Gymnastics Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Gymnastics is an ancient sports in 2600 BC. Gymnastics exercises used to be performed in China but the actual development started in Greece and Rome. The word ‘Gymnastics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Gymnos’ which means “Naked body”, actually exercises done by naked body is called Gymnastics. These exercises used to be performed to keep the body healthy.

The Greek laid down the great emphasis on Gymnastics. The spartans were very popular in providing Gymnastics training for their youth. Boys and girls were expected to be good Gymnastics in those days. With the fall of both civilizations i.e. Greek and Roman, Gymnastics disappeared from these civilizations.

The Great Grandfather of Gymnastics John Guts Muths introduced Gymnastics in the Persian schools. In this way Germany rediscovered Gymnastics and owing to that the International Gymnastics Federation was constituted in 1881. In 1884 the first Gymnastics competition was conducted in Modem Olympics which were held in Athens in 1896.

Gymnastics for men was included but later on Gymnastics for women was included in 1928 Olympic games in 1974. In Asian games which were held in Tehran, Gymnastics was made one of the sports. The first world cup of Gymnastics was held in 1975. In these days Gymnastics is an attractive, fascinating and very popular sport.

Latest General Rules of Gymnastics

1. Men compete in six events

• floor exercises
• vaulting horse.
• Pommelled horse
• Roman Rings
• Horizontal bars and parallel bars. Women compete in four events i.e. vaulting horse, uneven bars, balancing beam and floor exercises.

2. Gymnasts present themselves to a Judge before and after their event. They start their exercise when the signal is given to them. If during the exercise they fall, they have 30 seconds to remount and continue.

3. Regarding team competition, size Gymnastics of each perform is compulsory and an optional exercise on each apparatus. The five highest scores are added to give the team total.

4. A gymnast must wear proper kit. He may wear bandages or socks. He/She must starts the exercise within 30 seconds. When the signal is given by a coach another gymnast may assist a gymnast into hanging position on horizontal bar and Roman Rings.

Question 1.
Write about the Sports Equipment of Gymnastics.
Specification of Playfield and related Sports Equipment

(A) Equipment for men
1. Floor = 12 M × 12 M
2. Parallel Bars

Length of bars = 3500 m.m.
Width of bars = 420-520 m.m.
Height of bars = 1750 m.m.

3. Horizontal Bar

Diameter of Bar = 28 m.m.
Length of Bar = 2400 m.m.
Height of Bar = 2550 to 2700 m.m.
Diameter of uprights = 50-60 m.m.
Diameter of Tension work = 5.6 m.m.

4. Pommel Horse

Length of Pommel Horse = 1600 m.m.
Width of Pommel Horse = 350 m.m.
Height from the floor = 1100 m
Height of Pommel = 120 m.m.
Distance between Pommel = 400-450 m.m.

5. Roman Rings

Diameter (Grip) = 28 m.m.
Height of stand from floor = 5500 m.m.
Length of leather straps = 700 m.m.
Thickness = 4 m.m.
Inside diameter of Ring = 180 m.m.
Height of the rings from floor = 2500 m.m.
Width = 35 m.m.

6. Vaulting Horse

Height of vaulting horse = 1350 m.m.
Adjustable steps in the intervals = 50 m.m.
Length = 1600 m.m.

(B) Equipment of Women

1. Floor = 12 m × 12 m
2. Vaulting Horse
Height of Vaulting Horse = 1250 m.m.
Adjustable steps in the Intervals = 100-150 m.m.
Length = 1600 m.m.

3. Balancing Beam

Length of Beam = 5000 m.m.
Width of Beam = 100 m.m.
Height of Beam = 1200 m.m.
Adjustable = 700 – 1200 m.m.

4. Uneven bars

Length of uneven bars = 2400 m.m.
Height of the bars from floor = 2300 m.m. and 1500 m.m.
Distance between bars = 580-900 m.m.
Diameter of uprights = 50-60 m.m.
Thickness of uprights = 30 m.m.

Important Tournaments

1. Olympic Games
2. Asian Games
3. World Cup
4. All India Inter-University Gymnastics Championship
5. National Championship
6. Federation Cup
7. School National
8. China Cup

Sports Personalities

Indian Sports Personalities

1. Sham Lai
2. Km Kripali Patel
3. Dr. Kalpana Debnalt
4. Montar Debnalt
5. Anju Dua
6. Sunita Sharma

International Sports Personalities

1. Olga Korbut
3. Nelli Kim
4. Ludmilla Tourscheva
5. Dov. Lupi
6. Karin Janz

Question 2.
Describe the fundamental skills of Gymnastics?
Fundamental Skills of Gymnastics For Men

(A) Parallel Bars

1. Up start
2. Front start
3. Shoulder stand
4. Hand stand
5. Hand stand with 180° Turn
6. Hand stand to Front turn on the shoulder
7. Backward Roll 8. Hand stand to cast wheel

(B) Horizontal Bar

3. Short circle
4. One leg circle with heel foot
5. Heel foot
6. Swing through vault

(C) Pommelled Horse

1. Front Support Position
2. Single Leg Half Circle
3. Double Leg Half Circle
4. Front Scissors

(D) Roman Rings

1. Up start
2. Back circle to back hang
3. Muscle up
4. Back level
5. Back uprise
6. Dislocation
7. Back uprise with L-position.

(E) Vaulting Horse

2. Squat vault
3. Cast wheel
4. Hand stand with cast wheel
5. Hand spring.

(F) Floor Exercises

1. Forward Roll to Hand stand
2. Backward Roll to Hand stand
3. Forward Roll to Head spring
4. Hand spring to Dive Roll
5. Round off to Flick Flak
6. One Leg Hand Spring
7. Hand stand to Forward Roll with straight legs

Fundamental Skills of Gymnastics For Women

(A) Balancing Beam

1. Gallop step with Balance
2. Scissors Jump
3. Forward Roll
4. Backward Roll
5. Cast wheel
6. Bridge
7. Balance
8. Dismount

(B) Vaulting Horse

1. Spit vault
2. Hand spring
3. Squat vault

(C) Uneven Bars

1. Swing on Upper Bar
2. Back uprise
3. One Leg Forward Circle
4. One Leg Backward Circle
5. Cross Balancing
6. Hand Spring.

(D) Floor Exercises

1. Forward Roll to Hand stand
2. Backward Roll to Hand stand
3. Round off
4. Slow back Hand spring
5. Split Sitting
6. Slow Hand spring
7. Hand spring

Points In Gymnastics

For each gymnastic exercise, there are points from 0 to 10, and each point is sub-divided into 10 parts. If the panel of the judges is of five members, the minimum and maximum points are not considered, and an average of mid three points is taken. If the panel is composed of three judges, the marks of three are taken for average.

Decisions:
The following points are important so far as decisions are concerned:

1. Five or at least three judges are kept till the end of each event of the competition. One of these judges is considered to be Chief Judge.
2. The judges make an assessment of the feats of other players on the basis of the feats of the first players on eveiy apparatus. They also consult one another for exercises so that there may be a common base of assessment.
3. Thereafter, they decide independently and do not consult one another except in very special circumstances.
4. The result shall be decided from the average of points awarded by three judges.
5. If there is difference in the points awarded by two judges, the points of Chief Judge are also considered.
6. It is the duty of the Chief Judge to make a compromise between the other two judges in case of dispute. If the other Judges do not reach a compromise, the Chief Judge shall declare his verdict.

Question 3.
Write brief Rules of Gymnastics?
General Rules of Gymnastics

1. Each team consists of 6 players. Each player participates in all events. For team championship, the performance of the best five players is taken into account.
2. The substitution of players during the competition is not allowed.
3. The judges of events and teams should reach the ground in time.
4. If a player meets with an accident or falls ill, the captain should immediately call the doctor and get his advice.
5. The game may be stopped for half an hour so that the same player recovers and joins the team. If his condition does not improve, he is removed from the game and the game restarts.
6. Team competitions shall be held in two parts-first for compulsory exercises and second for optional exercises.
7. The duration of these competitions shall be determined beforehand, and the competitions shall be held according to the fixed schedule.
8. Only those players, who have taken part in all events of the team competition, are allowed to participate in the final.
9. Only members of the jury, contestants and their technical managers, secretaries, members of the watch and ward staff looking after the equipment and playground are allowed to be present at the place of competitions.
10. Each player is entitled for two attempts on Long-Horse vault. The best performance shall be credited.
11. Optional or voluntary exercises cannot be repeated on any apparatus.
12. No team can use its own apparatus. It is the duty of the organisers to arrange for the apparatus.
13. The organisers are to arrange for the apparatus,
14. If there is difference in the points awarded by judges, the verdict of the Chief Judge shall be considered.
15. Each player is given two tries (chances) during the competition. If he does not touch vaulting horse or Beam Balance, he is given another chance. But if he touches any of these, a foul is awarded.
16. There can be no substitution of players during the play.

Points to Remember

1. For each gymnastic exercise, there are points for 0 to 10, and each point is further divided into ten parts.
2. The decision of the jury is final. No appeal can be made against it.
3. A team participating in a gymnastic contest is composed of 6 players. The team participating in School Mini National Games is, however, composed of 6 players.
4. Players cannot be substituted after the competition has started.
5. Only those players, who have taken part in all events of team competition, can participate in the final.
6. If a player gets hurt or feels sick during competition, his team can wait for thirty minutes for his condition to improve.
7. If a player leaves the team without the permission of the jury, he will not be allowed to rejoin it.
8. For team championship, the performance of the best five players is considered.

Important Information About the Gymnastics Game

1. Number of players in Gymnastics = 8
2. Substitution is allowed or not = no substitution
3. Decision of the jury = Final
4. Time for waiting of player = 30 minutes
5. A player can whether = no leave the court or not
6. To decide the woman the number of players are wanted = 6 players
7. Points are given = 0 to ten
8. Officials for competition = Three to five
9. Competition for boys =
• Parallel bar
• Vaulting horse
• Ground Gymnastic
• Horizontal Bar
• Roman Ring
• Pommel horse
10. Competition for girls =
• Beam Balance
• Ground Gym
• Uneven Bar
• Vaulting horse

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Gymnastics Game Rules.

Basketball Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
Describe the game of Basketball, its court and Restricted Area?
The game of basketball is played between two teams. Each team consists of 5 players. The number of substitutes is 5-7. Each team aims at throwing the ball into the basket of the opposing team, and the opposing team tries to prevent the other team from securing the goal. The basketball court is 28 metres long and 15 metres broad. Its length and breadth can be decreased by 2 and 5 metres respectively in proportion to the two sides.

The height of the hall is 7 metres, and the light should be uniform. Its floor should be wooden or cemented: It can be made of synthetic rubber. For the competition of FIBA (International Amateur Basketball Federation) the court should be of specified dimensions. The boundary lines of the basketball court shall be marked at every point at least 2 metres away from any obstruction. The breadth of lines shall be 5 cms.

Board:
Backboards should be made of hard wood or of fibre glass. Each board should be 2 cm. thick. A rectangle behind the ring above the board of the dimension of 59 cms. horizontal and 45 cms. vertical is made with 5 cm. broad lines. The boundary of the board is also marked with 5 cm. broad lines. The lower edge of the board from the ground is 2.75 metre high.

The basket is made of white net with iron rings. The length of the net is 40 cm. and the radius of the ring is 45 cms. while its thickness is 20 mm.

Centre Line:
A centre line, parallel to the end lines, shall be marked. It shall divide the court into Front Court and Back Court. This line shall be 15 cm. outside on both sides.

Centre Circle:
A circle with a radius of 1.80 m. shall be marked exactly in the centre of the court. It shall be measured from the outer line of the circle.

Three Points Field Goal Area:
The three points field goal area is marked by two arcs, which is from a radius of 6.25 metres to the outer edges of the centre of the side line. It is directly perpendicular to the centre of the basket. The end lines are parallel to the side lines. The distance between the end line and the lines of the three point field goal area is 1.25 m. The centre point is 1.575 metre from the inside edge of the mid point of the end line. The arc is only upto semi-circle and is thereafter parallel to the side line.

Restricted Area, Free Throw Lines:
Parallel to each end line, a free throw line with its further edge at a distance of 5.80 m. shall be drawn. It shall be 3.60 m. long and its mid-point shall be on the line joining the mid points of the two ends.
The restricted area is formed by the lines from end lines and free-throw lines. Its radius is marked by end lines and free-throw lines. The outer edge of these lines shall be 3 metres from the mid-points of end-lines and finish at the ends of the free throw lines. This line is in the semi-circle with a r idius of 1.80 m. in the court.

The first line is 1.75 m. from the inside edge of the end line. The first lane place shall be limited by a line 85 cm away. Next to it will be neutral zone 30 cm in width. The second lane place shall be 85 cm in width and is close to the neutral zone. The third lane place will be adjacent to the second lane place and shall be 85 cm in width. Each marked portion in the broken semi-circle shall be 35 cm. in length and the gap between two portions shall be 40 cm.

Backboard Size, Material and Position:
Backboards should be made of hard wood or of fibre glass. Each backboard is 3 cm. in thickness. It is 1.80 metre horizontally and 1.20 metre vertically. A 59 × 45 cm. rectangle is made behind the ring on the board. The width of its lines is 5 cm. The upper edge of this line is parallel to the level of the ring. The board is limited by 5 cm. thick lines. The lower edge of the board is 2.75 metre high from the ground. The uprights that support the backboards“shall be at a distance of 1 m. from the outer-edges of the end-lines in the restricted area.

The basket is made of rings and net. It is 40 cm. in length. It is fixed with an iron ring. The rings are 45 cm. in inside diameters. The radius of this orange painted basket is 45 cm. The metal of rings is 20 mm. thick. A net made of white cord suspends from the rings. The rings are made in such a way that when the ball passes through it, they check it momentarily. The length of the net should be 40 cm.

Ball:
The ball is spherical. It is made of leather and has in it a rubber bladder. Its circumference is from 75 to 78 cm. Its weight is from 600 to 650 gms. The rules also now permit the use of used ball. The referee may choose a used ball. The ball should have been so much inflated that when it falls on the ground from a height of 1.80 m. it does not bounce from its upper edge, by not less than 1.20 m. and not more than 1.40 m.

A ball, once selected, cannot be used by any player before the match. A new ball may be used in case a suitable used ball is not available.

Question 2.
What type of technical equipment is used in the game of Basketball?
Technical Equipment

(a) (i) Game Watch
(ii) Time-out Watch

(b) Score-sheet

(c) Marks numbered from 1 to 5 having a minimum size of 20 cm × 10 cm. Marks from 1-4 shall be black while mark 5 is red.

(d) An efficient instrument visible to players and spectators to implement the 30 second rule.

(e) A Score Board, visible to all, having game points (scores) of both the teams written on it.

(f) Scorers shall have two red flags as foul markers of both the teams. The flag will be brought to the side of the team in case of eight fouls during a certain period and will be visible to the players, coach and game officials.

Question 3.
What is the number of officials conducting the game of Basketball?
Officials and their Assistants and their Duties

(i) Referee’s Duties:

1. It is the referee’s duty to look after the whole equipment and to give advice to the players through signs
2. To perform other functions according to rales.
3. To make the scorer fill up the record sheet.
4. To toss in the middle of the game
5. To conduct the whole game under his care. He gives proper decisions to both the teams. His decisions are adhered to by all the players
6. He also adjudicates in case of misunderstanding among players, and conducts the game according to rales
7. If a player plays wrongly, he awards him penalty (8) He signs the score sheet at the end of the play and awards victory or defeat.

Time-Keeper:

(1) His function is to have control over time during the play. Before the start of the game he informs the referee that the game is to begin within three minutes so that he may inform the teams. After the interval he also reminds the referee that two minutes have left in the beginning of the game.

(2) He keeps the whole record from the start to the end of the game. He has to remember as to how long the game could not be played. When the time keeper rings the bell, the referee also blows his whistle to declare that time is over.

Scorer:

1. His duty is to note the scores made by a player in the score sheet.
2. He writes down the names of the all the players on the score sheet before the start of the game.
3. The scorer should know as to how many scores have been made by an individual player.
4. He adds each score made by a player very carefully to his account.
5. He should note all the fouls done by a player on the side of his fouls. When a player makes five fouls, he informs the referee about it so that the player may be expelled from the game.
6. After the end of the play, scorer gets the signature of the referee on the score sheet. Two scores are made if the ball falls from above in the basket. One score is made in case of a free throw.

Player Leaving Court:

No player can leave the court until the interval or until the rules permit without the permission of the game officials.

Captain:

Only the captain can talk to the officials for seeking any information or interpretation of any sort. The right to substitute a player lies with the coach or the captain acting as a coach.

Duration of Play:

The game is played in the four durations of 20 minutes each. There is an interval of 10 minutes for rest between the four durations.

Start of Play:

The referee starts the game. He shall toss the ball for a centre jump between two opponent players in centre circle. The game shall not start until five players of each team have entered the ground. If within five minutes after the starting time, a team does not enter the playground, the opposing team shall get walk over, that is, it is declared winner without playing.

Question 4.
What is the Jump ball in Basketball, what type of fouls can occur during Jump ball?
Jump Ball. At the time of jump ball the two jumpers shall stand with their feet inside the half of the circle beside their respective basket, and one of their feet shall be beyond the centre of the line that is between them. An official shall toss the ball upward in such a way that no player can reach it by jumping and the ball drops between them.

No player shall tap the ball before it reaches its full height. A jumping player can tap the ball only twice. The moment the violation during the jump ball is made, it is penalised with a throw in at the side line. It is mid point for the opponents.

Goal:
A goal is scored when the ball enters the basket from above and is held there or passes through it. Two points are counted when a goal from the field is attempted from within the 3 point line, and one point when a goal is attempted from free throw. A field goal attempted from beyond the 3-point line would count 3 points.

Obstacle during Attack:
When the ball goes downward flight above the basket, no player shall touch or catch it even if an attempt is being made for goal.

Obstacle during Defence:
When an opponent tries for a goal by tossing the ball and the ball is above the level of the basket area and begins its downward flight, then no defender shall try to touch it. In case of violation, the ball shall become dead. If the violation occurs at the time of free throw, the thrower is awarded one point, and if it occurs at the time of attempting a goal, the thrower is awarded two points.

Ball in the Play after the Goal:
Five seconds after a goal has been secured, any player of the opposing team shall put the ball in play from any point out of bounce at the end of the court.

Decision of Play:
A team scoring greater number of points is declared the winner.

Forfeit of Play:
If any team does not enter the playfield after the interval or when the time is due on the call of the referee, the ball shall be brought in the ground and the absent team shall forfeit the game. If during the play the number of players of a‘team comes down to 2, the game shall come to end and that team forfeits the game.

Score and Extra Time:
In case the score is a tie at the end of the second half, five minutes more and such time more will be given till the decision of the game is given. In an extra period, there shall be tos? to select the basket, and thereafter in every extra period the basket shall be changed.

Time-out:
Each team can get two times-out until interval and one time out in one extra period. A time-out of one minute is given in case a player receives an injury. If during this time the injured player does not get well, a substitute is taken.

Question 5.
Describe five second, Eight second, three second and twenty four second rules?
Five second Rule:
If a closely-guarded player blocks the ball from play and does not attempt to throw the ball in the game within five seconds, it is called blocking.

Eight second Rule:
When a team receives the ball in its back court, it has to send the ball into its front court within ten seconds.

Twenty four second Rule:
As per new rule, a new 24 second period does not begin following a throw in from out of line bounds at the side line until:

(a) The ball has gone out of bounds and throw-in is taken by a player from the same team.
(b) The officials have suspended the play to protect an injured player and the throw-in is taken by a player from the team to which the injured player belongs. After 30 seconds the operator will re-start the device from the time it was stopped when team control is again established by the same team after the thrown-in has been made.

Termination of Play:
On receiving the signal of the termination of play by the time keeper, the game shall be terminated.

Substitution of Player:
A substitute player before entering the court shall report to the scorer and shall be ready to play the game immediately. As soon as he gets the signal he shall reach the court. He should not take more than twenty seconds in reaching the court. If he takes more time, it shall be deemed as time-out, and it shall be charged against the opposing team.

The ball is dead when the ball, already in flight, on a shot for a goal, is touched by any player after time has expired for half or extra period or after a foul has.been called.

Three-second Rule:
When the ball is in the control of a team, no player of that team can remain for more than three seconds in the opponent court.

Dribbling:
Dribbling holds an important place in basketball. A player learns half of the game when a player has learnt to have full control over the ball and to dribble the ball. When a player continues to toss the ball into the air, fall it on the ground, and then re-takes it, it is called dribbling. When a player after having taken the ball places his foot on the floor in such a way that he appears to be rotating on a point, it is called pivot foot.

Ball in Play after Foul:
When a ball goes out of play by a foul, this dead ball shall be taken in play by

• a throw-in from out-of-bounds, or
• by a jump-ball at one of the circles, or
• by one or more free throws.

Throw-in:
A ball shall be known to be dead in case of violation of rules, and the opposite team is awarded a throw-in from a close point on side line. The rule now permits a player who is to make the throw-in to touch the end line, and it is no longer a violation now.

Free throw:
A player on whom the foul is made takes a free throw. But in a technical foul any player can take a free throw. When a free throw is attempted, the positions of other players shall be as follows:

1. Two players of the opposing team shall stand near the basket.
2. Other players shall take alternate positions.
3. Other players can take any position provided they do not disturb a free-throw.

Violation of Free-throw Rules:
After the ball has been given to a player for a free throw:

(a) He must throw the ball within five seconds and in such a way that it enters the basket or touches the ring
(b) While the ball is on its way to the basket or is on or within the basket, no player shall touch it.
(c) The thrower shall not touch the floor or across the free throw line. No. player of either team shall touch the free-throw line or create an obstacle for the player taking free throw.

Game to be Forfeited. As per the new rule it is no more necessary for the referee to put the ball in play in a manner as if both the teams were on the floor ready to play and forfeit the game. Now, if after the call for play by the referee a team refuses to play, the team shall forfeit the game.

Ball Return to Back Court. As per the new rule, the ball is sent into team ‘A’s back court provided it is touched by a player of the team A only when team ‘A’ has control of the ball in front court. Accordingly, a touch by player of the team ‘A’, while the ball is in control of the team B in the team A’s front court, if made to go into the team A’s back court, is not considered as caused to go into back court.

Further, during a throw-in from mid-point, the official makes it certain that the player takes his position by having his one foot on either side of the extended centre line.

Violation on Out of Bounds Play:
It is not considered to be a violation when a player, who has been awarded a throw-in, steps on the line while releasing the ball.

Penalty:
(i) If the infringement is made by the free-thrower, no point shall be recorded. The ball shall be given out of bounds on the side line to the opponent.

(ii) In case there is an infringement by a team-mate of the free thrower, the point shall be recorded. If the violation is done by both the teams, no point shall be recorded and the play will be restarted with a jumping ball on the free-throw line.

(iii) In case of the violation of rule (c) by a team-mate of the free thrower and the free-throw is successful, the goal shall be counted ignoring the violation. In case the free-throw is not successful, it shall be penalised.

(iv) In case of the violation of rule (c) by the free thrower’s opponents and the success of the free throw, a goal shall be counted ignoring the violation.

(v) If the rule (c) is violated by both the teams and the free-throw succeeds, the goal shall be counted ignoring the violation. If the free-throw does not succeed, the play shall be resumed by a jump ball on the free- throw line.

Question 6.
How many types of fouls are there in the game of Basketball?
Technical Foul by Player. No player shall ignore the warning given by the official, and behave in a manner which does not behove a good player, for example:

1. Addressing an official in a disrespectful manner, or meeting him.
2. To misbehave,
3. Troubling an opponent or obstructing his vision by waving the hand before his eyes.
4. Obstructing or delaying the game in an improper way.
5. Not raising the arm properly on the signal of a foul.
6. Changing his playing number without reporting to the scorer or referee.
7. Sending the substitute in the court without reporting to the scorer.

Penalty:
Every offence shall be considered a foul and the opponents shall be awarded two free throws for one foul. For repeated offence of this rule, the player shall be disqualified and expelled from the game.

Technical Foul by Coach or Substitute Player:
No coach or a substitute player can enter the court without the permission of the official. He can neither leave his place to follow the action in the court nor address an opponent disrespectfully.

Penalty:
On the violation of this rule by the coach, a four shall be recorded against him. For each offence a free-throw shall be awarded and the ball shall be given to the same team for throw-in on the central line. On the repeated violation of this rule, the coach can be removed from the vicinity of the court.

Personal Foul:
The person who makes a personal foul blocks, attacks, catches or pushes an opponent carrying the ball normally. At such a moment the referee blows his whistle and awards penalty.

Penalty:
If a foul is committed on a player who is in the act of shooting, then

(i) if a goal is scored, it shall be counted, and one free-throw shall be awarded, (ii) if the shot for goal (2 points) does not succeed, two free- throws shall be awarded, and (iii) if the shot for goal (3 point attempt) remains unsuccessful, three free-throws shall be awarded.

Intentional Foul:
It is that personal foul which a player commits intentionally. A player who commits this foul time and again is disqualified and expelled from the play.

Penalty:
An offender shall be charged of personal foul, and two free-throws shall be awarded. If this foul is committed by a player who scores a goal, the goal shall be counted, and an extra free-throw shall be awarded.

Double Foul:
A double foul is committed in such a situation in which two opposing players strike against each other, and both of them are at fault. This foul is recorded against both the players. In case of this foul, the play is resumed from the near circle by a jump ball.

Multiple Foul:
A multiple foul is committed when two or more players of a team commit a personal foul on one opposing player. In case of such a situation, a foul shall be recorded against each offending player, and the player against whom it is committed shall be awarded a free-throw. If the foul has been committed against a player during the act of shooting, the goal, if made, shall be counted and one free-throw shall be awarded.

Five Fouls:
If a player commits five fouls, either personal or technical, he shall be turned out.

Three for two Rule:
When a player is about to score a goal and an opponent commits a foul, if the goal is scored, one more free-throw shall be given. In case no jfoal is scored and if neither of the two free-throw succeeds, an additional free-throw shall be awarded.

Right of Option:
The right of option for a throw-in from mid-point is applicable in respect of one and two throws and three free-throws. Before the option is made, the captain is permitted to have a Brief consultation with the coach.

Four Fouls by a Team:
After a team has committed four player fouls (personal or technical) in a half all subsequent players shall be penalised by two free throws. If a player’s foul includes two or three free-throws.

Jump Ball:
The game is played with jump-ball at the start of the game, after the interval or when double or multiple foul is committed. The referee tosses the ball between the opposing players inside the centre circle. Both the players try to catch the ball by jumping. The game starts with the touch of a player on the ball.

Fouls during Jump Ball:
During jump ball the player commits following types of fouls:

1. Jumping at each other.
2. Touching the line.
3. Touching the ball in flight after it has been tossed by the referee.
4. Elbowing or pushing the opponent during jumping in order to block the opponent’s jump.
5. Blocking the opponent’s jump by placing one’s foot on the opponent’s foot during the process of jumping.
6. Touching the lines of the radius during jumping.
7. Moving of the players from one place to the other while jumping.

Question 7.
Describe the important passes in basketball?

1. Two Hands Chest Pass:
The pass is made quickly by placing the ball in front of the chest with both the hands. This pass is made when the player faces no opponent. It is given to the team mates by holding the ball in both the hands, raising shoulders and arms, bending the body a little and by pressing one foot forcibly. This is a normal practice in the game.

2. Side Arm Pass:
This pass is given to the team-mates by either extending or raising the arm. This way is put into practice when a player wants to give pass to his playmate who is away. This pass can be given when an obstruction occurs during the process of dribbling. Then a player gives pass to another by extending his arm. Some teams are very well- versed in putting the ball jnto the ring from the centre.

This pass is given to the team-mates by raising both the arms. It is considered to be proper when a player is surrounded by many opponents. The player makes the pass by crossing the ball over many heads raising his arm. The opponents have to make very bard efforts to block such a ball given through this type of pass.

4. Ground Pass:
This pass is given when the opposing player is tall, and the ball cannot be crossed over his head. At that time, the pass is given by throwing the ball on the ground.

5. Back Pass:
This pass is given from Back Side. The player moves to by tossing the ball on the hands, and in case there is an obstruction on the way, he gives back pass to his team mate standing behind.

• The length and breadth of court = 28 × 15 m
• Number of players in one team = 12, five players, seven substitutes.
• Radius of central circle = 1.80 meter
• Breadth of lines = 5 c.m.
• Thickness of the board = 3 c.m. c
• Height of the board from floor = 2.90 meter
• Dimension of board = 180 × 120 c.m.
• Circumference of the ball = 75 to 78 c.m.
• Weight of the ball = 600 to 650 gm
• Rectangle size of the board = 49 × 45 c.m.
• Distance of each pole = 2 meter
• Duration of the game = 10-2-10 (10) 10-2-10 from half
• Officials of the match = One table commissioner, One referee, One Umpire, One chief Refree, One time keeper, One scorer and 24 second operator.
• A match of basketball is played between two teams. Each team has 5 players, and 5 or 7 substitutes.
• The basketball court is rectangular. It is 28 metres long and 15 metres broad. The court must be made of wood or cement.
• Each member of the team shall be numbered from 4 to 15 on the front and back of his vest or shirt. The front numbers should be 6″ long and the back numbers 15″.
• The game has four durations of 10-2-10-10, 10-2-10. Until the interval which is of 10 minutes, no player can leave the court without the permission of the concerned official.
• During the play players can be substituted any number of times but their names must appear on the score sheet, and the substitution of player can take place at the throw or watch of the substituted team or at dead ball.
• Two or three free throws are awarded, as per the situation, after a foul which follows 4 fouls in one half of a team.
• A player is expelled from the match after he has done five fouls.
• The weight of the basketball is from 600 to 650 gms. and its circumference is from 75 to 78 cms.
• During the play of a game, a coach can secure a time out (which is of 1 minute) two times for rest.
• The radius of the centre circle of the basketball court is 1.80 m, the thickness of the board is 3 cm, the height of the lower edge of blackboard from the ground is 2.75 m, the height of the ring is 3.05 m and the length of the white net is 40 cms. The breadth of all boundary lines is 5 cms.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Basketball Game Rules.

Athletics Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
Describe the various officials for the athletics competition.
Officials:
The following officials are needed to conduct an athletic event-

• Manager
• Secretary
• Technical Manager

Officials for the Meet:

• Referee for Track Events
• Referee for Field Events
• Referee for Walking Events
• Judge for Track Events
• Judge for Field Events
• Judge for Walking Events
• Umpire
• Time-keeper
• Starter
• Asstt. Starter
• Markman
• Lap Scorer
• Recorder
• Marshal

• Announcer
• Official Surveyor
• Doctor
• Stewards

Question 2.
Mention the Track events for men and women in Athletics competitions.
Track Events for Men:

• 100 Metre Race
• 200 Metre Race
• 400 Metre Race
• 800 Metre Race
• 1500 Metre Race
• 3000 Metre Race
• 5000 Metre Race
• 10000 Metre Race
• 42195 Metre or 26 Mile Race
• 3000 Metre Steeple Chase
• 20.0 Metre Walking
• 30.0 Metre Walking
• 50.0 Metre Walking

Track Events for Women :

• 100 Metre Race
• 200 Metre Race
• 400 Metre Race
• 800 Metre Race
• 1500 Metre Race

Hurdle Races for Men :

• 110 Metre Hurdle Race
• 200 Metre Hurdle Race
• 400 Metre Hurdle Race

Hurdle Races for Women :

• 100 Metre Hurdle Race
• 200 Metre Hurdle Race

Relay Races for Men :

• 4 x 100 Metre
• 4 x 200 Metre
• 4 x 400 Metre
• 4 x 800 Metre
• 4 x 1500 Metre

Relay Races for Women:

• 4 x 100 Metre
• 4 x 200 Metre
• 4 x 400 Metre

MEDLEY RELAY RACE :
800 X 200 x 200 x 400

Question 3.
What are the general rules of Race?
Rules of Track Events:
The rules of track events for the athletes are as follows-

1. Athletes should wear such clean clothes as are not subject to any objection.

2. Athletes can participate in a game with foot on feet. The footwear should be such as provides no additional help to the players in the game.

3. A player who causes an obstruction for other players or obstructs the progress of any player may be disqualified.

4. Each athlete should bear marks distinctly on his chest and back.

5. In lane races, a player shall have to confine himself to his lane from the beginning to the end of a play.

6. If a player knowingly runs out of his lane, he is disqualified. If, in the opinion of the referee, he has not done it knowingly, the referee may or may not disqualify him.

7. A player leaving his track of his own will is not allowed to continue his race.

8. If track and field events start simultaneously, a judge may allow an athlete to take part in a different way.

9. A point is scored against an athlete who makes an unnecessary delay in field events, and he is not permitted to take part in the trial. If he persists in it, he shall not be permitted to participate in one more trial, but his first performance shall be reckoned

10. The athletes are forbidden to use or even keep with them intoxicants and other such drugs. An athlete who makes use of such drugs may be disqualified.

11. In 800 metre race, the starter shall say in his own language: “On your marks”…. “set”, and the pistol shot is fired and the athletes start the race. For races above 800 metres only these words shall be uttered: “On our marks”, and when the players are ready, the pistol shot shall be fired.

12. An athlete should not touch the ground in front or start line with his hands or feet when he is in the position of “on your marks”.

13. If an athlete crosses the start line before the pistol shot, his start shall be a foul all athletic are given a warning for it. If any body does it twice he may be disqualified.

14. The position of the players is decided on the finish line. A player touching the finish line first with any part of his body is considered to have reached across first.

15. In hurdle race, are player may be disqualified if he obstructs other competitors by extending his hand and feet, covers the hurdle of the other player’s lane, and if, in the opinion of the referee, fells that hurdle knowingly.

16. A player cannot be disqualified if the hurdles fall due to other reasons than rules mentioned above.

17. he referee can order for replay of the race in case a player has obstructed another player.

18. If the number of participants in throw events is excessive, the referee fixes qualifying marks, and six chances are given in the end.

19. If a racer continues to throw hurdles not with his hands but with his feets, he cannot be disqualified.

20. An athlete is barred from participating in the race if he takes start fouls twice

Question 4.
In how many categories can we divide Athletics?
There are long jump, high jump, triple jump and pole vault in field events for men. For women, there are long jump and high jump. In throwing events for men, there are shot put, javelin throw and hammer throw. Only hammer throw is not meant for women.

Decathlon for men:
In Decathlon there are ten events which the athlete has to complete in two days.
First day events:

• 100 metre Race
• Long Jump
• Shot-put
• High Jump
• 400 metre race

Second day events:

• 110 metre Hurdle
• Discus throw
• Pole vault
• Jevelin throw
• 1500 metre Race

Hepatathelon for women:
In Hepathelon there are seven events which the Athlete has to complete in two days.
First day events:

• 100 metre hurdle
• Long Jump
• Short-put

Second day events:

• 200 metre Race
• Jevelin throw
• 800 metre race

Question 5.
Draw a diagram of 200 metre Track and 400 metre Track.
Track for 200 metres:
The length of this track is 94 metre while the breadth is 53 metre-

• Total running distance = 200 metres
• Length of sides = 40 metres
• Space covered by the sides = 40 x 2 = 80 metres
• Space covered by the corners = 120 metres
• Track for 400 metres:
• Minimum dimensions = 17.40 x 90.40 metres
• Total running distance = 400 metres
• Straight length = 80 metres
• Distance of both sides = 160 metres
• Distance of curves = 240 metres
• Diameter = 38.18 metres
• Radius of the running distance = 38.18 metres
• Marking radius = 37.88 metres

Question 6.
What do you mean by sprints?

You can obtain creditable achievements by sprinting under the ; conditions of the competition, and by developing strength and stamina. through heavy hurdles instead of focusing attention on the method of running. The basic aspects of a race include the pace and length of steps in addition to the starting technique. Many players learn to acquire efficiency in sprinting at high speed. Don’t waste much time in the training of running outside the blocks.

• Developing Speed: Run a sprint 10 yards off the rolling start, and record the time. You can run a number of sprints.
• Leg-action: Clear a track of 70 yards. Coming out of 15 yard rolling start, run a sprint on the cleared track. Mark the footsteps. You will see that the length of footsteps after having increased comes 4 to definite length.
• The length of footsteps and the speed of legs are co-related. These are determined chiefly by the length of legs, flexibility and strength of hips. You can hope to increase to some extent, to an important extent, the length of your steps, if you increase through training the flexibility and strength of hips and keep a steady pace in the lane.

The following methods may be useful :
(i) Movements of Arms:
The movements of arms in sprinting is essential to keep the body in action. It is a common practice with the racers to move the arms backward and forward of their bodies by moving these briskly at 90° ahead. While bringing the arm back, it should be straightened and then bent at the angle of the wrist. But it develops naturally in co-ordination between pace of legs and time.

(ii) The Start:
The movement of front foot is seen in figures 3 and 4, and it is an important aspect of efficient start. Keeping the blocks depends upon the length of your arms and legs, and to a certain extent upon your strength. Keep the blocks in such a way that the front block is 18 inches behind the line, and the rear about 36 inches away from the line. Continue practising with these distances till you develop good rate for your body and strength.

Bend your body, in the condition shown in figure 2, to such an extent that most of the weight falls on arms and the hips raised be above the shoulders. Now remember that the front knee forms an angle of 90°. In this condition, the face of the front block is at 60°, and of the rear block perpendicular. Raise the shoulders as much as possible. Increase the extra length of arms by straightening each hand.

(iii) Training:
You can acquire efficiency in sprinting by getting training in increasing the speed of your running at full speed on the track. You can prepare a daily routine in accordance with the example given ahead :
Form a rolling start of 6 x 70 yards with the rest intervals of 1 x 180 yards. When you are used to it, repeat it after the rest of 5 minutes. When you are perfectly normal, repeat this schedule thrice. By following it, you can increase the load of the work by steadily decreasing the rest intervals. When you practice in a group with an efficient starter, and the use of the pistol shot, the training for the start of sprint becomes very important.

Some useful practice should be done in the presence of the critics. Of course, each sprinter should be ready to make his start under possible good conditions. Set a standard for your training. Don’t feel satisfied with a little achievement. The training of heavy hurdles is essential for the whole body of a sprinter, particularly for his arms, shoulders and legs. Two practice sessions of at least 40 minutes each per week are essential for it.

Question 7.
How many events are there in track events? After how many fouls after the wrong start can an athlete be dismissed?

Track Events of Races-Short, Middle and Long:
(I) Sprinting.
Sprint is that race which is run at full speed and with full strength. It includes 100 and 200 metre races. Even 400 metre race has come to be included in it now-a-days. In these races, reaction time and speed hold much importance.
(i) Start-
Generally, three types of start are taken in sprints:

• Bunch Start
• Medium Start
• Elongated Start

1. Bunch Start:
For this kind of start the distance between blocks should be 8 to 10 inches. The next block should be 19 inches away from the starting line. The sprinter bends in the block in forward direction so that the toes of his back foot and the heel of the forward foot are in the same line. The hand should form a bridge on the starting line and behind the line. In this start, as soon as the set position is declared, the hips are brought upward. This start is the most unstable.

2. Medium Start:
In the medium start the distance between blocks is from 10 to 13 inches. The distance between the first block and the starting line is about 15 inches. The athletes often make use of this start. In this start, the knee of the lagging leg and the central part of the leading leg are in the same fine. At the set position, hips and shoulders are at the same height.

3. Elongated Start:
The athletes rarely make use of this start. In this type of start, the distance between blocks is 25 to 28 inches. The knee of the lagging leg is in the line with the heel of the leading leg.
Start:
The three types of orders have to be adhered to while taking the start for a race-

• Set position
• Go, with the pistol shot

Finish of the Race:
The finish of the race also holds much importance. Generally, athletes finish the race in the following three ways-

• Run through
• Lunging
• The shoulders string

(II) Middle-distance Races:
Track events include a few middle distance races. The races more than 400 yards and less than 1000 yards fall in this category. They are generally 400 and 800 metre races. These races require both speed and endurance. The athlete possessing both these qualities succeed in such competitions. In the beginning of such a race, uniform speed is maintained and full energy is used to win towards the end of the race. Start for 400 metre race is taken like a sprint start, whereas, the start for 800 metre race can be taken only in standing position. As far as possible, big strides should be taken in this race.

(III) Long-distance Races:
Long-distance races, as the name implies, involve greater distance, and often cover a distance of over a mile. 1500, 3000 and 5000 metre races are long distance races. In these, races, the endurance of the player plays an important role. The player has to utilize his energy and stamina in a planned way. The athletes who become well-versed in this art become successful in long distance races. In long distance races, except at the beginning, an athlete keeps his body straight and little bent in the forward direction, with head straight and eyes towards the track.

Arms are loosely lifted in the forward direction and bent at elbows and hands without tensions.The actions of the arms and legs should be as far as possible without much effort forward. While running, the forward foot should touch the ground. Even the heel touches the ground. More push is, however, taken through the toes. In these races, strides should be short and uniform. The body should remain relaxed during the race.

Question 8.
How many types are there of Hurdle races? Describe briefly.
100-Metre Hurdle Race:
The number of hurdles, height and distance for various competition-

Generally, athletes taking part in hurdle race take 8 strides to reach the first hurdle. While sitting on the starting block, the take off foot is kept in front. If the hurdler has more height and can run faster, the distance in his case can be short. In such a case he will run by keeping his stronger foot on the backward block. This will come two metres behind the hurdle.

For 3 to 5 strides the hurdler should look towards ground and after that he should concentrate on the hurdles. The difference between strides will go on increasing. The last stride, however, will be 6 inches (10 cm.) shorter than the jump. While running a hurdle race, the knee of the runner will be a bit higher than in the ordinary race. Only toes and not the whole foot should touch the ground.

While jumping over the hurdles the athlete should keep the jumping foot straight while elevating the leading foot above the knee. Toes of the foot should be bent towards the ground, and leading foot should be straightened and brought above the hurdle. The upper part of the body should be bent forward just after crossing the hurdle. The forward thigh should be pressed down so that the toes remain beside the hurdle after it has been crossed.

At the same time lagging leg, bending at the knee should be kept parallel to the ground, and the knee should be brought near the chest. In this way, when the foot crosses the hurdle, the runner will run faster. After having crossed the hurdle, the first stride should fall at a distance of 1.55 to 1.60 metres, the second stride at 2.10 metres, and the third stride at 2.00 metres (12 m., 13.72 m., 9.14 m., 14.20 m.)

In 400-metre hurdle race the most difficult problem a hurdler faces, is to synchronise his strides, that is, to set coordination among strides. The runners generally take 21 to 23 strides to cover the distance upto the first hurdle and take 13 to 15 or 17 strides between the hurdles. Some runners take 14 and then 16 strides for covering this distance. Jumping by right foot may prove to be more beneficial.

The jump is taken from 2 metres and the first stride on the ground, after crossing the hurdle, is of 1.20 metres. The technique is the same as that of 110 m. or 100 m. hurdle races. The time of 400 metre hurdle races is more than that of 400 metre race, by 2.5 to 3.5 seconds.

Question 9.
How  6 many events are there in field events?
LONG JUMP:

• Length of Runway
• Length of Pit
• Length of take of Board
• Breadth of take of Board

Method of Long Jump:
To strengthen the jumping foot, the same method will be followed in long jump as is followed in high jump. First of all, the jumping foot is kept forward and the other foot behind it. The right foot is taken upward with a bend at the knee, and at the same time the right arm will be bent at the elbow. The method will be the same as is that of fast runners. This action will be performed first in the standing position, and then by walking four to five steps. When this action improves, it should be repeated to running while running a bit.

This time while going upward, the ground should not be touched:
(1) Running 6-7 steps, coming forward and jumping from the height, the athlete shall touch the ground. Repeating this action for some time, he will bring the jumping foot alongwith the other foot on the ground while landing on the ground.
(2) After the athletes have done the above action many times, a handkerchief shall be tied with the pole at more than the jumping height. The athletes shall be asked to jump and touch the handkerchief. By doing this, they will learn to jump and keep the upper part of the body straight.

METHOD OF LANDING:
The athletes shall’stand on the edge of the pit with both the feet in line and swing their arms backward and forward. They will bow at the knees and carry both arms behind. Afterwards, they shall bend their knees a bit more, take arms forward and then upward, and then shall jump intathe pit. As the athlete goes up into the air, he will bring the free foot behind and downward so that it may join the jumping foot.

The jumping foot shall remain with the knees, and the upper part of the body shall be straight. When the athlete goes up, both of his knees will be bent and in line with the thighs. Both arms will be on the head sides and upward. The body shall be bent back, and as the athlete is just going to jump in the pit he will carry the free leg forward, bending at the knee, his belly downward, and will try to rest his straightened leg in the air.

METHOD OF HITCH KICK:

• After jumping, split in the air, feet forward and backward, the athlete shall bend on free foot, but his upper part of the body and head will be straight and will not go backward.
• Now the athlete will keep the free foot in the air and land with jumping foot taken forward.
• The other methods shall be the same as told above, except that at the time of landing free foot will be brought with the take-off foot and both feet will land together. All other methods shall be the same as described in the hang. The athletes should go on increasing the approach rim.
• After having repeated the above actions, this should be done with the help of spring boards such as gymnasts do. In the absence of spring boards this can be done from a height so that the athletes may have good practice of right action in the air.

TRIPLE JUMP:

Approach Run:

• Length of Runway = 40 m to 45 metre
• Breadth of Runway = 1.22 metre
• Length of Pit = From take board to Pit = 21 metre
• Breadth of Pit = 2.75 to 3 metre
• Length of take of Board = 11 to 13 m
• Length of take of Board = 1.22 m.
• Breadth of take of Board = 20 c.m.

As in the long jump, approach run will be used in triple jump, too, but the speed shall be neither very fast nor very slow. Length of the Approach Run. An approach run of 18 to 22 or 40 to 45 steps is used in the triple jump. It depends upon the speed of the runner. Slow speed runner will take long approach and fast speed runner will take short approach. The athletes shall run by keeping both feet together and maintain a uniform running speed.

The upper part of the body shall remain erect. While taking of, the knee will be bent less as compared to the one in the long jump. While taking off and hop step, the weight of the body will be on the back and both the arms shall also be at the back. The second leg coming fast in the air will form a split position.
Three techniques are chiefly in vogue in triple jump-

• Flat Technique
• Steep Technique
• Mixec Technique

HIGH JUMP:

• Length of Runway = 15 to 25 m
• Each side of triangle Cross Bar = 30 M.M.
• Length of Cross Bar = 3.98 to 4.02 m
• Weight of Cross Bar = 2 Kg
• Length of Pit =5 m
• Breadth of Pit = 4 m
• Height of Pit = 60 cm

1. All the trainees shall be asked to first jump on their both legs: After they have got some practice, they will be asked to jump on one leg. It should be kept in mind that while jumping, the upper part of the body should be kept straight. All the trainees should be divided on the basis of the taking off foot with which they feel comfortable :

• Jumpers on left foot
• Jumpers on right foot

2. The trainees shall keep their take-off foot forward and the other foot behind:
They will bring both arms bent at the elbow forward and then upward with speed. At the same time they will kick the other foot upward, and after jumping in the air, will come back on the ground on the same foot. At this time the knee of the take off foot will be slightly bent. The upper part of the body will be straight, and will rise up ahead and will come back at the same place. While going upward, the jumper should try to keep the waist and the forward foot in straight position.

3. Standing at an angle of 45°, the right foot jumpers on the right side and the left foot jumpers on the left side, moving forward, shall jump over the cross bar kept at a height of 2 feet, and come back on the ground on the same take off foot. The only difference will be that instead of falling on their places they will cross the bar, and the other foot, as they fall, will come 10 to 12 inches forward of the first and will move ahead.

4. The height of the cross bar will be increased: The athletes will be asked to elongate the take off foot while taking off. The heel should come on the ground first. Both the arms should be bent at the elbows. While jumping, the athletes should concentrate on the cross bar, with the head leaning behind and the toes of the foot upward and straight.

Points to be remembered:
The following points should be kept in mind-

• Both the arms will be taken upward quickly.
• The take off foot will leave the ground only when free leg reaches its full height.
• The above activity will also be done while jogging.

5. Crossbar. Keeping the crossbar 2 feet (60 cm.) high, the players shall jump over the crossbar as explained in 3, and then will rotate 90° in the air while coming in the pit. Hie players taking off by left foot will turn towards the left, and the players taking off by right foot, towards the right.
The following two points shall be borne in mind:

• The players should not rotate while taking off.
• They should not rotate before reaching maximum height.

6. The athlete will stand keeping taking off foot forward but he will keep in mind that the weight of the body should be on the heel, and that they will kick upward with kick upward with free leg so that the whole body gets lifted up the ground.

7. A parallel line shall be marked on the ground. The athletes shall do the above mentioned action while standing on the right of this line. Reaching up in the air, the athlete will rotate the take-off foot towards the left, keeping his face down and lift the back foot up with a kick. In this, it shall be kept in mind that free leg is kicked straight. The take off leg will be kicked straight and will be taken up by bending it on the knee. The athletes can do it in the pit after jumping over the crossbar, because by taking fast kick, his balance may go off.

8. Jumping from three steps. Parallel to the crossbar, a line shall be drawn at a distance of 1 to 2 feet (45 to 60 cm.). The athlete will stand with both his feet at an angle of 30° with this line. Putting forward his take off foot, he will run with medium speed. The position of the third foot will be marked. Keeping both the feet on this position, the athlete will advance towards the crossbar and repeat the above mentioned activity. The height of the crossbar will go on increasing according to the convenience of the player.

POLE VAULT:

• Length of Runway = 40 to 45 m
• Breadth of Runway = 1.22 m
• Landing Area = 5 x 5 m
• Length of Cross Bar = 4.48 x 4.52 m
• Size of one side of triangle Cross Bar = 30 M.M.
• Weight of Cross Bar = 2.25 Kg
• Height of Landing area = 61 to 91 cm
• Length of vaulting Box = 1.08 m
• Breadth of the Box from = 60 cm

Runway side:
In athletics pole vault is a very complex event. No other event while taking off in the pit needs so many activities as this event does. Therefore, it is difficult to learn and teach this event.

Selection of Athletes for Pole Vault:
An all-rounder alone can become a good pole vaulter as this is an event which maintains the stamina of the bodies in all ways such as speed, strength, endurance and co-ordination. A pole vaulter needs to be a good gymnast so that he may perform all activities at a time.

Holding and carrying the Pole:
Generally a pole is held in the left hand keeping the palm towards the ground. The right hand is placed beside the hip on the back and at the end of the pole. While holding the pole the left arm forms an angle of 100° with the elbow. The pole is held keeping the wrist straight and away from the body. With the right hand, the pole is pressed downward between the thumb and the first finger. Both the elbows form an angle of 100°. The distance between the two hands is from 24 inches (60 cm.) to 36 inches (80 cm.). This distance depends upon the body structure of the athlete and his comfort while running with the pole.

Running with the pole:

• Walking with the pole kept overhead. It takes more time to carry the pole into the box. Therefore, it is not a very suitable method.
• Walking with the pole kept at the level of head. Most of the pole vaulters in the world follow this method. While walking, the 1 pole is kept the level of head and in the line with the left shoulder. From right to left. In it, shoulders and arms remain in normal position.
• Walking with the pole kept below the head. It exerts more pressure on arms which tires the body as one approaches the box. A very few athletes use it into practice.

Approach-run:
A pole-vaulter becomes self-confident when he starts getting correct approach run. The further action can be thought of later on. The best method for this is to make the athlete run with the pole for a distance of over 150 feet (50 metre) along a marked line (with the lime) on the ground.

By doing this action for some days the athlete’s foot will .touch the ground at the required position. Measure this distance with the tape and then work on the runway of the pole vault. The approach run has also to be increased or decreased alongwith the feet. There should be only one check mark in the approach run of the pole vault. If there are more marks, then the athlete instead of thinking about his style continues to think about the marks. The length of the approach run should be 40 to 45 metres. The athlete should be faster during his last 4 or 5 strides.

Pole Plant:
It is not possible to plant the pole with full speed. The speed has to be limited for doing it. The pole planting should be fast in case of steel pole and slow in case of a fibre glass pole. While planting steel pole the athlete should count “1 and 2”. On 1 he will take off his left foot and the knee of the right foot will lift upward. On 2 his body will start swinging. At this point the pole vaulter should leave his right leg free so that it may meet the left one. It facilitates better swinging.

Take off:
While taking off, the right knee should come forward. In this the body is lifted and the chest is pulled towards the pole. While leaving the ground, the hand and the arm are straightened. During the swing the right leg lifts upward.

Note:
While poling the athletes lift their hips first while their legs should come upwards and the hips should be kept down. The pole vaulter should keep in mind that he should remain with the pole until it becomes straight. While leaving the pole, he should free the downward hand first. It has been observed that many fresh pole vaulters take their back above the cross bar. It happens as a result of freeing the upper hand first.

Question 10.
Discuss the throw events in Athletes and mention their respective Rules.

 Men Women 1. Weight of Shot-put 7.260 kg. ± 5 gm. 4 kg. ± 5 gm. 2. Agnle of Throwing sector 34.92° 34.92° 3. Radius of circle 2.135 m ± 5 M.M. – 4. Length of stop board 1.21 to 1.23 M.M. – 5. Bredth of stop board 112 to 300 M.M. – 6. Height of stop board 98 to 102 M.M. – 7. Curcumference of shot-put 110 to 130 M.M. 95 to 110. M.M.

1. Initial Position:
The thrower will stand with his back towards the direction of throw. The weight of the body will be. on right foot. While bringing upper part of the body down, the right heel will be lifted and the left leg bent at the knee will go up to meet immediately the right foot. Both the feet will be inclined and the toes bent forward.

2. Glide:
Now the right foot will be straightened, and will come back with the heel of the right foot. The left foot will be kicked fast towards stop board. In sitting position the hips will be falling downwards. The right foot will be lifted up from the ground and will be kept towards the left with bent toes. At the same time the left foot will touch the ground on the right of the stop board. Now the toes of both the feet will be brought on the ground. Both the shoulders will be bent backward. The whole weight of the body will be on the right foot.
3. Final Phase:
The toes and the knee of the right foot will be rotated together towards the left and both the feet will be straightened. The whole weight of the body will be on both “the feet. The left shoulder will open forward. The right shoulder will lift up and rotate. The belly will be bent in the shape of a bow.

4. Putting/Throwing the Shot:
The right shoulder and right arm will go forward towards the shot. The left shoulder will go on advancing. The whole weight of the body will be on the left foot which will be completely straight. As the shot is thrown with right hand, the position of both the feet will change. The left foot will come backward and the right foot forward. Now the body weight will rest on the right foot. Both the upper part of the body and the right foot will remain bent forward.

Throwing the Shot by Rotating or Like a Discus:
1. Initial Position:
At the start the athlete will stand with his back towards the direction of throw. The left foot will be on the center line and the right foot on the right side. The right foot will be placed at 5 to 8 centimetres away from the rim so as to avoid foul while rotating. The shot will be near the lower part of the neck and the elbow will be lifted upward. Before starting, the shoulder, belly, left arm and the shot, all will turn towards the left and then towards the right. While doing so both the knees will remain bent.

2. Rotation:
The body weight will rest on both feet. After taking one swing in the upword direction, the rotation will start. While rotating the upper part of the body, the body weight will shift on the left foot. In this position, the left arm is kept on the left and parallel to the ground, and while shifting the weight on the left toes the athlete will rotate with both knees bent. On the right toes also he will rotate through 90°. The right foot, bent at the knee, will be brought above the left foot.

While rotating on the left foot, on the completion of circle, both feet will be in the air, and the wrist will be rotated. The left foot will be on the toes of the right foot. The position of the toes of the right foot will be the same as the hand of the clock at 2 o’ clock. The foot of Mr. Bahadur Singh remains in the position of 10 o’clock. He rotates his waist even in the air. In the 2 o’clock position the left foot will come on the toes with some delay, but the upper part is kept in the centre. In the position of 10 o’clock the left foot comes fast on the ground, and there is always a possibility that the upper part of the body comes up very soon.

We shall keep the following points in mind :

• At the start, walk with maintaining the balance, and keep the left foot down.
• The complete glide will be taken with right foot. The jump will not be taken, and the upper part of the body will not be lifted.
• The right foot will be bent inward while coming in the centre.
• The left shoulder and the hip will not be lifted in haste.
• The left arm should be kept near the body.
• The left foot will touch the ground neither very fast nor very slowly.

General Rules:
1. In men’s group, the weight of the shot is 7.26 kg. while in women’s group it is 4.00 kg. In men’s group, the diameter of the shot is 110-130 cm. whereas in women’s group it is 95 to 110 cm.

2. The shot is thrown from a circle of 2.135 m. diameter. The inner part will be cemented and 25 mm. lower than the field. The stop board will be 1.22 mm. long, 114 mm. wide, and 100 mm. high.

3. The shot, hammer or the discus will be a sector of 40° angle. From centre a 20 m. line will be marked. On this line a point will be taken at 18.84 m. Two more points at a distance of 6.84 m. on both sides of this point will be taken, and the two lines drawn from these two points shall make an angle of 40°. While throwing the shot the body should be kept in balance. At the fall of the shot on the ground the athletes shall come from behind the 75 cm. lines dividing the field into two parts. Now the shot will be taken in hand. It will remain near the neck and not behind shoulder. It will be considered a foul if the sector lines are touched. If there are eight competitors, 6 chances will be provided to each. If there is a tie, the number of chances may be 9.

Initial Stance of Discus Throw:

• Weight of Discus = 2 kg for men and 1 kg for women
• Radius of circle = 2.5 metre ± 5 M.M.
• Angle of throwing sector = 34.922
• Circumference of outside = 219 to 2.21 M.M.
• For men 180 of Discus to 182 M.M. for women.

The athlete will stand near the ring and in the circle with his back in the direction of throw. He will take one or two swings, with right arm arid trunk. While doing so, the body weight will shift from one foot to the other, as a result of which heels will be lifted up. When the discus and the upper part of the body are both on the right, the round will start. The round of throw shall start from the lower part, the left leg will be inclined towards the left, the weight of the body will also rest on this foot. The right foot, waist and belly will also rotate, and it will bring along with it the right arm and discus.

It is in this way that the shot activity will start. First of all, the left foot will leave the ground. After this it will advance in the direction of discus throw. The right leg, bent at knee, will advance from left to right in a semi-circle. While rotating both will be ahead of the shoulder. It will cause a bend between the upper and the lower parts of the body. The right arm holding the discus will be straight. The left arm bent at the elbow will face the chest. The head with straight. Placing the right foot a bit above the ground, the thrower will cross the circle and will come on the ground at the toes of the right foot. This foot will come almost in the centre. The toes will be bent towards the left.

Methods:
In main, there are three methods in it:
1. At the start, the trainees keep their right foot at the centre line and the left foot 10 cm. behind the ring.

2. In the second method, the player keeps the centre line between both of their feet.
3. In the third method, the throwers keep their left leg on the centre line. Thus, the players place their feet within the circle in three ways, in the position of 3 o’ clock, in the position of 10 o’ clock and in the position of 12 o’clock. The last position (of 12 o’ clock) is considered i to be the best as it requires less rotation on the right foot and the left shoulder need not be opened. The right foot even after coming on the ground will continue to rotate and the toes of the left foot will touch the ground on left side of the centre line and the end of the circle.
Last Step:
At this time, in the last step, both the feet will be on the ground and the waist will be bent at the back, the left foot will be straight and the right foot bent at the back, the left foot will be straight and the right foot bent at the knee. The right knee and the hip will be in the rotating position in the left. The left arm will be opened upward and the right arm will also be brought upward keeping it away from the body.

Throwing:
Both the feet going ahead in rotation will be straight. Hips will go forward, and shoulders and trunk will have finished rotation. Left arm and shoulder will stop at a position. Right arm and shoulder will advance forward. The body weight will be on the toes and both the feet will be straight. In the end, left foot will come backward and right foot will advance and will bend at the knee. The upper part of the body will be bent forward. This is done to maintain the balance of the body.

General rules:
In men’s group, the weight of the discus is 2 kg. whereas in women’s group it is 1 kg. The diameter of the circle is 2.50 m. These days an iron cage is fitted outside the discus to avoid anybody being hurt or injured with the discus. It is in the shape of the English letter C. Its height is 3.35 m.

Question 11.
Write down about the Javelin throw.
Javelin throw:
Javelin is placed near the ear at the level of head with the arm bent at the elbow. Both javelin and the elbow will face forward. The palm of the hand will be upward and parallel to the ground. The total length will be 30-35 m. The athlete shall run straight in the 3/4 th run. In the last, l/3rd part cross steps will be taken equal to five strides. In the last phase when the left foot will touch the check mark, the right shoulder will start leaving towards right and the right arm will start coming at the back. The distance between steps will start increasing.

The right hand and the shoulder will come behind and will open on the right. The waist and the upper part of the body will bend backward. A bend will be formed between upper and lower parts because the upper part will open on the right and the lower part will advance straight ahead. The eyes will remain looking ahead. In the end, the right foot will come in the end of the cross step on the ground. As the knee advances, the heel of the right foot will start lifting up. In this way, it helps the left foot in going to a long distance.

Last Phase:
In the the right foot and straightening it all shall bend the upper body in the backward direction like a bow, and will create tension in the muscles of chest and stomach.

JAVELIN THROW:

• Weight of Javelin = 800 g for men and 600 gm, for women
• Length of Runway = 30 to 36.50 m
• Breadth of Runway =4 m
• Length of Javelin = 200 to 270 cm for men. 220 to 230 cm for women
• Angle of throwing
sector of Javelin       = 28.95

After throwing the javelin, to maintain balance of the body and to avoid foul, the thrower will bring a change in steps. The right leg will come forward and bend at the knee, and the toes will bend on the left. The upper part of the body will bend on the right and keep balance. The right foot can advance forward, too.

GENERAL RULES:

• For men the length of javelin is 260 to 2.70 m., and for women, it is 2.20 to 2.30 m.
• For throwing javelin we need a path which is 30.5 to 36.50 m. long and 4 m. wide. On the front side there will be a 70 mm. iron arc white in colour and projected 75 cm. on both sides. It can be made of white lime. This line can be drawn 8 m from the centre.
• The sector for the javelin is of 29°. It is marked wherever the curve meets. For correct angle at 40 m., the distance between two lines will be 20 m. and at 60 m. it will be 30 m.
• The javelin will be thrown by holding it from the central grip. The front end of the javelin should touch the ground. Touching of any part of the body with 50 cm. wide lines or 70 cm. wide line will be deemed as a foul.
• The javelin shall remain in the direction of throw from start to finish. The javelin will not be thrown by rotating. It will be thrown from above the shoulders.

Question 12.
What do you know about Relay Races?
RELAY RACES:
Men:

• 4 x 100 metre
• 4 x 200 metre
• 4 X 400 metre
• 4 x 800 metre

Women:

• 4 x 100 metre
• 4 x 400 metre

MEDLEY RELAY RACE:
800 x 200 x 200 x 400 metre

Baton:
In all medley relay races the baton has to be carried. Baton should be of a hollow tube and its length should not exceed 30 cm. Its circumference should be 12 cm. and weight should be 50 gm.

Relay Race Track:
The relay race track should be divided or marked by small paths for full circle. If it is not possible, then the baton exchange path should be through narrow paths.

Start of Relay Race:
At the start of the race any part of the baton can cross the initial line, but the baton is not to touch the ground above:
Taking the Baton:
An area is also fixed for taking the baton. This area is marked by drawing a line 10 m. long on both sides of the fixed race distance line. Thus, a type of room is formed for giving and receiving the baton. In relay races up to 4 x 200 metre all the other members of the team excepting the first runner begin to run from outside the fixed area but from a distance less than 10 metre.

Exchange of Baton:
The exchange of baton should take place within the fixed area. Pushing or providing any type of help is forbidden. The runner cannot throw baton to each other. If the baton falls, it will be picked up only by the one who has fallen it.

HURDLE RACES:

High Jump Score Sheet:

Score Sheet (For Height):

Score Sheet (For Distance):

Score Sheet (Races):

•  No player having taken intoxicating drugs can participate in athletic competition.
• An athlete who causes an obstruction in the play of the other athlete is disqualified. An athlete who leaves the track of his own will, cannot continue his race again.
• There are two types of events in field events such as jumping and throw events. The events which are run in track are known track events.
• The length and breadth of 200 metre track are 40 and 38.15 metres respectively, while for 400 metre track these are 176.36 and 90.40 metres respectively.
• The weight of the javelin for boys is 800 gms. and for girls, from 605 to 625 gms. The weight of the discus for boys is 2 kg.
• The height of 110 metre hurdles for boys is 1.06 metres and for junior boys, the height of 100 metre hurdles is 0.75 metre. For senior girls this height shall be 0.89 metre.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Athletics Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Punjab Style Kabaddi Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
Discuss about the circle style Kabaddi, Ground, Duration of the game, Dress of the Players, The official of the Kabaddi game.
Playground:
The Punjab Style Kabaddi is also known as Circle Kabaddi. Its playground is circular, and the radius of the circle is 75 feet. The radius can be from 65′ (50 m) to 15′(10 m.) The centre line divides it into two equal parts. There is a gate of 20 feet in the middle of the centre-line. On both the ends of the gate two soil mounds are built. They are called palas.

The diameter of each pala is 6 inches. The palas are 1 foot high from the ground where they are placed. On both the ends of the centre line, the D-area is marked by a 20 feet long line. It is 15 feet from palas towards the sides. Through a quarter circle it touches the centre-line, and the palas are in the middle of it.

Duration of Play:
The game is played in two durations of 20 minutes each, and there is an interval of 5 minutes for rest in between the two durations.

Teams:
The game is played between two teams. Each team has ten players and two substitutes. When a player becomes incapable of play he is replaced by a substitute. Each team should have 8 players till the end of the game. If the number of players is less than ten, the opposing team is also allowed to have the same number of players (which is less than ten).

Dress of the Players:
Players shall wear loin-clothes. They can play on bare foot or by wearing tennis shoes with thin soles. The player cannot play by wearing a ring or other such things.

Officials:
There are following officials to conduct this game-

• One Referee
• One Umpire
• Two Scorers
• One Time Keeper.

Question 2.
Discuss the rules of Punjab Style Kabaddi.
General Rules:

• The raiders on their turns shall go to the court of the opponents sounding the cant of ‘Kabaddi’. They shall continue sounding the cant within one and the same breath till they return.
• The raider shall touch at least the boundary line of the opponent’s court. If he even does not do so, the umpire can ask him for the second raid. If he fails to touch the boundary line even then, the opposing team is awarded one point.
• No player can have two successive raids. Each player has to raid at least once in each half of the circle.
• When a player is returning after having touched his anti, he cannot be pursued until he has crossed the essential line of his side
• If a raider touches any of his opponents and returns to his court, his side gets 1 point.
• If a player of the defending team causes an obstruction, the raiding team is at once awarded one point.
• During the time of touching and holding between a raider and the player of the opposing team, all the rest of the players are considered temporarily out until a point is scored.
• If a raider goes out of the boundary line, the anti-team shall get 1 point. If both the players cross the boundary line, neither side is awarded a point. The point is considered to be common in such a case.
• A hold or an attack which may put a player’s life in danger is forbidden.
• Applying oil on the body or increasing nails of hands and feet are forbidden.
• Coaching of any type from the outside is forbidden.
• If a raider touches his opponent or the opponent touches the raider, then both pursue each other till the sounding of the cant. No other player can hold the raider.
• No one can hold a player by hair.
• The opponent cannot prevent a raider from sounding the cant by shutting his mouth.
• Improper or indecent words cannot be used during the play.
• No player can go out for drinking water until the game ends.
• The players can use soil on their hands.
• The umpire can ask each of those players who have not taken their turns to sound the cant and raid.
• The leg-scissors cannot be used on a raider without first being held.
• No player can slap any other person.

• Shape of Kabaddi Playground = Circular
• Radius of Circle = 65’to 75′(50 to 70 m)
• Distance of Gate in Centre Line = 20′(6.10 m)
• Marking of Gate = Two soil mounds are built
• The diameter of each pole = 6″ ( 15 cm)
• Duration of play = 20-20 Minutes
• Time of Interval = 5 Minutes
• Playing Members of a team = 14 Players,6 Substitutes
• Officials of the match = Two Umpires, One-Referee, one scorer, one time keeper.
• The game is played between two teams. Each team consists of 14 players and 6 substitutes.
• In case a player is injured during the play, he is replaced by a substitute.
• A player can participate in this game on bare foot.
• No player can wear an iron bangle (‘Karra’), ring etc. during the play.
• No player can have two successive raids.
• A hold or attack which may endanger the life of a player is forbidden. Coaching to the players from outside the playfield is forbidden.
• The opposing player cannot prevent a player from sounding the cant of ‘Kabaddi-Kabaddi’ by shutting his mouth.
• No player can take part in the game after having applied oil on his body.
• If a raider loses the cant on the way, the referee asks for the cant again.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Punjab Style Kabaddi Game Rules.

Marching Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
What is marching?
Marching:
1. Attention:
It is very important position. The ankle of the feet should be in line, making the 30° angle should be straight along with body, chest should be normal. Both the arms are attached with side of the body and finger should be little close.

2. The neck should be straight by looking ahead the body. Weight should be on both feet and respiration should be normal.

Stand at Ease:
Stand at ease position move left foot toward, left side at the distance 12″. The weight of the body should be on both legs and drag both the hands behind. His body and right hand would be under the left hand. The thumb of right hand should be under left hand. At ease position, both the hand should be stretched keeping the finger stretched.

Right Dress:
On the command of right dress, all students move ahead with right foot and get the position at the distance of 15″, but a student standing at right will remain standing, student in a first row raise right hand, left shoulders and move towards left. The fingers load others, students would stand to his right hand and other would follow, they would keep at the distance of 30″.

Left Dress: On getting command left dress, all movement will be followed by left hand.

Left Turn:
In this exercise, student will stand in attention position and counting two. On counting one, student will turn left side at the 90° and on left toe and right finger will raise upward after this exercise. On counting two, will raise a foot 6″ and meet with other foot.

Right Turn:
This exercise is performed on counting two as it is done on left turn. In the same way right ankle or left foot is done.

On command of about turn, student will turn back from the right side at the degree of 180°, while taking turn left, foot will be raise and turn on right foot. The body weight should be parallel on both feet on counting two, student will turn left foot and will remain in attention position.

Quick March:
On command quick march, student will take left foot ahead. This foot will drag near the earth keeping knee straight, in this same way, right foot will be followed. The finger of hand will close, this exercise is performed after taking right foot ahead and repeat again and again. The hand position with be contrast to it. This exercise will be continue on counting one and two.

Halt:
The command of halt is given, when right foot is the cross to the left foot. As command is given to students, as soon as will touch the left foot to the earth. Right leg will come to the parallel, and they will stand. Their both hands will be together and student will remain in attention position.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Marching Game Rules.

PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Practical Questions and Answers

Hockey

Question 1.
How does the game of hockey start?
The game of hockey starts when a player passes over the ball under certain rules to another player of his side from the centre line.

Question 2.
How many players are there in a hockey team?
There are 16 players in the game of hockey. Eleven of these players play the game while 5 players are substitutes.

Question 3.
How many players in the game of hockey can be replaced?
Five players can be replaced in this game.

Question 4.
How much time is fixed for this game and how much extra time is given in case of a draw?
The time allowed in the game of hockey is 35-5-35.

Golden Goal Rule:
If both the teams remain equal during the allotted time the extra time given is 7 $$\frac{1}{2}$$, 7 $$\frac{1}{2}$$ minutes . As soon as the goal is scored during this time the game ends. The team scoring the goal is declared the winner. Even then if a goal is not scored both the teams are given 5, 5, penalty strokes up to the time the match is decided.

Question 5.
Tell the length and breadth of hockey ground?
The length of a hockey ground is 100 yards 91.25 m and its breadth is 60.55m yards.

Question 6.
Tell the weight and diameter of a hockey ball?
The weight of a hockey ball is 5 $$\frac{1}{2}$$ ounce and its diameter is 9 $$\frac{1}{2}$$ inches.

Question 7.
Tell about the number of people involved in the administration of a hockey game?
Following administrators help to organise a hockey match:

1. Referee – 1
2. Empire – 2
3. Linemen – 2

Question 8.
Give the positions of the players in a hockey game?
There are 11 players in a hockey game:

1. Goal keeper.
2. Right full back.
3. Left full back.
4. Right half back.
5. Centre halfback.
6. Left half back.
7. Right-out forward.
8. Right-in forward.
9. Centre forward.
10. Left in forward.
11. Left out forward.

Question 9.
Tell the length and height of the goal post?
A goal post is 4 yards in length and 7 feet in height

Question 10.
What is the length and height of a goal board?
Goal board is 4 yards long and not higher than 18 inches.

Question 11.
What is the weight of a hockey-stick?
The weight of a hockey stick for men is 28 ounce and 23 ounce for women.

Question 12.
What type of uniform should be there for a hockey player?
The uniform for a hockey player includes a shirt, a nicker, socks, shoes. A goal-keeper needs pads and gloves also.

Question 13.
What is the striking diameter for the game of hockey?
In front of each goal-post there is a white line which is 4 yards, 3.66 m long and 3 inches wide. It is drawn parallel to the goal post at a distance of 16 yards. It goes to the diameter of the breadth of the 3 inch line. Its centre will be the goal post. The striking diameter is the outer corners of the 16 yard line and the centre of the goal line including the lines.

Question 14.
Tell the distance of the penalty stroke?
Penalty stroke is hit from a distance of 8 yards from the goal post.

Question 15.
Is there stick in the game of hockey?
Now a days there is no stick in the game of hockey. Even if the hockey is raised above the shoulder it is not treated as a foul provided the hit is not dangerous.

Football

Question 1.
Tell the length and breadth of a football ground?
The length of a football ground should not be more than 130 yards and less than 100 yards. Its breadth should not be more than 100 yards and less than 50 yards.

Question 2.
How many players are there in a football game also tell their position in the game?
In a football game there are 16 players out of which 11 play the game and 5 are the substitutes.
Position. Goal keeper = 1, Full-back = 2, Half = 3, Forward = 5.

Question 3.
Tell the time for a football game?
The time for a football game is 45-5-45 minutes.

Question 4.
What is the weight of a football and what is its diameter?
The weight of a football is from 14 ounce to 16 ounce arid its diameter is 27 to 28 inches.

Question 5.
Tell the breadth of the lines of a football ground?
All the lines of a football ground are 5 centimetre wide.

Question 6.
What is the weight of air in a football?
The weight of air in a football is 0.6007 or 9.01505 pound per square inch.

Question 7.
How does the game of football start?
The game of football starts with a pass of ball.

Question 8.
Tell the length and height of the goal posts?
The goal posts are 8 yards in length and 8 feet in breadth.

Question 9.
Tell the distance of a penalty kick?
Penalty kick takes place from a distance of 16 yards.

Question 10.
When does a goal take place?
When the ball crosses the line in between the goal posts the goal takes place.

Question 11.
At what distance should the players of the opposite team stand when the jkick takes place?
This distance should be 10 yards.

Question 12.
What is throw-in?
When the ball goes out of the ground and the player of the opposite team throws the ball in from that very placg it is called throw-in.

Question 13.
How many flags are put in a football game?
Six flags are fixed in a football game. Four of them are fixed at the corners of the ground and two are fixed at the end of the centre line at a distance of one yard each.

Question 14.
Tell four fouls in a football game?
Following are the four main fouls in a football game:

1. To hit the player of the opposite team.
2. To touch the ball with hands.
3. To push a player.
4. To attack the opposite player from behind.

Question 15.
Give the number of the administrators in the football game?
Referee = 1, Goal Judge = 2, Lineman = 2.

Question 16.
Can there be a penalty corner foul outside the D also?
Penalty corner can be awarded outside the D also if the attacking player is stopped in a dangerous way.

Question 17.
When is the penalty-stroke awarded?
When the players of the defending team deliberately catch the ball or keep it under foot the penalty stroke is given.

Volleyball

Question 1.
How many players are there in a volleyball game?
There are 12 players in a volleyball game out of which six are the players and six are the substitutes.

Question 2.
How many players in a volleyball game can be substituted?
Six players can be substituted. All the six players can be substituted.

Question 3.
Tell the length and breadth of a volleyball court?
A volleyball court is 18 metres long and 9 metres wide.

Question 4.
Tell the length and width of a volleyball net?
The length of a volleyball net is 9 metre and its breadth is one metre.

Question 5.
Tell the height of a volleyball net?
The height of a volleyball net for boys is 2.43 metres and for girls it is 2.24 metres.

Question 6.
What is the weight of air in a volleyball?
The weight of air in a volleyball should be 0.48 kg to 0.52 Kg.

Question 7.
How does the rotation take place in a volleyball game?
In a volleyball game six players play from each side. Three out of them are in front of the attacking line and three are behind it. The first one takes the service. At the time of service 4, 3, 2 are before the attack line and 5, 6, 1 are behind them.

Question 8.
What is the position of players in a volleyball game?
Following is the position of the players in a volleyball game:
4 3 2
5 6 1

Question 9.
Give the number of the administrators in a volleyball game?
1. Referee = 1, 2,
Umpires = 1, 3
Linemen = 2.

Question 10.
How is a match decided in a volleyball game?
The team that wins two sets out of the three sets is declared the winner. Five sets take place in national and international games. The team that wins three out of five is declared the winner.

Question 11.
For how many times the time-out can be availed in a volleyball game and what is the time span of a time out?
Two time-out can be availed in one set. The time out is for 30 seconds only.

Question 12.
Give five main fouls in a volleyball game?
Following are the five main fouls in a volleyball game:

1. To catch the ball when the game is going on.
2. To touch the centre-line.
3. To touch the line while taking the service.
4. To touch the ball for more than three times.
5. When the player touches the ball twice continuously.

Question 13.
What is the score fixed for a volleyball game?
There are 15 points in a volleyball game. If both the teams score 14-14 points each it is obligatory for the game to be played upto 16-14, 17-15, 19-17.

Question 14.
Is a rope put at the lower side of the net?
No rope is put at the lower side of the net.

Question 15.
Can the opposite team block a service?
If the ball comes just near the net, the opposite team can block the service.

kho-kho

Question 1.
How many players are there in a Kho-Kho game?
There are twelve players in a Kho-Kho game out of which 9 are the players and three are the substitutes.

Question 2.
Tell the length and breadth of a Kho-Kho ground?
A Kho-Kho ground is 29 metres in length and 16 metres in breadth.

Question 3.
Who is called a chaser and who is a runner in a Kho- Kho game?
The players who sit are called the chasers and those who run are called the runners.

Question 4.
How many innings are there in a Kho-Kho match?
There are two innings in a Kho-Kho match.

Question 5.
What is the time for a Kho-Kho match?
The time for a Kho-Kho match is 9-5-9,10 rest, 9, 5,9 minutes second innings.

Question 6.
How does the match start?
Toss takes place before the beginning of the match. The team that wins the toss decides to become chaser or runner.

Question 7.
How many points are scored when a runner gets out?
One point is scored when a runner gets out.

Question 8.
How is the match decided?
The team that scores more points is declared the winner.

Question 9.
How many squares are there in a Kho-Kho game and what is their size?
There are 8 squares measuring 30 c.m. x 30 c.m in a Kho- Kho game.

Question 10.
Is there a playing lobby in Kho-Kho? Tell its breadth?
There is a playing-lobby in Kho-Kho and its breadth is 3 metres.

Question 11.
Tell the length and diameter of a Kho-Kho pole?
The length of Kho-Kho pole is 1.22 metres and its diameter in 20 cm.

Question 12.
What is the distance between the Kho-Kho poles?
The distance between the Kho-Kho poles is 24.40 metres.

Question 13.
What is the total number of the administrators of a Kho-Kho game?
Two umpires, One referee, One time keeper, One scorer.

Question 14.
When is a player considered ‘out’ in Kho-Kho?
When the chaser touches the runner or the runner goes out of the ground he is considered to be ‘out’.

Question 15.
Name five main fouls in Kho-Kho?
The main fouls are given below:

I. To get up before getting the ‘Kho’.
II. To cut the centre line.
III. To turn without touching the pole.
IV. The wrong running by the chaser.
V. The runner goes out of the ground on his own.

Question 16.
What is the situation of a draw in Kho-Kho?
If both the teams score equal points another innings is played and another innings is played if the match is yet undecided. If the match remains undecided the whole match is played again.

Question 1.
The length of Kabaddi ground is 12.50 metres and Breadth 10 metres. For junior boys and girls length and breadth is 11 and 8 metres respectively.

Question 2.
Mention the number of players in Kabaddi?
There are twelve players in Kabaddi game. Out of them seven players actually play and five are substitutes.

Question 3.
What is the time duration of the game of Kabaddi?
The duration of Kabaddi game is 20-5-20 and for junior boys and girls is 15-5-15.

Question 4.
How many scores does Lona have?
Lona has two extra points.

Question 5.
When is a player considered to be out?
A player who goes out of the boundary during the play shall be considered ‘out’. If an opponent goes out of the boundry and catches the raider, the raider shall not be considered ‘out’ but all the players catching shall be ‘out’.

Question 6.
How many time-outs can be taken in Kabaddi?
Two time-outs can be taken in Kabaddi. The duration of each time out is of 30 seconds.

Question 7.
How is the game of Kabaddi Match decided?
Any team which gets more points shall be winner. In case of draw 5 extra minutes will be given until the match is decided.

Question 8.
Mention the number of officials conducting the game of Kabaddi?

1. One referee
2. Two umpires
3. Two lines-men
4. One scorer.

Question 9.
Describe the main fouls in the Kabaddi game?

1. To hold the raider with help of leg-scissors.
2. Outside coaching is not allowed,
3. To catch by hair intentionally is foul.
4. To try to stifle a raider by shutting his mouth or throttling him.
5. Using violent tackling by one player against the other.

Question 10.
Mention the new amendment in the game of Kabaddi?
In the game of kabaddi one metre Bonus line is added from the bonus line.

Question 11.
What do you understand by a Bonus for raider?
When a raider comes after having crossed bonus line he gets one point.

Question 1.
What is the total number of players in Badminton?
There are two types of Badminton game. Singles and Doubles. In singles there are two players out of them one plays the game and one is a substitute. In doubles there are three players out of them two play and one is a substitute.

Question 2.
Badminton is of two types, Singles and Doubles, For singles the length and beadth is 44′ × 17′. For doubles the length and breadth is 44′ × 20′.

Question 3.
How does the game of badminton start?
The two teams shall toss before the play starts. The toss winning team shall have the option of:
(I) Serving First
(II) Choosing Sides.

Question 4.
How many points does the game of Badminton have?
Men’s doubles and singles games consist of 7.

Question 5.
In how many parts the Badminton court can be divided?
We can divide Badminton court into two parts. Right court and left court.

Question 6.
Mention the length and breadth of the side gallery of the Badmintion Court?
The side and back gallery shall be of 2$$\frac{1}{2}$$, and 1$$\frac{1}{2}$$, respectively.

Question 7.
Mention the weight of the shuttle?
The weight of the shuttle is from 73 to 85 grams.

Question 8.
Discuss the main rules of the doubles game of Badminton?
Doubles:
In the game, there are two players on each side. After having been decided which side is to deliver the service first, the player in the right hand service court of that side shall start the game. He shall serve to the opposing player in the right service court. This matter is decided by the toss winners, and the other matters by the losing one. It is decided before hand whether the game shall have 15 points or 21.

If the opponent returns the shuttle before it touches the ground to the player who started the game, he shall again return it to the latter. In this way, the play shall continue until the foul is made or the shuttle falls down on the ground. In case the service is not returned or the foul is made by the opposing side, the player doing the service shall score one point.

The members of the team delivering the service shall change their service court. Now the player doing the service shall be in the left hand service court and shall serve to the player of the opposing team in the left hand service court. In the beginning of each game, each team shall deliver the service from the right hand service court.

Question 9.
Write the main rules of the single game of Badminton?
Singles:
All the above-mentioned rules shall be applicable to singles games but

(i) the player serves from, and receives service in his respective right hand service court. When the player who serves is at 0 or there is an even number of points in the game, the service is always deliverd from the right hand service court. In case of odd numbers, the service is delivered from the left hand service court.

(ii) Both the players change service courts after each has scored 1 point.

(iii) The ladies single game consists of 11 points. When the score is 9-all, the player who first reaches 9 can set the game to 3 points. In case of the score is 10-all, the game is set to 2 points.

Question 10.
Describe the main Faults of the game of Badminton?
Faults:
In case a fault is committed by a player of the playing side, the player who delivers the service shall be “out”. If the fault is committed by an opponent, the playing side gets one point. It shall be considered a fault:

(a) When the struck or served shuttle is higher than the server’s waist or it is struck by the shaft of the racket higher than the server’s hand holding the racket.

(b) When in serving, the shuttle falls into the wrong service court or falls short of the short service line or beyond the long service line or outside the side boundary line.

(c) When serving, the player’s feet are not in the service court.

(d) When before or during service any player intentionally obstructs his opponents.

(e) When in service, the shuttle falls outside the boundary of the court, passes through under the net, fails to pass the net, or touches the person or dress of a player.

(f) If the shuttle is struck before it crosses the striker side of the net.

(g) When the shuttle is in play, a player touches the net or its supports with his body, racket or dress.

(h) When the shuttle is held on the racket, a player strikes it twice in succession or it is struck twice in succession by the player first and then by his partner.

(i) The opponent shall be reckoned as ready if in play he returns the shuttle or tries to hit it, whether he is in or outside the boundary.

(j) When a player obstructs an opponent.

Wrestling – Free Style And Greeco Roman

Question 1.
Mention the duration of the Wrestling?
The duration of Wrestling is 5 minutes.

Question 2.
Describe the length and breadth of the Wrestling Mat?
The size of the Wrestling Mat should be 9 × 9 metres. The size of the mat of Olympic and World Championship is 9 × 9 metres.

Question 3.
How many times can a referee warns a wrestler?
If any referee warns a wrestler, thrice wrestler will be considered the loser.

Question 4.
How is the score made in Wrestling?
Score
(a) One point,

• To a player who throws a rival on the mat and maintains control over him,
• to that player who rises from beneath and maintains his hold on his opponent,
• to a player who makes a good grasp and does not allow his opponent’s head and shoulder to touch the mat,
• for one precaution the opponent gets one point.

(b) Two Points,

• to that player who keeps good hold on his opponent and maintains his hold on him for some time,
• to that player whose opponent immediately falls or falteringly falls.

(c) Three Points,

• to a player who keeps his opponent in danger (when shoulders make an angle of less than 90° from the mat) for five seconds,
• bridge position for three seconds or fall takes five seconds.

Question 5.
How is the victory or defeat decided in Wrestling?
When there is a difference of one point in the score of the opposite players, the bout ends in a draw. Again, if Tio contestant scores any point, or the points are equal, the match ends iii a draw. If the difference is of more than one point, a player with more points is declared the winner.

Question 6.
Describe the officials who conduct the Wrestling?
There are three officials in all types of Wrestling bouts:

1. Mat chairman
2. Referee
3. Judge.

No official can be changed during the bout.

Question 7.
Discuss the main rules of weighing of the competitors?

1. Weighing of competitors shall begin two to four hours before the Wrestling competition begins.
2. The competitors shall be weighed without clothes. They shall be medically examined by a doctor before they are weighed. The doctor will remove any player suffering from any contagious disease.
3. Each contestant can participate in Wrestling with a player belonging to his weight-group.
4. The competitors should be in a prefect physical condition. Their nails should be well pared. They shall be checked at the time of medical examination.
5. Weighing shall start at beast two hours before the competition and must conclude an hour before the first wrestling bout.

Question 8.
Mention the foul holds in Wrestling?
Foul-holds:
The following fouls are taken into consideration:

1. Pulling of hair, ears, dress, private organs etc.
2. Twisting of fingers, grasping of the throat and other holds which may be life-endangering.
3. Holding in such a’ manner as may put the opponents’s life in danger, or may hurt any of his body part, or cause him pain so that the opponent helplessly leaves the bout.
4. Treading on the feet of the rival.
5. Touching the face of the opponent (from the eye-brows to the chin)
6. Grasping the opponent by throat.
7. Lifting the rival when he is in bridge position, and then throwing him on the mat.
8. Breaking the bridge by giving a push from the head.
9. Twisting the opponent’s arm at above 90° angle.
10. Grasping the opponent’s head with both hands.
11. Thrusting the elbow or knee into the abdomen or stomach of the rival.
12. Turning the opponent’s arm to the back and pressing it.
13. Grasping the opponent’s head in any manner.
14. Applying leg-scissors on the body or head.
15. Holding on to the mat.
16. Talking to each other and making dangerous assault.

Gymnastics

Question 1.
What type of implements are required for Gymnastics?
We need the following implements:

For Men and Boys

1. Parallel Bar (compulsory and optional)
2. Vaulting Horse compulsory and optional
3. Ground Gymnastic compulsory and optional
4. Horizontal Bar optional and compulsory.

For Women and Girls

1. Beam Balance compulsory and optional
2. Ground Gymnastic compulsory and optional
3. Vaulting Horse optional.

Question 2.
How many players take part in Gymnastics?
There are eight players in Gymnastics, out of the six players participate in competition and two are substitutes.

Question 3.
How are points awarded in Gymnastics?
For each gymnastic exercise, there are points from 0 to 10, and each point is sub-divided into 10 parts. If the panel of the judges is of five members, the minimum and maximum points are not considered, and an average of mid three points is taken. If the panel is composed of three judges, the marks of three are taken for average.

Question 4.
Is the decision of the Jury final?
The decision of the Jury is final. Participants cannot protest against their decision.

Question 5.
If a contestant in Gymnastics is ill, for how long can he be awaited for?
If any contestant in Gymnastics falls ill, officials have to wait for him for thirty minutes.

Question 6.
How many players can be taken for team championship?
For team championship six best Gymnasts shall be considered.

Swimming

Question 1.
How many types of swimming competitions are there?
Following types of swimming competition are held:

For Boys:

1. Free style – 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500 m.
2. Back Stroke – 100, 200 m.
3. Breast Stroke – 100, 200 m.
4. Butterfly Stroke – 100 m.
5. Relay – 4 × 100 metre free style.
6. 4 × 100 metre Medley (Breast, Back, Butterfly, Free Style)

For Girls :

1. Free Style – 100, 200 and 400 m.
2. Back Stroke – 100 m.
3. Breast Stroke – 100 m.
4. Butterfly Stroke – 100 m.
5. Relay – 4 × 100 metre free style.
6. 4 × 100 metre Medley (Breast, Back Stroke)

Question 2.
How Heats and Finals in swimming competitions are organised?
Heats and Finals in Swimming Competitions:
Seeding of Heats and Finals. The heats in all semi-finals and final swimming competitions shall be seeded as follows:

(1) Trial Hit

(1) The name, the order of time and the competitive time of all entrants are recorded on the admission form which is, then, sent to the competition committee. The competitor who does not get his or her time recorded in the form is listed at the bottom of the list. If there are more than one such competitors, their positions are decided by lots.

(2) The fastest swimmer or team is placed in the last heat, the next to him/it is placed in the last but one heat, and so on. In this way, all the swimmers or teams are fixed in various heats.

(3) When the lanes are in odd numbers, the fastest swimmers or team is placed in the central lane ; in case there are 6 or 5 lanes, the fastest swimmer or team is placed in third or fourth lane. The next to him/it in speed is placed to the right of the fastest swimmer/ team, and in this way, the other swimmers/teams are placed right or left according to their timing. The lane-position for the swimmers with equal timing is decided by lots.

(ii) Finals:
The lanes are determined in accordance with the above – mentioned rule 3 where the starting heats are not required. Where the starting heats have already been over, the lanes are determined according to Rule No. 3.

Question 3.
Mention the officials appointed to conduct swimming competitions?
Officials for Olympic and International Swimming Competitions and other Swimming Competitions:

1. Referee-1
2. Starter-1
3. Chief Time Keeper-1
4. Time Keppers-3 per lane
5. Chief Judge-1
6. Finishing Judges-3 per lane
7. Inspectors of Turns-1
8. Announcer-1 each at both ends
9. Judges of Strokes-2
10. Recorder-1
11. Clerk of the House-1

For other competitions, the following minimum officials shall be as under:

1. Referee-1
2. Starter-1
3. Time Keepers-1 per lane
4. Finishing Judges-1 per lane
5. Inspectors of Turns and strokes-1 per every two lanes
6. Recorder-1

Question 4.
What precautions should we take in swimming?
We must take following precautions in swimming:

1. We should come out from the water when the water enters our nose or mouth.
2. Inhale yourself according to your capacity.
3. When learning how to swim, do not go in deep water.
4. Shout at the time of drowning.
5. Don’t make noise while swimming.

Question 5.
How the points are awarded in swimming competition?
The points are awarded by the following method. First, Second and Third position holders get 5-3-1 points respectively and in Relay races 16-6-2 points are awarded to first, second and third position holders.

Question 6.
Mention the main rules of swimming?
Rules For Swimming:

1. The swimmer who obstructs any other swimmer during the swim shall be disqualified.
2. If a foul endangers the chance of success of a swimmer, the judges shall have the right to allow him to compete in the next round. If a foul occurs in the finals, the referee can allow him to swim again.
3. On return a competitor shall touch the end of the pool or end of the track with one or both hands. Diving from the bottom of the pool is not allowed.
4. A swimmer who stands on the both shall not be declared disqualified, but he shall not move.
5. Only the swimmer who covers the entire course shall be declared the winner.
6. In relay race, the competitor whose feet have lost touch with the starting block before his or her partner, going ahead of him or her touches.

Question 1.
How many players take part in a Basket-Ball Game?
There are twelve players in a Basket-ball game. Out of which 5 are taking part and seven are the substitutes.

Question 2.
Basket-Ball court is 28 metres in length and 15 metres in breadth.

Question 3.
What is the duration of a Basket-Ball Game? How you will decide the match in case of draw?
The duration of the Basket-ball game is 10-2-10-10-10-2-10. At the time when match ended in draw extra 5-2-5 minutes are given, in case again it remains draw, extra 5-5 minutes are given without rest, after five minutes sides of basket-ball court are changed. This duration will be given till the match is decided.

Question 4.
How the Basket-Ball match is decided?
The Basket-Ball match is decided in the way either team gets more points will be considered winner.

Question 5.
How many fouls are there in Basket-Ball Game?
There are five fouls in Basket-Ball game. For examples:

1. Personal foul.
2. Technical foul.
3. Double foul.
4. Multiple foul.
5. Intentional foul.

Question 6.
After committing, how many fouls a player can be debarred from further play?
When a player has committed five fouls, he is not allowed to play further.

Question 7.
How many time-outs are there in Basket-Ball game? Mention the duration of these time-outs?
In Basket-Ball game two time-outs are there before interval for each team and two after the interval each team can take. The duration of time outs is one minute.

Question 8.
How many players can be substituted in game of Basket-Ball? How much time is consumed?
In Basket-Ball game at any time, players can be substituted on the condition that the substituting team has a side throw and duration of the substitution is twenty seconds.

Question 9.
What is the weight of Basket-Ball? Also tell its diameter?
The weight of Basket-ball is from 600 to 650 grams and its diameter from 75 to 78 cm.

Question 10.
What is the distance of poles outside from the Basket-Ball ground?
The distance of pole from the end line of the court is one metre.

Question 11.
When the basket is made directly a player gets two points. If it is made from free throw then there is one point. If the basket is made outside the shooting area, then there will be three points.

Question 12.
What is foul rule?
If any team commits seven fouls in any half, the opponents get two free throws after each foul.

Question 13.
What is Eight Second rule?
According to eight second rule a team is allowed only eight seconds to bring the ball in front court (opponent’s court). The same team cannot come back from front court.

Question 14.
What is three seconds rule?
When a player stays more than three seconds in opponent restricted area, three seconds is given and opponents are awarded a throw in.

Question 15.
What do you understand about twenty six seconds rule?
When a team has the control of the ball, and don’t try for score within 26 seconds then twenty six second rule is applied and opponents are awarded a throw-in. This opportunity seldom comes in the game.

Question 16.
How many officials are there to officiate the Basket-Ball game?
There are following officials in a Basket-Ball game:

1. Referee – 1
2. Umpire – 1
3. Scorer – 1
4. Time Kepper – 1
5. 30 Second Operators – 1

Question 17.
What is the length of Basket-Ball net?
The length of the Basket-Ball net is 40 cm.

Athletics

Question 1.
In how many categories can we divide Athletics?
We can divide athletics into two categories:

1. Track events – It includes all races.
2. Field events – It includes all jumps and throws.

Question 2.
In how many events can Athletics be divided?

1. Races: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10,000 metre Races.
2. 4 × 100, 4 × 400 metre relay races.
3. Throws: Discus throw, Hammer throw, Shot put, Javelin Throw.
4. Jumps: High Jump, Long Jump, Tripple Jump, Pole Vault.

Question 3.
What do you mean by sprints?
Sprints are those races in which sprinters run at full speed for a short distances. These are 100, 200, 400, 4 × 100, 4 × 400 metre; relay races.

Question 4.
What are the middle distance races?
Middle distance races are those races in which sprinters can run fast and are able to maintain their speed to cover the distance. These races are 800, 1500 metre.

Question 5.
What are the Relay Races?
Relay Races are Team Races in which each team member runs an equal distance. In short relay races sprinters run at full speed as in sprint races. A team consists of four members and a baton is exchanged during races.

Question 6.
What are the main rules of Races?
The main rules of the races are as under:
1. Sprints run in 4′ lanes so that there is no hindrance for each athlete.

2. Lanes are decided by lots.

3. On hearing ‘On your Mark’ from the starter the sprinter take their place behind the starting line at ‘On Set’ sprinters get ready and after the pistol is fired, the sprinters start running. If any sprinter take his start before the gun is fired, the starter cancels that start and the concerned sprinter is warned. If he repeats the samemistake, he is debarred from taking part in the race.

Question 7.
What are the different rules of throws?
Rules of the throws:

1. Shot put, Discus and Hammer are thrown from the circle.
2. Before or after the throw no part of the body of the thrower should not touch the ground outside the circle.
3. After the throw, thrower should come out from the half back of the circle ; coming out from the front part of the circle is considered a foul.
4. All the throws will be valid if they fall within the restricted area.
5. If the participants are more than eight, they will get tnree chances each. Those athletes who are ahead in throws are selected and again given three chances. An athlete who covers the maximum distance is declared a winner.
6. In throw events once we take the implements inside the circle, we cannot throw it again at the back.
7. In Shot put, Hammer and Discus throws, it is necessary that these should fall within 40 degree lines of the circle.
8. Every throw is measured from the nearest point of landing considering a straight line from the outside of the circle.
9. Fingers are not valid for measuring the distance.
10. Thrower cannot leave his circle while his throw has touched the floor.

Question 8.
How are the points awarded selecting the champion in the races?
In races points are awarded as under :

1. First Position = 5
2. Second Position = 3
3. Third Position = 1

If there are Relay Races then the points are awarded as follows:

1. First Position = 10
2. Second Position = 6
3. Third Position = 2

Question 9.
What are the degrees of angles in Shotput, Discus and Hammer throw?
In Shotput, Discus and Hammer throw the degree of circle is 40°.

Question 10.
What is the breadth of lane of 100, 200, 400 metre races?
The breadth of lane in these races is 1.25 metre or 4′.1″.

Question 11.
What is a standard track?
That Track is known as standard track which consists of Eight lanes, but in general six lane tracks are also used.

Question 12.
How is the start taken?
The starts is taken as under

Gun or Pistol Fire.

Question 13.
How many races are included in track events?
100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10,000 metre races are included in track events.

Question 14.
Which are the tips that the athletes running 100,200 and 400 metre races should keep in mind?
The following are some important tips that such athletes should keep in mind:

1. They should breathe normally.
2. When ordered to get set, they should hold their breath and should start running when they hear the gun shot.
3. They must not stop on sit after they finish their race.
4. They should be conscious about their position, so that they can run the first a few steps in a straight line.
5. To be confident about the start, they must practise a couple of starts slowly before the event.
6. Each time before they take the start, they must run for 30 or 40 metres.
7. They must practise at least 10 starts everyday.

Question 15.
How many ‘foul starts’ lead to the disqualification of the athlete for the race?
Two foul starts in races and 3 such starts in tholon and decatholon make an athlete ineligible to take part in that event.

Question 16.
Describe the rules for the athletes of track events?
The following tare the rules for the athletes of track events:

1. They should wear a clear outfit which does not hinder or obstract their movement.
2. They can run either wearing spikes or base footed.
3. An athlete is disqualified if he obstructs a fellow athlete or hinders his progress.
4. Every athlete wears his number clearly at the back and the front.
5. The athlete must stick to their allotted lanes throughout the race.
6. If an athlete delibrately leaves his lane, he is disqualified.
7. The jugdes can accommodate a player appropriately if both track and field events start simultaneously.
8. The athletes must not use banned drugs and intoxicants. If any athlete is found using such a substance, he is disqualified.
9. The start of 800 metres race is announced in native language “On Your Mark” and the whistle is blown to start the race.
10. The athlete shouldn’t touch the ground or the starting-line when “On Your Mark” has been announced.
11. An athlete, who makes two foul starts, is disqualified from the race.
12. The winner of a race is decided at the ‘finishing line’. The athlete, who touches the line first by any part of his body, is declared the winner.
13. If in a hurdles race the referee thinks that a particular athlete delibrately throws a hurdle down by his hand or foot he can duly disqualify that athlete.
14. If there are a large number of athletes in a ‘throw’ event, the referee sets a qualifying mark and gives six chances to each athlete.

Question 17.
Which are the different hurdles races? Describe briefly?
The following are the hurdles races:

1. 110 Metres hurdles
2. 200 Metres hurdles
3. 400 Metres hurdles.

1. The 110 Metres Hurdles:
There are ten hurdles in this race. The first hurdle is placed at 10.72 metres and the rest are placed at a distance of 9.14 metres except the last one which is placed at a distance of 14.02 metres. The height of the hurdles for boys is 1.06 metres which it is 89 cms. in 100 metres hurdles for senior girls and 76 cms. for junior girls.

2. 200 Metres Hurdles:
There are 10 hurdles in this race also. But the first hurdle is placed at 18.29 metres from the starting line and the last one is at a distance of 17.10 metres.

3. 400 Metres Hurdles:
In this race also there are 10 hurdles. The first hurdle is placed at 45 metres from the starting line, the remaining hurdles are at a distance of 35 metres and the last one, at 40 metres.

Question 18.
Write the measurements of the circles for Shotput, Hammer Throw and the Discus Throw?
1. Shot put
2. 135 metres

2. Hammer throw

3.135 metres
3. Discus throw2.50 metres.

Question 19.
Describe the events on pentatholon and the Decatholon:
(a) The following 5 events are included in pentatholon:

1. Long Jump
2. Javelin Throw
3. 200 Metre race
4. Discuss Throw
5. 100 Metres Hurdles Race

(b) The following 10 events make up the decatholon:

1. 100 Metres Race
2. Long Jump
3. Shot put
4. High Jump
5. Four hundred Metres Race
6. 110 Metres Hurdles Race
7. Discus Throw
8. Pole Vault
9. Javelin Throw
10. 1500 Metres Race

Question 20.
Describe the weight and ‘Length of Javelin’ for boys and girls?
The weight of the Javelin is 800 gms. for boys and between 600 and 625 gms. for girls. The length of the Javelin for boys is between 2.60 and 2.70 metres where the same for girls is between 2.20 and 2.30 metres.

Question 21.
What is the weight of the shot for hoys and girls?
The weight of the shot for boys is 6 kg. and for girls it is 4 kg.

Table Tennis

Question 1.
Describe the length and width of the table in Table Tennis?
The length of table of Table Tennis is 27. 4 cm. and breadth 15.25 cm.

Question 2.
How many types of games of Table Tennis is?
I. Singles
II. Doubles.

Question 3.
Mention the number of players who take part in Table Tennis game?
In singles there are two players, out of one actually plays the game and other is a substitute. In doubles there are three players, out of whom one is a substitute.

Question 4.
How is the game of Table Tennis started?
A player who wins the toss decides for the service and loser for the side of the table.

Question 5.
Mention the length and height of the net of Table Tennis, game?
The net is 183 cms. in length. Its upper part is at the height of 15.25 cms. from the playing surface.

Question 6.
Mention the weight and circumference of the Table Tennis ball?
The weight of Table Tennis ball is not less than 2.40 gm. and not more than 2.53 gm. Its diameter is not more than 38.2 mm, and not less than 37.2 mm.

Question 7.
Describe about the Racket of TableTennis game?
Racket can be of any type of any weight but its surface must be of dark colour.

Question 8.
How shall we judge the correctness of the Table Tennis ball?
When the Table Tennis ball is thrown downward from the height of 3.05 metres; it should bounce not less than 22 cms. and not more the 25 cms.

Question 9.
How many points are there in a game of Table Tennis?
A player or pair who scores first 21 points shall win the game. If both the players or pairs score 20 points, then that player or pair shall be winner who scores 2 point before the other player or pair.

Question 10.
How are points scored in the game of Table Tennis and how is the game won?
A player shall lose a point in case:

1. He fails to deliver good service.
2. He fails to deliver good return when his opponent has mad good service or return.
3. He or his racket touches the net when the ball is in play.
4. His free hand touches the playing surface when the ball is in play.
5. He returns the ball with volley.
6. In doubles, he strikes the ball out of turn.

Cricket

Question 1.
How many players are there in a cricket Team?
There are eleven players who actually play the game of cricket and five are substitutes.

Question 2.
Write the weight and diameter of a cricket ball?
The weight of the cricket ball is from 155.9 Grams,(5 $$\frac{1}{2}$$ ounces) to 163 grams (5 $$\frac{3}{4}$$ ounce) and its diameter is from 22.4 cm (8 $$\frac{13}{16}$$“) to 22.9 cm. (9”).

Question 3.
Write the number of officials who officiate in the cricket match?
Umpires = 2. Scorers = 2.

Question 4.
Tell the length and breadth of a cricket bat?
The length of a cricket bat is 96.5 cms. and breadth 10.8 ms.

Question 5.
Write the distance of cricket stumps from one another?
20.21 metres or 22 yards.

Question 6.
What do you understand by dead ball in cricket?

1. when the bowler or wicket keeper holds the ball properly.
2. when the ball reaches the boundry line or bounces outside the boundry.
3. when the ball, without being played, lodges in the dress of a batsman or a bowler.
4. when a batsman is out.
5. if the umpire decides to stop the game after the bowler gets back the ball.
6. On the call of “over” or ‘time’ by the umpire.

Question 7.
What is an ‘over’ in a cricket?
In each over the ball is bowled six times, no ball and wide ball are not reckoned in an over. The number of extra balls bowled in an over shall be equal to the number of “no balls” in that over.If the umpire fail to remember the number of balls in over, the over considered by the umpire shall not be counted.

Question 8.
What do you understand by the following?

1. No ball
2. Wide ball
3. Bye and leg bye
4. Out of his Ground
5. Batsman’s Retirement
6. Bowled
7. Catch
8. Handle the ball
9. Hit the ball twice
10. Wicket is down or Hit wicked
11. LBW (Leg Before Wicket)
12. Obstructing the field
13. Stumped
14. Run out
15. Wicket-keeper
16. Fielder

No Ball. While playing the ball if the front foot of the bowler goes ahead of the batting crease or cuts the returning crease, the umpire declares No Ball. After hitting the ball the batsman can make as many runs as possible. The runs made in this way will be added to the score. If no run has been made, only one run will be added to the score. By spreading one of his arms the umpire gives the signal of no ball.

Wide Ball:
The umpire declares a wide ball if the bowler bowls the ball high over or wide the wicket which, in the opinion of the umpire, is out of the reach of the batsman. The runs made during the wide ball are reckoned in the wide ball. If no run is attemped, it is reckoned one run. The umpire gives the signal of wide ball by spreading his both arms straight.

Bye and Leg-bye:
The umpire shall declare ‘bye’ if the properly bowled ball passes the batsman (striker), without touching his bat or body and the run is obtained. But it should not be no ball or wide ball. But if the ball touches any part of the striker’s body except his hands which hold the bat and any run is got, the umpire shall declare “leg-bye”.

Out of his Grond:
A batsman shall be reckoned to be out of his ground until some part of his bat in hand or of his person is grounded behind the ground of popping crease.

Batsman’s Retirement:
A batsman owing to illness or injury may retire at any time. He may bat but he will have to seek the permission of the captain of the opposing team to know his number of batting.

Bowled:
If the wicket is bowled down, the striker (batsman) is said to be bowled out, even if the ball has touched first his body or foot.

Catch:
If the ball from the stroke of a bat or of the hand holding the bat (not the wrist) is caught by a fields man before it touches the ground, the batsman is “caught out”. At the time of a catch both the feet of the fields man should be on the ground of the playfield. If the fieldman catches the ball out of the boundary line, the batsman is not reckoned to be out, but is awarded 6 runs. If the ball lodges in the pads of the wicket-keeper, the batsman shall be reckoned to be “caught out”.

Handle the Ball:
During play, if the batsmen touches the ball with his hand he shall be reckoned to be out – “handle the ball out”.

Hit the Ball Twice:
If the ball is struck or stopped by any part of the batsman’s body after it has been hit, and if the batsman deliberately strikes it again, he shall be out” The ball can be hit twice only to defend the wicket but the condition is that it must have been done to defend the wicket. If any run is made in this process, it is not counted.

Wicket is Down or Hit Wicket. If during the play, the batsman hits down his wicket with any parts of the bat or body, it is called “hit wicket out”. If the wicket falls down as a result of the fall of his cap or hat or any broken part of his bat, even then he shall be reckoned to be “hit wicket out”.

L.B.W. (Leg Before Wicket). The batsman is considered to be “L.B.W. out” when he tries to obstruct the ball with any part of his body before touching the ball with his bat, and in the opinion of the umpire, the ball and wicket are in a straight line. If the batsman had not obstructed the ball with any part of his body, the ball would have straight hit the wicket.

Obstructing the field:
If a batsman deliberately obstructs a fieldsman from catching the ball, he can be out “obstructing the field”.

Stumped:
A batsman is out of his ground if his bat in hand or his foot is not on the ground behind the supposed popping crease. The batsman is considered to be out stumped when the ball is not “no ball” and is bowled and the batsman goes out of his ground otherwise than attempting a run, and the wicket-keeper outstumps the wicket (removes the stumps placed over the wickets).

Run Out:
The batsman is run out when the ball is in play, the batsman goes out of his ground to score a run, and his wicket is put down by the opposite side. If batsman cross each other, that batsman will be considered to be “run out” who is running to the fallen wicket.

Wicket-keeper:
The wicket-keeper shall always remain behind the wickets untill a ball delivered by a bowler touches the bat or the body of the striker or passes the wicket or the batsman is “out”. He cannot catch the ball.

Fielders:
The fieldsman can stop the ball with any part of his body. He is not allowed to stop the ball with his cap. ff he does so, its penalty shall be four runs. In case no run has been made, four runs shall be added.

Question 9.
What do you understand by the following:

1. Mendatory over
2. One-day match.

Mandatory over:
On the last day of the match, one hour before the close of the match, the umpire signals about the mandatory over. After this, a game of 20 over is played. 6 Balls are bowled in an over. If it seems the match would be a draw, the game can be ended before the completion of these overs.

One-day Match:
There is a one-day national and international match, in which both the teams play in 40-40 or 50-50 overs. The team which scores more runs becomes the winner.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Practical Questions and Answers.

Dumbbell Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
What are Dumbbells? Write about its types.
Dumbbell:
Dumbbell is an ancient Indian method of exercise, which can be performed indoor or outdoor.
Dumbbell is of two types-
(1) Iron Dumbbell
(2) Wooden Dumbbell: The dumbbell is very thick and heavy and in the middle, it is very thin. Hold the handle and struck them with each other, so the voice 1 may be produced. In this exercise position one, position two, position three and positions are performed.

2. Body position while doing dumbbell:
The ankle should close and the finger should be open, knee and leg should be straight. The shoulder keeping backward and chest should be straight’ while doing, dumbbell from rest position to attention position and attention to rest position catch the dumbbell in both hands. The leader command the attention position, on the direction of the leader, student acquire the attention position, while folding the dumbbell v both hands and raising the hand upward.

Bend the dumbbell towards the elbow and bring the dumbbell from left hand to right hand. When the dumbbell meet each other, the noise is created, after this the leader in other vishram position. Student raise his right hand and keeping the dumbbell near the earth and make the noise. They will bring both dumbbell at the back and make the noise together. After this, on order of attention, the student should bend the elbow and strike the dumbbell with each other.

In this position, acquire the attention position. The ankle should be meet each other and finger should be spread out. In this way, noise created by striking each other. Second position is changed from first position, keeping both the hand straight in front of the body.

The palm should be pointed towards the earth, in the position dumbbell strick again. After coming third position is changed. From third position we gained first position. In this position, the palm of the hand should be upward, bring the hand near the chin and strike dumbbell each other and remain the attention position.

The exercise should be performed by counting sixteen. In exercise, there are four positions-

1. First Position
2. Second Position
3. Third Position
4. Fourth Position.

1. First Position:
In first position, student will remain in attention position. By folding raise the hand upward and bring the hand near the chin. In this position, palm and the dumbbell strike with each other.

2. Second Position:
In second position, this position is very mentioning. The arm should bring downward from upward and bring the arm backward. In this position, again dumbbell is strike with each other.

3. Third Position:
In third position, hand should be moved, after straight the both hands, the elbow should be near the body, again in this position dumbbell strike.

4. Fourth Position:
In fourth position, student came in attention position and bring the both hands with dumbbell near the body.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Dumbbell Game Rules.

Lezium Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
Write down the measurement of lezium and its types.
Lezium:
Lezium consists of a wooden handle of 16″ to 18″ in length with an iron chain fixed at both ends of the wooden handle and a rod of 15 cm (6″) in the middle. The iron chain contains iron plates in each ring which produces rhythmic and jingling sound when the lezium is in use. The weight of the whole apparatus is between 1 3/4 to 2 lbs.

Types of Lezium:
Lezium Skand, Aram, Husshyar, Pavitra, Char Awaj, Ek Jagah, Aidi Lagala, Starting position, Do Rukh, Age Shlang, Peechhe Shlang.

Lezium Skand:
In this position, lezium is kept on right shoulder. In this position, lezium is like egg position, and the wooden handle is remain behind and the chain of iron remain in front of the body.

Aram:
In this position, iron chain kept in a right hand and hanging in left hand when a student is remain in husshyar position the order of aram is given.

Husshyar:
Before starting of the Lezium, student should come in husshyar position. This position is kept when the lezium is on the shoulder. This exercise is performed by counting two on counting one, the iron chain and on counting two the lezium should be kept up to left shoulder and bring it in front of the chest with left hand. Wooden handle is race iron chain in the right hand and pull towards the body. After this exercise, came into the first position.

Pavitra:
This position is obtain from the Skand position. Keeping front left knee is little bend, bring the right foot behind the body. The weight should be on the left toe and push toward the floor. The remain straight chest and head must be raised upward. In this position, left leg must be towards the right and lezium should be in husshyar position.

Char Awaj:
In the starting of husshyar position on counting one keep the knee straight and bend the body, take the first stock near the feet in this position. Wrist goes out side and the handle of the lezium become parallel to the body, one counting to range the body up and snatch the iron chain from the wooden handle.

In the position, lezium will be on waist, on counting three and in a first position. The wooden handle should be moved to the right side and right hand should be in front of the body. On counting four, wooden handle should be taken in front of mouth, which we can see through the lezium.

Ek Jagah:
In the exercise, in counting four rotate the lezium in a round left to right after this next four counting should be repeated from left side.

In this exercise, all the eight counting must be repeated and foot movement should be performed on char awaj. The left leg should be brought to the right leg and the left toe .. should be brought to right, the thumb should be kept between the finger.

Starting position:
In this position, rotating the back Char awaj should be performed four times. In coming first position, the exercise rotate the body from left side and lezium should be in front of the chest. In keeping the taal on counting four rotate the body in fast position. By doing this exercise, arm should be rotate in circle motion.

Do Rukh:
This exercise consist of eight counting and pavitra is N starting position just counting three. It will be like pavitra on counting four in a opposite direction from the left position. In a quick motion, perform four on counting five, rotate the lezium upward to down ward from left toe to right toe. Char awaj perform on counting six. It should be like to on counting seven take the Pavitra position, and char awaj take three counting. On counting eight, it should be like first position.

Aage Shalang:
This is the exercise of ten counting. Starting position is of pavitra, on counting one, bending forward near the left toe to the char awaj should be done. When taking left foot is completed on counting three, right foot should be forwarded like near the left foot, char awaj should be perform. In this way, left toe is done up on counting five, char awaj to be perform.

Taking six and seven stock with the left lezium should be nearer and foot should be kept in pavitra position. On counting eight, char awaj should be performed on counting nine, bending forward char awaj must be one stock. On counting ten, raise the body by farming char awaj and return to pavitra position.

Peechhe Shalang:
In this exercise, counting should be in ten, starting position must be a pavitra perform. The char awaj near the left toe on counting. In second and third, rotate to right and make two perform. In opposite direction, perform char awaj on four counting four times. Six and seven rotate from left foot keeping the right foot behind, on counting eight perform the char awaj, in this position student should be in pavitra position while counting nine char awaj should be performed.

Forward Bend:
On counting one, keep the right foot ahead. Bend on right side and open the lezium in same position. On counting two, raise the right foot up to three inches and by bending forward, lezium should be close on counting three, keep the left foot ahead and repeat the countirig one. In this way, the exercise should be performed.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Lezium Game Rules.

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C.

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you understand by Mahajanapada?
By about 600 B.C., a part of the Ganga plain had been cleared of forests and people had settled down in different tracts. These territories were called Janapadas and named after the ruling clan in each area. The more powerful Janapadas among these were known as Mahajanapadas.

Question 2.

• Magadha: Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanapada. It included Gaya and Patna areas of Bihar. Its capital city was Rajagriha.
• Kosala: Kosala was another powerful Mahajanapada and its capital city was Ayodhya or Sketa.
• Vatsa: The capital city of Vatsa was Kausambi.
• Avanti: The capital city of Avanti Mahajanapada was Ujjain.

Question 3.
In the beginning, Magadha has comprised only the areas of Patna and Gaya in Bihar, but later on it saw a great rise under the rule of the Haryanka kings, namely Bimbisara and Ajatasatru.
1. Bimbisara: Bimbisara became the king of Magadha in about 543 B.C. He made his kingdom more powerful in many ways. He occupied the Ganga. He conquered the Artga State in the southeast and occupied the major port of the Gmga, namely Champa. His capital city was Rajagriha near Nalanda.

2. Ajatasatru: Ajatasatru was a son of Bimbisara. He murdered his father in 492 B,C. and became the ruler of Magadha. He invaded his neighbouring states and expanded his kingdom. He defeated Kashi, Kosala and Vaisali and made Magadha the most powerful kingdom of North India. He made Patliputra(Patna) his new capital.

Question 4.
What do you know about caste system during this period?
In India of 600 B.C. to 400 B.C., the caste system and four stages of life were two most important features of society.
1. Caste System: The caste system was rigid. Society was mainly divided into four castes. These castes were Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the lower castes. Brahmanas were given great respect in society, whereas low castes’ condition was very bad and they were ill-treated. The caste system was based on birth.

Besides the above four castes, there were several sub-castes based on professions. These sub-castes included carpenters, ironsmiths, goldsmiths, chariot-makers, potters and oil-pressers, etc.

Question 5.
Write a note about the punch-marked coins.
In India of 600 B.C. to 400 B.C., copper and silver coins were used for transactions: These coins were mostly irregular pieces of metal in shape but of fixed weight. They were punched with various symbols. Such coins were known as the punch-marked coins.

Question 6.
What do you know about Jainism?
Jainism came into existence in 600 B.C. There were twenty-four teachers of this religion, who were known as Tirthankaras. Adriana (Rishabhdeva) was the first and Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara.

Vardhamana Mahavira

Teachings: Teachings of Jainism are as follows :

• Ahimsa: Ahimsa is the main teaching of Jainism. Man should not hurt anybody. There is soul in even the smallest particle. So every effort should be made not to kill it.
• Truth: Man should speak the truth. Truth purifies the soul. We should not speak ill of anybody.
• Non-Stealing: Stealing is a sin. To take a thing or wealth without permission is stealing. It hurts others.
• Non-Possession: We should not accumulate property. It causes attachment in life and ties man in worldly affairs.
• Chastity: Man should follow chastity.
• Hard Penance: Moksha can be achieved by hard penance, that frees the man from the cycle of birth and death.
• Three Jewels: Three Jewels (Tri-ratna) is a way of achieving Moksha. These three jewels are Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.

Sects of Jainism: Shwetambara and Digambara are the two sects of Jainism.

• Shwetambara: The followers of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha are called Shwetambaras. Shwetambaras wear white clothes.
• Digambara: The followers of the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism are known as Digambaras. These saints wear no clothes.

Question 7.
Which are the main teachings of Buddhism?
The main teachings of Buddhism are as follows :
1. Four Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are :

• The world is full of sorrow.
• The cause of sorrow is desire.
• We can conquer sorrow by conquering desire.
• Desire can be conquered by following the Eight Fold Path.

2. The Eightfold Path, Mahatma Buddha has suggested the Eightfold Path for freeing oneself from sorrow and achieving Nirvana. The eight principles of the Eightfold Path are

• Right Belief,
• Right Thought,
• Right Speech,
• Right Action,
• Right Means of Livelihood,
• Right Effort,
• Right Recollection,
• Right Meditation.

3. The Middle Path: Mahatma Buddha also taught the Middle Path. It means that one should not torture oneself by severe austerities, nor should one indulge in luxuries of life.

4. Moral Teachings: Moral teachings of Buddhism included non-violence, speaking the truth, non-use of intoxicants, not to accept or keep money, not to eat at odd hours, not coveting others’ property, etc.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Bimbisara ruled from __________ to B.C.
543, 492.

Question 2.
Ministers were known as __________
Amatyas

Question 3.
Agriculture and cattle rearing were the ____________ occupations.
peasants

Question 4.
There have been _____________ Tirthankaras in Jainism.
24

Question 5.
Gautama Buddha’s real name was __________
Siddhartha

Question 6.
Lord Mahavir Ji spent Grihastha life till __________ years.
30.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

 A B (1) Magadha (a) Republic (2) Ajatasatru (b) Mahajanapada (3) Vajji (c) Guild (4) Shreni (d)King (5) Parsvanatha (e) Ashtangika Marg (6) Buddha (f) Tirthankara

Correct columns :

 A B (1) Magadha (b) Mahajanapada (2) Ajatasatru (d)King (3) Vajji (a) Republic (4) Shreni (c) Guild (5) Parsvanatha (f) Tirthankara (6) Buddha (e) Ashtangika Marg

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in a statement :

Question 1.
Sixteen Mahajanapadas are mentioned in Buddhist literature.
True

Question 2.
Bimbisara ruled from 543 to 492 AD.
False

Question 3.
The ministers were known as Chera.
False

Question 4.
Normal agriculture tax was IA of produce
False

Question 5.
Sarthavaha was the leader of merchants.
False

Question 6.
Gautama Buddha was son of Siddhartha.
False

Question 7.
Jains believe that they had 24 Tirthankars.
True

Question 8.
Gautama Budhha was not the son of Siddhartha.
True.

V. Activities (Something To Do):

Question 1.
Locate the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Indus on the map of India.
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Find books on the lives of the Buddha and Mahavira in your school library and read them. Note down the anecdotes in their lives which interest you.
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Thirst or desire to get something is known as
(A) Tanha
(B) Prakrit
(C) Atman
(D) Vihara.
(A) Tanha.

Question 2.
__________ are the Hindu religious books which literally means “approaching and sitting near.”
(A) Veda
(C) Manu Smriti
(D) Epics.

Question 3.
Followers of Vardhaman Mahavira are known as
(A) Jaina
(B) Buddha
(C) Mahavira
(D) Bhikkshu.
(A) Jaina.

Question 4.
Followers of who beg food for themselves were known as Bhikkshu.
(A) Buddha
(B) Vishnu
(C) Mahavira
(D) Shiva.
(A) Buddha.

Question 5.
__________ is a stage of life.
(A) Jati
(B) Varna
(C) Ashrama
(D) Purushartha.
(C) Ashrama.

Question 6.
__________ was the founder of Buddhism.
(A) Mahavira
(B) Gautama Buddha
(C) Guru Nanak Dev
(D) Kabir.
(B) Gautama Buddha.

Question 7.
Where did the Buddha die?
(A) Pataliputra
(B) Kaushambhi
(D) Kusinara.
(D) Kusinara.

Question 8.
In __________ language the Buddha taught to the ordinary people?
(A) Hindi
(B) Gurmukhi
(C) Prakrit
(D) Devnagari.
(C) Prakrit.

Question 9.
__________ language was used to compose the Vedas.
(A) Vedic Sanskrit
(B) Hindi
(C) Prakrit
(D) Devnagari.
(A) Vedic Sanskrit.

Question 10.
Which of these, was a famous woman upanishadic thinker?
(A) Sita
(B) Gargi
(D) Kunti.
(B) Gargi.

Question 1.
Name two famous republics.
The Shakyas and the Lichchhvis were two famous republics.

Question 2.
Mention the names of two of the earliest kings of Magadha.
Bimbisara and Ajatasatru were the two earliest kings of Magadha.

Question 3.
Name two dynasties which ruled over Magadha after the Haryanka dynasty.
Shishunaga and Nanda dynasties.

Question 4.
Mahapadma Nanda was the most important ruler of the Nanda dynasty.

Question 5.
Which new cities came into existence during 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.?
Several new cities came into existence during 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. The important amongst these were Varanasi, Rajagriha, Shravasti, Kaushambi, Vaishali, Champa, Ujjaiyini, Taxila, Ayodhya, Mathura, and Patliputra.

Question 6.
Who were known as Amatyas?
Ministers were known as Amatyas.

Question 7.
What was the most important source of income of early kingdoms and republics?
Taxes.

Question 8.
Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Mahatma Buddha.

Question 9.
In which Mahajanapada did Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha preach?
Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha preached in Magadha.

Question 10.
What was the position of king in India from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.?
The king held the supreme position. He was regarded as the protector of society and religion.

Question 11.
What message did Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha give to people?
Vardhamana Mahavira and Mahatma Buddha taught the people to lead a good life and not to do wrong.

Question 12.
Who were Sarthvahas?
Merchants from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. were known as Sarthvahas.

Question 13.
What is meant by Jina?
Jina means conqueror.

Question 14.
Where was Vardhamana Mahavira born?
Vardhamana Mahavira was born at Kundagram near Vaishali in Bihar.

Question 15.
What was the real name of Mahatma Buddha? Where was he born?
The real name of Mahatma Buddha was Siddhartha. He was born at Lumbini in Nepal.

Question 16.
Who was the last Nanda King?
Dhan Nanda was the last Nanda King.

Question 17.
Name some of the officials of kings of Mahajan- apadas.
Amatyas or Mantries, Purohita, Senapati, Sangrahatri, Cher a and Gramini were some of. the important officials of kings of Mahajanapadas.

Question 18.
What was Ashrama?
Whole of the life span was divided into four stages which were known as Ashramas.

Question 19.
Name all four Ashramas.
Brahmacharya Ashrama, Grihastha Ashrama, Vanaprastha Ashrama and Sanyasa Ashrama.

Question 20.
What were punch-marked coins?
Coins in this age were punched with different symbols and these were known as punch-marked coins.

Question 21.
Which was the supreme body of monks in Buddhism?
Mahatma Buddha founded the supreme body of monks which was known as the Buddhist Samgha.

Question 22.
What are Tripitaka?
All the teachings of the Buddha are compiled in three major works which are known as Tripitaka.

Question 23.
What was Mahayana?
Mahayana was one part of Buddhism which means the great vehicle and its followers believed in the idol worship of the Buddha as a god.

Question 24.
What was Hinayana?
It was another part of Buddhism whose followers followed the original teachings of the Buddha and considered the Buddha as a great teacher.

Question 25.
What do you mean by Janapadas?
Republics or monarchical states established in Northern India around 600 B.C.were known as Janapadas.

Question 26.
Mahajanapadas were the more powerful Janapadas. They were sixteen in number around 600 B.C.. Vatsa, Magadha, Kosala etc. were some of them.

Question 27.
What is meant by Shreni?
Persons with some profession organized themselves into guilds or unions. These guilds or unions were known as Shrenis.

Question 1.
Why is the period between 600 B.C. to 400 B.C. known as the period of the second urbanization?
Several big cities came into existence during the period between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C. These cities were called puras, nagaras or mahanagaras. Varanasi, Taxila, Ayodhya, Mathura, Rajagriha, Sravasti, Kaushambi, Vaishali, Champa, Ujjaiyini and Patliputra were some of the big cities. Because of the emergence of big cities, this period is known as the period of the second urbanisation. The first period of urbanisation was that of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question 2.
How did the position of a king grow in a kingdom? What sort of life did he lead?
The Brahmanas made the position of the king very strong. They preached that the king was not an ordinary man. He was like a god among men. The Brahmanas also performed certain ceremonies to endow-the king with god-like virtues and powers. The king lived a splendid life. He lived in a big palace, married many wives and spent his days in comfort and luxury.

Question 3.
Write a note on the administration between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C.
The king was very powerful. He ruled the state with the help of Purohita, Amatyas (ministers), Senapati, Sangrahatri, Chera and Gramini. He had many other officers to carry out the works of the state. To carry out the expenses of the state, the king collected taxes. Some amount was spent on the welfare of the people and some amount was given to the Brahmanas to look after the temples. With this income, the king could pay his soldiers and other state officers.

Question 4.
Give a brief account of the life of Vardhamana Mahavira.
Vardhamana Mahavira was born at Kundanpur near Vaishali in Bihar in 600 B.C. He was the son of a chief called Siddhartha and his mother was Trishala Rani. He was the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism. He left his home and wandered about for many years, trying to find the answers to the questions of life which troubled him. After twelve years six months and fifteen days, he attained the truth. He spent the rest of his life in spreading Jainism. He told his followers that their deeds should be based on Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Action. He died at the age of 72.

Question 5.
Throw some light on the life of Mahatma Buddha.
Mahatma Buddha was bom at Lumbini in Nepalese Tarai. His father’s name was Shuddodhana and his mother was Mayadevi. His real name was Siddharthara and he belonged to a royal family. He was married to Princess Yasodhara and had a son, Rahul. He left home after he had seen a sick man, an old man and a dead man. He thought that this world is full of sorrow and misery. He wandered in search of salvation and finally found enlightenment under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar. He founded Buddhism and preached his religion for forty years. He died at the age of 80.

Question 1.
Describe the economic life of India between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C.
Between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C. in India the main occupations of people were agriculture and cattle-rearing. Peasants were normally the owners.of the land. But there were also landless labourers who worked on others’ land for living. Several types of crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sugarcane, sesame, mustard, pulses, vegetables and fruits were grown.

Other professions in’cluded industrial crafts and trade. Wood-work, pottery, leather tanning, ship-building, weaving, garland-making, iron-smithery, jewellery, ivory-work and several other professions were adopted by people. Some people earned their livelihood by fishing, hunting, dancing, acting, snake-charming, etc. Persons following the same profession organized themselves into unions or guilds, called Shrenis. Each guild had its own president or head.

Trade was carried on both within the country and with foreign lands. There were roads across the country, some of which connected with foreign lands or seaports. Goods were also carried through ships and boats in oceans and rivers. Merchants known as Sarthavaha carried goods from one place to the other and moved in caravans. Indian goods were in great demand in foreign countries. Copper and silver coins were used for transactions.

People had to pay taxes to the king. Normally 1/6th of agricultural produce was charged as tax from peasants. Taxes on industrial goods and trade were charged according to the value of the goods.

India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

• Janapadas: Janapadas were the republican or monarchical states established in Northern India around 600 B.C.
• Republic: Republic, is the form of government in which power is held by the people or a group of elected persons or an elected chief.
• Monarchy: Monarchy is the form of government in which power is held by a hereditary king or queen.
Mahajanapadas around 600 B.C: Among them Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were the most powerful.
• Ashramas: Life was divided into four stages, called Ashramas. These Ashramas were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa.
• Barter System: Exchange of goods for goods is called barter system.
• Shrenis: Persons following the same profession organised themselves into unions or guilds. These unions or guilds were known as Shrenis.
• Tirthankaras: Teachers of the Jains were known as the Tirthankaras. There were twenty-four Tirthankaras.
• Nirvana: Nirvana means a state in which individuality merges into the Supreme Spirit and one becomes free from the cycle of birth and death.
• Samgha: The supreme body of the Buddhist monks was known as Samgha.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 12 India: From 600 B.C. – 400 B.C. Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Rhythmic Folk Dance Game Rules – PSEB 10th Class Physical Education

Question 1.
Write down the name of main Folk-Dance.
The main Rhythmic Folk Dances are:

• Lezium
• Dumb-bell
• Tipri
• Folk Dance
• Skipping
• Ribbon Dance
• Pole Dance
• Mass P.T.

1. Folk Dance:
It is divided into two parts-
1. Regional Folk Dance
2. Western Folk Dance
(i) Regional Folk Dances are: Gujrati, Tipri, Machhua of Maharashtra, Rajasthani Folk Dance, Kolaham of Tamil, Bangali Folk Dance, Gidha and Bhangara of Punjab.
(ii) Some steps of Western Folk Dance are:

• Do side
• Heel toe step
• Gup
• Polka
• Slide.

2. Lezium:
Lezium consists of a wooden handle of 15″ to 18″ in length with an iron chain fixed at both ends of the wooden handle and a rod of 15 cms (6″) in the middle. The iron chain contains iron plates in each ring which produces rhythmic and jingling sound when the lezium is in use. The weight of the whole apparatus is between 1 % to 2 lbs.

Types of Lezium : Lezium Skand, Aram, Husshyar, Pavitra, Char Awaj, Ek Jagah, Aidi Lagala, Starting position, Do Rukh, Age Shlang, Peeche Shlang.

3. Dumble:
Dumble is an ancient Indian method of exercise, which can be performed indoor or outdoor.
Dumble is of two types-

• Iron Dumble
• Wooden Dumble: The Dumble has very thick and heavy and in the middle it is very thin.

Hold the Handle and struck them with each other so the voice may be produced. In this exercise position one, position two, position three and position are performed.

4. Tipri:
Tipri is a thick wooden stick having 15′ to 18″ in length. The thickness of the wooden stick may be 20 to 25 mm and weight about 100 gm. By holding this tipri in both hands dance is performed. It is of two types:

• Lonely
• In group.

5. Skipping:
It is a cotton rope at least 10 cm in diameter and 3 metres in length. Hold both the ends of the rope and rotate it from forward to backward by touching it to the floor-as soon as it touches the ground jump over it.

The following activities can be performed:

• A pushing jumping forward and backward over a single rope.
• Performed skipping with partner.
• Skipping with coming in and going out.
• Skipping on stunts

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Rhythmic Folk Dance Game Rules.