.

(B) How did these plains become? Write the names of its doabs.
Answer:
This plain is formed by the accumulation of alluvium of Indus and its tributaries; Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this plain, Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doab (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Indus River of middle area.)

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
The plains of the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers are one of the largest plains in the world. These plains are about 2,400 km long and 150 to 130 km wide. These plains are made of alluvial soil. In millions of years, this fertile plain has been created due to the deposition of alluvium in a very large basin situated in Giripad, Himachal. Many plains are also built-in these plains such as Alluvial fans, alluvial cone, crooked or meandering rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.
(A) How was India’s vast northern plains formed?
Answer:
The vast plains of India have been formed by the deposition of alluvial soil brought by the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. These deposits occurred in a huge basin in Girpad in the Himalayas.

(B) Name the main landforms of these plains.
Answer:
Many landscapes are found in these plains, like alluvial fans, alluvial cone, meanders, crooked or erosive flow, rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.

Question 4.
A network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. Nature has given India hundreds of big and small rivers. It is very important for students to understand some facts related to water flow, such as Doab, water separator and drainage pattern etc. The area between the two rivers is called Doab. Any elevated area, such as a mountain or high land that divides two water streams, is called a water divide. The water flowing over any part of the earth creates many different forms which are called drainage forms.
(A) What is the meaning of water flow?
Answer:
The network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. This means that the network of all the rivers or canals flowing in a particular area is called water flow.

(B) Who is called Doab?
Answer:
The area between two rivers is called Doab. This means that the area or plain between two rivers is called Doab.

(C) Explain the meaning of water divide.
Answer:
The elevated area, such as a mountain or a high land that divides two water streams is called a water divide.

Question 5.
Rivers have been of great importance throughout human history. The Indus Valley civilization is an example of this. Water has attracted humans since ancient times. Our life depends on water only. The survival or absence of population is dependent on water. Folk songs, stories, folk-dances, agriculture are all dependent on water. Water is the most important natural resource. For livelihood, water is very important everywhere in agriculture, irrigation, hydroelectric construction, industiral area, construction and homes. Internal water ways are possible only due to rivers.
(A) What is the importance of rivers in our life?
Answer:

  • Rivers give us drinking water. This water is purified to make it potable.
  • Many multipurpose projects are put on these rivers which not only provide electricity but also provide water for irrigation.
  • Many civilizations flourish on the banks of these rivers. Indus valley civilization is an example of this.
  • Rivers bring alluvial soil from the mountains in which our plains become fertile.

(B) What is an internal waterway?
Answer:
Many rivers flow in India and many of these rivers go and merge in some sea. But there are some rivers that cannot reach the sea and dissolve on the way. All these are called internal waterways.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Human life is greatly influenced by climate. Man is completely subject to climate at every stage of life, including food, clothes, design of homes, health work, employment etc. In cold climate regions, hot things are used in food such as tea, coffee and hot food. Colder substances like lassi, ice, sorket etc. are used more, in countries with hot climate. Warm clothes such as coats, sweaters (Woollen garments), jackets, blankets etc. are used in cold countries. Homes are open and ventilated in areas with hot climates. The roofs of houses in hilly areas are sloping. Fruits like apples, almonds, cherries in cold winter. Climate and crops of sugarcane, cotton, rice, jute etc. are grown in hot climatic regions.
(A) How is human life affected by climate?
Answer:
Human life is greatly influenced by climate such as:

  • Our food habits are affected by climate such as hot things are eaten in cold areas,
  • Our clothes are also affected by climate such as wearing warm clothes in cold areas,
  • The structure and size of our houses are also affected by climate such that houses in hot areas are open and ventilated,
  • People living in cold and mountainous areas are physically stronger.

(B) Which crops grow in cold and hot climate areas?
Answer:

  • Fruits like apple, almond, cherry are grown in cold climate areas.
  • Crops like cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, jute etc. are grown in areas with hot climate.

Question 7.
Natural vegetation is a boon for humans or for the provincial economy. There is an acute need for its protection and development. We are aware that the situation of Punjab in this region is not favourable as only 6.07 percent of the forests are found here. The other part of the ground is being used’for the development of agriculture, industry, roads and railways, villages and cities. In terms of population, the area of Punjab is much less than the average of the country. The state’s population and pollution rate are constantly increasing. Therefore, there is a great need to increase the area under vegetation. To accomplish this goal, more and more trees should not be planted in the arable land.
(A) What is the benefit of natural vegetation to us?
Answer:

  • We get oxygen from natural vegetation which gives us clean air.
  • We get many types of wood from natural vegetation which makes our furniture.
  • Many types of herbs are found from natural vegetation which are used in making many types of medicines.
  • There is no land degradation due to natural vegetation.

(B) Why should we increase the area of natural vegetation?
Answer:

  • We should increase natural vegetation to increase fresh air.
  • It is necessary to increase the forests to meet its wood requirements.
  • It is necessary to increase the area of natural vegetation to save land degradation.
  • To give good life to the coming generations, natural vegetation needs to be more and more.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 8.
If we want to live our life comfortably and think the same for future generations then we should protect our forests properly. Planting of plants is called afforestation. We can plant saplings or barren land or non-agricultural land without converting them into forests. You can improve the deteriorating state of forests by planting 311 social forests, agricultural forests, commercial forests. The government should make every effort to awaken the people regarding the importance of forests and cooperation for their protection. Laws should be strictly enforced by the Forest Department and punish the culprits for cutting down trees, either illegally or without adopting the right method.
(A) What are the benefits of forests?
Answer:

  • Forests control the climate compact, forests prevent temperature rise in summer and increase the temperature in winter.
  • The roots of dense forests help in reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the outbreak of floods.
  • The roots of trees strengthen the soil tightness and prevent soil erosion.
  • The soil gets green manure in the form of bacteria due to dry leaves falling.

(B) How can we save the dwindling forests?
Answer:

  • We can imporove the deteriorating state of forests continuously by dividing forests into different parts.
  • People should be awakened from time to time for the benefits and care of the forests.
  • Cutting of forests should be declared as a legal offence and strict punishment should be given to those who cut down trees without proper law.
  • People should be constantly encouraged to plant new trees.

Question 9.
In our country, the girl is worshipped on one side and on the other side, she tries to take away her right to live. But now the time has come when we have to get rid of the priority of men and children have to understand the gift of nature without any gender discrimination. In future, we can not imagine a society without women. Misconceptions about women need to be changed. By punishing the guilty, the law has to be strictly enforced. We must end shameful and illegal acts such as female feticide and forced abortions.
(A) What is the meaning of female feticide?
Answer:
When it is found out about a pregnant woman that she is having a daughter in her womb, she is killed in the womb or the woman is miscarried. This process is called female feticide.

(B) Why female feticide is done?
Answer:

  • Dowry has to be given at the time of marriage of the girl. That’s why people don’t want girls. So they commit female feticide.
  • It is written in religious texts that to attain liberation one must have a boy. So they kill the female fetus.
  • Use of modern techniques has promoted female feticide.
  • People also commit female feticide in order to gain respect in society.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB India: Size and Location Textbook Questions and Answers

Map Work:

Question 1.
Show in the ouline map of India :
(i) Indian Standard Meridian (82/4°E)
(ii) Tropic of Cancer
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 1
Based upon Survey of India map with the permission of the Surveyor General of India. The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. The territorial waters of india extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. The external boundaries and coastlines of India agree with the Record Master Copy certified by Surveyor General of India.
(iii) States and Territories using Punjabi as their language.
(iv) Two neighbours of India the boundaries of which do not touch sea.
(v) India’s neighbouring island country.
Answer:
(iii) Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi and Chandigarh
(iv) Nepal, Bhutan
(v) SriLanka
Do it yourself with the help of India Map.

Activity:
(i) Colour India’s neighbouring SAARC nations in a map and display map in classroom.
(ii) Show 29 states and 7 union territories with their capitals in two outline maps of India.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Objective Type Questions:
Answer the following questions in a single word to one sentence length.

Question 1.
Which country stands third in the world on the basis of area?
Answer:
China.

Question 2.
Which country is fifth in the world on the basis of area and population?
Answer:
Brazil.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 3.
Saurashtra is region of which state among the following?
(i) Manipur
(ii) Gujarat
(iii) Maharashtra
(iv) Nagaland
Answer:
(ii) Gujarat.

Question 4.
Which city among the following is not a capital?
(i) Raipur
(ii) Ahmedabad
(iii) Ranchi
(iv) Panaji
Answer:
(ii) Ahmedabad.

Question 5.
Which latitudinal extent among following is right for India?
(i) 8°4′ N to 37°6′ N
(ii) 8°4′ S to 37°6′ S
(iii) 6°2′ N to 35°2′ N
(iv) 6°2′ S to 35°2′ S
Answer:
(i) 8°4’N to 37°6’N.

Question 6.
What is the constitutional name given to India?
Answer:
Indian Republic.

Short Answer Questions:
Give short answers for the following questions :

Question 1.
Name the northern, southern, eastern and western extents of India.
Answer:

  • Northern comer – Daftar
  • Southern comer – Kanya Kumari (Indira Point)
  • Eastern comer – Kibithu
  • Western comer – Guhar Moti (Kutch)

Question 2.
Write a note on Indian Standard Meridian.
Answer:
India is a vast country. In order to maintain a uniformity of time within the country, 82!40E longitude is taken as the standard meridian of India. The local time along this meridian, serves as the Indian Standard Time (I.S.T.). This central meridian passes through the towns of Allahabad and Mirzapur (U.P.) Indian standard Time is 514 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T.).

Question 3.
Explain the difference of two hours in time of Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat.
Answer:
India has a longitudinal extent of 30°. Due to this there is a time lag of two hours between the sunrise on the easternmost and the westernmost horizons of India. Due to rotation, the earth takes 4 minutes to rotate through 1° of longitude. The difference in time is one hour for 15° of longitude. Therefore, for a longitudinal extent of 30° of India, there is a time lag of 2 hours. When it is 6 a.m. in Arunachal Pradesh, it is still 4 a.m. in Gujarat. But the watches in all parts of India run according to standard time measured from 82/4° E longitude. So the watches in Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat show the same time despite the different sunrise.

Question 4.
Which languages are used in Jammu & Kashmir and Telangana?
Answer:

  • Jammu & Kashmir – Urdu, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Dogri, Gujri, Dadri and Punjabi.
  • Telangana – Telugu and Urdu.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 5.
Write a short note on SAARC.
Answer:
SAARC is a union of South Asian Countries formed for the mutual co-operation. Its complete form is South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation. It has 8 members and, these are – India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and SriLanka. India keeps the most important place among the SAARC members.

Long Answer Questions :
Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Give details of India’s international trade.
Answer:
India’s position is quite conducive from the point of view of international trade.

Following facts will clarify the picture :
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 2
India on International Highway of Trade and Commerce

  • Central Location. India is centrally located in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Trade Routes. India is favourably located for international trade. Many trade routes pass through the Indian Ocean.
  • Nearness to tropic of cancer. The tropic of cancer passes through the centre of India. So India is a tropical country. The long growing season makes India an agricultural country.
  • Long Coastline. India has long coastline which provides many deep, protected and natural harbours.
  • Defence. The natural boundaries are favourably located from defence point of view.
  • Effect of Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean leads to the origin of rain giving monsoons.
  • Effect of Himalayas. The unbroken chain of Himalayas acts as a climatic barrier. It forces monsoons to give rainfall and protects northern India from cold polar winds.

Question 2.
Write names of any 10 states and 5 union territories of India with their capitals.
Answer:
The list of 10 Indian States and 5 Union Territories alongwith their capitals is given below :

States and Capitals

1. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
2. Assam Dispur
3. Bihar Patna
4. Gujarat Gandhi Nagar
5. Haryana Chandigarh
6. Himachal Pradesh Shimla
7. Tamil Nadu Chennai
8. Karnataka Benguluru
9. Punjab Chandigarh
10. Rajasthan Jaipur

Union Territories and Capitals

1. Andaman and Nicobar Port Blair
2. Chandigarh Chandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and
Daman and Diu Daman
4. Delhi (N.C.R.) Delhi
5. Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar

Question 3.
Distribute India politically and explain biggest and smallest state on the basis of area.
Answer:
India is a Union of states. Politically, it can be divided into two parts :

  1. States
  2. Union Territories

There are 28 States and 8 Union Territories. Their names along with their capitals and area are given ahead :

S. No.States       Area(sq. kms.) Capitals
1. Uttar Pradesh 2,38,566 Lucknow
2. Maharashtra 3,07,713 Mumbai
3. Bihar 94,163 Patna
4. West Bengal 88,752 Kolkata
5. Andhra Pradesh 1,60,205 Amravati
6. Tamil Nadu 1,30,058 Chennai
7. Madhya Pradesh 3,08,000 Bhopal
8. Rajasthan 3,42,239 Jaipur
9. Karnataka 1,91,791 Bengaluru
10. Gujarat 1,96,024 Ganc.ainagar
11. Orissa 1,55,707 Bhubaneshwar
12. Kerala 38,863 Thiruvananthapuram
13. Jharkhand 79,714 Ranchi
14. Assam 78,438 Dispur
15. Punjab 50,362 Chandigarh
16. Haryana 44,212 Chandigarh
17. Chhattisgarh 1,35,191 Raipur
18. Uttarakhand 53,483 Dehradun
19. Himachal Pradesh 55,673 Shimla
20. Tripura 10,491 Agartala
21. Manipur 22,327 Imphal
22. Meghalaya 22,429 Shillong
23. Nagaland 16,579 Kohima
24. Goa 3,702 Panaji
25. Arunachal Pradesh 83,743 Itanagar
26. Mizoram 20,987 Aizawal
27. Sikkim 7,096 Gangtok
28. Telangana 1,14,840 Hyderabad

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 3
Based upon Survey of India map with the permission of the Surveyor General of India. The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. The territorial waters of india extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. The external boundaries and coastlines of India agree with the Record Master Copy certified by Surveyor General of India.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 6
Note: Delhi is now known as the National Capital Region, Delhi, Its area is 1483 square kilometre.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide India: Size and Location Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
India has a total geographical area of lakh km2.
(a) 32.80
(b) 22.80
(e) 42.08
(d) 30.80.
Answer:
(a) 32.80.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 2.
Which line of latitude bisects India into two halves?
(a) Equator
(b) Tropic of Cancer
(c) Tropic of Capricorn
(d) Arctic Circle.
Answer:
(b) Tropic of Cancer.

Question 3.
Which is the largest state of India? (as regards area)
(a) Maharashtra
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Madhya Pradesh.
Answer:
(c) Rajasthan.

Question 4.
India has total number of states:
(a) 18
(b) 24
(c) 28
(d) 30.
Answer:
(c) 28.

Question 5.
Where does India rank in the world ? (as regards area)
(a) Fifth
(b) Sixth
(c) Seventh
(d) Eighth.
Answer:
(c) Seventh.

Question 6.
(a) Bay of Bengal
(b) Arabian Sea
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Gulf of Cambay
Answer:
(b) Arabian Sea.

Question 7.
Which is the southernmost point of India?
(a) Kanyakumari
(b) Indira point
(c) Rameshwaram
(d) Barren island.
Answer:
(b) Indira point.

Question 8.
Where does standard meridian of India pass through
(a) Srinagar
(b) Delhi
(c) Mirzapur
(d) Kolkata.
Answer:
(c) Mirzapur.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 9.
India has a coastline of:
(a) 6500 kms
(b) 7500 kms
(c) 8500 kms
(d) 9500 kms.
Answer:
(b) 7500 kms.

Question 10
Suez canal was opened in year :
(a) 1849
(b) 1859
(c) 1869
(d) 1879.
Answer:
(c) 1869.

Question 11.
The capital of Sikkim is :
(a) Dispur
(b) Shillong
(c) Gangtok
(d) Kohima.
Answer:
(c) Gangtok.

Question 12.
What is total length of land frontier of India?
(a) 12200 km
(b) 13200 km
(c) 14200 km
(d) 15200 km.
Answer:

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
________ keeps the first place in the world from the point of view of population.
Answer:
China

Question 2.
________ divides India in two equal parts.
Answer:
Tropic of Cancer

Question 3.
Geographically is the largest country of the world.
Answer:
Russia

Question 4.
India is situated in continent.
Answer:
Asia

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 5.
________ is the capital of Uttrakhand.
Answer:
Dehradun

Question 6.
The boundaries of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and are alongwith Pakistan.
Answer:
Gujarat

Question 7.
__________ is the capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Answer:
Hyderabad

Question 8.
__________ is the capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Answer:
Chandigarh.

True/False:

Question 1.
Goa is the smallest Indian State.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Suez canal was opened in 1869 A.D.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Sri Lanka is situated in eastern side of India.
Answer:
False.

Question 4.
Shimla is the capital of two Indian states.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 5.
Northern plains have lots of minerals.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How much percentage of world’s population lived in India in 2011?
Answer:
17.5%.

Question 2.
Which fertile Indian plains provide food security to India?
Answer:
The Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains.

Question 3.
Geographically, name the largest country of the world.
Answer:
Russia.

Question 4.
What is the total geographical area of India?
Answer:
32.80 lakh square kilometre.

Question 5.
Which Indian region is rich in mineral resources?
Answer:
Peninsular Plateau.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 6.
Name the island groups situated in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
Answer:

  • Arabian Sea: Lakshadweep Islands.
  • Bay of Bengal: Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Question 7.
Name the countries which are larger than India, geographically.
Answer:
Australia, Brazil, China, U.S.A., Canada and Russia.

Question 8.
Name the seas situated on three sides of India.
Answer:
Arabian Sea on the western side, Bay of Bengal on the eastern side and Indian Ocean on the southern side.

Question 9.
In which hemisphere is India situated?
Answer:
India is situated in the northern hemisphere.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 4

Question 10.
Which Latitudinal line divides India in two parts and what is its latitude?
Answer:
Tropic of Cancer divides India in two parts and its latitude is 23°30′ North.

Question 11.
Name the two neighbouring Island countries of India.
Answer:
SriLanka and Maldives.

Question 12.
Name the two neighbouring countries of India on the eastern side.
Answer:
Bangladesh and Myanmar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 13.
The boundaries of which countries touch the Indian boundary on the northern side.
Answer:
China, Nepal and Bhutan.

Question 14.
What do you mean by the term sub-continent?
Answer:
A sub-continent is a vast independent geographical unit which is distinctly separated from the main continent.

Question 15.
In how many States and Union Territories, India is divided?
Answer:
There are 28 states and 8 union territories in India.

Question 16.
Name any four Indian states which border the other countries.
Answer:
Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, West Bengal.

Question 17.
Name four Indian states situated on the eastern coast.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal.

Question 18.
What is the total length of land border of India?
Answer:
India’s total land border is 15,200 km.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 19.
What is the total length of Indian coastline?
Answer:
7516 km.

Question 20.
Geographically, what is India’s position in the world? Name the countries larger than India.
Answer:
Geographically, India is seventh largest country of the world. Russia, China, Canada, U.S.A., Brazil and Australia are larger than India.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India Size and Location 5

Question 21.
Name the seas situated on eastern and western side of India.
Answer:
Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively.

Question 22.
Give similarity in the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India.
Answer:
Their extension is almost 30°.

Question 23.
What is the difference between 1ST and GMT?
Answer:
Five and half hours.

Question 24.
Name four Indian states along with the Arabian Sea.
Answer:
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 25.
Name four Indian states whose border touches with the border of Bangladesh.
Answer:
West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram.

Question 26.
Name the capitals of Uttrakhand, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
Answer:
Uttarakhand-Dehradun, Chhattisgarh – Raipur, Jharkhand – Ranchi.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Reason out why the north-south extent of India is larger than its east-west extent even though the country’s latitudinal and longitudinal extent (in degrees) is of the same value.
Answer:
The East-West extent of India is 2933 kilometres, but the North-South extent is 3214 kilometres. Thus North-South extent is longer than the East-West extent by 281 kms. The fact is that latitudinal extent (31°02′) and the longitudinal extent (29°18′) of the country are almost of the same value. This is due to the spherical shape of the earth. The equator is the longest circle on the earth (one degree of longitude measures 111 km.). But the length of other parallels goes on decreasing from the equator towards the poles due t.o the curvature of the earth. At 25° latitude, the length of one degree of longitude is 100 kms. Therefore, the East-West extent is shorter than North-South extent in kilometres. The East-West extent for 30° will be reduced by 30 x 10 kms = 300 kms. approximately.

Question 2.
Why is India given the status of sub-continent? Which countries form the Indian sub-continent?
Answer:
The great mountain wall of Himalayas isolates these countries from the mainland of Asia. India forms the core of the sub-continent.

The following countries are included in the Indian sub-continent:

  • Pakistan is in the North-West.
  • Nepal is in the North,
  • Bhutan is in the North-East.
  • Bangladesh is in the East.
  • Sri Lanka in the South.
  • Myanmar in the external East.

Question 3.
What is the location of the Tropic of Cancer? What are its implications?
Or
‘Tropic of Cancer divides the country into almost two equal parts.’ Discuss.
Answer:
The Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2° N) runs almost through the centre of the country being 15° away from either end. It divides the country into almost two equal halves :

  1. Sub-tropical zone: Northern India.
  2. Tropical zone—Southern India.

Thus, India is considered a tropical country of the Northern Hemisphere. The climate of India is dominated by tropical monsoons. The sun’s rays never fall vertically in the areas north of the tropic, but the southern areas experience overhead sun twice a year.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 4.
State the reason for selecting a Standard Meridian of India with so odd value of 82°30′ E.
Or
Why do we need a Standard Meridian for India? Why 8214° E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India?
Answer:
8254° East Meridian is taken as the Standard Meridian of India. It passes through the town of Allahabad. Local time of Mirzapur near Allahabad is taken as the standard time all over India. It is a central meridian for India as it divides the country into two equal halves. So it suits most parts of the country. Moreover, Nepal and Sri Lanka also adopt 82/4° E as the Standard Meridian to have a uniformity of time with India.

Question 5.
Reason out why Ahmedabad in the west and Kolkata in the east are able to see the noon sun exactly overhead twice a year, but not Delhi.
Answer:
The latitude of a place affects the altitude of the overhead sun at different places. On 21st June, the sun is overhead at tropic of cancer. The latitude of Ahmedabad is 23° N and that of Kolkata is also 23°N. These two places experience overhead sun twice a year. But Delhi (29°N) is situated beyond the tropic of cancer (23/4° N). Therefore, Delhi does not have overhead sun at any time of the year, because the sun is never overhead beyond the tropics.

Question 6.
Reason out why the difference between the duration of day and night is hardly felt at Kanyakumari, but it is not so in Kashmir.
Or
“The latitudinal extent influences the duration of day and night.” Explain.
Answer:
The North-South extent affects the length of day and night in different parts of India. Kanyakumari (8°N) is close to the equator. Here the sun is almost overhead all the year-round. With a result, the days and nights are equal. The maximum difference between the length of day and night is hardly 45 minutes. But in Kashmir (37°N), the rays of the sun are always oblique. The difference between the length of day and night is as large as five hours. Days are longer than nights, due to the inclination of this part towards the sun.

Question 7.
What is the longitudinal extent of India? What are its implications?
Answer:
India extends between 68°7’E to 97°25′ E longitudes. The East-West extent is 2933 kms. which is roughly 1/12th of the circumference of the earth. Thus, India has a longitudinal extent of about 30° longitudes. There is a time lag of 2 hours between the sunrise in the easternmost and the westernmost horizons of India. It means that the sun takes two hours to rise in Saurashtra after it has risen in Arunachal Pradesh.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give major features of the size and extent of India.
Answer:
India is a vast country. Geographically, India is seventh largest country of the world. The major features of the size and extent of India are given below:

  1. India’s mainland is extended between 8°4′ N to 37°6′ N latitude. Its longitudinal extent is 68°7′ E to 97°25′ E. In this way, the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India (30°) is same. Even then its North-South extent in kilometres is more than East-West extent.
  2. In the context of Equator, India is situated in the northern hemisphere and in the context of Prime Meridian, India is in the eastern hemisphere.
  3. Tropic of cancer (23°3’N) divides India in almost two equal parts. India’s northern part is mountainous and plain and the southern part is a plateau.
  4. India’s geographical area is around 32.8 lakh square kilometre. It is around 2.4% of world’s geographical area.
  5. Due to its central position in the Indian ocean, India’s location is quite favourable for international trade. That’s why India has trading contacts with almost all the countries.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location

Question 2.
Explain that the exchange of ideas and goods from India dates back to ancient times.
Or
‘India had strong geographical and historical links with her neighbours.’ Explain giving examples.
Or
India’s strategic location on the head of the Indian Ocean has helped her in establishing land and maritime contacts with the outside world in the ancient and medieval times. Explain.
Answer:
India has been linked with S.E. Asia, West Asia, Africa, Central Asia. Indian culture spread to many distant countries such as Indonesia, Bali island, Combodia and Egypt. These cultures also had an impact on Indian culture.

  1. The Indian culture spread to distant lands through ocean routes of the Indian Ocean. The muslin, spices, were sent to other countries.
  2. The mountain passes in the north provided many openings and transport facilities for the outsiders.
    (а) The pastoral nomads entered India through the mountain passes of Khyber and Bolan.
    (b) The Buddhist Bhikshus crossed into Tibet, China and Japan to carry their message of peace.
    (c) Alexander invaded India through these mountain passes and brought Greek sculptures, domes, minarets to India.
    (d) Indian merchants had trade links with Central Asia, Afghanistan and Iran through these routes.
    (e) The Mongols, Turks, Arabs and Iranians came as conquerors and settled down in India. They took back the Indian numerals, the decimal system and the ideas of the Upanishads to their countries.

This gives and take, this exchange of ideas, goods and art have enriched the Indian culture.

India: Size and Location PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • India is a vast country. Geographically, India is the seventh-largest country of the world.
  • From the point of view of the population, after China, India is the second-largest country.
  • The extension of Himalaya mountain and sea from three sides gives India the status of Sub-continent.
  • India has* 2,4% of the total land of the world.
  • India’s north-south extension is 3214 km. and the east-west extension is 2933 km. 82°30′ East is considered the standard meridian of India. Its time is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich mean time.
  • When meridian of any country is taken as jts standard meridian, its time is known as the standard time.
  • A sub-continent is a vast independent geographical unit. This landmass is distinctly separated from the main continent.
  • Indian boundary touches the boundary of seven countries.
  • India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the total coastline of about 7516 km.
  • The meaning of SAARC is South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation. India keeps the most important position among other SAARC nations.
  • India has 28 states and 8 union territories.
  • Delhi is National Capital Region (NCR). Its capital New Delhi is the capital of country.
  • Chandigarh (Punjab, Haryana) and Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) are the two cities which are the capitals of more than one state.
  • India’s eminent position in the Indian ocean creates quite favourable environment for International trade.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 1a India: Size and Location Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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PSEB 9th Class Books Solutions Guide | PSEB Solutions for Class 9 in Punjabi English Medium

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