PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 9 Social Structure

Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Social Structure Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:

Question 1.
Give the meaning of the term social structure.
Answer:
Systematic form of interrelated parts of society is known as social structure.

Question 2.
From which word the word ‘structure’ is derived ?
Answer:
The word ‘structure’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Staruere’ whose meaning is ‘building’.

Question 3.
Who was the first sociologist to use the term social structure ?
Answer:
Herbert Spencer was the first sociologist to use the term social structure,

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 4.
Name the elements of social structure.
Answer:
Status and role are the elements of social structure.

Question 5.
Who wrote the book ‘The Principles of Sociology’?
Answer:
This book was written by Herbert Spencer.

Question 6.
What is Status ?
Answer:
Status is a position given to a person while living in society.

Question 7.
Name two types of social statuses.
Answer:
Ascribed status and Achieved status are the two types of social statuses.

Question 8.
Who gave the terms ascribed and achieved status?
Answer:
These terms are given by Ralph Linton.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 9.
Give two examples of ascribed status.
Answer:
Status of father and brahmin are the examples of ascribed status.

Question 10.
Give two example of achieved status.
Answer:
The status of Prime Minister and Deputy Commissioner are the examples of achieved status.

Question 11.
Define Role.
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Role is a set of socially expected and approved behaviour patterns consisting of both duties and privileges, associated with a particular position in a group.

Question 12.
Mention any two characteristics of Role.
Answer:
(i) Role is the functional aspect of status.
(iii) Role is always having social sanction.

Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:

Question 1.
Define social structure.
Answer:
According to Talcott Parsons, “ The term social structure applies to the particular arrangement of the interrelated institutions, agencies, social patterns, as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the group.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 2.
Give two points of similarities between status and role.
Answer:

  • Status and role are the two sides of same coin.
  • Status is the position of an individual in society and role is the functional aspect of status.
  • Both status and role change with time and circumstances.

Question 3.
Give the diagrammatic representation of structure of family.
Answer:
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Question 4.
Distinguish between ascribed and achieved status.
Answer:

  • One gets ascribed status according to his birth but one gets achieved status according to his ability.
  • There are many bases of ascribed status but the only base of achieved status is one’s hard work.

Question 5.
In what ways are roles learned behaviour ?
Answer:
It is true that roles are learned behaviour as they are the collection of rules which are learned either through socialization or observation. After learning, whatever meaning man gives to it is a social role.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 6.
Write a short note on status and role.
Answer:
status:
Status is a position given to a person while living in society.

Role:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Role is a set of socially expected and approved behaviour patterns consisting of both duties and privileges, associated with a particular position in a group.

Question 7.
What is Status ?
Answer:
The position in a group, given to an individual, is known as social status. It is the position which one gets through his gender, age, birth, occupation, activities, patterns of work etc. For example an officer is respected by every one due to his post. Specific patterns related with his activities are known as status.

Question 8.
What is role set?
Answer:
While living in society, an individual gets many statuses. The collection of roles related with all such statuses is known as role set. For example students of 11th class of any school need to meet many persons in their daily routine and have to behave differently with them. Collection of roles related with all is known as role set.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 9.
What do you mean by role conflict ? Give its example.
Answer:
Every individual has many a status and a particular role is attached with each status. One has to fulfill all the roles attached with him. When he is unable to maintain balance with all of them and is not in a position to do justice with all of them, it is known as role conflict.

Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:

Question 1.
State the three characteristics of social structure.
Answer:
(i) Different social structures of different societies : Social structure of each society is different because the social life of different parts of a society is different. Every society has its different institutionalised rules. That’s why structures of all the societies are different.

(ii) Social structure is abstract : Social structure is abstract because the units with which this structure is formed like institution, association, norms etc. all are abstract. They don’t have any concrete form, we can only feel them. That’s why they are abstract.

(iii) Formed due to interactions : No proper planning is made to keep all the social units in a system. It is developed due to human interactions. That’s why no conscious efforts are required for its formation etc.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 2.
What is ascribed status ? Give its example.
Answer:
Ascribed status is the status which a person gets without doing any effort or hard work. Like, Brahmans have the higher status in caste system of Hindu society. Person gets social status according to his caste in which he was born. Sex, caste, birth, age, kinship all are ascribed status which a person gets without any effort.

Question 3.
Role is an element of social structure. Discuss in brief.
Answer:
Sub groups are the units of social structure and in these groups, members are given roles according to definite rules. Interactions take place among humans and to clarify them, roles are given to individual. Role is the behaviour of an individual in a particular situation which is associated with his status. If any change comes in social structure, change often comes in the status and role of an individual. Due to these roles, people establish contacts with each other and consequently social structure is maintained.

Question 4.
Status is an element of social structure. Discuss.
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that status is an element of social structure. Sub-groups are the units of social structure and every one gets many a status in these groups. People mutually interact and to clarify them, many status and roles are given to the people. When one gets any status, he needs to behave differently in different circumstances. If any change comes in social structure, change also comes in the status of people. Due to these statuses, people establish mutual relations and social structure is maintained.

Question 5.
Discuss how status and role are interrelated ?
Answer:
It is true that status and role are intererelated. Actually they are two sides of the same coin. If out of these two only one is given, other is of no importance. It means rights are given but not responsibility or vice versa. In the absence of one, other cannot work properly. If any one is given the status of an officer but he is not given any responsibility, the officer is of no advantage for people. If any one is given responsibility but no status is given, he will not be able to fulfill his role. So, they both are deeply related.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:

Question 1.
Define social structure and discuss its characteristics.
Answer:
Society is not an unbreakable system. Society is made up of many parts. These parts of society are interrelated with each other by doing their respective functions and they produce one type of balance. In the words of Sociology this balance is known as social system. On contrary to that when these different interrelated parts join each other and make a structure then this structure is known as social structure. In short the meaning of structure is the collection of those units or parts of society which are interrelated with each other.

(i) According to Maclver, “Social structure is abstract and many groups like family, class, caste and community come in this.–MacIver has accepted the stability and changing nature of social structure. According-to Maclver, “For a while the social structure itself is unstable and changeful, it has a definite character at every stage and many of its major elements have shown greater persistence of type through change.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

(ii) According to Morris Ginsberg, “Ginsberg has not differentiated between social structure and organization. He used the word social structure for systematic relations. According to him humans combine themselves with groups, institutions, associations etc. to achieve any purpose with which social structure is formulated.

According to Ginsberg, “The study of social structure is concerned with the principal forms of social organization i.e. types of groups, associations and institutions and the complex of these which constitute societies…full account of social structure would involve a review of the whole field of comparative institutions.”

(iii) According to Harry M. Johnson, “The structure of anything consists of relatively stable inter-relationship among its parts, moreover the part itself implies a certaip degree of stability since a social system is composed of the inter-related acts of people, its structure must be sought in some degree of regularity or recurrence in these acts.”

1. Different societies have different social structure. Every society has its own different rules because the relations which exist in different units of society have different place in social life. Except this social structure in different times is different. This difference is so because the relations which exist in units of society are different in different societies. It is related with specific society. That’s why social structure is related with specific society. Its different units like family institution, group, caste etc. have different forms.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

2. It refers to the external aspect of society. Social structure is not related to internal system of society but is related with external aspect of soceity. For example the way in which different parts of human body make the full body and make the external structure of body, in that same way different parts of society combine and form the external structure of society. Hands, legs, head, nose etc. only show the external parts of body.

3. Social structure is abstract. Social structure is the sequence of interrelations of different units of society. Groups, castes, institutions, categories etc. are these units. This sequence of social structure doesn’t have any concrete form. That’s why it cannot be touched and seen. It can be felt only. Different relations which exist in different units are without any form and that’s why structure is abstract.

4. Social structure is changeable. Brown was of the view that mobility and continuity exist in social structure. It is not static. The way in which physical body changes in the same way change comes in structure of society but it doesn’t mean that the basic elements of structure also change.

5. Hierarchy of sub-structure in a structure. Our physical body is made up of many small structures, like backbone, neck, hands, feet etc.All these small structures form a big structure. In the same way we can take structure of educational institution. Staff, Principal office etc. are sub-structures which form the complete structure of educational institutions. In the same way in society, different categories and layers are there which jointly make a social structure.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

6. Every unit of social structure has a definite position. Our social structure is made up of various units. Their position is definite and limited. No unit can take place of the other and cannot go beyond its limits. For example religion, school, family, caste etc. are different units of social structure. All of these have different place in social structure.

Religion never does function of school, school never does function of family etc. because every unit works in its limited area. If any unit comes out of its limits and works in the area of other unit then it will not be accepted by society. Every unit has different and definite place in society in different times. That’s why social structure is maintained.

7. Social structure is the product of social interactions. Development of social structure in every society is the product of social interactions. Different units of social structure are interrelated with each other. That’s why single unit is of no importance. Social interactions are very helpful in giving sequence to family, group, institution, association etc.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 2.
Which system helps in the maintenance of social structure ?
Answer:
In social structure, all the human beings have organised themselves into different associations to pursue some common goals. Such goals can be achieved if the social structure is based upon operational systems which help in its maintenance. Few of such systems are given below :

1. Normative System : Normative system presents some ideals and values in front of members of society. Members of society attach emotional importance to these values and ideas. Different groups, associations, institutions, communities etc. are interrelated according to norms and values. Different members of society perform their roles according to these norms. .

2. Position System : Position system refers to status and roles given to different individuals. Every one has unlimited and multiple aspirations and expectations. Different individuals in different societies have different status. For example, an individual in a family is a father, son, brother, uncle, husband etc. When he is in conversation with his wife, he acts as her husband and he forgets about other status. In the same way, while interacting with his son, he acts like a father. In other words, for the smooth functioning of social structure it is a must to properly allocate status and roles in society.

3. Sanction System: For the proper implementation of rules, society also provides a sanction system. To maintain balance between different parts, it is necessary to properly implement norms and values. Sanction can be negative as well as positive. Those who follow norms and values are rewarded by society and those who do not follow them are punished. Stability of social structure depends upon the effectiveness of sanction system. ‘

4. System of Anticipated Responses : A system of anticipated responses expects the individuals to participate in the social system. With their participation, social structure sets in metiori. The successful working of social structure depends upon the realisation of duties by the individuals. Members of society internalise the sanctioned behaviour with the help of socialisation with which they anticipate the experted behaviour of others in different situations. So the system of anticipated responses becomes one of the reason of stability-of a social structure.

5. Action System : Talcott Parsons gave special-stress on the concept of social action. He was of the view that society (web of social relationships) has emerged out of the action and interactions of the individual. Thus, the action system becemes one of the important elements that makes society active and sets the social structure in motion.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Question 3.
What is social structure ? What are the elements of social structure ?
Answer:
Our society is the web of social relationships. It has different units which are related with each other. They cannot do anything without each other’s help. It means they have the sense of cooperation These units are groups, institutions, associations, organizations etc. These units don’t have any independent existence, in fact when they relate with each other then they take the form of one structure. One sequence is there in their relations. With this sequence our society works properly.

We clarify the words sequence and arrangement pattern in an easy way with another example. If desk, bench, black-board, teacher, principal, peon, student and building can be kept at one place then it cannot be called as school. It can be called as school at that time when these different units will work in proper sequence with a proper arrangement pattern and on their definite place. Then only it can be called a school. We can take another example that we buy cloth for the shirt then it cannot be called as shirt until it doesn’t have any shape.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

In this way every society has different social structure because there is always some difference in the units of the structure which makes the social structure. Our society is changeable. Time to time change comes in this due to natural forces or due to inventions by humans. That’s why social structure also changes. Its units are not concrete because we cannot touch them.

Yet these units of social structure like family, religion, institution, association, economy etc. are like each other but their types are different. Like any society is Patriarchal and any society is Matriarchal. It means that except some similarity its types are different. In short we can say that social structure it that systematic arragngement through which social relations can be tied in one thread.

Elements of Social Structure:
According to Harry M. Johnson and Talcot Parsons, there are four main elements of social structure which are given below :
1. Sub-Groups. According to Johnson and Parsons, every social structure is made up of units or sub-groups. Bigger group is made up of some sub-groups.

For example under educational group, school, college, university, family, religion etc. all these sub-groups are included which are related with educational group in one way or the other. Humans are getting roles and status through these groups and sub-groups. Place of every status and role is definite in the society.

Humans get birth and dying in society but these roles and status are definite. Humans get them after birth and after their death, other humans get their place. For example if principal of any school dies then other person takes his responsibilities by taking his status and role by becoming principal of that school. It means that sub-groups are short and permanent. They never come to an end. Their members are changing due to birth and death. Family, school, college etc. remain at their same place as they were 50 years ago but the members working in it are changing with time.

2. Roles. In sub-groups of social structure, humans are related to their roles through definite patterns. Society is the web of social relationships. Interactions take place between humans and groups to develop these relations. To clarify the activeness of these interactions, status and roles are defined.

Role is related with that behaviour of person which humans perform in specific condition and whichever function person has to perform related with specific status, are determined by social sanctions. Roles and status of members of society are changed when changes come in social structure. Social structure is maintained with these roles and definite social relations.

3. Social Norms. Roles and sub-groups are related with social norms because functions of humans are determined by these norms. That’s why roles and sub-groups become static. Social norms have many rules and sub-rules. These are those sanctioned ways of individual behaviour with which social structure is being formulated. Social ideals are related with these norms.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Humans would not be able to know about their responsiblities in the absence of these norms and our social structure cannot be maintained in its absence. For example, humans which are getting roles of father- son, mother-daughter, brother-sister, teacher-student etc.

are told about their responsibilities through these social norms. That’s why these are very important for social structure. Behaviour of humans is being regulated and directed by social norms in specific conditions with which roles and sub-groups are maintained. It is the third important element of social structure.

4. Social Values. According to Harry M. Johnson, “Value may be defined as a conception or standard cultural or merely personal, by which things are compared and approved or disapproved relative to one another held to be relatively desirable or undeiable, more meritorious or less, more or less correct. All kinds of things may be evaluated, feelings, ideas, actions, qualities, objects, persons, groups, goals and means.”

According to Johnson, values are measured because through them social norms are being evaluated. They appeal to the feelings of the members of society. Whenever person decides about any thing then he is definitely under the effect of his feelings. According to Johnson, everything is evaluated through values.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

The word ‘norm’ is used for specific behaviour pattern but values are simple measurements. These can be called as the norms of higher level. Social values are very important for social system and to stop social disorganization. Feelings of group are also related with these values. They also have functional relation between them because of which web of social relationship never breaks up.

With this our social structure and social system are maintained. With them balance is generally established between the feelings of human and group with which values are used as measures for the selection of behaviour. Human functions are divided in good or bad, high or low classes through these social values.

Question 4.
Define Status. Write its characteristics in detail.
Answer:
Society is the web of social relationships. The system of society is maintained through relations. No society can live without system. So to maintain this social system, every person in society is given one specific position. It is necessary for the maintenence of social system and organization that different persons should work according to their status in an efficient way and society expects from them that they should perform their duties in a proper way.

In this way every person has a position or status in society. Some persons are at higher posts and some persons are at lower posts. Status is the social position of a person which a person gets while living in society. Every person is related with some status.

All these statuses are the part of social position of a person because of which all these are the basis of social system. We can come to know about importance of status by comparing it with other status. Society has been divided into different parts due to status and as a result identity of person establishes in society.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

In simple words, word ‘status’ is taken as social prestige. Higher status leads to more prestige. Social position of a person depends upon the evolution done by society. In sociology, meaning of status is taken by the position of person in society. There are many statuses in society and person gets some of them. Number of status, which a person gets, depends upon his membership of different groups.

In this way we can say that status is the position of a person which is given to him by organisation of group. Person gets status due to his age, gender, equality, birth, duty and his relations with other members. Every person has got some status like status of father, son, uncle, peon, officer etc. Person has to do some work according to his status. In this way we come to know about status by its functions. Person gets different status in different situations.

Definitions of Status:

  •  According to Secard and Berkman, “Status is the worth of a person as estimated by a group or a class of persons.”
  • According to Kingsley Davis, “Status is a position in the general institutional system recognized and adopted by the entire society, spontaneously evolved rather than deliberately created, rooted in the folk ways and customs.”
  • According to Linton, “The place in a particular system which a certain individual occupies at a particular time will be referred to as his status with respect to that system The role is what the individual has to do in order to validate his occupation of the status.”
  • According to Maclver and Page, “Status is the social position that determines for its possessor apart from his personal attribute or social service, a degree of respect, prestige and influence.”

In this way on the basis of these definitions we can say that whichever position a person gets in specific group is his status. Because status is in group, that’s why number of status depends upon the number of groups of which a person is the member. In this way status is the social position of a person which a person gets due to his abilities, birth, gender, age, qualities etc. Person has to do a number of works related with his status. Person has to obey the orders of person of higher status than him. It maintains the social system and social discipline. Social prestige is also related with every status.

Characteristics of Social Status:
1. Every status has a place in society : Every status is known by the related rights, duties, norms and prestige of the group because a person has to do functions related to that. Like status of high ranked officer and low ranked officer is different in an office and this status can be known on the basis of group.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

2. Status is determined by the culture of the society : Status is determined by the specific cultural values of a specific society that which status should be given to which person and what would be the related rights and duties. Person has to do functions according to social status. Like an elder member of the house father gets status and related roles automatically. All in all we can say that the status of every person is determined by the culture of that society.

3. Status is always comparable : Status is always comparable because we can come to know about our status by comparing it with the status of another person. If there would be no comparison of two status then how can we come to know that which status is higher or lower. For example, the status of owner of a factory is definitely higher than the status of a manager and we can come to know about this only by comparing it.

4. Every status has psychological base : Person always does hard work to get higher status because of which feelings also come in person. Respect and disrespect are also related with every status and these are related with psychological sector of person. When person achieves that social status with hard work then he gets mental satisfaction. In this way status has a psychological base.

5. Sthtus is of two types : Two types of status are there for every person. First one is Ascribed Status which a person gets without any effort and hard work. For example son, elder brother, elder sister etc. Second type of status is Achieved Status and this type of status person achieves with his hard work while living in society like officer, clerk etc.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

6. Role is determined by status : Any role is definitely related to every status and this role is determined on the basis of social values. Person performs his role according to his status. Some statuses in society are very important and the roles of these statuses are also very important which the relative person has to perform. For example D.C. or S.S.P.

7. Similarity of status but not of functions : Many times it happens that many statuses in society are equal but their functions are different, for example, professors of any college. Status of all of them is same but their function, means subject of teaching is different. They teach different subjects or do different functions but their status is same. There are many engineers in a factory but their functions may be different.

Question 5.
Define role. Write its characteristics in detail.
Answer:
Every person has definitely any status in the society and some demands and responsibilities are also related to that status. These demands tell us that what a person has to do. Person achieves many status on the basis of ability, age, caste, sex etc. and person has to do a number of functions on the basis of tradition of that status. In this way it is expected from the person that what specific function he has to do in specific condition and this function is his role.

Importance of social role is at that time when person performs relative role. In this way status and role are the two sides of the same coin. Humans are differentiated on the basis of their functions. For example doctor, teacher, engineer etc.

It means functions of person are divided on the basis of different sectors. In this way person is given any function in social status on the basis of rules, laws or traditions. This function is role. Role is related with every status.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

In this way we can say that every status has a set of relative functions. This set of functions is known as role. Person is always there on any status and some responsibilities are also there related with those status. The collection of those responsibilities is known as role.

Role of every one is different. In this way roles tell the person about that behaviour which is expected from the person who has that status. Role and status cannot be differentiated. Role is related with status. To know the more clear meaning of status now we will see the definitions of role.

Definitions:
1. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “A role is a set of socially expected and approved behaviour patterns, consisting of both duties and privileges, associated with a particular position in a group.”

2. According to Ginsberg, “Status is a position and a role is the manner in which that position is supposed to be filled.” .

3. According to Fitcher, “When a number of interrelated behaviour patterns are clustered around a social function we call this combination a social role.”

4. According to Kingsley Davis, “Role is the manner in which a person actually carries out the requirements of the position.”
In this way on the basis of these definitions we can say that the meaning of role is related with the specific behaviour of a person which he does in specific conditions.

Role is the way with which person fulfils his responsibilities or functions related with his status. For the maintenance of our social system it is necessary because society cannot run without doing work. In this way role is the accepted way in which a person performs his duties related with his status and uses rights of his status.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Characteristics of Role:
1. One person has many roles. A person gets many statuses while living in society and automatically gets many roles related with those status because he is able to perform those responsibilities or roles. For example, role of father and husband in family, role of clerk or officer in office, role of chairman in club etc. In this way one person performs many roles.

2. Role is determined by our culture. Because a person has many statuses, that’s why he needs to perform roles related with status according to the relative rules, laws, values and traditions. These laws, rules, traditions and values are the part of our culture. That’s why role is regulated by our culture.

3. Role is functional. Role always has one functional aspect. The meaning of functional aspect is that to do work related with that status. Person has to do work related to the status which he has and this is the functional aspect of role.

4. Role is determined by the social sanctions. The nature of humans is not same. If the members of the society will be allowed to work according to their wish then no work would be done in an efficient way. It is so because some will not be able to do that work and some will work against the values of society. That’s why only those roles are accepted by society which have social sanctions. These are determined by our culture that which role would be performgd by which person.

5. Different importance of different roles. S.ome roles in society are very important because they are related with any specific aspect and for them, person needs special training. That’s why they have more importance. In the same way some roles are of less importance because their status is of less importance and there is no need of special training for them. For example, there is a great difference between the role of the I.A.S. officer and a clerk.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

6. Importance of ability in Role. Individual’s ability is of great importance in performing any role. It is so because it is not necessary that he can perform his role in proper way. One person performs one role successfully and in another he fails. It means that person can perform his role in right or wrong way according to his ability.

Social Structure PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes

1. There are many basic concepts of sociology and social structure is one of them. Herbert Spencer was the first Sociologist who used the word social structure. After him, many other Sociologists such as Talcott Parsons, Radcliffe Brown, Maclver etc. also wrote about it.

2. Society has many parts which are connected in. one way or the other. All these parts are inter-related. The systematic form of these interconnected parts is known as social structure. All these parts are abstract but they direct us in one way or the other.

3. Social structure has many features. For example, it is abstract, it has many inter-related parts, one system exists in all of it parts, it regulates our behaviour, it is universal, it expresse the exterior form of society etc.

4. Herbert Spencer wrote a book ‘The Principles of Sociology’ in which he used the word social structure and compared it with living body. He was of the view that the way in which different parts of human body are needed for its smooth functioning, in the same way different parts of social structure play a very important role in its smooth functioning.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

5. There are several elements of social structure and status and role are quite important among all. The meaning of status is the position given to an individual while living in society. One person is given many a status such as officer, father, son, President of a club etc.

6. Status is of two types- Ascribed and Achieved. Ascribed status is that which one gets automatically without any effort. Achieved status is that which one gets due to his efforts and ability.

7. Role is the collection of expectations which are expected to be fulfilled from an individual. Many roles are attached with each status. Only with role, we come to know that how any one will act while sitting on a particular status.

8. There are many features of role such as it is learned, it is functional aspect of status, it has psychological base etc.

9. Status and role are deeply related as they are the two sides of the same coin. If any one is given a status then automatically role is attached with the status. Without role, status is of no imortance and without status, role cannot be performed.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure

Important Terms:

1. Social Structure : Orderly arrangement of different parts is known as social structure.
2. Role Set : When some one gets many roles.
3. Role Conflict : When an individual gets many roles and a conflict starts among them.
4. Role : The expected behaviour of an individual who holds a particular status.
5. Status : Status is the social position of an individual which he needs to obey.
6. Ascribed Status : The status which one gets on the basis of birth.
7. Achieved Status : The status which is achieved through skill and talent.

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 9 Social Structure Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Polity, Religion, Economy and Education Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by power ?
Answer:
Power is the ability of individuals or groups to carry out their will even when opposed by others.

Question 2.
Name the three types of authority given by Max Weber.
Answer:
Traditional authority, Legal authority and Charismatic authority.

Question 3.
What do you mean by economy ?
Answer:
According to Sociologists, “Economy is human activities which are associated with food or property.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 4.
Mention any two elements of state.
Answer:
Population, geographical area, sovereignty and government.

Question 5.
Who gave the theory of animism ?
Answer:
The theory of animism was given by E.B. Tylor.

Question 6.
Who made a ‘distinction between sacred and profane things ?
Answer:
Emile Durkheim made a distinction between sacred and profane things.

Question 7.
Who discussed the idea of naturism ?
Answer:
The idea of naturism was given by Max Muller.

Question 8.
Who calls religion ‘a belief in supernatural being’ ?
Answer:
E.B. Tylor called religion ‘a belief in supernatural being’.

Question 9.
Give the names of two Semitic religions.
Answer:
Islam and Christianity are the two Semitic religions in India.

Question 10.
What do you understand by sect ?
Answer:
Sect is a religious group which is having some specific rituals.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 11.
Give the meaning of cult.
Answer:
Cult is a religious organisation originated from the views and ideology of an individual leader.

Question 12.
Name the two major classes in the capitalist society as given by Karl Marx.
Answer:
Capitalist class and Labour class.

Question 13.
What is formal education ?
Answer:
The education which we get in school, college, university is known as formal education.

Question 14.
Define informal education.
Answer:
The education we get from our family, our daily experiences, our friends etc. is known as informal education.

Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:

Question 1.
What is stateless society ?
Answer:
The societies where there is no institution called state are known as stateless societies. These are simple and ancient societies. These have very less population and people have direct relations. That’s why, to control individual behaviour, there is no need of a formal organisation called state. Council of elders is enough to do so.

Question 2.
Discuss charismatic authority.
Answer:
When a person is influenced by the other in a way that he can do any thing for him, the authority enjoyed by the other is charismatic authority. Many a time people are influenced by the personality of an individual. Religious leaders, political leaders enjoy such authority.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 3.
What is legal-rational authority ?
Answer:
The authority given according to some rules and regulations is known as legal rational authority. Government enjoys legal authority. The President, Prime Minister, different officers have such authority which they enjoy according to the rules given in the constitution.

Question 4.
Write down two merits of Panchayati Raj System.
Answer:
(i) Panchayati Raj System is implemented at local level and common people get a chance to participate in the govt.
(ii) In this system, local problems are solved at local level and the work is done very quickly.

Question 5.
What do you mean by animism and naturism ?
Answer:
(i) Animism : This theory was given by Tylor and according to him, religion originated from the idea of spirit. It means that people believe in spirits and consequently religion originated.

(ii) Naturism : According to this theory, humans in ancient times were afraid of natural phenomona such as thunder, rain, fire etc. That’s why they started worshipping nature and thus religion originated.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 6.
What is an interest group ?
Answer:
An interest group is a group formed by people of a particular group who work only for the interests of their people. They never care about the interests of other people while achieving their interests. For example, trade union, labour union, FICCI etc. .

Question 7.
Write a short note on sacred and profane.
Answer:
Durkheim gave a description of sacred and profane things associated with religion. He says that sacred things are those which are considered above all and seen with great respect. These are not general and are away .from our daily functions. But there are few things which we confront and use on daily basis. These are known as profane.

Question 8.
WTrite a short note on totemism.
Answer:
In totemism, any tribe starts to associate itself with any object especially any animal, tree, plant, stone or anything. They give respect to it and worship it. They consider their origin from that thing. That thing is known as totem.

Question 9.
What is a ‘pastoral economy ?
Answer:
It is a type of economy in which people depend upon domestic animals to earn their livelihood. They are known as pastorals. They rear sheep, goat, cow, camel and horse. Such societies live in the plains with lot of grass or in mountains. They change their habitat with the change in climate.

Question 10.
How does agrarian economy differ from industrial economy ?
Answer:
In agrarian economy, main occupation of the people is agriculture and they live on this. These societies have less population and informal relations. In industrial economy, people are engaged in industries to earn their livelihood. These societies have more population and formal relations among
them.

Question 11.
What is Jajmani system ?
Answer:
This is a system of exchange in which lower castes provide their service to upper castes and they get renumeration for their service. One who gets service is known as Jajman and one who gives is known as Kameen.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 12.
Discuss capitalist society.
Answer:
Western societies are known as capitalist societies where money is earned by investing in industries. Means of production are in the hands of factory owners and they employ labourers to produce things. Major elements of Capitalism are – labourers, means of production, industries, relations between mechanics and owners etc.

Question 13.
What is socialist society ?
Answer:
This concept was given by Karl Marx which says that whole of the economy is in the hands of labourers. Labourers will start revolution against capitalist and will throw away his authority. Then they will establish classless society. Every one will be equal in front of law and they will get according to their needs.

Question 14.
Give example of privatisation of education.
Answer:
In present age, thousands of private schools have opened up in every town, city and metropoliton eity. Private colleges and universities have also opened up. These are the examples of privatisation of education.

Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:

Question 1.
Discuss the views of Emile Durkheim on religion.
Answer:
According to Durkheim, “ A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral comnjunity, called a church, also those who adhere to them.” It means that religion is a collective or social phenomenon which is found as a result of beliefs and practices. On this basis, the people of a group get organised. He divided religious things into sacred and profane.

Question 2.
In what way does religion play an important role in society ?
Answer:
Religion plays an important role in giving stability to society and maintaining social organisation. One religion has millions of followers with common beliefs. Such common beliefs, values and ways of behaviour form a sense of unity atleast in that religion and consequently they unite with each other. This unity helps in strengthening social organization. Each religion tells its followers to give alms, to show sympathy and cooperate with others. It also strengthens society. In this way religion plays a very important role in society.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 3.
What is an educational institution ? Write down the educational policies adopted by the government.
Answer:
An educational institution gives necessary knowledge to an individual and makes him a responsible citizen. The educational policies adopted by the government are as follows :

  1. According to article 45 of the constitution, free and compulsory education will be given to the children upto the age of 14 years.
  2. In 1960, the Kothari Commission laid emphasis on universal enrolment and retention.
  3. In 1986, a national education policy was adopted with emphasis on vocational education and equal educational opportunities for deprived groups.
  4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 1986 and 1992 laid emphasis on providing useful and relevant educational for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.
  5. Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act (2010) states that every child in the age group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of elementary education in age appropriate classroom, in the vicinity of the child’s neighbourhood.

Question 4.
Write the functions of education in brief.
Answer:

  1. Education helps in the intellectual development of an individual.
  2. Education connects an individual with the society.
  3. It helps in maintaining balance in society.
  4. Education helps in transmitting culture from one generation to another.
  5. It helps in developing individual ability.
  6. It develops moral values among children.
  7. It also helps in doing socialisation of an individual.

Question 5.
Write a short note on types of authority by Max Weber.
Answer:
Max Weber gave three types of authority – traditional, legal and charismatic. Traditional authority is that which is traditionally going on and no one raises question mark against it. Father’s authority is of this type of authority in the house. Legal authority is that which one gets according to certain rules and laws. Government is having such authority. Charismatic authority is that which one gets due to his charismatic personality and his followers accept his orders without any cry. Religious leaders, Political leaders enjoy such authority.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 6.
Differentiate a state society from a stateless society.
Answer:
1. Stateless society:
The society which lacks the institution of state is known as stateless society. These are simple and ancient societies. They have less population and people have direct relation among them. That’s why, to control individual behaviour, there is no need of state or government. It is controlled by council of elders.

2. State society:
Modern societies are state societies where authority is in the hands of state which is obtained from the people. Max Weber says that state is a community of people which uses authority in a geographical area with the help of physical force.

Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:

Question 1.
What is meant by political institutions ? Discuss in detail.
Answer:
Our society is quite large and the political system is one of its parts. Political system defines those human roles which help in regulating society. Polity and society are closely related. To control social humans, political institutions are required and these are-power, authority, state, government, Legislature, Executive, Judiciary etc.

These political institutions keep formal control on society and the means to keep this control are government, police, army, courts at etc. So, political institutions are the means which help in maintaining social order. Political institutions are mainly associated with the distribution of power. Among all the political institutions, few are quite important and these are :

1. Power:
Power is the ability of an individual or a group to force their will on others even when they are opposed. It means that those who have power, they enjoy it at the cost of others. The quantity of power is limited in society. Those who have more power, they use it on those who have less or no power and influence them. Elders of the family, General Manager of a company, Government, Ministers etc. enjoy such power.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

2. Authority:
Power is used with the help of authority. It is a form of power which is just and legal. It is institutional and based on legitimacy. Those who have authority, force their will on others as it is considered legitimate. It is implemented not only on humans but on groups and institutions as well. For example, in dictatorship, authority is in the hands of one person, group or party but in democracy, it is in the hands of elected representatives of the people.

3. State:
State is the most important political institution. It is a group of people having a definite geographical area, have population, government and sovereignty. State is a part of society. It affects all the aspects of life but it cannot take the place of society. State is an agency which controls social associations. State influences all the aspects of society and plays a very important role in maintaining balance between them.

4. Government:
Government is an agency of state which has the authority to control the people. It helps in maintaining peace in society. Government has legal sanction because it is elected under certain rules and .has the majority in legislature. Government is an agency to achieve the aims of state. There are three organs of government – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
(i) Legislature : It is a part of government whose function is to make laws for the country. Parliament of the country is known as Legislature.
(ii) Executive : It is another organ of government which implements the laws made by legislature. The President, Prime Minister and other ministers are the part of executive.
(iii) Judiciary : It is the third organ of government which uses the laws made by legislature and implemented by the executive. Our Courts, Judges are the part of Judiciary.

So, different political institutions contribute in running our country in a smooth way. These institutions do their work without interfering in each other’s matters.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 2.
Write a note on Panchayati Raj.
Answer:
There are two ways of development of the local areas in our country. Local governments are there for the development of urban areas and panchayati raj institutions are there for the development of rural areas. Institutions of local government are based upon the concept of division of labour because functions here are divided in government and local groups. 70% of the population in our country lives in rural areas. The institution of local government which administers the rural areas is known as Panchayat.

Panchayati Raj expresses only the institutional structure of rural area. When the British Empire was established in our country, the entire country was under the control of landlords and Zamindars. In 1935, Indian government passed a law which has given the complete sovereignty to states and the panchayati laws were given a new form. In Punjab, one Panchayat Act was passed in 1939 whose aim was to give some powers to the democratically elected institutions with which they could be able to work at a unit of local administration.

On 2nd October, 1961 the three tier structure of Panchayati Raj was applied in the whole country. 73rd constitutional amendment was made in 1992 in which powers were decentralized upto the local level. With this the panchayati raj institutions were given many financial and other types of powers.

Many changes have taken place in Indian rural community during last 65 years. Most of the powers of Indian panchayats were taken away by Britishers. They wanted to run these panchayats according to their own way because of which they applied a new and common legal system in all the villages. Today’s panchayats are the results of the laws made after the independence.

Organization of Village Panchayats. There are two types of panchayats in the village. First type of panchayats which are elected according to the laws made by government and are formal in nature. 2nd type of panchayats are informal and they are known as caste panchayats. They don’t have any legal status but they plays a very important role in keeping social control.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Three types of organization of panchayats exists in our country and these are :

(1) Gram Sabha
(2) Gram Panchayat
(3) Nyaya Panchayat.

1. Gram Sabha.r All the adult persons of total population, of the village, are the members pf Gram Sabha and it is the complete unit of the whole population of the village. This is the basic unit on which the whole structure of our democracy rests. Gram Sabha can be made in that village whose population is more then 250.

If the population of one village is less than 250 then two villages can jointly make the Gram Sabha. Every adult of the village is the member of Gram Sabha, who has the right to vote. There is one chairman and some members of every Gram Sabha. It is elected for 5 years. ,

Functions of Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha approves the annual budget and the functions to be done for the development of the village and helps in applying these function. It also helps in doing the functions of social welfare, programmes of adult education and of family welfare. It also plays an important role in keeping unity in the village.

Village Panchayat or Gram Panchayat. Every Gram Sabha elects one Gram Panchayat from its area. In this way the Gram Sabha is an executive institution which elects members for the Gram Panchayat. It has one Sarpanch and 5-13 panches. There are certain places in Panchayats which are reserved for backward classes and females. It is generally elected for 5 years but state government can dissolve them even before 5 years if it will try to misuse its powers.

If any Gram Sabha is dissolved before completion of its term then all of its position will also comes to an end. Village is generally divided in different parts to elect Panchs and Gram Panchayats. Then the Panches and Sarpanch are elected by the members of Gram Sabha.

One third of the total seats in Gram Panchayat are reserved for women and the seats are also reserved for backward classes according to the ratio of their population in that area. Any governmental official and mentally ill person cannot be elected for panchayat. Gram Panchayat works for the sanitation, recreation, development of industries and means of communication. It also solves the problems of the village. Functions of Panchayats.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Gram Panchayat performs many functions for the village which are given below :
(1) The first important function of Gram Panchayat is to raise the economic and social standard of life of the people. There are many social evils in villages. Panchayat motivates the people to remove those evils and tries to change their traditional point of view.

(2) For the allround development of any area, it is necessary that illiteracy should be eradicated from that area and it is the main reason of backwardness of Indian Society. Indian villages are also backward due to this reason. Panchayat tries to open schools in village and motivates the people to send their children in the school. It also arranges the adult education centre to teach the adults of the village.

(3) Panchayat of the village also works for the welfare of the women and children of the village. It also arranges for giving education to females. The function of arrangement of good food and recreational facilities is also of Panchayat.

(4) There are no means of recreation in rural areas. That’s why Panchayat also arranges to provide recreational means in the village. Panchayat arranges for films, organizing fairs and to’opening up of library in the village.

(5) Increase in production is necessary in the agriculture based country. Panchayat tells the people about new techniques of agriculture, arranges for the new seeds and developed fertilizers for them so that their agricultural production could.be increased.

(6) It is very much necessary to establish small scale industries in villages for its allround development. That’s why Panchayat tries to establish small scale industries in villages with the help of governmental help. It helps in economic progress of the village and people get employment in their villages.

(7) Means of irrigation are of great importance in good production of agriculture. Gram Panchayat arranges the wells and tubewells in Gram Panchayat. It also arranges for river water so that the people could be able to irrigate their fields.

(8) Generally people are fighting in villages. Panchayat tries to solve their problems in village. Panchayat Samiti. Panchayats coming in one block are the members of the Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanchs of these Panchayats are the members of Panchayat Samiti.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayati Raj.

Zila Parishad. The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in the district. It is an executive institution. Chairman’s of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad.

All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions such as the improvement of agriculture, improvement of land, irrigation, rural electrification, arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries etc.

Question 3.
In what way do interest groups act as pressure groups ?
Answer:
During the last few decades, a new concept of division of labour has come forward. In this concept, different people are employed in different professions and as a result, many professional groups have emerged. All these professional groups have their personal interests and they continually work to achieve them. So, the groups which care about the interests of their people and continualy work to achieve their aims are known as interest groups.

In present democratic societies, they always try to change political decisions according to their interests. If need arises, they pledge their support to the political parties and through them, try to influence official decisions. Almost all the interest groups have an objective to achieve higher status in the national politics.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

That’s why they pressurise the govt to make policies in their favour. When they start to pressurise the govt, they take the form of pressure group. Pressure groups are organised or unorganised groups who influence govt, policies and promote their interests.

The ways in which they try to influence politices are given below :

  1. These pressure groups start a movement on a particular issue to gain public support. They take the help of mass media to draw attention of the people.
  2. They generally opt. for strikes, processions and create hurdles in government functioning. They declare strikes to raise their voice. Most of the labour unions opt. for this method to get “their demands met.
  3. Most of the trade groups create a loby, with few common motives, to pressurise the govt to change its policies.
  4. Each pressure .group or interest group is associated with some political party.
    They support these parties during elections to get their demands met after winning elections and forming the government.

Question 4.
Define Religion. Describe its features.
Answer:
The most difficult function for sociologists is to give that definition which should be accepted by every one and all sections of the society. It’s reason is that the nature of religion is very complex and different Sociologists have different views about it.

It is so because different sociologists are related with different countries and different cultures. There are many religions in the world and because of this diversity, they all are unable to reach on any consensus about the definition of religion. But still different Sociologists have given different definitions of religion which are as follows –

  • According to Frazer, “Religion is belief in powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.”
  • According to Maclver, “Religion as we understand the term implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.”
  • According to Durkheim, “Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things is to say things set apart and forbidden.”
  • According to Malinowski, “Religion is a mode of action as well as system of belief and an ecological, phenomenons as well as personal experience.”

Therefore, from these definitions it is clear that the base of religion is the belief in super- natural power and this power is believed as superior and powerful to man.

It keeps control over all the elements of life which are important for man. Its one base is emotional. There are many methods and rituals to keep this power happy. It is clear that the acceptance of religion is beyond social because religion is explained by supernatural forces. Religion is used very widely in society. According to sociologists, religion represents the habits and emotional experiences of man. Religion came into being because of the feelings of fear and the respect of humans towards many things.

According to Tylor, religion was developed because of belief of ancient humans in the spirits of ancestors. According to this belief, spirit lives at any place, in any thing or animal after the death. It can affect human life. To keep these spirits happy, man started to worship these spirits and from here the origin of religion starts.

Features of Religion:
1. Belief in Supernatural Power. Religion is the complexity of thoughts, feelings and methods which express its belief in super regulates powers. This power is universal and all powerful. It is believed that this power regulates human action. In this way the first characteristics of religion is the belief in supernatural power.

The basis of this super-natural power are different but this power definitely exists in all religions. If any one doesn’t have faith in this power than he doesn’t have faith in religion and because of, this, existence of that person comes to an end. This power is powerful and better than human power. This power is believed to be beyond the range of human brain about which man says that he is afraid of this power.

2. Rituals. Religious rituals are the actions determined by religion. They are sacred in themselves and are the symbols of sacredness. For example according to Hindu religion, there are many fasts and pilgrimages which are religious rituals. Religious rituals bind together the followers of one religion and differentiate them from the followers of another religion.

3. Religious Acts. Another important feature*of religion is that it has different religious acts and actions. With the help of these religious acts man always tries to keep happy to supernatural powers and he expresses his belief in these supernatural powers by doing those acts. These acts are of two kinds. First one are those actions for which special religious knowledge is necessary.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

This function has been done by religious priests in every religion. Second are simple religious acts like prayer and going for pilgrimage which even a layman can do very easily. But in every religion one belief prevails that man can keep natural powers happy by completing religious functions.

4. Religious Symbols. In every religion certain symbols are used to see these super natural powers. Like in Hindu religion portraits and sculptures are worshipped. In every religion some stories are there related to this supernatural powers. People believe that by believing these supernatural stories they can keep happy that almighty.

5. Religious Hierarchy. All the followers of any religion don’t have equal status in religious group. In every religion, a system of hierarchy exists. People who sit at high posts, are generally those who are experts in doing religious acts like priests. At second place those persons come who have full faith in religious representatives and concepts. At the end those persons come who cannot be called as sacred and who do those impure functions given by religion. They are restricted in almost all the religions.

6. Religious books. Every religion has one important feature and that is the religious books related to those religions. In every religion, some religious persons are there who write religious books and every religion has some religious stories whose description is generally given in those books. Like in Hindu religion Mahabharta, Ramayana, Bhagwat Gita, Four Vedas, Manu Smriti etc. are there. In the same way ‘Quran’ of Islam, ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs and ‘Bible’ of Christianity are the religious books.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 5.
In what way is religion useful and harmful for the society ?
Answer:
1. To give stability to social organization. Religion plays an important role in providing stability to the society and maintaining social organization. Millions of people are there in one religion who have common beliefs. These common beliefs, values and ways of behaviour forms a sense of unity atleast in that religion with which unity comes in that group.

In this way this unity helps in strengthening social organization. Every religion tells its people to give alms, to show sympathy and to cooperate with others because of which stability comes in society. In this way religion saves its people from instability and gives stability to society.

2. Religion gives, definite form to Social Life. Religion is the collection of customs and mores. These customs and mores are parts of the culture also. In this way balance is maintained between social atmosphere and culture. Because of this balance social life gets definite form. Because of religion people respect customs, mores etc. and others also maintain this balance. In this way because of this balance social life moves in a proper way and all this is because of religion.

3. To organise Family Life. Marriage in different religions is done according to different religious traditions. Because of religious traditions religion becomes permanent and its life and organization strengthens. Every religion defines the duties and rights of different members. It tells the parents ahd children that what are their duties towards each other.

Every one, while living in family, obeys and fulfils the duties towards each other and cooperates with each other to run the family. It helps in maintaining balance between members of the family. All the functions of the family are determined by religion. ‘

4. To remove mutual differences. There are many religions in this world. They do not ask their followers to fight with the followers of another religion. Instead they ask to live with each other with love and peace and they ask their followers to remove their mutual differences. Removal of differences will increase unity in the society. That’s why all the religions and the leaders have tried to uplift the lower castes. Gandhiji had tried all his life to uplift scheduled castes and untouchables.

5. To keep Social Control. Religion is one of the important means of social control. Religion has the sanction of the society behind it. Religion affects the people forcefully even without their wish and the person feels that religion is putting a great effect on him.

Religion controls and directs its followers in such a way that the person has to obey the teachings of religion. Religion is the belief in the supernatural power and people never try to work against the wishes of that supernatural power because they are afraid of it. In this way the behaviour and ways of action are controlled by religion.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

6. Social Welfare. Every religion encourages its members to do works of social welfare. In all the religions of the world giving alms is known as sacred. People are giving help to orphanages, hospitals, schools etc. and helping them by giving them money. People of every religion distribute food, clothes, medicine, money to poor people. They are doing this because their religion asks them to do so. In this way religion encourages the works of social welfare.

Dysfunctions or Demerits of Religion:
1. Religion is an Obstacle in Social Progress. Religion is fundamentalist by nature and change is the law of nature. Changes are often coming in society because of which society can develop from materialistic point of view but not from spiritual point of view. Religion is basically against any change.

Religion is not in the favour of any change. In fact it believes in keeping the situation as it is. Changed circumstances are not according to the religion because of which religion opposes the change. By opposing the change it becomes an obstacle.

2. Man becomes Fatalist. Religion says that whatever is written in man’s fate he will definitely get that. He will neither get more than that nor get less than that. After thinking this thing man stops working and says that if he will get according to fate then what is the advantage of doing work ? Whatever is written in his fate he will get that. In this way man leaves everything to fate. But he forgets that a person makes and change his own fate. If he will not work then what he will make and change. In this way man leaves everything to fate and becomes fatalist.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

3. Opposite to National Unity. We can call the religion as opposite to National Unity. Generally every religion asks its followers to, go according to its rules and generally these rules are against other religion. While loving their religion, sometimes people start opposing other religions. This opposition results in religious narrowness and intolerance. This religious intolerance is dangerous for the unity of the country and even sometimes communal violence starts in different religions. In this way sometimes religion works against National Unity.

4. Religion Increases the Social Problems. There are certain custo’ms and rituals in every religion and according to priests and religious persons these customs and rituals are necessary for every person. Religious persons call their followers to go against other religion. Because of religion many problems in our country like child marriage, Sati system, Dowry system, no widow marriage, untouchability, poverty etc. came. Religion is responsible directly or indirectly for these problems. The government has made many laws to solve these problems but still religion is an obstacle in the way of their solution.

5. Religion is ah Obstacle in the Way of Change. Religion is always against change and is an obstacle in the way of change. Different types of inventions and discoveries are coming in the world. Because religion is always fundamentalist and that’s why it is against change. Any change of the society is opposed by religion. For example when a law was made against Sati system then it was opposed by religious persons. In this way religion is always against materialistic changes of the world.

Question 6.
Briefly discuss the characteristics of primitive, pastoral, agrarian and industrial economies.
Answer:
(i) Primitive Economy. Many tribes live in far off places in forests and mountains. Yet most of the tribes have joined the main stream due to means of transport and have also adopted the occupation of agriculture but still many tribes are there who still spend their life as hunters and food gatherers. They collect roots, fruits, honey etc. and even are hunting smaller animals. Some tribes also exchange many things. In this way they fulfil their needs in the absence of agriculture.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Those tribes are known as ancient tribes which fulfil their needs in this way. These people not only kill animals but also collect fruits, roots and honey from the jungles. In this way they fulfil their needs even without the presence of agriculture. We can come to know about their culture after looking at their way of hunting.

These societies lack tools and means because of which they are the shadow of ancient tribes. There is no concept of surplus production in their societies. It is so because they can neither produce any thing surplus nor they can keep the surplus production. They live like wanderers. Tribes of Chenchu, Katkari, Kames, Baija, Khariya, Kuch, Paliyan etc. live this type of life.

(ii) Pastoral Economy. Pastoral economy is one of the important parts of tribal economy. Tribal people rear animals for different purposes like to take milk, meat and wool and to carry weight. Pastoral tribes of India live a static and permanent life and none according to the season. Tribes of mountainous region move towards plains in the winter season and come back to their areas in summer season. The main pastoral tribe of India is the Gujjar tribe of Himachal Pradesh which rears buffaloes, cows and sheep for business purposes.

This custom also prevails in the Toda tribe of Tamilnadu. This tribe rears animals and gets milk from them. Milk is used either to exchange things or it is used to fulfil their own needs. Indian tribes generally live a permanent life. They live at one place, rear animals and get many things from them such as milk, wool, meat etc. They also trade in animals such as sheep, goat etc.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

(iii) Agricultural economy. The main occupation of rural society is either agriculture or any of the related work because they are very much closely related with nature. Because they are closely related to nature, that’s why their views towards life are very much different.

Yet many other occupations like carpenter, blacksmith etc. are there in villages but they also make tools related to agriculture. Land is considered as a very important thing in tribal society and people like to live here because their life depends upon the land. Even the economic, system and development of people and villages depend upon agriculture.

(iv) Industrial economy. Urban economy can also be called industrial economy because urban economy depends upon industries. Very large industries are there in cities where thousands of people work with each other. Production is also on large scale due to large scale industries. Owners of these larger industries are different individuals.

Production is done for the market. They produce not only for internal markets of the country but for foreign markets as well. Even in some cases, production is being done only for foreign markets. Owners of these big industries produce things only for their profit and they exploit the labourers as well.

We can find a number of occupations and occupational diversity in urban societies. Family, in earlier times, was the unit of productions. All the functions were being done only in the family. But due to advent of urban areas, thousands of occupations and industries were developed. For example we confine many types of functions in a factory and we need specialised person to do any specific type to work.

Only the skilled person can do that specific work. In this way functions in cities are divided among different people because of which division of labour prevails in urban society. People are specialised in their work and that’s why specialisation is of great importance. In this way division of labour and specialisation are two important aspects of urban economy.

Question 7.
Write a note on division of labour.
Answer:
In 1893 Durkheim published his first book in French language called ‘De La Division du Trovail Social’. Yet it was his first writing but it was a strong base of his popularity. On this book only he got doctorate from Paris University in 1893. In this great book he has fully explained the social division of labour. Durkheim’s this book has been divided in three parts. In every part he has analysed the different aspects of labour.

In the first part of his book ‘Functions of Division of Labour’ he has tried to prove that division of labour is the base of social solidarity. With that from the point of view of scientific study he has explained different forms of Law, Types of solidarity, different forms of human relations, crime, punishment, social evolution and some problems of society. In second part of this book he has given detailed explanation of reasons and results of division of labour. In 3rd part of this book he has given some abnormal forms of division of labour.

1. Functions of Division of Labour. Durkheim accepts every , social fact as moral fact. Any social behaviour lives on the base of moral base. As a functionalist first of all Durkheim has given function of division of labour. According to him, division of labour is a social fact, that’s why he started his book from its functional analysis. First of all fourkheim has given the meaning of function.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

He has given two meanings of function :
(а) Meaning of function is from system of movement which means from action.
(b) Second meaning of function is from this action or movement and from interrelation according to its needs which means The need to be fulfilled by action. Here Durkheim is using meaning of function from second point of view. In this way by function of division of labour his meaning is that by which basic of social existence is fulfilled by the process of division of labour. Function is that in the absence o’f which, the basic needs of its units cannot be fulfilled.

Generally it is been said that the function of division of labour is the development of society because it is a truth that with the development of division of labour and specialization, civilization in the societies increases. Because of division of labour the production force increases, material and intellectual aspect develops, leisure increases in general life and knowledge increases. That’s why generally division of labour is known as the source of civilization.

But Durkheim was against that. He said that the development of civilization is not the function of division of labour. According to him, the meaning of source is not the function. Increase in leisure, development of material and mental level comes due to result of division of labour. That’s why it is the result of this process, not the function. Meaning of function is not the result.

In the development of the society three kinds of development are included. Three types are :
(a) Industrial or economic aspect
(b) Intellectual aspect
(c) Scientific aspect.

Durkheim was of the view that all these three aspects of development are without moral facts. So with the development of industrial, intellectual and scientific aspect, crime, suicide and other immoral phenomena also increases in societies. So according to him the function of division of labour is not the development of civilization.

But what is the function of division of labour ? According to him to make new groups and their solidarity or unity are the functions of division of labour. He has tried to find any moral need related with the existence of society as the function of division of labour. According to him with the increase in members of society and their inter-relations, slowly and slowly the process of division of labour also develops.

In this process so many new business and social groups have been made. For the existence of society the unity or solidarity of these groups is must. Without the solidarity of these groups we cannot imagine the balance in social system. So solidarity is the moral need of different groups.

According to him this need of society is fulfilled by division of labour. On one side division of labour makes new social groups and with that it also helps in maintaining unity and collectivity of these groups. So the function of division of labour is to establish unity in society. Division of labour is related with the differences of functions of humans and these differences are the bases of social solidarity.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

He has given factual base for this social reality. He was of the view that the important function is not that it increases the production with the divided work but it organises and unites them. So division of labour makes new social groups and produces unity among them.

(A) Law and Solidarity. Durkheim had the view .that the function of division of labour is to produce solidarity in society. Social solidarity is a moral fact. To clarify the social solidarity which came from division of labour classifies the laws. According to the classification of laws he has decided the types of social solidarity. To classify laws he has taken sanctions, related to that law, as base.

He has given two types of laws:
(i) Repressive law. Repressive laws can be called as Public laws.
These ar’e of two types.
(a) Penal law. These are related with giving suffering, causing loss, to kill and to obstract independence. We can call them organised Repressive laws.
(b) Diffused law. Some repressive laws are there which are spread in the whole society or group on the basis of morality. That’s why Durkheim is calling them diffused law. According to Durkheim, Repressive laws are related with criminal functions.

These laws explain the crime and its punishment. These laws also show the basic conditions of collective life of society. Every society has its basic circumstances. So in different societies repressive laws are also different. The power of these repressive laws is based in collective mind and collective mind gets power from equalities.

(ii) Restitutive law. Another type of law is the Restitutive law system. These laws provide balance to the imbalance produced in the human relations. In this group civil laws, business laws, constitutional laws, administrative laws are included. These laws are not related with , the whole society but are related with human. These laws are regulating the balance and imbalance produced in the personal relations of members of society. Restitutive laws are joining individuals and society with some middle institutions.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

On the basis of these two types of laws according to Durkheim two types of solidarities can be made. These two types of solidarities are the result of two different types of lifestyles. Repressive laws are related with general nature of man and with equalities. But Restitutive laws are related with differences or with division of labour.

The type of solidarity which comes due to Repressive laws, according to Durkheim, is Mechanical Solidarity and the solidarity which comes due to Restitutive laws is called Organic Solidarity whose base is division of labour.

In this way according to Durkheim there are two types of social solidarities :
1. Mechanical Solidarity. According to Durkheim, Mechanical solidarity can be seen in the repressive laws of society. The bases of this solidarity are the equalities available in the members of the society. The society in which the life of members is full of equalities, where general norms of thoughts, beliefs, functions, lifestyle and ideal are there and the society which thinks, works as a collective unit on the basis of these equalities shows mechanical solidarity.

Its members are united like a machine. In old primitive societies mechanical solidarity was there. He was of the view that even crime helps in binding the people in solidarity. In this way there is existence of one social solidarity which comes out of definite conditions of consciousness which are normal for the members of any society. These can be shown by Repressive laws. These are based on the power of collective consciousness.

2. Organic Solidarity. According to Durkheim, the second type of solidarity is organic solidarity. The power of Repressive laws is in collective consciousness. Collective consciousness gets power from equalities. In primitive societies repressive laws were there because the base of social life were equalities. According to Durkheim, modern societies are influenced by division of labour and specialization in which instead of equalities, inequalities are the base. This difference of group or collective life gives importance to individual consciousness.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

In modern societies man is not directly united with group. In these societies there is a lot of importance of mutual relations of humans. That’s why he was of the view that in modern societies instead of Repressive laws, Restitutive laws are important. In the societies which are based on differences humans are dependent upon each other. Every human can specialize in one field and for other works he is dependent upon others.

This inter-dependence of members of group or society and their personal inequalities force them to come closer to each other with the help of which solidarity in society would be established. To this type of solidarity Durkheim gives the name of organic solidarity. This can be seen in restitutive social system.

3. Contractual Solidarity. After analysing the mechanical and organic solidarity Durkheim has also written about one more solidarity which is known as Contractual Solidarity. According to Durkheim, the process of division of labour gives birth to contractual relations. People of a group are getting the services of each other on the basis of mutual contracts and mutually they are cooperating with each other.

It is right that in modern societies people are establishing cooperation and solidarity on the basis of contracts. But the function of division of labour is not to give birth to contractual solidarity. According to him, contractual solidarity is individual fact, but it is regulated by society.

2. Causes and Conditions. The second part of book ‘Division of Labour in Society’ is related with causes, conditions and results and these are given ahead :
Causes of Division of Labour. Durkheim has explained division of labour on Sociological basis. He has found the causes of division of labour in the conditions of social life and in the social needs produced from them. From this point of view, he has

divided the causes of division of labour in two parts :
(a) Primary Causes
(b) Secondary Causes.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

(а) Increase in the size and density of Population. According to Durkheim, the increase in size and density of population is the central and primary reason of division of labour. He says that the increase of population has two aspects-increase in size of population and increase in density of population.

These both aspects give birth to division of labour. With the increase in population old primitive societies are disintegrating and new mixed societies are coming into being. Population started to concentrate in few centres. The density of population he has divided in two parts :

(i) Material Density:
From physical point of view concentration of people at one place is material density.

(ii) Moral Density:
Because of Material density relations of the people are increasing with which actions and reactions are increasing. The complexity which came out of increased rq,utual relations and inter-relations, Durkheim is calling dynamic or Moral Density.

(b) Unclarity of Collective Consciousness. In secondary reasons of division of labour he has given first place to unclarity of collective consciousness. In equality based societies, collective consciousness is quite strong because of which members of societies cannot be motivated by individual or personal point of view. Collective feelings are showing them the way.

Durkheim was of the view that division of labour and individual specialization is possible in that condition when instead of collective point of view, individual point of view will develop and when individual consciousness suppresses collective consciousness. So according to him, the development of division of labour will be slow and difficult if collective consciousness is strong and definite. If this collective consciousness will be loose enough then the division of labour vyill move with quite a good speed.

(c) Ancestral reason and division of labour. The second cause of the division of labour according to Durkheim is the decreasing influence of ancestral influence. How much more influence these ancestral qualities can exert on man that much less chances will be there for change. In other words for the development of division of labour it is must that we should not give importance to ancestral qualities. The development of the division of labour is possible only if there will be differences in the nature and behaviour of the people.

The result of classifying people on the base of their ancestral qualities and with binding them with their ancestors is that man has not been able to develop his special qualities and does not change. In this way it is an obstacle in the distribution of division of labour. He was of view that with the passage of time and change these ancestral bindings yvill become so weak that their ancestral qualities will also become weak. So slowly and slowly different qualities of people will develop and then division of labour will also develop.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

Question 8.
Define economic institution. Write down the changes taking place in economic system.
Answer:
Every person has some of his basic needs like food, cloth and shelter. Man always does efforts to fulfil his basic needs. Because of these efforts, economic institutions come in front of us. But here one question arises that if economic activities of humans are being studied by Economics then what they are doing in Sociology ? Then its answer is that economic activities affect other aspects and institutions of human life like religion, family, marriage, kinship etc.

These institutions are of great importance in the human life. That’s why, because the economic institutions affect all the other institutions, interest of sociology has also increased to study these economic institutions. If any change comes in economic institutions then change also comes in all the other institutions. That’s why the importance of economic institutions has been increased. Now we will see that what are economic institutions.

Economic institutions are those institutions which arrange for the things for production, distribution and consumption for the people. Economic institutions are of great importance in society. That’s why different forms of society have been divided on the basis of economy or economic institutions like hunting society, agricultural society and industrial society. All the other institutions of society like family, marriage, religion etc. are affected by these economic institutions.

Economic institutions tell a person and to his coming generations that every society has some of its limited means. These institutions tell every person that he has to use those limited means, their production, distribution and consumption and how he has to use these means for every one. In this way it is a system with which people satisfy their needs and find the solutions of their economic problems. In this way the functions of economic institutions are the production, distribution, consumption and selection of exchange.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

According to Jones, “The economic selection of Exchange, complex of techniques, ideas and customs relating to the exploitation of the environment for the satisfaction of subsistence needs.” According to Davis, “The basic ideas, norms,»and statuses which govern the allocation of scarce goods in any society whether the primitive or civilized, we call it economic institutions.” .

According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The activities of man in relation to fo,od and property constitute the economic institutions.”
In this way after looking at these given definitions we can say that the definite and organised forms of actions done by man to fulfil his basic needs are known as economic institutions.

Changes Coming in the Economic Institutions :
Right since the beginning of the 20th Century, many changes have started to come in the economic institutions

which are given below :

  • Now production is done on a large scale and for this pupose, a new technique of‘Assembly Line’ has emerged. In this, humans and machines both help in producing a new thing.
  • Large machines are used in the production so that it can be done on a large scale.
  • Due to the process of globalisation, all the countries have opened up their economic barriers. Almost all the countries have reduced custom duties. That’s why goods made in a particular country are easily available everywhere.
  • The process of Liberalisation has also brought many changes in the functioning of economic institutions. After 1991, Indian Government adopted the liberalisation policy which expanded the Indian economy. Many multi-national companies opened up their factories in India which reduced unemployment over here.
  • Many computer based industries have opened up in India. B.P.O. Industry, Call centres, Software services etc. have played a very important role in earning foreign exchange for the country. It has connected Indian economy with the other economies. The use of machines in all the industries has been increased to a great extent.

Question 9.
Define education. Differentiate between formal and informal education with examples.
Answer:
Education is the most important mean of socialisation. It is the best method to transmit cultural values to the next generation. Education is of great help in maintaining balance with industrialisation, urbanisation and other processes. Education is not limited only to the bookish knowledge. It gives every type of knowledge to an individual regarding ways of living life.

It also develops many traits among individuals such as love, friendship, discipline etc. According to Durkheim, “Education is the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life.”
According to Philips, “Education is the institution whose central point is collection of knowledge.” ‘

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

So we can say that education is a process which is a mixture of empirical knowledge and conceptual and practical ideas whose major aim is to establish balance between. an individual’s social and natural environment. It plays a very important role in social control.
Mainly education is of two types:
(i) Formal Education
(ii) Informal Education.

(i) Formal Education :
Formal education is the education which we get formally in school, college, university etc. Such education has definite curriculum and teachers teach according to this curriculum. Such education has a clear motive and that is allround development of an individual and to make him a better citizen of society. Such education is given according to a particular objective. It is having three levels- primary, college and university. Each level has a definite organisation which includes teachers, students and other staff.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

(ii) Informal Education :
Informal education is the education which one never gets in school, college or university but he gets it from his daily experiences, views of other persons, family, neighbourhood, friends etc. It means that an individual always learns something from his daily life. It does not have a fixed time, fixed curriculum or a definite place. One can get it at any place and from any one. No degree is given for this but one becomes mature with informal education.

Question 10.
Discuss the views of functionalist sociologists on the role of education in society.
Answer:
If we observe the modern society, we come to know that no other factor has greatly contributed in changing society as education has contributed. Education has played a very important role in bringing change in society. With the increase in education, the first changes came in the European society, and later on in the second half of twentieth century, changes came in the Asian society. These changes completely revolutionized whole of society. Modernization in India came due to education. People in the Indian society, started taking education which brought allround development over here.

Change in the status of women, change in the status of lower castes, all this has happened due to education. That’s why for sociologists, education is a very important subject to study so that they could find its impact on society. As a factor of social change, sociologists show great interest in the study of education.

According to them, education changes a human from an animal to a cultural and civilized person. According to the French Sociologist Emile Durkheim, “Education is the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

It means that education exerts its impact on the coming generation with which it can prepare itself to live in society. Durkheim says that society can survive when homogeneity exists among members, which is reinforced by education. Only through education, a child learns the basic rules, norms, values and ways to live in society.

Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore also highlighted the functional aspect of education. According to them, social stratification is a process with which able persons are given suitable status in society. This aim is achieved only through education and it ensures that suitable person should get suitable place.

Polity, Religion, Economy And Education PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes

1. There exist many institutions in our society. In social institutions, we can include marriage, family and kinship. Except social institutions, there are many other institutions such as political, religious, economic, educational etc.

2. Political System is a sub-system of society. It fixes such human roles which are necessary to maintain law and order in society. There is a great relationship between polity and society.

3. In Sociology, information of political institutions is used to understand many concepts such as power, leadership, authority etc. Such political institutions help us in maintaining peace and security in society.

4. Power is the ability of individuals or groups to carry out their will even when
opposed by others. Definite and fixed amount of power exists in society. Few groups have more power and they exercise their power over the group
which is having less power.

5. Power is applied with the help of authority. Authority is a form of power which is considered just and legitimate. Those who have authority, they use power because they consider it justified.

6. Different societies have different states. In few societies, there is no concept of state and they are considered stateless societies. Such states existed in the ancient societies. In modern societies, authority is included in the concept of state and it is obtained from the people.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

7. Max Weber gave three types of authority- traditional, legal and charismatic. Father’s authority is traditional, Government’s authority is legal and accepting any leader’s will is called charismatic authority.

8. State is the basic institution of political system. It has four essential elements and these are population, geographical area, sovereignty and government.

9. There are three organs of government and these are-Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. To maintain State and government, proper balance between these three organs is necessary.

10. Present day political system runs with democracy. It is of two types—direct and indirect. In direct democracy, people decide of their own and in indirect democracy, people’s elected representatives take all the decisions.

11. Government in our country has adopted the decentralised system and govts, are made till local level. In rural areas, Panchayat is established at village level, Block Samiti at block level and Zila Parished at district level and they are responsible for doing development in their respective areas.

12. In democracy, political parties keep a very important place. A political party is a group of people whose main objective is to attain power by contesting elections. Few parties are national parties and few are regional parties.

13. Interest groups keep a very important place in democracy. They are attached with any particular group and they work to achieve the interests of their group.

14. Religion has existed in society since the time when human society started. Religion is nothing but faith in super-natural power which is beyond our existence and reach.

15. Many religions exist in our country India such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism (Parsi) etc. India is a multi-religious country where people of many religions live in peace and harmony with each other.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education

16. Every person needs money to buy food, cloth, house,health services etc. and all these are important parts of our economy. Economic institutions take care of our income and expenditure.

17. Different societies have different economies. Few societies have collective economies, few are pastoral economies, rural economies, industrial economies and capitalist economies. Karl Marx also gave a new economy called socialist economy.

18. The concept of division of labour is not new to our society. When people start to do a specific work and are unable to do all the works, it is called specialisation and division of labour. Caste system and Jajmani system in India are one such type of division of labour.

19. If we observe our society, we can say that nothing in our society, is possible without education. Education changes an uncivilised person into a civilised individual.

20. Education is of two types – formal and informal. Formal education is that which we get in school, college etc. and informal education is that which we get from our daily life experiences.

Important Terms:

  • Authority : Power established by political system in its geographical area.
  • Division of Labour : The system in which occupations are divided into different parts and every occupation is given to an individual or group.
  • Economy : System of production, distribution and consumption.
  • Globalisation : The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, ideas, products and other aspects of culture.
  • Totem : Considering any tree, plant, stone or any other thing as sacred.
  • State Society : The society in which formal organisation of government exists.
  • Stateless society : The society in which there is no formal organisation of government.
  • Pressure groups : Such groups in a democratic system which work for the interests of a particular group.
  • State : State is a group with four essential features—population, geographical area, sovereignty and government.

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Marriage, Family and Kinship Textbook Questions and Answers

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by endogamy ?
Answer:
Endogamy is a type of marriage in which one needs to marry within a particular group, caste or sub-caste.

Question 2.
Name the important bases for emergence of the institution of marriage.
Answer:
Physical need, emotional need, perpetuation of society, to upbring the children etc.

Question 3.
What is Monogamy ?
Answer:
Monogamy is a type of marriage in which one male marries with one female.

Question 4.
What is sororate marriage ?
Answer:
In this type of marriage, man, after the death of his wife, marries her sister.

Question 5.
Mention the types of polyandry.
Answer:
It is of two types : fraternal polyandry in which all the husbands are the brothers and non-fraternal polyandry in which all the husbands are not brothers.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Question 6.
State the types of polygyny.
Answer:
It is of two types : Bigamy in which a male has two wives and polygamy in which a male has many wives. .

Question 7.
Give few examples of endogamy.
Answer:
Among Muslims, Shias and Sunnis are endogamous groups and among Christians, Roman Catholics and Protestants are also endogamous groups.

Question 8.
Define Marriage.
Answer:
According to Lundberg, “Marriage consists of the rules and regulations, which define the rights, duties and privileges of husband and wife with respect to each other.”

Question 9.
Mention two functions of family.
Answer:
(i) Family socialises its children.
(ii) Family gives property to its children.

Question 10.
Write the name of the forms of family on the basis of composition.
Answer:
On the basis of composition, family is of three types-Nuclear family, Joint family and Extended family.

Question 11.
Write the name of the forms of family on the basis of authority.
Answer:
On the basis of authority, there are two types of family-Patriarchal and Matriarchal family.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Question 12.
What is affinal relationship ?
Answer:
Affinal relationship is the relationship which is made after marriage. For example, father-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law etc.

Question 13.
What do you mean by Joint family ?
Answer:
Joint family is the family in which members of two or more generations live under one roof and eat in a common kitchen.

Question 14.
What do you mean by kinship ?
Answer:
In Kinship, all the relations are included which are based on real or imaginative ties and are influenced by society.

Question 15.
Name the degrees of kinship.
Answer:
There are three degrees of kinship-primary, secondary and tertiary.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:

Question 1.
What do you understand by the term institution ?
Answer:
An institution is not a group of people or an organisation. It is a system of norms to achieve few objectives. It is a collection of folkways centred around specific human activities. Institutions are transmitted process with which humans complete their functions.

Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by institution ? Discuss its characteristics.
Answer:
Meaning of Institution. We use the word ‘institution’ thousands of time in our life. According to a layman, the meaning of an institution is any building. But in sociology the meaning of an institution is not any building or collection of people. Sociologists use the meaning of institution in detail and according to society. According to them, an institution is a system of rules or norms which help people to fulfil their needs. In this way institution is the collection of folkways and mores to fulfil the needs or actions of society.

These are those processes with the help of which man does his work. Institution is that organized system of relations in which values of society are included and which fulfil the needs of society. Their function is to fulfil the needs of human and to fulfil functions and behaviour of an individual. In this web of status and roles, their an distribution is also there.

In this way we can say that an institution is an organisation of methods and rules for fulfilling the needs of individuals. Man has to take membership of many groups to fulfil his needs. In every group lots of efforts have been done to fulfil the needs of its members. After many successful and unsuccessful efforts members of the groups finds the ways of fulfilling their needs and all the members of the society accept these ways. In this Way most of the members of society start to obey those rules.

In this way for the specific conditions, specific ways will be decided and it will be wrong to go against those ways or rules. In this way socially accepted methods to fulfil specific needs of persons are known as an institution.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Definitions :
1. According to Merill and Eldridge, “Social institutions are the social patterns that establish the organized behaviour of human beings in the performance of basic social functions.”

2. According to El wood, “Institutions are habitual ways of living together which have been sanctioned, systematized and established by the authority of the communities.”

3. According to Sutherland, “In sociological parlance, an institution is a set of folkways and mores that centre in the achievement of some human end or purpose.” So from these given definitions it is clear that an institution is developed for the achievement of any specific aim. That’s why this is a group of customs, norms, rules, values etc. Sumner included social structure in institution in his book ‘Folk Ways’. An Institution expresses the ways of individual behaviour to man.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

In short, we can say that an institution is the organization of actions which are accepted by society to fulfil its specific heeds. In society many types of different associations are there and every association has its own institution with which it fulfills its needs or achieve its aims.

Features or Characteristics of Institution :
1. It is made up of cultural elements. The organization of all the elements of culture of any society like folkways, mores, norms, values etc is called an institution. According to one sociologist it is the bunch of customs. When the customs, traditions, folkways, mores etc of a society integrate and take the form of a system then it is known as an institution. In this way it is the system of elements of the culture and it fulfills the different needs of humans.

2. They are Permanent. Any institution cannot be useful if it does not fulfil the needs of persons for a very long time. If it doesn’t fulfil the needs of people then it cannot be called as institution but can be called as the association. In this way institution fulfills the needs of the people for a long time.

But it doesn’t mean that an institution never comes to an end. Demand of any institution depends upon the time. Demand of any institution can be increased or decreased and it depends upon age. If any institution is of no use or any institution is unable to fulfil the needs of the persons then slowly and slowly it comes to an end.

3. It has some special motives or objectives. If any institution is formed then it is because it has some kind of specific motive. That institution knows that if it is formed then what is its function. Its function is to fulfil the specific needs of the people. In this way their main, aim is to fulfil the needs of the people but it is also possible that with the passage of time it will stop fulfiling the needs of the people. Then in that case that “institution can be replaced by any other institution.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

4. Cultural Equipments. For the fulfilment of the aims of an institution material aspect of culture is used like furniture, building etc. Their form and behaviour is also fixed. In this way if an institution wants to achieve its objectives then it has to take help of material culture. Many aspects of non-material culture like folkways, mores etc already exist in an institution.

5. It is Abstract. An institution is developed with folkways, mores, customs etc. All these are the parts of non-material culture a©d we cannot see these aspects of non-material culture. We can just feel them.

In this,.the aspect of abstractness is included. It cannot be touched and can be felt only. Institution is not an organization of concrete things but is an organization of rules, methods, folkways etc. \yhich is being developed to fulfil human needs.

6. Tradition based. When an institution is formed then it is formed because of rules. Before the formation of an institution, rules are defined and then aims of that institution are clearly defined. The behaviour of the people who take part in this are also defined. If every thing will be defined earlier then no problem comes later on. If these are not defined then every one will try to change them in their own way which is dangerous for the existence of the institution.

Question 2.
Write a note on marriage as a social institution.
Answer:
Marriage is a socially approved relation of male and female which forms a new family. Marriage not only gives sanction to the relationship of male and female but it also gives approval to many other relations. Meaning of marriage is not sex alone. Marriage is the base of family. With the help of marriage, man enters into sexual relations, makes a house, produces children and upbrings them.

Institution of marriage is a universal social institution. It exists in every type of society whether it is modern or ancient. If we want to maintain human society then institution of marriage is necessary. Fulfilment of sexual needs is a biological need and if this need would be fulfilled outside the institution of marriage then the formation of family is almost impossible. Family is necessary to maintain social structure.

Marriage is an institution which gives permission to male and female to live a family life and legally accept the children produced by the relations of male and female. In this way it regulates the sexual relations of male and female.

Morgan has studied ancient societies and comes to know that life of people in ancient society was like of animals. No one was taking responsibility of upbringing of the children. Because of this problem need was aroused of the institution of marriage. That’s why for the maintenance of stability of modern society institution of marriage was accepted.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Definitions of Marriage:
(1) According to Wester Mark, “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by the institution of law, and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of parties entering the cyiion and in the case of children born out of it.”

(2) According to Majumdar, “Marriage is socially approved union of male and female, or as a secondary institution by society to sanction the union and mating of male and female, for purpose of (a) establishing a household (b) entering into sex relations (c) procreating and providing care for the offspring.”

(3) According to Lundberg, “Marriage consists of the rules and regulations, which define the rights, duties and privileges of husband and wife with respect to each other.”

(4) According to Anderson and Parker, “Marriage is the sanction by society of a double bond between one or more males and one,, or more females established to permit sexual intercourse for the implied purpose of’parenthood.”

On the basis of given definitions we can say that the institution of marriage is a type of institution on which the social structure of society depends. Only after the regulations of sexual relations between male and female, we can take care of upbringing of our children.

If these sexual relations will be without the approval of the society then they would be known as illegal or extra marital relations and the child produced by this relation would be known as illegal child. That’s why marriage not only fulfills the sexual needs but also does many functions for humans, as are necessary for the development of society.

Question 3.
Discuss in detail the different types or forms of marriage.
Answer:
Every society is different from another society in itself and is different from many aspects. Every society has some of its different rules, traditions, institutions etc. and every society has its different institutions for different purposes. These are different because every society has moulded them according to its facilities and needs. In this way the institution of marriage has different types according to the different needs of different societies.

All these types of marriage are given below :

1. Monogamy:
This type of marriage prevails and is very much popular in today’s modern age. In this type of marriage, one male can marry with one female at one time. Relations, in this type of marriage, are more stable, more loveable, deep and are full of sympathy. The upbringing of children can be done? in a proper way in this type of marriage and children get complete love from their parents.

Husband and wife have complete understanding in monogamy because of which there are very less chances of quarrels or creation of problems in them. But this type of marriage has some of its demerits. If wife or husband will fall ill then every work would be halted and they would not be able to give proper attention to their children.

2. Polyandry:
The custom of polyandry prevails in many societies of the world. The meaning of polyandry is the custom of that marriage in which one female marries to many males at a time and that’s why it is known as polyandry.

In this way when one female has more than one husband then it is known as Polyandry. It is of two types :
(i) Fraternal Polyandry
(ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry.

(i) Fraternal Polyandry. In the custom of fraternal polyandry, all the husbands of a female are brothers among them. This type of marriage prevails in the Khas Tribe in India. Eldest brother is known as the father of the child and rest of the younger brothers are known as her husbands. They establish sexual relations with their wife without the permission of their elder brother. Elder brother is the head of the family and it is his duty to upbring the children in a proper way.

If even after the marriage, any brother of the husbands will be born then he will also become the husband of that wife. If except elder brother, any other younger brother will marry any where else then other brothers are also permitted to make relations with his wife. If that brother will not permit then he can be thrown out of his property right.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

(ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry. In this type of polyandry, all the husbands of a female are not the brothers. In fact, they live at different places. Time is determined for the female that for how much time she will live with any husband. After the expiry of time period she goes to the other husband and this process goes on. If in this type, female will die then all the males are forced to live the life of the widower.

If at the time of pregnancy any husband will gift her the arrow and the bow then he will be considered as the father of the child. All husbands get a chance for that and it is their right. In this way according to this custom, the rule is that if in a definite period, wife is living with any husband then other husbands are not permitted to establish sexual relations with her. .

3. Polygamy:
The custom of polygamy was prevailing in ancient times in India. Kings were keeping many wives and the status of any king was understandable by looking at the number of his wives. So the system of polygamy is that a person can keep many wives. Number of wives depends upon his ability to keep and economic capacity.

In middle ages this system was prevailing in Muslims and even today Muslims are permitted to keep four wives. The sexual need of males and the wish to have big family has encouraged this type of marriage. Many types of psychological problems are arising due to this system. Females are getting lower social status in society due to this type of marriage.

4. Sororate Marriage:
In this type of marriage male is marrying with the sister of his wife. Sororate marriage is of two types—Restricted Sororate marriage and Simultaneous Sororate marriage. In Restricted Sororate marriage man marries his sister-in-law after the death of his wife. In Simultaneous Sororate marriage man accepts or considers all the younger sisters of his wife as his wives. First type of this marriage is more prevailing as compared to second type. With this the problem of breaking up of families never arises and upbringing of children will be possible in an efficient way.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

5. Levirate Marriage:
In this type of marriage, wife marries the younger brother of her husband after the death of her husband. With this type of marriage, property of the family can be secured and family is prevented from breaking. Upbringing of children can be done in an efficient way. Another reason of this type of marriage is that after marriage there is no need to give back the value of the bride.

6. Love Marriage:
We can see a number of love marriages in our day to day life and this type of marriage prevails in modern societies. Boy and girl both are studying in college or are working in any office and at first sight they start to love each other. They start to meet each other very frequently. They meet each other in cinema, parks etc.

They promise each other to live and die with each other and try to show their true love. Society tries to prevent them to be married and tries to obstruct their way but they remain fixed to their decision. Even if their parents are not permitting them to get married then they go to court and become married. In this way love marriage takes place.

7. Endogamy:
According to the rules of Endogamy, a man has to marry in his own caste. Castes are divided into sub-castes and he has to marry in his sub-caste. In the times of caste system this rule was strictly applied. If any one was trying to break this rule then he was thrown out of the caste. So every person had to marry in his sub-caste in endogamy.

It is so because it maintains the purity of blood, it protects the occupation of caste, it fosters the sense of unity within the group, it preserves the property of the caste, it keeps the women happier also because it is easy for them to maintain balance in their own culture. But on the other side it encourages casteism, it limits the sphere of mate selection, it is a danger to national unity and it hinders the social progress also.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

8. Exogamy:
The meaning of exogamy is to establish marital relations out of its clan, village and totem. All the persons of one clan, village and totem are considered as the sisters and brothers of each other. According to Wester mark, the main reason behind this type of marriage was to prevent close relatives to establish sexual relations with each other. This marriage is a symbol of progressiveness. It increases the contacts between different groups. This type of marriage is considered as right from biological point of view.

One of the biggest disadvantages of this type of marriage is that the husband and wife have to face many problems in understanding each other’s view because they belong to different groups. Mutual love and co-operation also increase in different groups due to this marriage. It also helps in strengthening national unity.

9. Anulom Marriage:
Anulom marriage is a type of Hindu marriage according to which the males of higher castes can marry the girls of lower castes. For example, one Brahmin boy can marry with the girl of Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra castes. The main reason behind this type of marriage is that the people of lower castes consider it respectful to marry their daughter in the higher castes. It is so because it gives higher position to them in society.

10. Pratilom Marriage:
In this type of marriage males of lower castes marry the females of higher castes. Manu was strictly opposed to this type of marriage. According to Manu, the children produced from this type of marriage should be considered as untouchables or ‘chandals’. Manu says that the children produced by Brahmin girl and Shudra boy are chandals. That’s why this type of marriage is seen with the hatredness. Children from this type of marriage cannot adopt the name of any family.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Question 4.
Define marriage. Write the rules of mate selection in detail.
Answer:
Definitions of Marriage:
(1) According to Wester Mark, “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by the institution of law, and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of parties entering the cyiion and in the case of children born out of it.”

(2) According to Majumdar, “Marriage is socially approved union of male and female, or as a secondary institution by society to sanction the union and mating of male and female, for purpose of (a) establishing a household (b) entering into sex relations (c) procreating and providing care for the offspring.”

(3) According to Lundberg, “Marriage consists of the rules and regulations, which define the rights, duties and privileges of husband and wife with respect to each other.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

(4) According to Anderson and Parker, “Marriage is the sanction by society of a double bond between one or more males and one,, or more females established to permit sexual intercourse for the implied purpose of’parenthood.”

On the basis of given definitions we can say that the institution of marriage is a type of institution on which the social structure of society depends. Only after the regulations of sexual relations between male and female, we can take care of upbringing of our children.

If these sexual relations will be without the approval of the society then they would be known as illegal or extra marital relations and the child produced by this relation would be known as illegal child. That’s why marriage not only fulfills the sexual needs but also does many functions for humans, as are necessary for the development of society.

Rules of Mate Selection:
In every society rules of selection of mate are there which tell the persons that with which boy or girl he/she can marry and with whom he/she cannot marry. These rules are given ahead :

  1. Endogamy
  2. Exogamy
  3. Hypergamy
  4. Hypogamy

1. Endogamy:
According to the rules of Endogamy man has to marry within his own caste. Caste was again divided into sub-castes. In this way man had to marry in sub-caste. In the times of caste system this rule was strictly applied. If any one was trying to break or was breaking this rule then the caste was throwing him out of caste and they were breaking or severing all types of relations with it.

According to religious books society was divided into four castes. These castes were again divided into sub-castes. Every person has to marry in his own sub-caste. In this form of marriage many changes have come due to the passage of time.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

There are different forms of endogamy available in India and these are :

  1. Tribal Endogamy
  2. Caste Endogamy
  3. Class Endogamy
  4. Sub-caste Endogamy
  5. Racial Endogamy.

According to the rule of tribal endogamy the man has the permission to marry only in his tribe. In the same way man should marry in his caste, class, sub-class, race etc.

2. Exogamy. Institution of marriage is one of the important social institutions. Any society cannot give permission to any couple to live as husband and wife-without marriage. That’s why every society has made some rules to establish marriage system in society. The most important function is the selection of the mate. Exogamy is also one of the rules of mate selection.

In many societies the marital relations are forbidden between the persons who are related with each other by blood. According to Sumner, “Endogamy is conservative while exogamy is progressive.” In this way in exogamy marriage is prohibited within the group. Children of same parents are also forbidden to marry.

Among Muslims, marriage between the relatives of parents is permitted. In the Roman Catholic Church of England marriage with the sister-in-law, after the death of the wife, or Sororate marriage was not allowed. In Australia, boy can marry with the wife of his father if she is not his mother.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

According to the rule of Exogamy, man is not permitted to marry within his caste, clan, Spraver, Spinda etc. Some of its types are given below :

  1. Gotra Exogamy.
  2. Spraver Exogamy.
  3. Spinda Exogamy.
  4. Village Exogamy.
  5. Totem Exogamy.

3. Hypergamy and Hypogamy. In ancient Indian Society two forms of inter caste marriages existed (1) Hypergamy and (2) Hypogamy. Hypergamy marriage is that law in which girl can marry either in the same or equal caste or with the boy of higher caste. In other words when a boy of higher caste marries a girl of lower caste then it is known as Hypergamy. In this type of marriage Brahmin girl, can only marry Brahmin boy. Kshatriya girl can marry either to Kshatriya boy or Brahmin boy.

Vaishya girl can marry with Vaishya boy or Kshatriya boy or Brahmin boy. Except this Brahmin boy can marry with the girl of any caste. Kshatriya boy can marry the girl of any caste except Brahmin girl. Vaishya boy can marry with the girl of any caste except Brahmin and Kshatriya girl. When t

he problems were started with the rule of endogamy then this rule of marriage of hypergamy was encouraged. According to Risley, “Aryan women were less in number. That’s why to remove this problem they were accepting the girls of Indian origin and when this problem was removed then this type of marriages came to an end.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Second type of marriage in this category is Hypogamy. This rule is totally opposite to the rule of Hypergamy. According to this rule boy of a lower caste marries to the girl of higher caste. Like girl of the Brahmin caste would marry with the boy of Kshatriya caste or boy of Kshatriya caste marries the girl of Brahmin caste. According to Radha Krishnan, “In the rule of hypogamy boy of lower caste used to marry with the girl of higher caste. The children produced by this type of marriage were not kept in any caste and they were known as chandal.”

So this type of marriage was restricted in caste system. Only on some special condition this type of marriage was allowed. In the end we can say that now both types of inter-caste marriages are developing in Indian society. In today’s society people are free to do inter-caste marriage. Now people feel that the clutches of caste system have been finished but still we are living in the caste system.

Question 5.
What is family ? What are the basic features of family ?
Answer:
If we study human society we observe that the first group in human society was family. In ancient times division of labour was based on the family. We will not find any society in which the institution of family does not exist. This institution exists from ancient societies till modern societies and it will remain forever yet many other institutions came into being and came to an end. But the institution of family is standing there as it is.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Yet in present developed societies, the importance of family has been reduced because most of the functions have been taken by many other institutions but still even today most of the human actions are centred around family. Psychologists have proved that character of a child will be made in the way in which he gets the family and he functions according to that in his future life. The main reason behind the social disorganization and many other problems is the disintegration of the family.

Family is an important group for social structure. The word family has been taken from the word ‘Famulous’ which is a Roman word that means servant. According to Roman Law, the meaning of this word is by that group in which all those servants, slaves or owners are included which are based on blood relations or marital relations. It is that type of group in which the satisfaction of sexual needs of males and females

are sanctioned by the society. After the upbringing of the child, one becomes the citizen of the society. In simple words the meaning of family is the group of husband, wife and their children. But from sociological point of view its meaning is not only a collection of people but is by the system of their mutual relationship and its main objectives are to produce children, their up-bringing, their socialization and satisfaction of sexual instincts.

Different sociologists have given different views about the family and some of these definitions are given below –
(1) According to Maclver, “Family is a group defined by sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

(2) According to G.P. Murdock, “The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and one or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually co-habitating adults.”

(3) According to H.M. Johnson, “Family is a group of two or more individuals related by blood, marriage or adoption and residing together, all such persons are considered as members of one family.”

(4) According to Elliot and Merrill, “Family is the biological social unit which consists of husband, wife and children.” Many differences are there in the definitions given by different sociologists but on one thing their views are same that the family is a group in which the sexual relationships of male and female are accepted by society and it is a universal group.

About its meaning in the end we can say that family is a biological unit which is related as an institution for sexual relationships. Its members are personally related with each other with the process of reproduction. In short, we can say that mother, father and their children are included in the family and if is developed in every society.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Characteristics of Family:
1. Family is a universal group. Family is a social group. It is also known as the first institution in human history because it exists in every society and in all times. Every member of society is definitely a member of any family. It is so because wherever we take birth, we are related with those members of the group. Except this, man can fulfil his basic needs by living only in society.

2. Emotional base. Family is the base of the human society which is based on basic instincts of human like to produce children, relations of husband and wife, maintenance of descent, protection of property and emotions are also included in this. Feelings of cooperation, love, sympathy also are developed in this which is necessary for progress and development of the society.

3. Formative Influence. Family is an important unit in social structure. Family exerts a formative influence on the development of the personality of the child. Family is an institution in which child gets knowledge about social behaviour. All round development of the man is possible only in family. Whatever child observes in family, tries to learn and imitate that thing as quickly as possible.

4. Small in size. Size of family is limited because only those persons are included in family who either have taken birth in family or who have a marital relation. In ancient times when society was based on agriculture then joint families were there in which father-mother, grandfather-grandmother, uncle, aunt etc.

lived collectively. With the development of society, females started to move out of family for the job. Then nuclear family came into being in which only parents and their unmarried children are included. The meaning of small size is that membership of the person in the family is based on birth and blood relatives are also included in this.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

5. Central position in the social structure. Our society is based on family and different associations are formed only from family. That’s why it has central position in society. In earlier societies social organization was based upon family. Social progress was also based upon this. Yet most of the functions of family have been taken by other institutions but still a number of functions are there which only family can do for society. No other institution can do that work. ’

6. Sexual relations. In family, male establishes sexual relations with female because society gives sanction to the formation of family only after marriage. In earlier societies there was no rule regarding sexual relation and there was no real form of family and society was moving towards disintegration.

Question 6.
Discuss in detail the different types of family.
Answer:
This world is too big and many types of societies exist in this world. Every society has some of‘its distinct geographical, social and cultural features. These features are different in different societies and that’s .why different types of families exist in different types of societies. It is so because every society has its different ideals, beliefs, culture etc.

For example in India we can see many types of societies like Patriarchal or Matriarchal. In this way family also has many forms. All these forms can be divided on the basis of numbers, on the basis of marriage, on the basis of authority, on the basis of nomenclature, on the basis of place of residence etc. Now we’ll see them one by one.

1. Types of Family on the basis of Marriage. It is of two types :
(i) Monogamous Family. In this type of family, one male marries one female and the family on this type of base is known as Monogamous family. In modern age, this type of family is known as correct type of family.
(ii) Polygamous Family. When one male marries more than one female or one female marries more than one male then this type of family is known as polygamous family.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

It is further of two types:
(а) Polyandrous Family. When one female marries with more than one male then it is known as polyandrous marriage. The main feature of this type of family is that one female has many husbands. It is again of two types. First type is Fraternal polyandrous family in which all the husbands are brothers. Second type is non- fraternal polyandrous family in which all the husbands are not the brothers.

(b) Polygamous Family. When a male marries more than one female then it is known as polygamous family. In this type of family, one male has many wives. For example, a Muslim is permitted to keep four wives. Hindu kings, in ancient times, kept many wives. But according to Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, Hindus are not permitted to keep more than one wife. Many tribes in India are still there who have this type of family like Nagas, Gonds etc.

2. Family on the basis of Numbers. Family on the basis of numbers is of three types :
(i) Nuclear Family. Nuclear family is a very small family in which husband, wife and their unmarried children are living. Other relations are not included in nuclear family. This type of family exists in today’s modem societies because people are doing jobs in cities. Children make their own nuclear family after their marriage.

(ii) Joint Family. There are many members in this type of family. Grandfather- grandmother, elder uncle-aunt, younger uncle-aunt, brothers, sisters are included in this type of family. Generally this type of family exists in villages.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

(iii) Extended Family. This type of family is generally made only after and with the help of joint family. The advanced stage of joint family is known as extended family. In this all the brothers, their married children and even their grand children are also living. This type of family is not possible in modem societies. This type of family was possible in earlier time when the whole family was engaged in same occupation but today it is not possible.

3. Family on the basis of Nomenclature.

It is further of four types :
(i) Patrilineal Family. In Patrilineal family descent is of the father which generally exists in today’s life. It means that the son gets nomenclature of the father and the nomenclature of the father is of great importance.

(ii) Matrilineal Family. This type of family runs on the name of the mother. It
means that the child gets nomenclature of the mother. This type of family exists in many tribes of India. «

(iii) Bilinear Family. In this type of family descents of both mother and father
are going side by side. It means that the child gets the nomenclature of both the mother and the father. . ”

(iv) Non-Unilinear Family. In this type of family, nomenclature is determined on the basis of nearest relative. It is known as non-unilinear family.

4. Family on the basis of types of relatives. This type of family is of two types :
(i) Consanguine Family. In this type of family, blood relations are at highest place and there are no sexual relations in it. Husband and wife are also there in this type of family but they are not the base of this family. Membership of this type of family can be attained only on the basis of birth. This type of family never comes to an end even after divorce and it is permanent.

(ii) Conjugal Family. Husband-wife and their unmarried children are here in this type of family. In this husband-wife and their relatives are included. This type of family can be broken after the death of either husband or wife or both.

5. Family on the basis of Residence. This type of family is of three types :
(i) Patrilocal Family. In this type of family, bride leaves her father’s house and
goes to the house of her husband to live and establish the family. We can see this type of family very often. – ”

(ii) Matrilocal Family. This type of family is definitely opposite to Patrilocal family in which girl never leaves her father’s house after marriage but lives there only. In this, her husband leaves his father’s house and goes to the house of his wife to live. It is known as Matrilocal family. We can find this type of family in Garo and Khasi tribes.

(iii) Neolocal Family. This type of family is different from other two types. Husband and wife are not living at their father’s house but are making a new house after their marriage and that is why it is known as Neolocal family. We can find this type of family in today’s modern age.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

6. Family on the basis of Authority. This type of family is of two types :
(i) Patriarchal Family. In this type of family whole power is in the hands of males. Head of the family is male. Descent also depends upon the father. After marriage wife goes to the husband’s house and property is distributed among the boys of the family. Eldest son of the family gets most respect. His respect in the home is equal to the respect of the father.

In every type of necessary family matters, male’s interference is necessary. It we look at the ancient Hindu society then according to the Vedic descriptions male was just like a God for the female. Eldest son gets all the rights of the family after the death of his father.

(ii) Matriarchal Family. In this type of family, female is dominant in the family, whole ownership of the property of family is in the hands of the female. Females of the family have the right over the property. After marriage husband goes to the house of wife to live. Function of the Brahmin was being done by females. Property was divided among the females of the family. Descent was also moved from females.

Question 7.
Highlight the changes that have taken place in the institution of family in contemporary period.
Answer:
1. Changes brought by the Government. When marriage got sanction of society in the form of an institution then many changes were brought in it. Many laws were passed related to marriage out of which Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 was the most important. According to this law, Polygamy was now restricted and Monogamy was accepted by the society and was ’accepted as an ideal marriage. Problem of child marriage also came to an end and it was written that if any one will try to break the law then he will be punished severely.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

A law related to divorce was also passed so that the life of male and female should last without any problems. In earlier times if the wife was manhandled by the husband even then she had to live with her husband because she was dependent on him. But now male and female both are free to use their legal right to get divorce so that they can live a happy life.

2. Marriage is related to social contract. According to ancient ideology of marriage, it was related and limited to religion and couple had to live with each other even if they didn’t like each other. But according to modem ideology if the relations between husband and wife are not good then this contract can be severed. In some cases when the marriage is done forcefully then they both can decide to break this marriage. Now it is equated with a contract that marriage is a social contract and it ean be broken at will.

According to T.B. Bothomore,” Marriage is no longer an economic partnership, and is no longer sustained by wider kinship groups. Finally, the desire for a Hemerous progeny is replaced by the aim of deliberate aim of limiting size. Thus the marriage bond is reduced to simple relations of mutual attraction.” In modern times marriage is related with personal happiness so that the family could take care of their children properly.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

3. Change in the status of women. The way in which females started to take part in other sectors of society, in that same way the form of marriage was changed.

Marriage, Family And Kinship:
In earlier societies females were economically dependent upon others. That’s why they loved to suffer a lot of hardships. But slowly and slowly, with the education of females, she became economially independent. She started to take her decisions herself. She got a lot of help from the law. Now she can take divorce from her husband and can live a happy life.

In this way when a female has made her place in the society then the institution of the marriage also changed. Divorce rate is increased. Now females have a better status as compared to earlier times. Now she is economically viable. She can take her decision. She takes part in the economic activities of the family and stand jointly with the husband to face the problems of life.

4. Changes because of development in education. In earlier times, no one was bothering about importance of education. That’s why the institution of marriage was developed to fulfil religious situation. But after the spread of education, compulsion of marriage comes to an end. Child marriage comes to an end. Now educated children marry according to their wish.

5. Changes because of development in industries. In ancient societies rules related to marriage were so strict that one had to marry in his own caste. If he was breaking this rule then he was punished by caste. But with the increased importance of money, marital relations are also changed. Now purity of earliest times does not exist.

Relations of male and female are generally related to money because of which sometimes they hardly believe each other and start to live separately. Except this, many problems have emerged from both sides because of which the importance of marriage is reduced.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

6. Changes in the outlook regarding arranged marriages. In ancient societies the institution of marriage was dependent upon elders because a child had to do what his elders wanted. But in modern times the importance of arranged marriage has been reduced because both boy and girl want to marry according to their ideas, ideals and views.

They do not accept the preferences regarding marriage given by their parents because the point of view of new generation has been changed regarding marriage. Sometimes even their decisions are proved wrong but still they want to give importance to their independent thoughts.

7. Change due to scientific outlook. People have changed their views regarding the institution of marriage because of the new inventions which came in the society. Now point of view of the people regarding religious sacrament has been changed. Now people are doing court marriage. The religious feelings of humans are now related to the scientific outlook.

In ancient times husband was like a god for wife and some religious rules were there even for males for marriage. But now all these things have changed and because of which the stability of the family has been decreased. Families have started to disintegrate.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Question 8.
Define Kinship and discuss its types in detail.
Answer:
Meaning of Kinship. ‘Kin’ word is an English word which has been taken from the word ‘Cynn’ meaning relative. Sociologists and Anthropologists have kept this word ‘relatives’ while studying Kinship. In word Kinship all the relatives are included like blood relatives, relatives made by marriage etc.

In simple words, according to Sociology and Anthropology. Kinship System is that collection of rules which regulates the nomenclature, heirness, heritage, marriage, extra marital relations, place of living etc. and determines the status of person in any specific Society or in group from the point of view of blood relation and marital relations.

It means that the system of social relations developed and made by blood relations or affinal relations is known as Kinship system. Its clear meaning is that all those relations which have been made by blood or by marriage are the part of Kinship system. In this all those relations are included which have been made by blood or by marriage. For example, mother-father, uncle-aunt, maternal uncle-aunt, brother-sister, father-in-law-mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law etc. All these are relatives and are the part of Kinship System.

1. According to Levi Strauss, “Kinship is an arbitrary system of ideas.”
2. According to Charles Winick, “Kinship system may include socially recognized relationship based on supposed as well as actual geneolocal ties.”
3. According to Redcliffe Brown, “All those relations which came as a result or made because of family and marriage are the part of Kinship System.”

Brown further says that it is that web of relationship which forms due to marriage and family and these relations are the part of our social structure. Relatives keep duties and rights towards each other and obey the social customs in Social meetings because with their help Kinship can be explained.

4. According to Dr. Majumdar, “An individual is tied with many types of relations of group in all societies. The most basic and usual relation among these relations is that which is based upon reproduction which is the internal human motivation. It is ‘ known as Kinship.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

On the basis of given definitions we can say that two persons are relatives. If their ancestor is one then they are the offsprings of one person. Kinship system is the system of relatives which is based on blood relations or affipal relations. Kinship system is cultural and its structure is different in the whole world. In Kinship system all those real or imaginative blood relations are included which are sanctioned by the society.

One illegal child can never get high place in society but one adopted child can get highest place in Kinship system. It is a system of specific relation group in which all the relatives are included which understand the responsibilities towards each other. In this way system of social relations established by socially sanctioned real or imaginative blood and affinal relatives is known as Kinship system.

On the basis of the closeness and distance from a person, Kinship has been divided in different categories. In Kinship we don’t have the same type of relations with all the relatives. The type of relations which we have with our parents, husband-wife and children, we cannot have that type of relations with our uncle, aunt, nephew etc. We don’t have very close relations with them. On the basis of this closeness and distance, Kinship has been divided in three categories

which are given below :
1. Primary Relatives. In the first category of Kinship primary relatives like husband-wife, father-son, mother-son, mother-daughter, father-daughter, sister-sister, brother-sister, brother-brother are coming. According to Murdock, they are of 8 types. They are primary because relations among them are direct and very close.

2. Secondary Relatives. Some of our relatives are primary like mother-father, brother-sister etc. and have direct relations with them. But some relatives are there who are not directly related with us. In fact we are connected with them through the medium of our primary relatives like brother of mother, brother of father, sister of mother, sister of father, husband of sister, wife of brother etc. We don’t have very close relation with them. In fact they are our secondary relatives. According to Murdock, these are of 33 types.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

3. Tertiary Kins. First relatives are primary. Then comes secondary relatives which are related with us with the medium of primary relatives. Third type are of those relatives which are primary relatives of secondary relatives. Like son of brother of father, wife of brother of mother, wife of brother of mother etc. According to Murdock these are of 151 types. So in this way there are three types of categories of Kinship but if we want then we can make fourth and fifth categories of Kinship also.

Question 9.
Discuss the importance of Kinship in social life.
Answer:
Kinship system has an important place in the social structure. With this structure, the society .can be formed. If the Kinship system would not be there, society cannot be made like an organization and would not be able to function in a proper way. That’s why it’s importance has been increased

1. With the help of Kinship system rights, marriage, family, production and method of consumption, rights of political power are fixed in tribal and agricultural societies. Even in urban societies we can see the importance of Kinship relations at the time of marriage and family festivals.

2. Kinship, family and marriage are deeply related to each other. With the help of
Kinship system we can determine that who willmarry whom and which name would be given to which relation.’ From Kinship only we can come to know about the nomenclature, clan, and the family of the person and of the concept of exogamy exists in family or linage or clan. , „

3. Family life, relations of family, nomenclature, clan and rituals related to birth and death are fixed by the Kinship and who will perform all the rituals is also fixed by Kinship.

For example, in the rituals related to marriage big brother, mother and sister of the father are of great importance. Who will give fire to the dead body is also related with Kinship. Who will be the heir of the person is also determined by the Kinship. At the time of Social functions, festivals, relatives are of great importance because at these moments it is necessary to call them. It will strengthen the relationship.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

4. Kinship system gives strength to the society. Kinship system plays an important role in making social organization. If Kinship system would not be there then the social system will break down and there will be chaos all over the society. ,,

5. Kinship system determines the sexual relations. Sexual relations in;3E^jship system are restricted in our society. If Kinship system would not be there then there will be a lot of illegal relations and children in the society and social disorders will prevail.

6. Kinship System plays an important role in the determination of marriage. You are not supposed to marry in your clan, how many relatives would be left from mother’s side and father’s side all depend upon Kinship system. If this system would not be there then no one will obey the rules related to marriage and social disorder will prevail in society.

7. Kinship system gives mental peace to an individual. Yet in modern industrial Society our views have been changed from emotional to practical but still man is tied with the Kinship ties. He hangs the pictures of his ancestors in his house, he collects their pictures, he even does ‘Shradha’ after their death. Humans are based on the group and Kinship.

Without Kinship man is just like a dead man. Our relatives know us very well. They accept themselves as the part of the family. If we are in any tension then our relatives give us mental peace. Only by lining with our relatives we become happy and feel pleasure in their company.

In this way we can say that Kinship is of great importance in our Society. Nothing will be left in our society if we will take out Kinship system from it. So that’s why Kinship system is very important for our society.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Question 10.
Differentiate between affinal and consanguinal relations.
Answer:
Consanguinity. Consanguinity are the relations based on basic family and the relations based on real or imaginative traditional blood relations. In simple words, all those relatives or persons which are tied with blood relations are known as Consanguinity. Blood relations whether real or imaginary keep a higher place in the Kinship system if these relations are sanctioned by the society.

For example, an illegal child never gets sanction from the society even if he is related by blood. But the adopted child is sanctioned by the Society even if he is not blood relative and is a part of consanguinity system. Blood relations have the Social Sanctions in every type of Society.

In this way it is clear that all those relatives which come out of traditional relatives of blood relations of early family are included in consanguinity system, for example, brother, sister, uncle, grand parents etc. Here one thing should be kept in mind that blood relations are not only from father’s side but are also from the mother’s side. In this way blood relatives of father’s side are known as Patrilineal relatives and blood relatives from mother’s side are know as matrilineal relatives.’

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Classification. On the basis of blood relations, relatives can be called by different names. Children of the same parents, which are real brothers and sisters are known as siblings. Step brothers and sisters are known as half siblings. From the side of father blood relatives of only males, which are also only males, are known as agnates.

In the same way from the side of mother blood relatives of only females, which are also only females, are known as utrive. In the same way those persons who are blood relatives are known as consanguined kin.

These blood relatives can be divided in two parts :
1. Unilineal Kin. In this type of Kinship those persons are coming which are related to the single line or unilineal of a descent. For example Father, Father’s father, Son and son’s son.

2. Collateral Kin. These types of relatives are those relatives which are indirectly related through every relative. For example’ Brother of father uncle, Sister of Mother – aunt, Brother of mother – uncle etc. Affinity. It is also known as Social Kinship. In this type of Kinship all those persons are included which are produced because of the marriage of a male and female.

When a boy marries a girl then he not only establishes relation with the girl but with the medium of girl he establishes relations with many members with the family of the girl.

In the same way, when a girl marries a boy then girl also establishes relations with all the members of the family of the boy. In this way just with marriage many new relationships come into being. So in this way the Kinship based on marriage is known as Affinal Kinship.

For example, brother-in-law, son-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law, sister- in-law etc. from both sides. This type of Kinship is not only important from biological point of view but it also has social importance. Biological importance is only for husband and wife but mother-in-law, father-in-law, brother- in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law etc. are the social relationships.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

Morgan studied Kinship of many parts of the world and gave them the names of descriptive and objective categories. In descriptive system generally one name is given to marital relatives. These names tell more about a relationship as compared to Kinship. Objective words tell more about real relationship. For example, ‘uncle’ word is used for Mama, Chacha, Fuffa, Mausa etc.

This is example of first type.
But no word can be used for father. In the same way ‘Nephew’ word is used for (Bhatija and Bhanja,) ‘Cousin’ word is used for the children of Mama, Chacha, Taya, Maasi, Bua etc. In the same way the word sister-in-law is used for Sali and Ninaan and brother-in-law is used for Deor and Sala. In this way new words are used in modern society.

Actually all these words are the symbols of kinship and are based on affinal kinship or Affinity. Like the status of son-in-law and husband to man and the status of daughter-in-law and wife to female can be given only after marriage. In this way we can count a number of affinal relationships.

Marriage, Family and Kinship PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes

1. Every society forms few institutions to fulfil the basic needs of its member. Institution is a structure of social system which directs individual behaviour of a community. It fulfills few basic needs which are very much necessary for the social existence.

2. There are certain features of institutions such as they fulfil particular needs. They are collection of rules, they are abstract, universal, social and permanent. They cannot be changed very easily.

3. Marriage is ope such institution which exists in every society. It is one of the basic social institutions. With marriage, two individuals of opposite sexes are permitted to live with each other as husband-wife. They establish sexual relations, produce children and contribute in the continuation of society.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship

4. Many types of marriages exist in our society but monogamy and polygamy are quite famous. Polygamy is further divided in two parts, polygymy and polyandry. Polyandry type of marriage exists in triba.1 society and polygymy existed in our society sometime ago.

5. Many rules of mate selection prevail in our society out of which endogamy and exogamy are quite common. In endogamy, one needs to marry within a particular group and in exogamy, one needs to marry out of a particular group.

6. During the last few decades, many changes have come in the institution of marriage. Many reasons are there behind these changes such as industrialisation, urbanisation, modern education, new laws, freedom of women, impact of western societies etc.

7. Family is one such universal institution which exists in almost all the societies. Individual life is greatly affected by family and one cannot live without one’s family.

8. Family is having many features such as it is a universal institution, it is small in size, it is both permanent and temporary, it controls individual behaviour.

9. There are many types of family which can be divided on the basis of authority, place of living, members etc.

10. During last few decades, changes have also taken place in the institution of family such as small in size, breaking up of families, change in the status of women, changes in functions etc.

11. Kinship is a system of human relationships and many relations are included in it. Kinship can be divided on two basis—affinal and consanguinty.

12. On the basis of nearness and distance, there are three types of kins-primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary relatives are father, mother, brother, sister. Secondary kins are primary kins of our primary kins such as father of father- grandfather. Tertiary kins are primary kins of our secondary relatives such as son of uncle-cousin.

Important Terms:

  • Patriarchal : The family in which authority and control is in the hands of father.
  • Matriarchal : The family in which authority and control is in the hands of mother.
  • Nuclear Family : The family in which husband, wife and their unmarried children live.
  • Joint Family : The family in which members of more than two generations live under one roof and eat in a common kitchen.
  • Endogamy : Marriage within a particular group i.e. caste.
  • Exogamy : Marriage out of a particular group, i.e. family, gotra etc.
  • Monogamy : Marriage of one male with one female. ,
  • Polygamy : Marriage of one male or female with many females or males.
  • Affinal kinship : This type of kinship is made after marriage such as son-in-law.
  • Consanguineous kinship : This type of kinship is made due to blood and right after the birth i.e. son, brother, sister etc.
    Kinship : Social relations, real or imaginative, made according to marriage or blood.

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 7 Marriage, Family and Kinship Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 Socialization

Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Socialization Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:

Question 1.
What do you mean by socialisation ?
Answer:
The process with which an individual learns the ways to live in society.

Question 2.
Name the stages of socialisation.
Answer:
Infant stage, childhood stage, adolescent stage, adulthood stage and old age.

Question 3.
What is adolescent stage ?
Answer:
The stage which starts at the age of 12-13 years and goes till 18-19 years. In this stage, physical changes come in an individual.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 4.
What is infancy stage ?
Answer:
This is the stage which starts with the birth and goes till one and half years and child depends upon others to fulfil his basic needs.

Question 5.
Which are the primary agencies of socialisation ?
Answer:
Family, school and play group are the primary agencies of socialisation.

Question 6.
Give two examples of formal agencies of socialisation.
Answer:
Government, Laws, Courts, Political System etc.

Question 7.
Mention two informal agencies of socialisation.
Answer:
Family, institutions, religion, play group etc.

Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:

Question 1.
Define socialisation.
Answer:
According to Bogardus, “Socialisation is the -process of working together of developing group responsibility of being guided by the welfare needs of others.”

Question 2.
Write down the stages of socialisation.
Answer:

  1. Infant stage
  2. Childhood stage
  3. Adolescent stage
  4. Adulthood’ stage
  5. Old age.

Question 3.
Discuss the role of family in the process of socialisation.
Answer:
Family plays a very important role in an individual’s socialisation. Child’s unconscious mind is greatly affected by family. In family, child learns many feelings such as love, sympathy etc. Family tells him about values, cutoms, ways of living etc. which helps in his socialisation.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 4.
Describe three formal agencies of socialisation.
Answer:
Police, laws and political system are three formal agencies of socialisation.
If any one commits a crime, he is caught by the police. With the help of laws, he is punished. Our political system prepares strict laws which helps in the reduction of crimes. An individual is having fear of all these and it helps in his socialisation.

Question 5.
Write a short note on primary socialisation.
Answer:
Family and play group are the means of primary socialisation. While living . in family, child learns ways of living in society and becomes a good citizen. In play group, he comes to know that other children also have same aspirations like him and he cares about them. It helps in his socialisation.

Question 6.
Discuss mass media as an agency of socialisation.
Answer:
In present age, the importance of mass media has greatly increased. Different news channels telecast their news all around and inform us about the whole world. We come to know about the events happening everywhere which helps in our socialisation.

Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:

Question 1.
Discuss the characteristics of socialisation.
Answer:

  1. The process of socialisation is universal which exists in all the societies.
  2. This process is a iearning process and an individual learns a lot during whole of his life.
  3. There are different stages of socialisation and process of learning in different stages is different.
  4. The intensity of learning in adulthood stages reduces but it is continued till death.
  5. There are many means of socialisation but family is the most important agency which plays the most important role in this process.

Question 2.
What is the importance of peer groups in socialisation ?
Answer:
After family and neighbourhood, the agency which socialises an individual is peer group or play group. Child starts to play with his friends and forms a peer group. His social education starts in the peer group. Here he learns all the things which he cannot learn in family.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

He is required to sacrifice his wish in peer group and he comes to know that others also have the same aspirations like him. In peer group, relations are based on equality. That’s why when he takes part in its activities, he learns discipline and co-operation. All these greatly affect his future. While playing children often fight with each other and learn to .protect their rights. So peer group keeps a very important place in one’s socialisation. .

Question 3.
Describe in brief the process of socialisation in youth and old age.
Answer:
(i) Adulthood stage or young age :
This stage keeps a very important place in the process of socialisation. In this stage, one learns to accomodate with others. The major question in this stage is to find employment. While doing so, many a time he gets rejected but he never loses his heart and continues with his efforts. It makes him learn a lot. After marriage and having kids, his role changes which helps him to learn a lot.

(ii) Old age :
In this stage, an individual learns many new things. He starts to realise that he is now dependent upon his family, he gets afflicted with many diseases and needs to learn new ways of accommodation. He is required to work according to his children which further creates many problems. He tries to maintain balance with all these situations.

Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:

Question 1.
Discuss the development of an individual through the process of socialisation.
Answer:
How man becomes able to live in society ? It is because of his contact with people and materialistic things. When anyone is a child then he doesn’t have the ability to do any of the social work and he is unaware of the things belonging to his surroundings.

But slowly and slowly he starts to see all of them. Child becomes social man because of those persons who surround him all the times because these people tell him the ways of living in society. He adjusts with others and compares his and other’s work.

Slowly and slowly he learns from his experience that other persons are also like him and he expresses his feelings to others. He does this at that time when he thinks that others have also feelings like him. He wanders here and there and he tries to know about every thing which comes in front of him. In this way parents try to explain him with the help of symbols that what is right and what is wrong for him.

Slowly and slowly he is told about going to temple, school, education etc. He is sent to school where he learns to adapt according to the other situations and learns every type of the way of life which is necessary to live a happy life. In this way slowly and slowly he grows up and learns the rules of society.

First relation of child is with his family. After birth his first need is of physical need that is of hunger and thirst. He is more interested in mother because she fulfills his basic needs. After mother other members of the family like father, uncle, aunt, grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister etc. come. All these members tell him about the world in which he has to spend his whole life. In family he experiences things like love, power, force, rights etc. because all these things he gets in the family.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

In the beginning child wants everything whatever he likes because he thinks that he has a right over them. If he is unable to get that then he starts crying. When he becomes 2-3 years of age he starts to understand that he cannot get everything what he wants. He feels sad if he is unable to get that thing but slowly and slowly he starts to control himself.

Child is dependent ugon his family for his needs and for this it is necessary for him to get cooperation of the family. He gets their cooperation with self control and he learns norms, values of society which are necessary for him to live and behave in society.

When a person develops then he learns ways of talking, sitting, walking and mannerism. With this his self also develops. When man beqomes conscious about his functions then this consciousness is known as self. In the beginning he cannot differentiate between others and members of the family because he doesn’t know about the relationship of the world. But slowly and slowly he interacts with members of the family and with this he comes to know about socialization also.

After his family members, he goes to his friends. These are his friends who grew in different circumstances. His friends have different ideals which a child learns very slowly and he learns to adjust with difficult circumstances. In play ground he learns to govern and to be governed and learns to make balance with others which is a part of process of socialization.

Another very big change comes in the life of a child and that is when he enters the school. In school he comes under the influence of other students and by the character of teacher. In this way in college he learns a lot of things from his teachers and other students like ways of sitting, walking, talking, behaving etc. which is necessary for his future’s life. After college, business or job, marriage also helps in his socialization.

Personality of husband and wife puts a great effect on each other and on their future. After marriage he has to fulfil a number of duties like of husband, father etc. With these new duties he learns a lot. In this way the process of socialization starts with the birth and ends at the death. Man can finish but this process cannot finish.

Question 2.
Write down about the various stages of socialisation.
Answer:
The process of socialisation is quite wide and starts with the birth of a child. When a child is ban then he is not more than an animal because he does’t know about the ways of living in society and there is lack of social life in him. But with the passage of time when child grows then the process of socialization also goes on with his age and he moulds himself according to the social life. He learns the ideals, values, norms, rules, beliefs, motivations etc. When a child takes birth then he has natural instincts but when he comes in contact with society, his natural instincts change into social habits.

All this happens at different times whose description is given below –

  1. Infant Stage
  2. Childhood Stage
  3. Adolescent Stage
  4. Adulthood Stage
  5. Old Age.

1. Infant Stage. While explaining the first stage Johnson wrote that this stage starts at the birth of the child and goes up to the age of one and a half years. In this stage child neither can speak nor he can walk. Except this he cannot fulfil his basic needs. He has to depend upon his mother. This is a type of stage in which he is unable to differentiate in things. For the fulfilment of his basic needs like hunger, thrust etc, he depends upon the members of the family.

He tries to take that thing which he likes. According to Talcot Parsons, “Child is a mean of recreation for others in this stage. Generally he can recognise his mother and becomes happy when he comes in contact with his mother. According to him there is no difference in imaginative and real situations.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

After the birth of the child this is the first stage when child doesn’t know’to walk or talk. He has some basic needs and he depends upon his mother for the fulfilment of his basic needs. He cannot differentiate in real and artificial elements. He thinks that others are also like him. Child wants that thing which he likes. This stage goes up to the age of one and half years. In this he tries to establish uniformity with his mother because of which he learns to control his hunger, thirst etc.

2. Childhood Stage. This stage starts at one and half years and goes up to 12 years and in this stage child learns to talk and walk properly. Child starts to fulfil most of his needs himself. Till the age of 2 years he comes to know that except him, other children also have same rights and he cannot get all the things which he needs. He feels sad when all of his demands are not fulfilled but gradually he learns to control himself.

During this time family members try to impart good habits in him by giving reward or punishment. During this time he gets love from others and starts to love others. He starts to learn values of the family and to imitate family members. marriage he has to fulfil a number of duties like of husband, father etc. With these new duties he learns a lot. In this way the process of socialization starts with the birth and ends at the death. Man can finish but this process cannot finish.

Question 2.
Write down about the various stages of socialisation.
Answer:
The process of socialisation is quite wide and starts with the birth of a child. When a child is ban then he is not more than an animal because he does’t know about the ways of living in society and there is lack of social life in him. But with the passage of time when child grows then the process of socialization also goes on with his age and he moulds himself according to the social life. He learns the ideals, values, norms, rules, beliefs, motivations etc. When a child takes birth then he has natural instincts but when he comes in contact with society, his natural instincts change into social habits.

All this happens at different times whose description is given below-

  1. Infant Stage
  2. Childhood Stage
  3. Adolescent Stage
  4. Adulthood Stage
  5. Old Age.

1. Infant Stage:
While explaining the first stage Johnson wrote that this stage starts at the birth of the child and goes up to the age of one and a half years. In this stage child neither can speak nor he can walk. Except this he cannot fulfil his basic needs. He has to depend upon his mother.

This is a type of stage in which he is unable to differentiate in things. For the fulfilment of his basic needs like hunger, thrust etc, he depends upon the members of the family.

He tries to take that thing which he likes. According to Talcot Parsons, “Child is a mean of recreation for others in this stage. Generally he can recognise his mother and becomes happy when he comes in contact with his mother. According to him there is no difference in imaginative and real situations.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

After the birth of the child this is the first stage when child doesn’t know’to walk or talk. He has some basic needs and he depends upon his mother for the fulfilment of his basic needs. He cannot differentiate in real and artificial elements. He thinks that others are also like him.

Child wants that thing which he likes. This stage goes up to the age of one and half years. In this he tries to establish uniformity with his mother because of which he learns to control his hunger, thirst etc.

2. Childhood Stage. This stage starts at one and half years and goes up to 12 years and in this stage child learns to talk and walk properly. Child starts to fulfil most of his needs himself. Till the age of 2 years he comes to know that except him, other children also have same rights and he cannot get all the things which he needs.

He feels sad when all of his demands are not fulfilled but gradually he learns to control himself. During this time family members try to impart good habits in him by giving-reward or punishment. During this time he gets love from others and starts to love others. He starts to learn values of the family and to imitate family members.

Sometimes he starts crying for that. During this stage he starts talking and walking properly. He also starts to control his wishes. During this age he is motivated to grasp good habits with the help of reward and punishment. For example if he obeys his parents, they love him or give him something to eat or play and if he disobeys them then they either shout on him or slap him. In this stage he starts to grasp the nature of society. He is also influenced by the members of the family. Some things he learns automatically.

Some things he learns by imitation and imitation is a means of entertainment for him. For example he reads newspaper like his father or acts as his grandfather or grandmother. In this stage he starts to adopt that behaviour which he observes in the family. During this stage the internal qualities of a child start to develop. In this way, in this stage, he starts to reeongnise about good or bad works.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

In this stage child becomes a member of the group and starts to know about status of others. Even mental consciousness starts up to certain extent. He is hardly conscious about the sexual instincts. Gradually he starts to control his anger and natural instincts. He learns to differentiate between himself and other children. He starts to be influenced by members of the society. This stage gives mental security to him and he stays away from mental tensions.

3. Adolescent Stage. This stage starts at the age of 14-15 years and goes up to 20-21 years. In this age it is not possible for parents to control their children because children think that they are mature enough and need more freedom. That’s why they demand for more freedom! Now his different parts start to develop and with their development new feelings come in him and he starts .to learn new ways of behaviour. It is necessary for girls to stay away from boys. They need readjustments towards other sex or gender.

During this stage many rules related to sex, business, values, beliefs are kept in front of them. They want freedom from these bondages because they thinks that their parents are binding him. Because of this a sense of rebelliousness comes in them. Fast mental conflict starts in them and they learn self-control by tussling with conflict.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

4. Adulthood Stage. At this stage, the social circle of an individual becomes quite wide as compared to the third stage. He gets employment and becomes a member of a political group, political party, club, trade union etc. He gets married in this stage and makes new relations in his life, in-laws and new friends.

He is required to maintain balance with his wife and in-laws family. Now he is not dependent upon others instead he becomes a responsible person. He needs to perform many roles such as husband-wife, mother-father, head of family, citizen of country etc. It is expected from him to perform certain roles and continue with the process of socialisation.

5. Old Age. Life of an old age person is greatly influenced by his surroundings, occupations, friends and membership of many groups. He internalises many new values and needs to learn to maintain balance with the new situations. Maintaining balance is quite important in this stage as he faces many adverse circumstances. He gets new roles in this stage such as father-in-law, grandfather, retired person etc. So even in this stage his process of socialisation continues although pace of this process is quite slow.

Question 3.
Write a note on the agencies of socialisation.
Answer:
1. Family:
Family plays the most important role in the socialization of man. According to some prominent Sociologists, the mind of a child is in unconscious state and the effect which family can put on that unconscious mind no one else can put. In childhood we can mould the mind of child in any desired direction. On his unconscious mind every thing puts its effect.

If the behaviour of parents towards child is rude then the child will try to go out of their control when he grows up and if the child will get lots of love and affection then there is no possibility for a child to go to a wrong way. If the child will not be able to get the love of his parents then imbalance can come in his personality. The base of basic education of a child is family. In family many feelings like love and affection always influence the mind of the child from which he learns many qualities.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Family tells the child about the traditions, customs, norms, ways of behaviour of the family and society. Child gets education about ways of behaviour, rules only in the family. In family child learns to obey and respect the elders. If the child is under the control of the parents then it means that child is under the control of society because at the time of the socialization of the child, parents are the representatives of the society. In family child learns many types of qualities and with which he becomes a responsible citizen of society or country. In the family only child gets the chance to express his views and development of his personality.

In its early age whatever a child observes, he starts imitating it. That’s why he depends upon the family so that the family could take him in right direction. According to some psychologists the family puts a great effect not only on the unconscious mind of the child but also affects his future. For example if parents are fighting in the family then the child will definitely live without the love of the parents and this will affect his personality. –

2. Play group:
Play group comes after family as an important means of socialization. Child comes out of the scope of the family, plays with his friends and forms a play group. In play group child starts to get social training. Child can learn a lot of things in play group which he cannot learn in the fatnily.

He has to sacrifice many of his washes while living in play group and he comes to know that others also have wishes like him. Except this relationships in play group are based on equality. That’s why when child plays in play group then he learns discipline, cooperation etc.

which affects his future life. Except this leadership qualities also come in him only by living in play group. While playing children fight with each other and learn to protect the rights of others. Here child comes to know about his role, capabilities, non-capabilities. In play group child grasps many feelings and capabilities. In short, play group plays an important role in shaping the future of the child. If play group is good then child becomes a good human being and if not then he can grasp many bad habits which can affect his future.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

3. Neighbourhood:
Neighbourhood of the person is also an important means of socialization. When child comes out of the family and goes in the hands of neighbours then he comes to know that how he has to behave with others. It is so because if the child’s behaviour is not good then the family can ignore it but if his behaviour out of the family is wrong then they can feel.

He has to adapt continuously with his neighbours because neighbours will not tolerate his wrong behaviour and this adjustment will help him for his whole life that how he has to adjust in different circumstances. When he interacts with his neighbours then he comes to know that how he has to behave according to the rules of the society.

4. School:
After all these the next turn is of school whose function is to change an uncivilised child into a civilised child or you can say that school gives shape to raw material into a finished product. In school lots of qualities are developed. In school child studies with other students and many teachers are there in school who exert a great influence on him. Teacher’s ways of talking, walking, sitting, behaving, teaching puts a great influence on the mind of the child.

Here one thing should be kept in mind that different students are influenced by different teachers and they make their teachers as their ideals. They always try to imitate the behaviour of the teachers which puts a great impact on the personality of the child. Except teachers, other students also play an important role in socialization.

While living with them, he gets many roles and status which helps him in future life. Ways of sitting and playing with other children also helps in the development of the personality.In school the scope of play group and interaction of a child becomes so wide because he meets many children in the school. In school child learns many rules, discipline, traditions, subjects etc. which are very helpful in the future life of a child.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

5. Social Institutions:
In the process of socialization, not only family or school, but many types of institutions play an important role. In society many types of institutions are there like religious, political, economic, marriage etc. and they play an important role in his socialization. Political institutions tell him the ways of behaving with state or country. Economic institutions tell him about the ways of business. Religious institutions create many types of qualities in him like cooperation, love, sympathy etc.

Every person accepts ways of behaviour given in religion, ways and rules of living, beliefs, with unconscious mind. In this way every society.or caste also tells him about the rules of living in society. Except these many types of recreational activities and behaviour also motivate the mian to become an active member of the society. Social institutions like religious, economic, political also influence the personality of man. For example, man spends most of his time under the influence of economic institutions because he has to earn to live ami earning depends upon his occupation.

A person gets an occupation according to his ability. He has to obey certain rules while accepting any occupation. It means that he changes himself according to the situation. In the area of occupation, he makes relations with many types of individuals. He comes in contact with many persons. That’s why his character and personality is also influenced by all these things.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Except this if we see then we can see that there is no area or part of society which is not under the influence of political institutions. Every type of group like business, language, art, music, education, family etc. are under the control of law. Man has to take the help of law to improve or to do progress in life. That’s why he changes himself according to them.

6. Needs. Man has many types of social and physical needs because of which he has to coordinate with other members of society. Man uses accepted ways of society to fulfil his needs so that he should not be condemned. In this way man does his work which is according to the norms of society with which a sense of accommodation comes in him.

7. Language. Just language can develop every aspect of a child. If child doesn’t know any language then how will he express his views, ideas and feelings towards others. With the help of language, child comes in contact with others because of which he gets many chances to express his ideas. The way in which he learns language, in the same way he gets more chances to express his views. With help of language he makes his social point of view.

With language only he expresses his needs and problems. With language he exchanges his ideas and relations with other people and he learns those rules which can run his life. With this, morality also develops in him. Language prepares him for different types of roles.

With language he comes to know about ideas of others and he also comes to know that what is his position in society. In this way language helps a lot in the process of socialization. Language also helps in the development of the personality. With the help of language, child comes in contact with others and learns social rules, ideals, norms, relations etc.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Question 4.
Discuss the relationship between the various stages of the individual’s development and the agents of socialisation.
Answer:
various stages of socialisation:
The process of socialisation is quite wide and starts with the birth of a child. When a child is ban then he is not more than an animal because he does’t know about the ways of living in society and there is lack of social life in him. But with the passage of time when child grows then the process of socialization also goes on with his age and he moulds himself according to the social life. He learns the ideals, values, norms, rules, beliefs, motivations etc. When a child takes birth then he has natural instincts but when he comes in contact with society, his natural instincts change into social habits.

All this happens at different times whose description is given below:

  1. Infant Stage
  2. Childhood Stage
  3. Adolescent Stage
  4. Adulthood Stage
  5. Old Age.

1. Infant Stage:
While explaining the first stage Johnson wrote that this stage starts at the birth of the child and goes up to the age of one and a half years. In this stage child neither can speak nor he can walk. Except this he cannot fulfil his basic needs. He has to depend upon his mother. This is a type of stage in which he is unable to differentiate in things. For the fulfilment of his basic needs like hunger, thrust etc, he depends upon the members of the family.

He tries to take that thing which he likes. According to Talcot Parsons, “Child is a mean of recreation for others in this stage. Generally he can recognise his mother and becomes happy when he comes in contact with his mother. According to him there is no difference in imaginative and real situations.”

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

After the birth of the child this is the first stage when child doesn’t know’to walk or talk. He has some basic needs and he depends upon his mother for the fulfilment of his basic needs. He cannot differentiate in real and artificial elements. He thinks that others are also like him. Child wants that thing which he likes. This stage goes up to the age of one and half years. In this he tries to establish uniformity with his mother because of which he learns to control his hunger, thirst etc.

2. Childhood Stage. This stage starts at one and half years and goes up to 12 years and in this stage child learns to talk and walk properly. Child starts to fulfil most of his needs himself. Till the age of 2 years he comes to know that except him, other children also have same rights and he cannot get all the things which he needs.

He feels sad when all of his demands are not fulfilled but gradually he learns to control himself. During this time family members try to impart good habits in him by giving-reward or punishment. During this time he gets love from others and starts to love others. He starts to learn values of the family and to imitate family members.

Sometimes he starts crying for that. During this stage he starts talking and walking properly. He also starts to control his wishes. During this age he is motivated to grasp good habits with the help of reward and punishment. For example if he obeys his parents, they love him or give him something to eat or play and if he disobeys them then they either shout on him or slap him. In this stage he starts to grasp the nature of society. He is also influenced by the members of the family. Some things he learns automatically.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Some things he learns by imitation and imitation is a means of entertainment for him. For example he reads newspaper like his father or acts as his grandfather or grandmother. In this stage he starts to adopt that behaviour which he observes in the family. During this stage the internal qualities of a child start to develop. In this way, in this stage, he starts to reeongnise about good or bad works.

In this stage child becomes a member of the group and starts to know about status of others. Even mental consciousness starts up to certain extent. He is hardly conscious about the sexual instincts. Gradually he starts to control his anger and natural instincts. He learns to differentiate between himself and other children. He starts to be influenced by members of the society. This stage gives mental security to him and he stays away from mental tensions.

3. Adolescent Stage. This stage starts at the age of 14-15 years and goes up to 20-21 years. In this age it is not possible for parents to control their children because children think that they are mature enough and need more freedom. That’s why they demand for more freedom! Now his different parts start to develop and with their development new feelings come in him and he starts .to learn new ways of behaviour. It is necessary for girls to stay away from boys. They need readjustments towards other sex or gender.

During this stage many rules related to sex, business, values, beliefs are kept in front of them. They want freedom from these bondages because they thinks that their parents are binding him. Because of this a sense of rebelliousness comes in them. Fast mental conflict starts in them and they learn self-control by tussling with conflict.

4. Adulthood Stage. At this stage, the social circle of an individual becomes quite wide as compared to the third stage. He gets employment and becomes a member of a political group, political party, club, trade union etc. He gets married in this stage and makes new relations in his life, in-laws and new friends.

He is required to maintain balance with his wife and in-laws family. Now he is not dependent upon others instead he becomes a responsible person. He needs to perform many roles such as husband-wife, mother-father, head of family, citizen of country etc. It is expected from him to perform certain roles and continue with the process of socialisation.

5. Old Age. Life of an old age person is greatly influenced by his surroundings, occupations, friends and membership of many groups. He internalises many new values and needs to learn to maintain balance with the new situations. Maintaining balance is quite important in this stage as he faces many adverse circumstances. He gets new roles in this stage such as father-in-law, grandfather, retired person etc. So even in this stage his process of socialisation continues although pace of this process is quite slow.

agencies of socialisation:
1. Family:
Family plays the most important role in the socialization of man. According to some prominent Sociologists, the mind of a child is in unconscious state and the effect which family can put on that unconscious mind no one else can put. In childhood we can mould the mind of child in any desired direction. On his unconscious mind every thing puts its effect.

If the behaviour of parents towards child is rude then the child will try to go out of their control when he grows up and if the child will get lots of love and affection then there is no possibility for a child to go to a wrong way. If the child will not be able to get the love of his parents then imbalance can come in his personality. The base of basic education of a child is family. In family many feelings like love and affection always influence the mind of the child from which he learns many qualities.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Family tells the child about the traditions, customs, norms, ways of behaviour of the family and society. Child gets education about ways of behaviour, rules only in the family. In family child learns to obey and respect the elders. If the child is under the control of the parents then it means that child is under the control of society because at the time of the socialization of the child, parents are the representatives of the society. In family child learns many types of qualities and with which he becomes a responsible citizen of society or country. In the family only child gets the chance to express his views and development of his personality.

In its early age whatever a child observes, he starts imitating it. That’s why he depends upon the family so that the family could take him in right direction. According to some psychologists the family puts a great effect not only on the unconscious mind of the child but also affects his future. For example if parents are fighting in the family then the child will definitely live without the love of the parents and this will affect his personality. –

2. Play group:
Play group comes after family as an important means of socialization. Child comes out of the scope of the family, plays with his friends and forms a play group. In play group child starts to get social training. Child can learn a lot of things in play group which he cannot learn in the fatnily. He has to sacrifice many of his washes while living in play group and he comes to know that others also have wishes like him. Except this relationships in play group are based on equality. That’s why when child plays in play group then he learns discipline, cooperation etc.

which affects his future life. Except this leadership qualities also come in him only by living in play group. While playing children fight with each other and learn to protect the rights of others. Here child comes to know about his role, capabilities, non-capabilities. In play group child grasps many feelings and capabilities. In short, play group plays an important role in shaping the future of the child. If play group is good then child becomes a good human being and if not then he can grasp many bad habits which can affect his future.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

3. Neighbourhood:
Neighbourhood of the person is also an important means of socialization. When child comes out of the family and goes in the hands of neighbours then he comes to know that how he has to behave with others. It is so because if the child’s behaviour is not good then the family can ignore it but if his behaviour out of the family is wrong then they can feel.

He has to adapt continuously with his neighbours because neighbours will not tolerate his wrong behaviour and this adjustment will help him for his whole life that how he has to adjust in different circumstances. When he interacts with his neighbours then he comes to know that how he has to behave according to the rules of the society.

4. School:
After all these the next turn is of school whose function is to change an uncivilised child into a civilised child or you can say that school gives shape to raw material into a finished product. In school lots of qualities are developed. In school child studies with other students and many teachers are there in school who exert a great influence on him. Teacher’s ways of talking, walking, sitting, behaving, teaching puts a great influence on the mind of the child.

Here one thing should be kept in mind that different students are influenced by different teachers and they make their teachers as their ideals. They always try to imitate the behaviour of the teachers which puts a great impact on the personality of the child. Except teachers, other students also play an important role in socialization.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

While living with them, he gets many roles and status which helps him in future life. Ways of sitting and playing with other children also helps in the development of the personality.In school the scope of play group and interaction of a child becomes so wide because he meets many children in the school. In school child learns many rules, discipline, traditions, subjects etc. which are very helpful in the future life of a child.

5. Social Institutions:
In the process of socialization, not only family or school, but many types of institutions play an important role. In society many types of institutions are there like religious, political, economic, marriage etc. and they play an important role in his socialization. Political institutions tell him the ways of behaving with state or country. Economic institutions tell him about the ways of business. Religious institutions create many types of qualities in him like cooperation, love, sympathy etc.

Every person accepts ways of behaviour given in religion, ways and rules of living, beliefs, with unconscious mind. In this way every society.or caste also tells him about the rules of living in society. Except these many types of recreational activities and behaviour also motivate the nian to become an active member of the society.

Social institutions like religious, economic, political also influence the personality of man. For example, man spends most of his time under the influence of economic institutions because he has to earn to live ami earning depends upon his occupation.

A person gets an occupation according to his ability. He has to obey certain rules while accepting any occupation. It means that he changes himself according to the situation. In the area of occupation, he makes relations with many types of individuals. He comes in contact with many persons. That’s why his character and personality is also influenced by all these things.

Except this if we see then we can see that there is no area or part of society which is not under the influence of political institutions. Every type of group like business, language, art, music, education, family etc. are under the control of law. Man has to take the help of law to improve or to do progress in life. That’s why he changes himself according to them.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

6. Needs. Man has many types of social and physical needs because of which he has to coordinate with other members of society. Man uses accepted ways of society to fulfil his needs so that he should not be condemned. In this way man does his work which is according to the norms of society with which a sense of accommodation comes in him.

7. Language. Just language can develop every aspect of a child. If child doesn’t know any language then how will he express his views, ideas and feelings towards others. With the help of language, child comes in contact with others because of which he gets many chances to express his ideas. The way in which he learns language, in the same way he gets more chances to express his views. With help of language he makes his social point of view.

With language only he expresses his needs and problems. With language he exchanges his ideas and relations with other people and he learns those rules which can run his life. With this, morality also develops in him. Language prepares him for different types of roles.

With language he comes to know about ideas of others and he also comes to know that what is his position in society. In this way language helps a lot in the process of socialization. Language also helps in the development of the personality. With the help of language, child comes in contact with others and learns social rules, ideals, norms, relations etc.

Socialization PSEB 11th Class Sociology Notes

  • When a child takes birth, he is unaware about his surroundings. Gradually, he becomes older and learns the ways to live in society. This process of learning ways of living in society is known as socialisation.
  • The process of socialisation starts with the birth and goes on for whole of one’s life. Life of an individual comes to an end but this is a never ending process. If there will be no process of socialisation, humans will start behaving like animals and there will be nothing called society.
  • The process of socialisation is a never ending process. Gradually a child grows older, becomes independent and at this stage this process becomes quite necessary. At this stage, need is required to control his behaviour. Here the advantage of socialisation is visible to us.
  • There are five stages of socialisation-infant stage, childhood stage, Adolescent stage, Adulthood stage and old age.
  • Infant stage starts with the birth and goes till one year. Childhood stage goes
    till 13-14 years, adolescent stage till 17-18 years, adulthood stage from 18-50 years and old age starts after this.
  • There are many agencies to complete the process of .socialisation and these can be divided into two parts-formal and informal. Family, play group, religion etc. come under informal agencies. Law, legal system, political system etc. are included in formal agencies of socialisation.

PSEB 11th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization

Important Terms:

  • Socialisation : A continuing process in which an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the values, norms, behaviour and social skills appropriate to his/her social position.
  • Self : The distinct identity of an individual.
  • Play Group : A group of people, having same age, background and social status, with whom an individual associates and who are likely to influence his beliefs and behaviour.
  • Formal means of Socialisation : Those means of socialisation, also known as institutional means, which provide formal socialisation such as school, law, political system etc.
  • Informal means of Socialisation : These means of socialisation are also known as social group agents which include individual and social institution that socialise an individual in an informal manner.

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 6 Socialization Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Rural society is deeply related with
(a) Nature
(b) Neighbourhood
(c) City
(d) Metro city
Answer:
(a) Nature

2. How much of the Indian population lives in villages and cities?
(a) 70% and 30%
(b) 32% and 68%
(c) 68% and 32%
(d) 25% and-75%
Answer:
(c) 68% and 32%

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

3. What is the main occupation of rural society?
(a) Industry
(b) Different occupations
(c) Technology
(d) Agriculture
Answer:
(d) Agriculture

4. In the Jajmani system, one who gives service is known as
(a) Jajman
(b) Praja
(c) Kammen
(d) One of these
Answer:
(c) Kammen

5. In the Jajmani system, one who takes service is known as
(a) Raja
(b) Jajman
(c) Praja
(d) Kammen
Answer:
(b) Jajman

6. Who said, “Real India lives in its villages.”?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Sardar Patel
(c) B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer:
(a) Mahatma Gandhi

Fill In The Blanks:

1. Head of the village was known as ………………..
Answer:
Gramini

2. In 2011, around …………… crore people lived in villages.
Answer:
83.3

3. In …………… A.D., first book of rural people is …………….
Answer:
1916

4. Main occupation of the rural people is ……………
Answer:
agriculture

5. ……………. family exists in rural society.
Answer:
Joint

True/False:

1. Rural people mostly work in industries.
Answer:
False

2. Jajman takes the service.
Answer:
True

3. Green revolution started in 1956.
Answer:
False

4. Due to indebtedness, many farmers have committed suicide.
Answer:
True

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

5. Panchayat acts as the government of the village.
ATruenswer:

One Word/One Line Questions Answers :

Question 1.
How much of Indian population lives in villages?
Answer:
Around 68.84% of the Indian population lives in villages.

Question 2.
What are features of rural society given by Robert Redfield?
Answer:
Small size, distinctiveness, homogeneity, self-sufficiency.

Question 3.
How much of the rural population is engaged in agriculture or related occuptions?
Answer:
Around 75% of rural population is engaged in agriculture or related occupations.

Question 4.
How many people in 2011, lived in villages?
Answer:
In 2011, out of total population of 121 crore, around 83.3 crore people lived in villages.

Question 5.
What was the most important event in the history of rural sociology?
Answer:
The establishment of Country Life Commission in U.S.A. was the most important event in the history of rural sociology.

Question 6.
When and who published the first book of rural sociology?
Answer:
J.N. Gillettee in 1916 published the first book of rural sociology.

Question 7.
Name few of the important scholars related with rural sociology.
Answer:
S.C. Dubey, Oscar Lewis, M. N. Srinivas, Marroitt, Bailey, Gough, KL.Sharma, Andre Beteille etc.

Question 8.
How is rural population in comparison with urban society?
Answer:
Rural population is quite less in comparison with urban society.

Question 9.
What type of relations rural people have with each other?
Answer:
Rural people have quite close and face to face relations with each other.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 10.
Which type of family exists in rural society?
Answer:
Joint family exists in rural society.

Question 11.
What is joint family?
Answer:
That family whose three generations live under a common roof and they eat in a common kitchen.

Question 12.
Which type of marriage is available in rural society?
Answer:
Monogamy i.e. one male can marry with one female at a given time.

Question 13.
When did 73rd Constitutional Amendment take place?
Answer:
73rd Constitutional Amendment took place in 1992 A.D.

Question 14.
Which is the smallest political unit in rural areas?
Answer:
Panchayat is the smallest political unit in rural areas.

Question 15.
Name the three levels of Panchayat Raj System.
Answer:
Panchayat at village level, Block Samiti at block level and Zila Parishad at district level.

Question 16.
What are the major issues of rural areas?
Answer:
The problem of indebtedness and impacts of green revolution.

Question 17.
What is indebtedness?
Answer:
When one person takes loan from another on interest to do any work it is known as indebtedness.

Question 18.
What is meant by HYV Seeds?
Answer:
HYV seeds are High Yielding Variety Seeds.

Question 19.
Who is known as the father of green, revolution in India?
Answer:
Prof. Swaminathan is known as the father of green revolution in India.

Question 20.
What is the full form of IADP?
Answer:
Intensive Agriculture District Programme..

Question 21.
When was green revolution started?
Answer:
Green revolution started in 1966.

Question 22.
Name few important elements of green revolution.
Answer:
HYV seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machines, new means of irrigation etc.

Question 23.
Give one feature of Rural society.
Answer:
Rural society is small in size and social uniformity is there in it.

Question 24.
What according to Pannikar is the strong base of Indian social system?
Answer:
According to pannikar, caste system, rural life and joint family system are the bases of Indian social system. .

Question 25.
Who are known for their deceiveness in rural areas?
Answer:
Money lenders are known for their deceiveness in rural areas.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 26.
Give one result of Indebtness.
Answer:
A peasant comes under debt trap and finally money lender captures his land.

Question 27.
The production of which crops was increased with Green Revolution in Punjab?
Answer:
The production of Wheat and Rice was increased with Green Revolution in Punjab.

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1. Rural Society.
Answer: Rural society is the society which lives quite close to nature, whose people’s main occupation is agriculture, where people have close relation with homogeneity, who live in a particular geographical area and are self-dependent in all aspects.

Question 2.
Two features of rural society.
Answer:

  • Rural society is small in size in comparison with urban society and their population is quite less.
  • People living in rural areas have close relations with each other.

Question 3.
Caste Panchayat.
Answer:
During earlier times, there existed caste system and each caste had its own panchayat which solved its problems. This caste panchayat had all the powers of giving justice and to impose fine.

Question 4.
Joint family.
Answer:
Joint family is a type of family in which people of three generations live under one roof, eat in a common kitchen and all the members have equal rights on the property of family.

Question 5.
Panchayat.
Answer:
At village level, a local self-govt, is established.which is known as Panchayat. Its members are elected by the village gram sabha and panchayat is elected for five years. Panchayat is responsible for the development of village.

Question 6.
Endogamy.
Answer:
When an individual needs to marry within a particular group, it is known as endogamy. According to ancient rules, an individual was required to marry within his caste or sub-caste or he was thrown out of caste.

Question 7.
Exogamy.
Answer:
When a person needs to marry out of a particular group it is called exogamy. According to this rule, one needs to marry out of his family, kinship, gotra, etc. as they all are his blood relatives.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Rural Society.
Answer:
Rural society is that area where technology is scarcely used, primary relations are very important, small in size and where most of the population depends upon agriculture. In this way rural community is that community which lives at a definite place, which is small in size, which has very close relations in its members and primary relations exist in it. People know each other very well and the main occupation of the people is either agriculture or agriculture-related occupation.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 2.
Two definitions of Rural Society.
Answer:
1. According to R.N. Mukherji, “A village is that community which is characterized by relative homogeneity, informality, prominence of primary groups, lesser density of population and agriculture as the main occupation.”

2. According to Peake, “The village community consists of a group of the related or unrelated persons larger than a single or unrelated persons, larger than a single family occupying a large house or a number of dwellings placed closed together, sometimes irregularly, sometimes in a street and cultivating originally in common a number of fields, dividing the available meadow land between them and pasturing their cattle upon surrounding waste land over which the community claims right as far as the boundaries of the adjacent community.”

Question 3.
Rural Society—Main occupation Agriculture.
Answer:
The main occupation of the tribal society is either agriculture or any of the related work because they are very much closely related with nature. Because they are closely related with nature, that’s why their views towards life are very much different. Yet many other occupations, like carpenter, blacksmith etc, are there in villages but they also make tools related with agriculture. Land is considered as a very important thing in tribal society and people like to live here because their life depends upon the land. Even the economic system and development of people and villages depend upon agriculture.

Question 4.
Rural Society—Scarcity of population and Homogeneity.
Answer:
Population of villages is very less as compared to urban areas. People are living in small groups and very much away from each other and these groups are known as villages. There are very less occupations in rural areas except agriculture because of which people like to go to cities to earn money and that’s why population in villages is very less. People have close relations with each other and their views are also same due to same occupation of agriculture. Customs, rituals, traditions etc. of rural people are common and there is hardly any. difference in their economic, moral and religious life. People in village are coming to live from far off places but they are the original inhabitants of villages or are living in the nearby areas. That? is why people have homogeneity among themselves.

Question 5.
Rural Society-Importance of Neighbourhood.-
Answer:
Neighbourhood has great importance in rural society. Main occupation of the people is agriculture in which they get enough pleasure time. This occupation hardly needs much time. That’s why people meet each other, talk with each other and co-operate with each other. People have very close relations with their neighbours. Neighbours generally are of same caste because of which their status is also same. People generally like to give respect to their neighbour. They come to help very quickly in each other’s problems. That’s why neighbourhood is of great importance in rural society.

Question 6.
Rural Family and Control of Family.
Answer:
Person is in complete control of the family in rural societies. Generally patriarchal families are there in the villages and every type of decision of the family is being taken by the head of the family. Division of labour in villages is being done on the basis of sex. Males are either doing agriculture or are going out of the house to earn some money and females are taking care of the house by living in the house. A joint family system is there in villages and a person adopts the traditional occupation of the family. Every member of the family works with each other and that’s why they have community feeling in them. Family is known as primary group. Younger ones like to give respect to elders. They have a great sense of co-operation due to same occupation. All the members of the family take part in all the festivals and religious activities. Person always takes the advice of the family before doing anything. In this way the family has complete control over its members.

Question 7.
Rural Society and closeness with Nature.
Answer:
Because the rural people live away from the artificial atmosphere, that’s why these people are very much close to nature. Their main occupation is agriculture and that’s why they are directly related with nature. Their life also depends upon nature. They worship Sun God, Varun, Indra etc. These people are very much afraid of natural forces like rain, flood, earthquake etc. because their agriculture depends upon these things. These forces can destroy their hard work of the whole year. That’s why these people are traditional and their outlook is also limited.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 8.
Rural Society—Lower Status of Women.
Answer:
Status of women is very low in villages because females are limited only to household functions. The division of labor in villages in ancient time was based on sex. Females were doing household work and males were doing work out of the house. Yet the time is changing and people are sending their girls to schools but still their point of view towards women is the same.

Question 9.
Changes which are coming in Rural Society.
Answer:

  • Differences in urban and rural societies are decreasing.
  • Changes in the structure of agriculture and commercialization of agriculture.
  • Decreasing effect of religion.
  • Effect of technology has been increased.
  • Dependence on nature of farmers has been decreased.
  • Level of education is increasing.

Question 10.
Rural Society—Decreasing impact of Religion.
Answer:
Rural people were under great impact of religion in ancient times. Every type of agricultural activity was under the influence of religion but now this thing remains no more. In earlier times, trees, birds and animals were considered as sacred but now this has been reduced. Many changes have come in the religious beliefs, customs, traditions etc. of rural people. New generation hardly accepts these things. Daily life, in today’s technological age, is moving away from the influence of temples and gurudwaras.

Question 11.
Rural Family.
Or
Joint Family.
Answer:
Rural families are generally patriarchal and joint families. Father has the complete authority in rural family and all the members of rural family live in one house. Due to living in one house they make food in one kitchen and community feeling is too much. In this way joint families are there in rural societies in which members of many generations are living. These are large in size and every one has equal right over the property.

Question 12.
Rural Family—Patriarchal Family.
Or
More powers of father in Rural Family.
Answer:
More powers of father. Father has more powers in rural family. Father is wholly incharge of the family. Many functions of the family are there which are being done by father with his will, like division of labour on the basis of sex and age, marriage of children, taking care of income and house etc. Father has so much influence on the family that not even a single member can speak against him. Rural family is exactly opposite to the Urban family where every member of the family has its own importance.

Question 13.
Characteristics of Rural Family.
Or
Write four features of Joint Family.
Answer:

  • Rural families are quite large in size.
  • Rural families depend upon agriculture.
  • More community feeling or unity is there in rural families.
  • More interdependence and discipline are there in rural families.
  • Father has more rights in it.
  • The person has more participation in family functions.
  • Such families have a common kitchen, house etc. and they share family property within themselves.

Question 14.
Rural Familism.
Answer:
Family is a very important unit in the rural social structure. Every type of institution, which prevails in villages, is greatly influenced by rural families. That’s why the family has more importance in rural society as compared to an individual. It is known as Familism. When the whole family is given importance as compared to one or two persons then it is known as familism. Some sociologists are of the view that in agriculturalist societies, social and political organizations has the features of the family because family is the basic and most important unit in rural society. Influence of familial traits over social organizations of rural society are made according to the political organization is known as Familism.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 15.
Rural Marriage.
Answer:
Marriage, in rural society, is not a contract but is considered a religious sacrament. Marriage, in villages, is being done in the traditional way and with complete rituals and customs. Gods and Goddesses are worshiped before marriage. Boy takes his Baraat to girl’s house and many rituals and customs are being performed related with marriage, with this marriage are completed. Yet these customs and rituals are decreasing in urban areas but rural societies are used to performing marriage with all customs and rituals. We can’t see the great pomp and show of cities in rural marriage but it is performed with complete traditions.

Question 16.
Rural Marriage is a Religious Sacrament.
Answer:
Marriage is considered a religious sacrament in rural society because its aim is religious. It has been written in religious books that a person will do marriage to make his house, to produce children, for the continuation of society, and to pay his debts. A person can pay his debts only by doing marriage and by producing children. Person in rural society has to go through many rituals from birth till death. That’s why it is considered a religious sacrament.

Question 17.
Arranged Marriage.
Answer:
Marriage in rural societies is not a relation of one male and female but is considered as the relation of two families, groups or two villages. That’s why parents play an important role in finding a mate for their children. Enough importance is given to the size, status, kinship and economic position of the family while selecting the mate of the child. With this, the personal traits of would-be mate are also given enough importance. If the child has any personal problem then it would be very difficult to find his/her mate. Parents are doing marriage of their child and they always try to do marriage with great pomp and show.

Question 18.
Rules of Mate Selection in Rural Areas.
Answer:
Kapadia has given three rules of mate selection in rural areas and these are as follows :

  • The field of selection
  • Parties for selection
  • Criteria of selection.

Question 19.
Village Exogamy.
Answer:
According to the rule of village exogamy members of one village cannot marry each other. A person has to marry out of his village. It is considered that all the citizens of a village are the children of one parent. Citizens of one village are considered as the relatives of each other. We can listen commonly in the villages of Punjab that sister or daughter of village is the sister or daughter of every one. That’s why a person has to marry out of his village. It is“known as village exogamy.

Question 20.
Dowry.
Answer:
Dowry. People are giving dowry to their girl at the time of marriage and this process is going on from the ancient times. At the time of marriage, parents are giving some gifts to the bridegroom and his relatives while sending their daughter to the boy’s house. These gifts are known as dowries. Every family gives dowry according to their economic status and according to the social status of the family of the bridegroom. If the economic status of the family is good then they give good dowry but if the economic status of the family is weak then they give less dowry. This custom is in great demand in modern times and it prevails equally in the whole of Indian society.

Question 21.
Rural Economy.
Answer:
The rural economy is based upon agriculture and agriculture is being done on land. That’s why land is of great importance in rural society and the rural economy. Around 70% population of our country is engaged in the occupation of either agriculture or any other agriculture-related occupation. Yet there are certain other occupations in the rural economy but agriculture is of great importance. People produce things by cultivating the land. Methods of production are still ancient. Yet farmers, in many parts of the country, are using modern technology and machines to do agriculture but still, most parts of the country are using old means of agriculture.

Question 22.
Indebtedness.
Answer:
Another important feature of the economy of Indian rural society is the indebtedness of farmers. There are many reasons behind the indebtedness of farmers. Rural families are large in size. Yet their income is less but their expenditure is more due to large family. They have to take loans on interest from money lenders to meet their needs because of which they come into the circle of indebtedness. Expenditure of agriculture has been increased to a great extent these days like rates of seeds and fertilizers have been increased, spending on diesel for pumps of irrigation due to unavailability of electricity. More expenditure on agriculture due to less rain, bad quality of production forces them to sell their produce at rates less than the minimum support price, etc. Due to these factors, farmers are unable to meet their expenditure on cultivation. That’s why they have to take loans either from banks or from money lenders. They are unable to repay their loans due to more rate of interest and slowly and slowly they come under the trap of indebtedness.

Question 23.
Jajmani System.
Answer:
The entire rural economy in the Jajmani system revolves around agriculture and farmer. Farmer has the most important place in rural economy and other castes have many related functions of agriculture. Farmer prepares the land for agriculture but other castes give their services for the completion of the whole agricultural process and they take their part from the produce of that land. The blacksmith makes the related tools of agriculture and cobler makes shoes for the farmer. The main feature of the Jajmani system is that human needs of life are fulfilled only at the local level. In this way rural economy moves in a proper way with the Jajmani system.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 24.
Characteristics of Rural Economy.
Answer:

  • The main occupation of people in tribal economy is agriculture and life of the people depends upon this.
  • Production in rural economy is being done through agriculture and the means of production are still old.
  • The land is the base of every type of relation in rural economy and the farmer is the owner of the land.
  • More population is there in rural areas because of which pressure on land increases for more production.
  • There is a great problem of indebtedness in rural economy and farmers are always in debt of money lenders.

Question 25.
Reasons of Indebtedness in Rural Society.
Answer:

  • Means of income of farmers are temporary because of which they have to take loans if any need arises.
  • The population of the family of a farmer is more but income is limited because of which they have to take loan.
  • Farmers have the habit to show off because of which they spend more than they need. That’s why they have to take a loan for that.
  • The loan is easily available for farmers from money lenders because of which they get encouragement to take loans.
  • Money lenders never let any farmer to go out of its clutches. That’s why they are rounded in this cycle of indebtedness.

Question 26.
Zamindari System.
Answer:
Zamindari system was started in the rural society of our country after the advent of Britishers. Under this system, one person or zamindar was the owner of a very big piece of land. He himself was not doing anything and was living a very luxurious life. But he used to give his land to marginal farmers for cultivation. Some portion of the production was given to the marginal farmers. In this way, he was getting a lot of money without doing anything and was living a luxurious life. This system was abolished after independence.

Question 27.
Tenancy reforms.
Answer:
Tenancy reforms. The main aims of reforms related to tenants in five-year plans were

  • Security of laborers
  • to decrease rent
  • ownership of tenants. Even after the abolition of the zamindari system, labor was going on in large areas of the land. That’s why many steps were taken by governments of different states like the security of laborers and co-determine proper rent of land with which laborers came in direct contact with the state. These reforms were revived in the meetings of Chief Ministers in Nov. 1969 and Sept. 1970 and it was decided that more steps should be taken by the government for the improvement of position of labourers.

Question 28.
Panchayati Raj Institution.
Answer:
There are two ways for the development of the local areas in our country. Local governments are there for the development of urban areas and Panchayati Raj institutions are there for the development of rural areas. 70 % of the total population in our country lives in rural countries. That’s why the institutions which have been made for the development of rural areas are known as Panchayati Raj Institutions. It has three levels. Panchayat is there for the development at village level, Block Samiti is there for the development at block level and Zila Parishad is there for the development at district level. Its members are nominated as well as elected.

Question 29.
Gram Sabha.
Answer:
All the adult persons of the total population, of the village, are the members of Gram Sabha and it is the complete unit of the whole population of the village. This is the basic unit on which the whole structure of our democracy rests. Grain Sabha can be made in that village whose population is more than 250. If the population of one village is less than 250 then two villages can jointly make the Gram Sabha. Every adult of the village is a member of Gram Sabha, who has the right to vote. There is one chairman and some members of every Gram Sabha. It is elected for 5 years.

Question 30.
Gram Panchayat.
Answer:
Every Gram Sabha elects one Gram Panchayat from its area. In this way, Gram Sabha is an executive institution that elects members for the Gram Panchayat. It has one Sarpanch and 5-13 panches. There are certain places in panchayats that are reserved for backward classes and females. It is generally elected for 5 years but the state government can dissolve them even before 5 years if it will try to misuse its power. Government officials and mentally ill persons cannot fight the elections. Gram Panchayat solves the problems of the village and develops many things like industries, agriculture, cleanliness, means of recreation, and means of transport.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 31.
Functions of Panchayat.
Answer:

  • The first function of Gram Panchayat is to uplift the social and economic life of the people.
  • Village panchayat tries to open schools in the village and motivates the people to send their children to schools.
  • Gram Panchayat also arranges for the means of a recreation like films, festivals and opening up of library in the village.
  • Panchayat tells the people about new techniques of agriculture and it arranges for new seeds and developed fertilizers.
  • For the industrial development of the village, it also tries to establish any industry in the village.

Question 32.
Nyaya Panchayat.
Answer:
Nature of two persons is not same. That’s why problems are arising among them. In this way problems between villagers are arising and they fight with each other. Nyaya Panchayat stops and solves these problems. One Nyaya Panchayat is generally formed for 5-10 Gram Sabhas. Its members are elected and Sarpanch makes one committee of 5 members. They have the right to ask questions to Panchayat.

Question 33.
Panchayat Samiti or Block Samiti.
Answer:
Panchayats coming under one block are the members of Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanches of these Panchayats are the members of Panchayat Samiti. Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which-are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayati Raj.

Question 34.
Zila Parishad.
Answer:
The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in the district. It is an executive institution. Chairman of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad. All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions like improvement of agriculture, improvement of land, irrigation, rural electrification, arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries, etc.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What is Rural Family? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
Family keeps a very important place in rural social structure because family is of great importance in agriculturist societies. Generally, we can see many forms of families in villages but a joint family is that family which exists in all the rural societies. We can find Patriarchal joint families in every part of India. That’s why now we will discuss the joint family in rural society.

A joint family is a group in which members of many generations live with each other. It means that grand father-grand mother, mother-father, uncle-aunt, their children, wives of boys, and unmarried children live in one place.

According to Karve, “A joint family is a group of persons who generally live under one roof, who eat and cook at one hearth, who hold property in common and who participate in common worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred.”According to I.P. Desai, “We call that household joint family which has greater generation depth than the nuclear family and the members of which are related to one another by property, income and mutual rights and obligations.” So after looking at these definitions we can give some of the features of a joint family and these are :

  1. They are large in size.
  2. Members of this family have a sense of co-operation.
  3. Property in the family is common to all.
  4. All the members of the family live at one commonplace.
  5. All the economic, social, and cultural activities of the members are common in the family.

Desai was of the view that those societies, where occupations related to agriculture are more in number, have a patriarchal joint family. The joint family acts as an economic property in agricultural societies. Patriarchal rural joint family has many functional, psychological, political aspects which differentiate it from the urban family system. So from this description, it is clear that the generally patriarchal joint family exists in rural society. Characteristics of this type of family are given below : Characteristics of Rural Family

  1. Large in size
  2. Dependency upon agriculture
  3. More unity
  4. More inter-dependency and discipline
  5. More proudness of family
  6. More powers of the father
  7. More participation in household affairs.

Now we will explain them in detail.

1. Large in size: The first characteristic of rural family is that it is large in size because members of many generations live at one place. The increasing population of our country is responsible for its large size. Even at some places its members reach the number of 60-70. But generally one simple rural family has 6-15 members and that’s why it is large in size.

2. Dependency upon agriculture: The main occupation of the rural people is agriculture because of which all the members of rural family are engaged in agricultural activities. For example, ploughing is done by any one and any one else brings fodder for cattle. Females of the rural family work in fields because of which rural family is different from urban family. Many females give their help to the husbands in fields and work to fill the gap of labourer. Even females living at houses don’t have any leisure time. They give fodder and water to cattle. Their ideas, thinking etc. become the same because they work with each other in fields.

3. More unity: One of the important features of rural family is that it has more unity. Rural families have more unity as compared to urban families. Like husband- wife, grand father-grand son, parents have more emotional relations. If we look at the rural areas then we will come to know that rural people like to live in groups and their unity can be seen at the time of function of the family. All the members of rural family have same feelings, views, wishes, activities. They do same type of works and think in the same way. Importance of personal life is less as compared to the family. All the members live their fives according to the ideals and traditions of the family.

4. More inter-dependency and discipline: Members of rural family depend more upon each other as compared to urban families. Humans in urban areas fulfil their needs out of the family. But the economic, social, psychological, religious needs of humans are fulfilled only in the family. It is so because except family, no other means can fulfil human needs in villages and person alone cannot fulfil all of his needs. For example, no boy or girl in village can marry itself but family arranges for their marriage. Because of this more dependency family and elders have full control on their members. Younger members of the family never say no to elders for any work.

5. More proudness of family: Another important feature of the rural family is the more proudness of family. Because members of the family are interdependent and united that’s why family takes the form of a unit in which family has more importance than the member. In simple words family has more importance in rural areas than any individual member. Any work done by the member can become the proudness or black spot of the family. It is expected from every member of the family that he should maintain respect of the family. We can see example of proudness of the family that sometimes two families start fighting with each other for the respect of the family.

6. More powers of father: The father has more powers in rural family. Father is the wholly incharge of the family. Many functions of the family are there which are being done by father with his will, like division of labour on the basis of sex and age, marriage of chifdren, taking care of income and house etc. Father has so much influence on the family that not even a single member can speak against him. Rural family is exactly opposite to the urban family where every member of the family has its own importance.

7. More participation in household affairs: Another important feature of the rural family is that all the members of family greatly participate in household affairs. Members spend more time with each other due to same occupation and that’s why members of the family take part in every activity of the house: They work together in fields during day time and at home during night and that’s why they are very close to each other.

Except for these characteristics, rural families have many other characteristics like :

  1. Importance of religion
  2. Lower status of women
  3. Worship of ancestors
  4. Dominance of joint family

In this way many characteristics of rural family are given.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 2.
What do you know about Rural Familism? Explain it.
Answer:
Family is a very important unit in the rural social structure. Every type of institution, which prevails in villages, is greatly influenced by rural family. That’s why family has more importance in rural society as compared to an individual. It is known as Familism. When the whole family is given importance as compared to one or two persons then it is known as familism. Some sociologists are of the view that in agriculturalist societies, social and political organizations has the features of the family because family is the basic and most important unit in rural society. Influence of familial traits over social organizations feel of rural society are made according to the and political organization is known as Familism.

According to Sorokin, “Because family is the basic social institution in rural society, that’s why it is naturally expected that feature of rural family and social institutions should have influence over agricultural groups. In other words it forms the basic social relations of all the rural familial relations. Word Familism is used for these social organizations.”
In this way when political and social institutions of the village are under the influence of religion then it is known as Familism. Familism has many features which are given below :

1. Family—in the form of an ideal. Family is considered as an ideal in the society. Family has some moral measurements, religious beliefs, social concept and if any one tries to break them or tries to destabilize the family then he is being criticised by others.

2. Family—a unit of social responsibility. Family is the basic unit of any rural society. That’s why it takes all the responsibilities and pays tax collectively. Any person in the village is known by his family. No one is known personally in the family.

3. Effect of family on political institutions. Forms of political institutions in agriculturalist societies are just like a rural family. Relation of ruler and general masses is just like as the relation of head of the family with other members of the family. Head of the family is the representative of the family in the political activities of the village. Even members give their vote to that party where head of the family says so.

4. Relations of co-operation. Relations in unban societies are not full of co-operation but are contractual. Person can disconnect his relation after the completion of his work. But relations in agriculturalist societies or in rural societies are not contractual but are full of co-operation, love and sympathy. Co-operative relations come forward due to living and working with each other by believing in same views and beliefs and with unity and integrity of the family.

5. Family—A unit of production, consumption and exchange. Economic system of rural society also has the features of rural family. Production and consumption is being done in the family. It means that production, in the family, is being done according to the needs of the family and family consumes that production. Exchange in villages is being done is a very simple way. People exchange things instead of exchange of money and things. Family is also the base of the exchange.

6. Many customs. All the process of rural life in agriculturalist societies moves around the customs of the family. Customs related to every aspect of life exists in rural society and they always affect every aspect of the life of the person.

7. Dominance of ancestral worship. Religion is of great importance in rural society. All the members of the family have to obey the customs and traditions of the family. Worship of ancestors is a very important part of rural society. People worship their ancestors with the worship of gods and godesses. In this way family has its own features in those societies where familism has its dominance.

Question 3.
What is Rural marriage? Explain its features.
Or
Explain the marriage system in rural society.
Answer:
Generally marriage is considered as necessary for every one because marriage is necessary for the continuation of the society. Children without marriage are not sanctioned by society and are considered as illegal. It is quite important in agricultural societies. Marriage of children is considered as necessary in rural society. Girl child is generally considered as burden on the parents. That’s why marriage of girl child is being done at very early age. In this way marriage is the relation between male and female whose aims are to make family, establish house, produce children and continuation of the society.

Marriage is the very important stage in human life. Indian society is basically a rural society because of which marriage is considered as a family affair. Two families make relations with each other with their help and boy and girl also make relations with each other. Marriage out of the clan and marriage within the caste is considered as necessary in rural society. We can come to know about the status of two families with marriage.

Marriage, in rural society, is not a contract but is instead considered as a religious sacrament. Marriage, in villages, is being done in traditional way and with complete > rituals and customs. Gods and Goddess are worshiped before marriage. Boy takes his Baraat to girls’ house and many rituals and customs are being performed related with marriage. With this marriage is completed. Yet these customs and rituals are decreasing in urban areas but rural societies used to perform marriage with all customs and rituals. We can’t see the great pomp and show of cities in rural marriage but it is being performed with complete traditions.

In this way whichever marriage, in rural society, is being performed with all , religious sacraments, customs, traditions etc. then it is known as rural marriage. With this marriage, not only religious customs are performed but the aims of marriage i.e. sexual satisfaction and procreation of children etc. are also fulfilled.

Characteristics Of Rural Marriage:

1. Religious sacrament. Marriage is considered as a religious sacrament in rural society because its aim is religious. It has been written in religious books that person will do marriage to make his house, to produce children, for the continuation of society and to pay his debts. Person can pay his debts only by doing marriage and by producing children. Person in rural society has to go through many rituals from birth till death. That’s why it is considered as a religious sacrament.

2. Related with religion. Rural marriage is always related with religion because rural marriage is being performed with complete rituals and customs. Yet these religious rituals have been decreased to a great extent but they still exist in rural society. Person has to complete many religious rituals and that’s why he has to obey many duties like to pay many debts and to do many types of ‘yajnas’. It is necessary for a person to do marriage to do ‘yajnas’ because he cannot do yajna without marriage. In this way rural marriage is related with religion.

3. Marriage to be done with complete traditions. Marriage in rural society is performed after completing all the rituals and in a traditional way. Traditions, like boy goes to the girl’s house with Baraat, all the persons in Barat are dancing, after marriage boy takes the girl to his house in ‘Doli’ and then many religious customs are to be performed there with which marriage is performed. These traditions and customs not only exist in rural society but also prevail in Hindu marriage. That marriage is not considered as a complete marriage which is not performed with all the rituals and traditions.

4. Marriage cannot be broken. Marriage, in rural society, is not considered as a contract but is considered as a religious sacrament. If it is to be considered as a contract then it can be broken at any time like urban societies. But marriage is considered as a religious sacrament in rural society which cannot be broken at any time. Marriage is considered as a bond of seven births which cannot be broken.

5. Marriage is necessary. Marriage is considered necessary in rural society because unmarried children are considered as a burden on parents. It is necessary specially for girls because if the marriage of a girl is not performed then it is considered as the parents are unable to perform their duty. It has been believed in rural society that woman should bear a child and become a mother because it is necessary for the continuation of society. Marriage of girl is considered as necessary than that of boy because there is no fear of character losing of boy but if girl will go in a wrong direction then the status of the family will become lower.

6. Arranged marriage by parents. Marriage in rural societies is not a relation of one male and female but is considered as the relation of two families, groups or two villages. That’s why parents play an important role in finding mate for their children. Enough importance is given to the size, status, kinship and economic position of the family while selecting mate of the child. With this the personal traits of would be mate are also given enough importance. If the child has any personal problem then it would be very difficult to find his/her mate. Parents are doing marriage of their child and they always try to do marriage with great pomp and show.

7. Role of Priest. Brahmin or Priest has a tfery important role in marriage. Generally, in all societies, parents are matching the Janampatri (horoscope) of their children and this work is being done by astrologer. If Janampatri matches then they start the process of marriage but if Janampatri does not match then they stop the process at once. At the time of shagun, exchange of rings take place. In marriage he has a very important role to play because he performs the marriage after completing all the rituals of marriage. He reads many religious mantras to perform marriage. In this way religious person or priest has a very important role to play in marriage. With this one important thing is there in rural marriage and that is that boy and girl cannot meet each other during the time of mangni and marriage. Yet there is no restriction regarding this in urban areas. This short span of time is considered as very special because small things can create problems and marriage can also be broken.

Rules Of Mate Selection:

Question 4.
Which types of rules are there in rural society regarding mate selection?
Answer:
The major question in front of parents, in any society, is to do marriage of their children. Mate is necessary for the marriage and selection of the mate is the biggest problem. Meaning of selection of mate is that finding life partner for their child. For selection of mate, it is necessary that the area of selection of marriage should be determined that where to do marriage and where not to do marriage. Some rules regarding selection of mate have been made in our societies that not to marry within clan or gotra but one has to marry within his caste or subcaste. Generally every society has its different rules and these rules are changing according to time and society. Selection of mate does not depend upon the wish of the person but is according to the rules made by society. That’s why selection of mate has been divided by Kapadia in three parts and these three parts are :

  1. The field of selection
  2. Parties for selection
  3. Criteria of selection.

Now we will explain them in detail.

1. Field of Selection. Some rules in Hindu society have been made regarding marriage like Endogamy and Exogamy. Field of .selection becomes limited after accepting and’ following these rules. Rules of endogamy and exogamy are given below :

1. Endogamy. According to the rules of Endogamy one needs to marry within his own caste. Caste was again divided into sub-castes. In this way man had to marry in sub-caste. During the times of caste system, this rule was strictly applied. If any one was trying to break or was breaking this rule then the -caste was throwing him out of caste and they were breaking or severing all types of relations with him. According to religious books society was divided into four castes. These castes were again divided into sub-castes. Every person has to marry in his own sub-caste. In this form of marriage many changes have come due to the passage of time. According to K.M. Kapadia, “The Hindu community is divided into a number of castes which are endogamous groups and in practice the caste is again divided into a number of sub-castes, each of which is further divided into sub-sections as visa and dasa in terms of locality.”

According to Hoebel, “Endogamy is a social rule which demands that a person should marry within a group of which he is a member.” There are different forms of endogamy available in India and these are given below :

  • Tribal Endogamy
  • Caste Endogamy
  • Class Endogamy
  • Sub-caste Endogamy
  • Racial Endogamy.

2. Exogamy. Institution of marriage is one of the important Social institutions. Any society cannot give permission to any couple to live as husband and wife without marriage. That’s why every society has made some rules to establish marriage in society. The most important function is the selection of the mate. Exogamy is also one of the rules of mate selection. In many societies the marital relations are forbidden between the persons who are related with each other by blood. According to Sumner, “Endogamy is conservative while exogamy is progressive.” In this way in exogamy marriage is prohibited within the group. Children of one parent are also forbidden to marry.

In Muslims marriage between the relatives of parents is permitted. In the Roman Catholic Church of England marriage with the sister-in-law, after the death of the wife, or Sororate marriage was not allowed. In Australia, boy can marry with the wife of his father if she is not his mother. According to the rule of Exogamy man is not permitted to marry in his caste, clan, Sapraver, Spinda etc. Some of its types are given below :

  • Gotra Exogamy.
  • Sapraver Exogamy
  • Spinda Exogamy
  • Village Exogamy
  • Totem Exogamy

2. Parties for Selection. It is right that societies have made different rules of selection of mate regarding marriage but other party to do marriage is also necessary. Many ways are there to find other party. The first way is that selection of other party should be done by the relatives of the boy or girl. They should fix the marriage after finding the boy or girl and after looking at their house etc. It is known as arranged marriage. Second way of finding other party is the selecting mate for marriage with the advice of their friends, relatives etc, This type of marriage prevails in higher class of Indian society. Third way is that boy and girl should find their mate themselves and marry with their respective choice: It is known as love marriage.

Relatives and friends play an important role in selection of mate regarding marriage. Parents, in rural areas, even ask their relatives and mediator for marriage so that they could find right match for their child. Brahmins also play an important role at this time because they move from one village to another and they know about the unmarried children of the village. Males of the family take the final decision. If any mediator finds the right match then he is generally rewarded by both the parties. Marriage in one’s own village is not allowed in rural society that’s why match is generally selected out of the clan, village and sparvar. This process is going on for a long time. The importance of mediator has been reduced in modern times and parents are finding themselves the mate of their child in far off places with the help of means of communication and transport.

Generally, parents fix the marriage of their children after asking them for their choice. These days children like to marry with their own choice because of which the trend of love marriages is increasing day by day. Inter caste marriages are also increasing due to love marriages.

3. Criteria of Selection. It is right that there are some rules regarding the selection of the mates and parties are also there. But there are some criteria to determine parties. These criteria are related with other party like family of other party, personal traits, dowry, etc. Their description is given below :

1) Family. In ancient times, more importance was given to the family for marriage instead of boy and girl. It was seen that whether family is fulfilling its religious duties or not. If family was completing its religious duties then that family was considered as good for the family unless it was not considered as fit for the marriage. Status of the family was also considered for the fixation of marriage.

Marriage, in rural society, is not considered as the relation between boy and girl but it is considered as the relation between two families, groups and two villages. Elders of the family play a very important role in fixation of the marriage. Choice of the boy and girl is given very less importance in marriage. Marriage is being done to fulfill social and religious responsibilities. Social status, economic status, size of the family, kinship of the other family are also kept in mind while selecting mate for marriage. With this also kept in mind that how much land other party has.

2) Individual abilities of the mate. Personal traits of the mate are also kept in mind with family while selecting mate for the child. Children, in rural societies, are also getting education these days and that’s why people also give enough importance to the personal traits of the mate. These traits are like character of the mate, age, household works, educational level, income, colour, physique, beauty, nature etc. If people want to find boy for their girl then it is also kept in mind that whether he is drug addict or not or what type of friend circle he has? If boy and girl are not beautiful, are black in colour, are handicapped etc. then very less chances are there of finding mate for them.

3) Dowry. People give dowry to their girl at the time of marriage and this process has been going on from the ancient times. At the time of marriage, parents are giving some gifts to the bridegroom and his relatives while sending their daughter to boy’s house. These gifts are known as dowry. Every family give dowry according to the their economic status and according to the social status of the family of bridegroom. If the economic status of the family is good then they give good dowry but if the economic status of the family is weak then they give less dowry.

This custom is in great demand in modern times and it prevails equally in whole of the Indian society. Yet, according to the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961, giving and taking dowry is a punishable offence but still this process is going on in full swing. Selecuon of mate also becomes limited due to this process. It is so because every one wants to get more and more dowry and every one cannot give more dowry. That’s why around 6,000 girls every year die due to this. This custom also prevails in rural society. While selecting mate, it has been seen that which family can give how much dowry. In this way mate is selected on this given basis; Yet the importance of these rules is reduced due to many factors like increasing education, many laws made by government, effect of wasternization and intercaste marriages are increasing. But still these rules play an important role at the time of marriage.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 5.
What do you know about Rural economy? Explain.
Or
Explain the characteristics of Rural economy.
Answer:
If we want to study rural society then first of all we have to understand rural economy because economic base of relations has a great importance in rural society. Land has been given a great importance in rural society because the main base of rural economy is land. 70% of the total population in India is engaged in agriculture or agriculture based occupations and agriculture is directly related with land. Land has direct influence on economic and social structure of rural society.

Because most of the Indian population is engaged in agricultural works, that’s why the economy of our country generally depends upon agriculture. Around half of the total income of the country comes from agriculture related functions. Yet there are many other occupations in villages but they are directly or indirectly related with agriculture. Many castes of a village give their services to many other castes and they get compensation of their service either in the form of money or their share in agriculture production. If people in villages do physical work then they are also related with agriculture like agricultural labourers. In this way we can see that generally most of the occupations in villages are related with agriculture. That’s why features of rural economy are related with either agriculture or land. Features of rural economy are given below :

1. Main Occupation-Agriculture. Main occupation of people of rural society is agriculture and agriculture is the main difference between rural economy and urban economy. The means and way of living for rural people is also agriculture. Ways of living, ideas, habits, thinking etc. of rural people ^Lso depend upon agriculture. The most important means of production in rural society is agriculture and land is considered as the base of social status. Animals, with land, are also considered as the property of the person. Many other occupations like carpenter, blacksmith* artists etc. are also the part of economy of rural society.

2. Production and Method of Production. Agricultural work, in the ancient times in rural societies, was being done with ploughs and oxen but agricultural work, in modern times, is being done with tractors, threshers, combines etc. Farmers grow many types of things like wheat, rice, maize, cotton, sunflower etc. Not only this, they also produce many types of vegetables and fruits. People are also engaged in many other related functions like piggery, poultry, dairy, fishing etc. Rivers, wells, tubewells etc. are being used for irrigation. Generally most of the farmers are used to plough their fields themselves but many farmers also give their land to other farmers on rent for agricultural functions. Production, before green revolution, from land was very less but it has been increased to a great extent after green revolution with the usage of new seeds and fertilizers. *Now farmers are using new seeds and chemical fertilizers to a great extent.

3. Ownership of Land. Many types of systems like Zamindari, Rayotwari, Mahalwari etc. were there in India in ancient times. According to these systems, farmers were only used to do agricultural work on land. They were not the owners of land. But systems were abolished after independence and farmers were made the owners of land. Now farmer is the owner and cultivator of the land. Big farmers are very less in number who have too much land. Marginal or small farmers are more in number who have small pieces of land. But this land is divided in the children of farmers. Many farmers have small pieces of land that they are unable to meet their demands with this much piece of land. That’s why government has started many programmes so as to improve their economic condition.

4. More Population. Rural societies have more population. Around two third part of population of our country lives in villages. Our country has second position in the world after China from the point of view of population. Because most of the people live in rural societies and depends upon agriculture that’s why economy of the country also depends upon agriculture. Half of the total income of our country comes from agriculture or from its related occupations. We hardly can see development in many parts of rural society due to more population.

5. Indebtedness. Another important feature of economy of Indian rural society is the indebtedness of farmers. There are many reasons behind indebtedness of farmers. Rural families are large in size. Yet their income is less but their expenditure is more due to large family. They have to take loan on interest from money lenders to meet their needs because of which they come in the circle of indebtedness. Expenditure of agriculture has been increased to a great extent these days like rates of seeds and fertilizers has been increased, spending on diesel for pumps of irrigation due to unavailability, of electricity. More expenditure on agriculture due to less rain, bad quality of production which forces them to sell their produce on rates less than the minimum support price etc.

Due to these factors farmers are unable to meet their expenditure on cultivation. That’s why they have to take loan either from banks or from money lenders. They are unable to repay their loans due to more rate of interest and slowly and slowly they come under the tjrap of indebtedness. In recent times, farmers are opting to do suicide in many areas of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana due to indebtedness. In this way indebtedness is a very important feature of rural economy.

6. Rural Industries. Another important aspect of rural economy is the availability of rural industries. These rural industries are small in size. Small industries, in ancient times, were- based on caste but rural industries, in modern times, are based on science and technology. Government is also encouraging people to establish small scale industries to give employment to the people Weaving of clothes, stitching, soap industry are some of the examples which are now the part and parcel of rural economy.

7. Production Relations. Institutional relations have a very specific place in agricultural production. Good relations can increase production and bad relations can decrease production. Yet, many changes are coming, in modern times, in institutional relations of agriculture, but still these relations have a great importance in Indian rural economy. Jajmani system is the most important among these relations.

Meaning of Jajman is that one who does service or who perform YAGYA’. With the passage of time, this word was started to be used for those people who accept services of other people. These ancestral relations of acceptance of service of giving service by different castes is known as Jajmani system. According to this system, generally priests, artisans and many other lower castes used to give their services to the people of higher castes, like any brahmin works as a priest for any specific caste, barber gives his service to that caste by cutting their hair and washerman washes their clothes. In this way all the members of that caste are the Jajmans of that brahmin, washerman and barber.

The whole rural economy in Jajmani system revolves around agriculture and farmer. Farmer has the most important place in rural economy and other castes have many related functions of agriculture. Farmer prepares the land for agriculture but other castes give their services for the completion of the whole agricultural process and they take their part from the produce of that land. Blacksmith makes the related tools of agriculture and cobler makes shoes for the farmer. The main feature of Jajmani system is that human needs of life are fulfilled only at the local level. In this way rural economy moves in a proper way with Jajmani system.

The relation of farmer and money lender also has a very important place in rural economy. If we look at the history then we will come to know that the Indian farmer is suppressed under the indebtedness of money lender right from the ancient times. Farmer needs money for many occasions like marriage, death, cultivation and this need is being fulfilled by money lender. It has been said that farmer takes birth under the indebtness of money lender, grows up and dies under it. In this way these relations are very important in rural economy.

Relations of farmer and labourer are also very important. In earlier times labourers used to work for their Jajmans under Jajmani system and farmers used to give some share of the product to these labourers. But now due to the decreasing effect of Jajmani system and increasing effect of money based economy it has brought many changes in these relations. Now contractual relations have come farward instead of Jajmani System. Rural economy also has a direct relationship with nature. If there is a good rain then production will be more but if less rain comes then production will also be less. Even science is unable to reduce the farmer’s dependency upon nature. In this way these relations have an important place in rural economy.

So after looking at these features we can conclude that the economy of rural society mainly depends upon agriculture and every type of relation of rural society is also related with agriculture.

Question 6.
What are the results of Indebtedness? How can we remove this problem?
Answer:
Results of Indebtedness. We can see many results of increasing indebtedness in many villages of India. Some of the results of ‘indebtedness’ are given below :

1. Slavery: The worst result of indebtedness can be seen in the increasing number of landless laborers. Moneylenders take advantage of the ignorance of illiteracy of helpless farmers and take away their land from them. In this way one farmer becomes a laborer and works as a laborer for money lender on his own land. Sometimes a person has to work for money lender to repay his debt and this position is not better than that of a servant. There is one tendency in some village that parents are sending their children to do work for money lenders to repay their loans were: Status of these children is just like slaves. In this way this problem of indebtedness has forced thousands of farmers to live a life of slavery.

2. Increase in Poverty: Another worst result of indebtedness can be seen in the increasing poverty because of which any person comes in the cycle of indebtedness. Then even with all of his efforts he cannot come out of that cycle and will remain poor for his whole life. It becomes very difficult for a person to repay his loan. Even sometimes grandson repays the loan of his grandfather.

3. Deterioration of Agriculture: Position of agriculture also deteriorates due to problem of indebtedness because farmer has to work for money lender on his own land. That’s why they hardly take care of agriculture which they were doing on their own land. Production also suffers with this and power of production of land also decreases with this.

4. Suicide: If any farmer comes under the cycle of indebtedness then he becomes weak day by day because he always remains in tension to repay his loan. Even some people try to do a lot of hard work but when they are unable to get the desired result then their mental condition becomes weak. In this way they commit suicide. Ways to Remove Indebtedness. Many suggestions have come forward to remove this problem and these suggestions are given below :

1. Governmental loan at low interest: Government should provide loans to farmers on a lower rate of interest so that they should be able to repay their loans at lower rate of interest. A system of small installments should be arranged for them to repay their governmental loans.

2. Co-operative societies and banks: Some cooperative societies and cooperative banks should be opened in villages to provide governmental loans at village level. With this farmers can get loans very easily and at very low rate of interest.

3. Arrangement for declaration of bankrupt: Sometimes the loan and interest on that loan become too much that it becomes impossible for the farmer to repay that loan with interest. That’s why arrangements should be made to declare him bankrupt and no one should take possession of his land and he should earn his bread .easily.

4. Laws for preventing dispossession of land: Government should make such laws that if any money lender tries to take possession of the land of the farmer then he should be prevented from doing this.

5. Control over the rate of interest. Money lenders take too much rate of interest from farmers. In some cases it becomes 5-10% per month. Government should fix the minimum and maximum rate of interest to be charged from farmers in villages. If any one tries to charge more then he should be strictly dealt.

6. Checking the accounts of the money lenders. Government should make some laws for money lenders to keep their records properly. These records and registers should be checked time to time. If any discrepancy would be found in the accounts then he should be punished. In this way we can keep a strict check on the problem of indebtedness to a great extent with these measures.

Question 7.
What do you know the concept of Panchayati Raj? Write in detail.
Answer:
There are two ways of developing local areas in our country. Local governments are there for the development of urban areas and panchayati raj institutions are there for the development of rural areas. Institutions of local government are based upon the concept of division of labour because functions here are divided in government and local groups. 70% of the population in our country lives in rural areas. The institution of local government which administers the rural areas is known as Panchayat. Panchayati Raj expresses only the institutional structure of rural area.

When British Empire was established in our country then the whole country was under the control of landlords and Zamindars. In 1935, Indian government passed a law which has given the complete sovereignity to states and the panchayati laws were given a new form. In Punjab, one Panchayat Act was passed in 1939 whose aim was to give some powers to the democratically elected institutions with which they would be able to work at a unit of local administration. On 2nd October 1961 the three-tier structure of Panchayati Raj was applied in the whole country. 73rd constitutional amendment was done in 1992 in which powers were decentralized upto the local level. With this the panchayati raj institutions were given many financial and other types of powers.

Many changes have taken place in Indian rural community during last 66 years. Most of the powers of Indian panchayats were taken away by Britishers. They wanted to run these panchayats according to their own way because of which they applied a new and common legal System in all the villages. Present panchayats are the result of the laws made after the independence.

1. According to A.S. Altekar, an authority on Indian polity, “The village panchayats in ancient India were responsible for various functions such as defence, collection of revenue, imposition of taxes, implementation of programme of public welfare and so on. They are very important institutions of decentralized administration.”

2. According to K. M. Panikar, “These Panchayats are the only permanent basis of ancient Indian history. These institutions have provided a solid base to the prosperity of the country.”

3. According to 4th part of Article 30 of the Constitution, “Organization of village Panchayats, the state shall take steps to organize panchayats, and endow them with such power and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government.”
Village Panchayats are doing many functions for the development of villages and that’s why there are certain aims of panchayats and these aims are given below :

  • The first aim for the establishment of panchayats is to solve the problems of people at local level. These panchayats are finding solutions of problems and quarrels of the people.
  • Village Panchayats create the sense of cooperation, love and sympathy among the people so that every member of a village should contribute towards its progress.
  • Another aim of establishment of panchayats is to determine the members of panchayats for the smooth functioning of panchayats so that everyone should contribute towards the solution of the problems of the village. Function of public welfare is also completed with this.

Organization Of Village Panchayats:

There are two types of panchayats in the village. First type of panchayats which are elected according to the laws made by government and are formal in nature. Second type of panchayats are informal and they are known as caste panchayats. They don’t have any legal status but they play a very important role in keeping social control. Three types of organization of panchayats exist in our country and these are :

1. GRAM SABHA
All the adult persons of total population, of the village, are the members of Gram Sabha and it is the complete unit of the whole population of the village. This is the basic unit on which the whole structure of our democracy rests. Gram Sabha can be made in that village whose population is more than 250. If population of one village is less than 250 then two villages can jointly make the Gram Sabha. Every adult of the village is the member of Gram Sabha, who has the right to vote. There is one chairman and some members of every Gram Sabha. It is elected for 5 years. Functions of Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha approves the annual budget and the functions to be done for the development of the village and helps in applying these functions. It also helps in doing the functions of social welfare, programmes of adult education and of family’welfare. It also plays an important role in keeping unity in the village.

2. Village Panchayat Or Gram Panchayat

Every Gram Sabha elects one Gram Panchayat from its area. In this way Gram Sabha is an executive institution which elects members for Gram Panchayat. It has one Sarpanch and 5-13 panches. There are certain places in Panchayats which are reserved for backward classes and females. It is generally elected for 5 years but state government can dissolve them even before 5 years if it tries to misuse its powers. If any Gram Sabha is dissolved before completion of its term then all of its position will also come to an end. Village is generally divided in different parts to elect Panches and Gram Panchayat. Then the Panches and Sarpanch are elected by the members of Gram Sabha. One third of the total seats in Gram Panchayat are reserved for women and the seats are also reserved for backward classes according to the ratio of their population in that area. Any governmental official and mentally ill person cannot be elected for panchayat. Gram Panchayat works for the sanitation, recreation, development of industries and means of communication. It also solves the problems of the village.

Functions Of Panchayats:

Gram Panchayat does many functions for the village which are given below :

1. The first important function of Gram Panchayat is to raise the economic and social standard of the people. There are many social evils in villages. Panchayat motivates the people to remove those evils and tries to change their traditional point of view.

2. For allround development of any area, it is necessary that illiteracy should be eradicated from that area and it is the main reason of backwardness of Indian Society. Indian villages are also backward due to this reason. Panchayat tries to open schools in village and motivates the people to send their children in the school. It also arranges the adult education centre to teach the adults of the village.

3. Panchayat of a village also works for the welfare of the women and children of the village. It also arranges for giving education to females. The function of arrangement of good food and entertainment facilities is also of Panchayat.

4. There are no means of recreation in rural areas. That’s why Panchayat also arranges to provide recreational means in village. Panchayat arranges for. films, organizing fairs and the opening up of library in the village.

5. Increase in production is necessary in the agriculture based country. Panchayat tells the people about new techniques of agriculture, arranges for the new seeds and developed fertilizers for them so that their agricultural production could be increased.

6. It is very much necessary to establish small scale industries in villages for its allround development. That’s why Panchayat tries to establish small scale industries in villages with the help of governmental help. It helps in economic progress of the village and people get employment in their villages.

7. Means of irrigation are of great importance in good production of agriculture. Gram Panchayat arranges the wells and tubewells in Gram Panchayat. It also arranges for river water so that the people are able to irrigate their fields.

8. Generally people are fighting in villages. Panchayat tries to solve their problems in village.

9. Except these Panchayat also does many other functions like :

  • Function related to dairy, animal rearing, poultry.
  • Establishment of small scale industries.
  • Arrangement of means of transport and communication.
  • Arrangement of informal and formal education.
  • Arrangement of cultural activities etc.

Panchayati Raj Act was implemented in India on 21st April 1994. Three-tier structure of Panchayati Raj was implemented with this Act. This Act brought many changes in rural community. Village economy was also’improved with this. Panchayat does every type of function for welfare of village.

3. Nyaya Panchayat
The nature of two persons is not the same all the times. That’s why problems are arising among them. In this way problems between villagers are arising in and they fight with each other. Nyaya Panchayat stops and solves these problem. One Nyaya Panchayat is generally formed for 5-10 Gram Sabhas. Its members are elected and Sarpanch makes one Committee of 5 members. They have the right to ask questions to Panchayat.

4. Panchayat Samiti
Panchayats coming in one block are the members of Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanches of these Panchayats are the members of Panchayat Samiti. Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayati Raj.

5. Zila Parishad
The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in the district. It is an executive institution. Chairman’s of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad. All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions like improvement of agriculture, improvement of land, irrigation, rural electrification, arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries etc.

Question 8.
Explain the characteristics of Panchayati Raj according to 73rd Constitutional Amendment.
Answer:
73rd Constitutional Amendment was passed by Parliament in December 1992 and was sanctioned by President in April 1993. Panchayati Raj system was established through this constitutional amendment and its characteristics are given below :

1. There was no system of self-administration in Constitution for the local level before 73rd constitutional amendment. A new schedule and new part was added in Constitution through this Amendment. All the arrangements in this schedule and part are related with the Panchayati Raj system that which types of arrangements are there in this new system.

2. Definition of Gram Sabha is given in Constitution with this amendment according to which all the adults of the village, who have the right to vote, will be the members of Gram Sabha. State Legislative Assemblies can arrange Gram Sabha through law and can give them some functions. In this way Gram Sabha . will be established through a law passed by the State Legislative Assembly and it will determine its functions.

3. The definition of Panchayat is also given with the definition of Gram Sabha according to which Panchayat is an institution based on self rule which is established by state governments in rural areas.

4. One system in Constitution is established through this Constitutional amendment that the three-tier Panchayati Raj system will be established of self rule in rural areas. Panchayat will be at village level, Block Samiti at block level and the highest position will be of Zila Parishad at district level but state government can give them any other name.

5. This constitutional amendment says that the district will be divided at Panchayat level through this system and the members of Panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila Parishad will be directly elected by the people through the right of voting by adults of that area.

6. The responsibility of election at different levels, counting of votes and making of voters’ list will be of State Election Commission. This State Election Commission will be nominated by the Governor of that State. Its term, terms and conditions of ervice etc. will be determined according to the rules made by Governor. State Election Commission can be removed in that same way in which Judge of the high court is removed.

7. According to 73rd constitutional amendment the Sarpanch of the village Panchayat will be directly elected by the people.

8. Sarpanch of the village Panchayat can also be removed from his post even before the end of his term and the right of his removal is given to Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha can remove Sarpanch from his post if the Panchayat of that area gives its approval. There should be a majority behind this approval. For this one special meeting should be called and the presence of 50% members of Gram Sabha is necessary for this. If the Gram Sabha will pass the approval of removing Sarpanch from his post then the Sarpanch can be removed from his post.

9. In the same way members of Block Samiti and Zila Parishad will be elected by the people and their Chairman will be elected by the members themselves. Their Chairman can also be removed in that same way the Sarpanch can be removed. Chairman can be removed by two-thirds majority.

10. Some seats on these three tiers will be kept reserved.

  • Seats for Scheduled Castes and Tribes will be kept reserved in Panchayats. The number of reserved seats will be according to their ratio in the whole population.
  • One-third seats will be kept reserved for women.
  • One-third seats in Panchayats, Block Samitis and Zila Parishad will also be kept reserved. With this the l/3rd seats of Chairmen will also be kept reserved for women.

11. The term of these institutions is kept at 5 years. The term of any institution cannot exceed more than 5 years. If the state government comes to know about the misuse of powers by Panchayats then it can dissolve -it even before 5 years. But it should be elected again within 6 months. New elected Panchayat will complete the term of earlier Panchayat.

12. If any person cannot contest an election according to the law of state then he also cannot contest the election. But here is a difference in age. The age of 25 years is necessary to contest the election of state legislative assembly but the age of 21 years is fixed to contest the election of Panchayat.

13. Panchayats have been given some rights and duties according to the law of state legislative assembly. Panchayats have been given some rights to make and apply plans of economic development and social justice.

14. With this State Legislative Assembly can give them some powers to levy small taxes so that they can increase their income. With this state govt, will also give some share of the taxes, imposed by it, to these Panchayats. Grants will also be given as help for the development of the village.

In this way we can see that many important arrangements are kept by 73rd constitutional amendment through Panchayati Raj with which the importance of Panchayati Raj has been increased. Many steps have been taken to make this arrangement more effective.

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Rural Society Important Questions and Answers.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Rural Society

Sociology Guide for Class 12 PSEB Rural Society Textbook Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Rural society can be divided into two classes :
(а) Master and slaves
(б) The exploiting class and the exploited class
(c) Upper class and lower class
(d) Capitalists and workers.
Answer:
(b) The exploiting class and the exploited class.

2. The introduction of new techniques leading to greater crop yields is called :
(a) White Revolution
(b) Blue Revolution
(c) Yellow Revolution
(d) Green Revolution
Answer:
(d) Green Revolution

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

3. The mate selection within the group is called :
(a) Exogamy
(b) Endogamy
(c) Group Marriage
(d) Monogamy
Answer:
(b) Endogamy

4. Jajmani system is based upon the relationship of:
(a) Jajmanis
(b) Kammens
(c) Jajman and Kammen
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Jajman and Kammen

5. The reason for indebtedness in rural society is:
(a) Development
(b) Poverty and deficit economy
(c) Self-sufficiency
(d) Subsistence economy
Answer:
(b) Poverty and deficit economy

6. The new agricultural technology has made the farmers :
(a) Market-oriented
(b) Labour class
(c) Self-sufficient
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) Market-oriented

Fill In The Blanks:

1. The head of the village was known as ……………….
Answer:
Gramini

2. Rural society is …………….. in size.
Answer:
small

3. ……………… system was based on the exploitation of the Kammen.
Answer:
Jajmani

4. Social control in rural communities is …………….. in nature.
Answer:
informal

5. ……………….. and …………………. are used to look into the instances of social disobedience in rural society.
Answer:
Caste panchayat, village panchayat

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

True/False:

1. The village is the unit of social and political organization of India.
Answer:
True

2. Rural indebtedness is an indicator of the weak financial infrastructure.
Answer:
True

3. In agriculture, resources like fertilisers, pesticides, agricultural machinery etc. are used.
Answer:
True

4. With the establishment of panchayats in the villages, political consciousness has increased.
Answer:
True

5. The adoption of new technology has also given a boost to agricultural employment.
Answer:
False

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Match The Columns:

Column A Column B
Face to face relations Indebtedness
Head of the household High yielding variety of seeds
Marriage without group numbers Intimate relations
Litigation Karta
Wheat, rice and crops Endogamqus

Answer:

Column A Column B
Face to face relations Intimate relations
Head of the household Karta
Marriage without group numbers Endogamqus
Litigation Indebtedness
Wheat, rice and crops High yielding variety of seeds

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1. Who quoted, “Real India lives in its villages.”?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 2.
Which revolution helped the growth of capitalistic farming in India?
Answer:
Green Revolution.

Question 3.
The HYVPS revolutionised the agricultural production is called:
Answer:
Green Revolution.

Question 4.
Marriage outside one’s own group is called :
Answer:
Exogamy.

Question 5.
During ancient times the head of the village was known as?
Answer:
Gramini.

Question 6.
Which kind of family system exists in rural society – Joint or Nuclear family?
Answer:
Joint family.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 7.
Jajmani system is based on the relationship between whom?
Answer:
Jajman and Kammen.

Question 8.
What is the full form of HYVS?
Answer:
High Yielding Variety Seeds.

Question 9.
Is poverty one of the major reasons for indebtedness?
Answer:
Yes, poverty is one of the major reasons for indebtedness.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What is joint family?
Or
Joint Family.
Answer:
Joint family is a type of family in which a minimum of three generations live together under a sihgle roof. They eat in a common kitchen and do the same occupation i.e. agriculture. They use common property and obey the orders given by the head of family.

Question 2.
What is indebtedness?
Answer:
When an individual takes some money as a loan from others on interest to do some work, it is known as debt. When he is unable to pay back his debt and the loan increases by adding the interest, it is called indebtedness.

Question 3.
Write down two causes of rural indebtedness.
Answer:

  • Indebtedness increases with poverty. Due to less rain, the crop gets damaged and farmer needs to take loan to get the new crop ready.
  • Farmers are always engaged in litigation with their relatives for land and that’s why they have to take loan from the moneylenders.

Question 4.
What do you mean by Litigation?
Answer:
Rural people are always engaged in any issue such as a family dispute, theft of crops, division of land etc. and that’s why, they have to fight cases in the legal court. It is known as litigation. This leads to the increase in the problem of indebtedness.

Question 5.
What is Green Revolution?
Answer:
During the decade of 1960’s, a program was started to increase agricultural production which is known as green revolution. This programme included the use of HYV seeds, use of pesticides and new fertilizers, use of modern machines and modern means of irrigation etc.

Question 6.
Write down two changes in rural society.
Answer:

  • Now there are no more joint families in rural societies which are replaced by nuclear families.
  • Now rural children are getting the education and are migrating towards urban areas.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Discuss rural society.
Or
Rural society.
Answer:
Rural society is that area where there is less use of technology, the importance of primary relations, small in size and most of the population is engaged in agriculture. In this way rural community is the community that lives at a particular place, small in size and has primary and close relations. People know each other very well and their occupation is either agriculture or agriculture-related occupation.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 2.
Write three features of rural society.
Answer:

  • The main occupation of rural society is agriculture or other related occupation because rural society is closely related to nature. Most of the population is engaged in agriculture or other related work.
  • The life of the rural people is quite simple because their life is deeply attached to nature.
  • There is the very little population in the rural areas as compared to urban areas. People live in groups and these groups are called villages.

Question 3.
Write the three causes responsible for the indebtedness.
Answer:

  • Poverty: Rural people are poor and they will have to take loans to purchase seeds, machines, cattle, etc. That’s why they come into debt.
  • Parental debt: Many people are forced to pay back the loan taken by their parents or grandparents. That’s why they remain in debt.
  • The backwardness of agriculture: Indian .agr culture is based on monsoon and still, old methods of agriculture are used in many areas. That’s why agricultural production is quite low and farmers are unable to earn more.

Question 4.
Write a short note on Green Revolution in Punjab.
Or
What is Green Revolution?
Or
Write a short note on Green Revolution.
Answer:
In the field of agricultural development in India, Punjab made huge progress. The development of agriculture in Punjab is mainly related to Green Revolution. In this, high yielding variety seeds were used to increase the production of wheat, rice and other crops. This is the reason that the production of rice and wheat was increased in Punjab after 1966. This unbelievable progress in Punjab was made possible due to many factors such as the use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tube-wells, diesel pumps, tractors, combines, threshers, etc.

Question 5.
Write two positive as well as negative impacts of the Green Revolution.
Or
Write any two impacts of the Green Revolution.
Answer:
Positive impact.

  • The major impact of the green revolution was that there was great progress in the production of rice and wheat,
  • The green revolution led to an increase in the demand for laborers and that’s why many persons got employment in the agricultural field.

Negative impact.

  • Only rich farmers took advantage of the green revolution who used their money to purchase modern technology. Poor farmers were unable to take advantage.
  • The green revolution increased the gap between the income of people. Rich people earned more money and the poor remained poor.

Very Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What do you mean by rutal society? Discuss its characteristics in detail.
Or
Define rural society. Describe features of rural society.
Or
Define Rural Society.
Answer:
India is a rural country in which most of the people live in villages. Rural area is that area where technique is scarcely used, importance is given to primary relations, which is small in size and where most of the people depend upon agriculture. Rural culture is very much different from urban culture. Yet the rural and urban cultures are not the same but they both are very much interrelated. It is very much different from urban society due to many factors yet it is a part of the whole society. Many of its factors like economic, geographical, social etc. differentiate it from urban society.

Definitions:

1. According to A.R. Desai, “The village is the unit of rural society. It is the theatre in the quantum of rural life where the ruraf society unfolds itself and functions.

2. According to R.N. Mukherji, “A village is that community which is characterized by relative homogenity, informality, prominence of primary groups, lesser density of population and agriculture as the main occupation.”

3. According to Peake, “The village community consists of a group of the related or unrealted persons larger than a single family occupying a large house or a number of dwellings placed closed together, sometimes irregularly, sometimes in a street and cultivating originally in common a number of fields, dividing the available meadow land between them and pasturing their cattle upon surrounding waste land over which the community claims rights as far as the boundaries of adjacent community.”

In this way after looking at these definitions, we can say that the rural community is that community which lives at a definite place, is small in size, which has very close relations and in which primary relations exist. People know each other with great proximity and their main occupation is either agriculture or agriculture related work.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Characteristics Of Rural Society:

1. Agriculture main Occupation. The main occupation of the tribal society is either agriculture or any of the related work because they are very much closely related with nature. Because they are closely related with nature, that’s why their views towards life are very much different. Yet many other occupations, like carpenter, blacksmith etc. are there in villages but they also make tools related to agriculture. Land is considered as a very important thing in tribal society and people like to live here because their life depends upon the land. Even the economic system and development of people and villages depend upon agriculture.

2. Simple Life. Life of the rural people is very simple. People in ancient rural societies used to do a lot of hard work to fulfil their needs and they were very much away from leisures of life due to this hard work. People also like to engage their children in agricultural works because they don’t like to get education. They don’t have any mental conflicts and problems. They are always ready to help each other in each other’s problems. Any one’s daughter is considered as the daughter of the village. Needs of the people are very much limited because their income is very limited. People like to live a simple life.

3. Scarcity of Population and Homogenity. Population of villages is very less as compared to urban areas. People live in small groups and very much away from each other and these groups are known as villages. There are very less occupations in rural areas except agriculture because of which people like to go to cities to earn money and that’s why populatation in villages is very less. People have close relations with each other and their views are also same due to same occupation of agriculture. Customs, rituals, traditions etc. of rural people are common and there is hardly any difference in their economic, moral and religious life. People in village come to live in cities from far off places but they are the original inhabitants of villages or are living in the nearby areas. That’s why people have homogeneity among themselves.

4. Importance of Neighbourhood. Neighbourhood has great importance in rural society. Main occupation of the people is agriculture’in which they get enough pleasure time. This occupation of agriculture hardly needs much time. That’s why people meet each other, talk with each other and co-operate with each other. People have very close relations with their neighbours. Neighbours generally are of same caste because of which their status is also same. People generally like to give respect to their neighbour. They come very quickly in each other’s problems. That’s why neighbourhood is of great importance in rural society.

5. Control of Family. One person is in complete control of the family in rural societies. Generally patriarchal families are there in villages and every type of decision of family is being taken by the head of the family. Division of labour in villages is being done on the basis of sex. Males are either doing agricutlture or are going out of the house to earn some money and females are taking care of the house by living in the house. Joint family system is there in villages and person adopts the traditional occupation of the family. Every member of the family works with each other and that’s why they have community feeling among them. Family is known as primary group. Younger ones like to give respect to elders.They have a great sense of co¬operation due to same occupation. All the members of the family take part in all the festivals and religious activities. Person always takes advice of family before doing anything. In this way family has complete control on its members.

6. Common Culture. People of a village are not the outsiders who come toTive in the village but are the original inhabitants of the village and that’s why their culture is common. Their culture, rituals, traditions, customs etc. are also common. That’s why they live with each other in a peaceful atmosphere. They have unity among themselves.

7. Community Feeling. Mutual relations of the people in rural societies are based upon co-operation because of which they have community feeling among them. All the members of the village like to help each other at the time of any problem. People have unity among themselves because they have direct and close relations with each other. If any problem comes on any person or the village then the whole village jointly face that problem. All the members of the village respect the customs, rituals etc. of the village and take part in each other’s sorrows and happiness.

8. Stability. Rural society is a stable society because mobility in rural society is very less. Rural society has many geographical or other reasons because of which it is very much different from other societies. These are stable societies because they are self dependent among themselves.

9. Speed of Social Change. Very less mobility is there in rural society because of which speed of social change is very less. Rural people never like to leave their houses to achieve higher status and like to adopt their traditional occupations. That’s why the main occupation of rural people is agriculture from ancient times. Because of the occupation of agriculture they don’t like to move from one place to another and that’s why speed of social change is very less in rural society as compared to urban societies.

10. Isolation. There was a lot of difference between villages and cities during ancient times because of which rural societies had their own world. Means of transport were not developed at that time and it was not possible for the people to move towards cities on bullock carts. Roads were also <«ot good enough and that’s why it was not possible for them to move toward cities. Even today, thousands of villages are there in our country which are very much far off from cities- and are very much backward. Education and means of transport have not yet reached these village. That’s why these people consider themselves different from urban areas. People of backward villages hardly know that what is going on in cities.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 2.
What is Indebtedness? What are the causes responsible for Indebtedness?
Or
What is Rural Indebtedness? What are the causes responsible for rural indebtedness?
Answer:
A money lender has a very important place in rural economy. In most of the areas the word ‘SHAHUKAR’ is used for that person who gives money as loan on interest. He is known by different names at different places. The system of giving and taking loans, in ancient Indian society, was not based upon laws. This system was based upon the traditional and personal relations of both the parties. In this way the relations of both the parties generally were very good. When new laws of agreements were made with the advent of Britishers then the money lenders got a great chance to become rich very quickly. Now the relations between both the parties were not personal and started to be based upon money.

Yet the condition of farmers, in ancient Indian society was very good but their economic condition in British empire became very weak. Generally Indian farmers are poor people. But with this they also want to maintain status and respect in the society and that’s why they hardly care to do more expenditure at the time of many functions like marriage. In this way indebtedness remains in Indian society necessarily. Lakhs of farmers in Indian society are there who are suppressed under the pressure of indebtedness right from the ages. Their expenditure is also increasing day by day. Every increase of population increases pressure on land. Generally people take loan for the marriage of their daughter and most of them are unable to repay their loans; Agriculture in India depends upon rain. If rain is less then their situation also worsens because less rain will result in less production. That’s why farmer has to take loan and he comes under the cycle of indebtedness.

Problem of Indebtedness. Generally loans are given on the basis of individual relations. But now loan is given on the basis of land of the farmer. Indian Agreement Act and Civil Procedure Act has strengthened the hands of money lenders. With this the money lender not only got the right of taking possession of lands of indebted farmer and he also got the right to take possession of the things of the farmer. Money lender can send farmer to jail in case of non payment of loan. In this way the Registration of Document Act of 1864 and the Transfer of Property Act of 1882 has greatly helped the money lenders. With these laws money lenders became richer and richer and the land of farmers started to go in the hands of money lenders.

The number of money lenders and the amount of total loan to farmers was also increased due to this. In 1911 the rural indebtedness was around 300 crore rupees. According to Sir M.L. Darling, this was around 600 crores in 1924 and was around 900 crores in 1930. According to Dr. Radha Kamal Mukherjee, this was around 1200 crore in 1955. So from these statistics it is clear that this was increased rapidly during British rule and even it was increased very quickly after this.

Causes Of Indebtedness:

There are many reasons of this indebtedness and these reasons are given below :

1. Absence of Necessary Laws:
The biggest reason of indebtedness is the absence of necessary laws for the security of debted person. Moneylenders never let the indebted person to go out of their clutches due to their higher status. If a person takes loan once from money lenders in the village then he is unable to repay that loan even during whole of his life.

2. Neglect by Government:
The British government had hardly done any effort to save farmers from the hands of money lenders, yet many social reformers had tried to bring the attention of the British Government toward this thing. After independence, Indian government had made many laws to save farmers from the clutches of money lenders. But money lenders have adopted new ways of exploitation of farmers due to loopholes of these laws. Even today lakhs of farmers are under the clutches of money lenders.

3. Economic Disturbances:
In 1929 economic disturbances came because of which condition of farmers became more worse and they remained under the indebtedness of money lenders. After that they never came out of this indebtedness. After independence, many other factors had increased indebtedness like increased expenditure on agriculture, inflation, dependency on diesel in the absence of electricity and that’s why they remain under the indebtedness of money lenders.

4. More Expenditure:
Most of the farmers are poor and they are not in a position to buy things of leisure but they still try to buy things of leisure. Except this rural people have the tendency to spend more than their pocket. They spend more especially at the time of the marriage of their daughter and even try to give more dowry. That’s why they have to take loan. In this way their loan also increases with this.

5. Facility in taking loans:
Rural people are motivated to take more and more loan due to the easy availability of loans to them. If we want to take loan from the bank then we have to complete a number of formalities for the bank. But there is no problem of completing formality with a money lender. Farmer can get a loan from money lender just with personal know-how. In this way easiness of taking loan also encourages them to take loan from the money lender.

6. Tricks of money lenders:
Tricks of money lenders of our country have also increased the process of indebtedness. Generally, money lenders charge too much interest on loan because of which a person is unable to pay even interest of that loan. Sometimes money lenders give money by cutting interest before giving an amount to the person because of which farmer gets very less amount. In this way loan becomes double, triple even within a short span of time. With this there is another tendency in rural society that people are used to pay the loan which was taken by their parents.

In this way, this loan moves on from one generation to another. The illiteracy of rural people is also another reason of indebtedness. Moneylenders are giving less amount to the related person but are writing more amount in their books and taking advantage of their illiteracy. They even give their signatures a blank paper with which money lenders take possession of everything of the related person. Generally, money lenders in villages belong to a higher caste, and lower caste people don’t have enough power to oppose them. In this way due to these causes problem of indebtedness increases.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 3.
Define Green Revolution. Write down its components in detail.
Answer:
The green revolution is the planned and scientific method to increase agricultural production. After the analysis of Five Year Plans, it became clear that if we want to become self-dependent in the field of crop production, we will have to use modern means of production. While keeping in mind this objective, in 1966-67, technical changes started coming in agriculture. In this, high yielding variety seeds, modern means of irrigation, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides were used. The use of developed means in agriculture is given the name of the green revolution. Here the word ‘Green’ was used for green fields of rural areas and the word ‘Revolution’ was used to show allround change. During the first phase of the green revolution “Intensive Agriculture District Programme” was launched in which initially three districts and later on 16 districts were included. In the selected districts, modern methods of agriculture, urea, seeds, means of irrigation were used.

In 1967-68, this program was launched in the other parts of the country. In this program, farmers were informed about the modern methods of agriculture, skill, and new methods of production. The government gave complete help to this program and it became successful. The country became self-dependent in the field of wheat and rice.
Major elements of the Green Revolution. Major elements of the green revolution are given below :

  • With the use of high-yielding variety seeds, agricultural production increased.
  • Chemical fertilizers, urea also played an important role in increasing production.
  • Modern machines of agriculture such as tractor, thresher, combine, pump set, sprayer etc. also contributed in increasing production.
  • Modern methods of agriculture, including the Japanese method, helped to increase production.
  • Farmers were made aware of modern means of irrigation which helped in increasing production.
  • The process of taking two or more crops in one year also contributes to the cause.
  • Many institutions were established to provide loans to farmers at low-rate of interest which includes cooperative society, Grameen bank, etc. They gave farmers easy loans to purchase modern machines.
  • The government assured the farmers to give ‘Minimum Support Price’ (MSP) for their crops which encouraged the farmers to increase production.
  • Programs such as ‘Soil conservation’ also helped the farmers to increase productivity from their land.
  • To sell the crops, market committees, cooperative marketing societies were established.
  • The government also implemented land reforms such as the end of intermediaries,
    protection of labor, consolidation of land, the legal right to the farmer over land, etc. It also helped in increasing production.
  • The government also started many programs to increase agricultural production.

Question 4.
What is Green Revolution? Discuss in detail its impact.
Answer:
Green Revolution. Refer to Question 3.
Impact of Green Revolution. We can divide the impact of the green revolution into two parts—positive and negative. Their description is given below :
Positive Impact. 1. Increase in cereals production. A major achievement of the green revolution was that it increased cereal production in the country especially wheat and rice. The production of rice was quite good but wheat’s production was increased to a great extent. Maize, Jwar, Bazar, Rabi, and other crops were not included in it.

2. Increase in the production of the commercial crop. The major objective of the green revolution was to increase crop production. Initially, there was no increase in the production of commercial crops such as sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds, and potato. But after 1973, there was a great increase in the production of sugarcane. In the same way, later on, the production of oil seeds and potatoes was also increased.

3. Changes in crop pattern. Due to green revolution, there was a great change in the pattern of sowing of crops. First of all, the cereal production started increasing with the rate of 3% – 4% per annum. But there was no change in the production of pulses. Secondly the share of rice in cereals decreased and the share of wheat was increased.

4. Encouragement to Employment. With the use of new technology, agriculture-related employment increased to a great extent. When farmers started producing many crops in one year, it led to increase in employment in an agricultural area. Negative Impact. 1. Advent of capitalist farming in India. In the program of new agriculture, there was a great need of capital investment such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, means of irrigation etc. Such investment was beyond the reach of small and marginal farmers. It led to the advent of capital farming in India and money started accumulating in the hands of 6% rural population. Poor and marginal farmers were unable to take advantage of green revolution.

2. Side tracking the need for institutional reforms in Indian agriculture. In the program of new agriculture, no stress was given on the institutional reforms of agriculture. Large number of farmers had no landholding. Land was evacuated on large scale. That’s why farmers had to accept the situation of share croper.

3. Widening disparities in income. The advent of technological changes in agriculture increased the income disparity among the rural people. Rich farmers used new technology and increased their income but poor farmers were unable to do so. The condition of labourers further deteriorated.

4. Problem of Labour displacement. Along with green revolution, stress was also given on establishing industries in the country; Industries were established on agricultural land and agricultural labourers became unemployed. This unemployment further gave birth to many other problems. Naxalite movement in the different parts of country was a result of this system.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Question 5.
Define rural society. Discuss various changes taking place in rural society.
Or
Describe the changes taking place in rural society.
Or
Discuss various changes taking place in rural society.
Answer:
Definition of rural society. See question no. 1.
Changes in rural society. Change is law of nature. No one can change it. Change always comes in every thing of the world. In this way rural society is also going through the process of change. Modern society and technique have brought change in every aspect of the rural society. These changes are given below :

1. Decreasing rural-urban differences. There were a number of differences in rural and urban societies during earlier times. But these differences between both the societies are decreasing day by day. It is not so because rural people imitate the styles of urban people but it is so because the relations of rural and urban people are increasing due to open market economy. They sell their produce in the city and adopt new occupations. That’s why their relations with outsiders are increasing and their ways of living, eating, wearing, thinking etc. are changing according to the urban people. Rural people are getting every type of urban facility due to developed means of transport. Atmosphere like urban areas is increasing due to mobility of occupation and rural-urban differences are decreasing.

2. Decreasing difference of area. The most important change which came in the rural society is that the difference between village and the city is decreasing. Cities are moving towards villages and villages are coming closer to cities. Means of transport, good roads, spread of education and means of communication have brought villages closer to the urban areas. Now rural people are also moving very quickly towards cities. Just within one day they are doing their work and coming back to their villages.

3. Changes in the structure of agriculture and marketization of agriculture. If we look at the ancient times then we will observe that the agricultural production in our country was being done to fulfil the needs. Means of production were very simple and were close to the nature. Agricultural work was being done with oxen and with hands. Even digging of rivers and wells was being done with forced labour. Poeple used to fulfil their needs at local level and exchange of things and services was there.

But with the advent of technology and science and with the opening up of agricultural instituions, structure of agriculture has been completely changed. With the advent of new machines like tractors, threshers etc., increased facilities of irrigation, development of irrigation through rivers and drips, advent of new seeds and with the development of markets, agriculture has reached the market level from subsistence level. Now agriculture is not being done to fulfill the needs but is being done to earn profit. Now exchange of things with money has taken place of exchange of things.

Now people produce crop four times in a year. Production has been increased to a great extent. Now India exports food grains instead of importing food grains. Agricultural work has become easy with the help of science. Now agricultural work is being done with machines not with physical force. The institutional structures of agriculture like Zamindari, Rayotwari, Mahalwari etc. came to an end. Many other occupations related to agriculture have been opened up like dairy, piggery, poultry, fishing etc.

4. Decreasing effect of religion. Religion had great influence on rural people in ancient times. Every acitivity of agriculture was according to the religion which cannot be seen in present age. In earlier times, many trees, animals etc. were considered as sacred but now this influence has been reduced. Religious beliefs, customs of rural people have been completely changed. Rural society, in present mechanical age, is going away from temples, gurudwaras.

5. Change in rural social structure. Karl Marx was of the view that social change comes with the change in economic structure. With the commercialization and mechanization of agriculture not only people become economically better but changes are also coming in old relations. Joint families are disintegrating, respect of parents is decreasing, changes are coming in divison of labour, social values are deteriorating, mental tension is increasing, changes are coming in the status of women etc. There are many aspects in which we can see many changes.

Time of rituals at the time of birth, marriage, death etc. is decreasing, Jajmani system no more prevails, effect of social kinship is decreasing, importance of primary group is also decreasing. People are running towards materialistic happiness instead of relations. Caste relations also have been changed. The supremacy of Brahmins is no more. People are leaving their occupations and are adopting new occupations. Untouchability no more prevails in society. Mobility of occupations is increasing due to reducing effect of caste. Now a person can adopt any occupation of his wish.

6. Increasing effect of science. Atmosphere, beliefs related to atmosphere were dependent upon nature in ancient times and these were the basis of rural life. Land was considered as sacred. Agriculture was being done while keeping in mind the time of sowing. But now old beliefs are no more. Farmer is not a scientist but is using the new scientific methods and leaving the ancient beliefs. Earlier people were afraid of using chemical manures to their land but now they are using more and more fertilizers and machines so that the production could be increased.

7. Decreasing dependency on nature. Farmer, during ancient times, was dependent upon nature for agricultural works. For example in the absence of rain it was impossible for any one to produce anything on the land. Except this it was impossible for a person to do struggle with natural forces. But today it’s not so. Today people are using rivers, tubewells etc. for irrigation instead of rain. Cultivation is being done with new techniques. Now people are capable of securing themselves from hot, cold, flood etc. Now metereological department predicts in advance about rain, hail storms, less rain etc. with which farmer prepares himself in advance to face any such problem.

8. Change in the level of rural life. One of the most important changes which can be seen in rural society is the improvement in the level of rural life. Statistics show that, except some classes, generally whole of the rural life has been improved. Spread of education, advent of education, medical facilities etc. has increased the life expectancy of the person. Severe diseases no more prevail. Place of living has been improved. Good houses, proper sanitation, roads, street lights, schools, dispensaries etc. can be seen in all the villages. Means of recreation are increasing and facilities of games are also increasing. Illiteracy is decreasing day by day. All these positive changes have come in rural life.

9. Change in feeding and wearing. During ancient times, some cases were not used to use many things under the effect of the caste system. They used to wear many simple dresses and of a specific type. But the feeding and wearing habits of the people are changing today due to the decreasing effect of the caste system. Today upper casts are also using meat and alcohol. People are using artificial food in place of simple food like burgers, Pizza, Noodles, Hot dogs etc. Now people are wearing pants, jeans, shirts etc. in place of Dhoti and Kurta. Now females are wearing modern ornaments. Parda Pratha no more prevails in society.

10. Change in the rural political and educational structure. In ancient times, panchayats at the local level were elected which were generally based on the hierarchy of castes. Different castes were sending their representatives to panchayats. But now rural political structure is running according to the national political process. Now members of panchayats are not nominated but are elected by-elections. The judicial system has taken the form of courts. Education in ancient times was generally given in temples, gurudwaras, and madrasas, and education was also based on caste and religion. People of lower castes were not allowed to get an education. But now this structure has been completely changed. Now education is not based on religion but is based on science. Now everyone can get an education. Now education is not in the clutches of caste.

11. Increasing population, planning, and change in occupations. Now the population of villages has been increased to a great extent. The occupational structure has also been changed due to the increasing population, decreasing means of employment in agriculture, and the spread of education. Now agriculture is not considered a profitable occupation. The government is making new plans daily for the upliftment of rural people so that the poor people could get employment. That’s why new occupations, like small industries, dairy, piggery, poultry, electrician, automobile, etc. are increasing in the rural sector. In this way, after looking at the given description we can say that many changes have taken place in the rural sector and many other changes are coming in rural society.

Question 6.
Write an essay on rural society.
Answer:

India is a rural country in which most of the people live in villages. The rural area is that area where technique is scarcely used, importance is given to primary relations, which are small in size and where most of the people depend upon agriculture. Rural culture is very much different from urban culture. Yet the rural and urban cultures are not the same but they both are very much interrelated. It is very much different from urban society due to many factors yet it is a part of the whole society. Many of its factors like economic, geographical, social, etc. differentiate it from urban society.

PSEB 12th Class Sociology Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society

Rural Society PSEB 12th Class Sociology Notes

1. India is basically a rural society in which around 70% (68.84%) population still lives in villages. Rural people live a very simple life, share a lot with each other, and have many similarities with each other. Mahatma Gandhi is often quoted to have said, “Real India lives in its villages.”

2. There are many features of rural society such as small in size, close relationship, homogeneity, more social control, agriculture main occupation, more impact of religion, the dominance of joint family, less social mobility, etc.

3. Rural society is dominated by the joint family in which a minimum of three generations lives together. Such families are large in size and live under a single roof.

4. In 1992, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment was made and a three-tier structure of local self-government was established. These three levels are Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and Zila Parishad at the district level. Their main objective is to do all-around development of rural areas.

5. During the decade of 1960s, a green revolution came in India to increase agricultural production for farmers. There were many positive consequences of this revolution such as cereal production increased, production of commercial crops increased, changes in the methods of agriculture, etc. But there were a few negative consequences as well such as it helped only the rich farmers, the difference between rich and poor farmers increased, etc.

6. Indian farmers presently are facing a very serious issue and this is the problem of indebtedness. Due to this problem, many farmers have committed suicide. There can be many reasons for indebtedness such as poverty,’ ancestral debt, legal cases, backwardness, extra expenditure, more interest on loans, etc.

7. Present rural society is going through a phase of transition. Now old relations are coming to an end, control of caste panchayats is reducing, crimes are increasing, the jamjar system has come to an end, people are migrating towards urban areas, etc.

Glossary:

  • Rural Society. That society which lives in a rural area with special features such as small in size, less density of population, agriculture-main occupation, similarities among the people, caste-based stratification, joint family, etc.
  • Endogamy. The type of marriage in which an individual needs to marry within his own group such as caste.
  • Exogamy. The type of marriage in which one needs to marry out of his group such as clan, family.
  • Green Revolution. With the help of high-yielding variety seeds, agriculture production was increased and this is known as the green revolution.
  • Indebtedness. When a person takes a loan for agriculture or any other purpose, it is known as a loan. When he fails to pay back the loan and it increases with interest, then it is known as indebtedness.
  • Joint Family. That family in which members of a minimum of three generations. live such as grandparents, parents, grandchildren, etc. They live under one roof, eat in a common kitchen, and perform the same economic activity.

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 2 Rural Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 12th Class Political Science Book Solutions Guide in Punjabi English Medium

PSEB 12th Class Political Science Guide | Political Science Guide for Class 12 PSEB in English Medium

Political Science Guide for Class 12 PSEB | PSEB 12th Class Political Science Book Solutions

12th Class Political Science Guide PSEB Part A Political Theory

  • Chapter 1 Political System
  • Chapter 2 Liberalism
  • Chapter 3 Marxism
  • Chapter 4 Political Ideas of Mahatma Gandhi
  • Chapter 5 Bureaucracy (Civil Services)
  • Chapter 6 Public Opinion
  • Chapter 7 Party System
  • Chapter 8 Interest and Pressure Groups

Political Science Guide for Class 12 PSEB Part B Indian Political System

  • Chapter 9 Indian Democracy: Problems and Challenges
  • Chapter 10 Democracy at Grassroots
  • Chapter 11 Party System in India
  • Chapter 12 Electoral System
  • Chapter 13 National Integration
  • Chapter 14 Foreign Policy of India-Determinants and Basic Principles
  • Chapter 15 India and United Nations
  • Chapter 16 India and SAARC
  • Chapter 17 India and Her Neighbours-Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan
  • Chapter 18 India’s Relations with USA and Russia
  • Chapter 19 India’s Approach to Major World Issues

Punjab State Board Syllabus PSEB 12th Class Political Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf in English Medium and Punjabi Medium are part of PSEB Solutions for Class 12.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Computer Science Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Computer Guide for Class 7 PSEB Storage Devices Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Primary memory is also called ……………. .
(a) Internal memory
(b) External memory
(c) Physical memory
(d) Auxiliary memory.
Answer:
(a) Internal memory

Question 2.
…………….memory is not a Read Only Memory.
(a) ROM
(b) PROM
(c) EPROM
(d) RAM.
Answer:
(a) ROM

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 3.
…………….is not a portable storage device.
(a) External Hard Disk
(b) Pen Drive
(c) Hard Disk Drive
(d) Memory Card.
Answer:
(c) Hard Disk Drive

Question 4.
The memory is divided into number of small parts called ……………. .
(a) Cells
(b) Area
(c) Inter-section
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Cells

Question 5.
USB means ……………. .
(a) Uniform Service Book
(b) Universal Serial Bus
(c) Universal Straight Bus
(d) Uniform Serial Bus.
Answer:
(b) Universal Serial Bus

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

2. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the capacity of floppy disk?
Answer:
1.4 MB.

Question 2.
What is the capacity of Compact Disc (CD)?
Answer:
650-700 MB.

Question 3.
Which memory unit is usually used to measure the Storage capacity of a hard disks?
Answer:
1 GB Memory unit is used to measure the storage capacity of a hard disk.

Question 4.
Which is having greater storage capacity out of CD or DVD?
Answer:
DVD has higher storage capacity.

Question 5.
Which computer port is used to attach Pen Drive?
Answer:
USB Port.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is memory? Write down two main categories of memories.
Answer:
Computer memory is a physical device capable of storing data and information. It is a storage space where data and instructions are stored either for processing or for further uses. It can store data and instructions either temporarily (RAM) or permanently (ROM).
Memory can be of two types, Primary Memory and Secondary Memory.

Question 2.
Write the name of any four Secondary Memory devices.
Answer:
Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Pen Drive and Memory Card.

Question 3.
What is Memory Card?
Answer:
A memory card is a flash memory. It is used in electronic devices such as digital cameras, mobile phones or video game consoles. The memory card can , store data, images, music, games or other computer files. Memory cards have no J moving parts so they are not easily damaged. They are more compact and portable than CDs or DVDs, and they can store more data than CDs. The data stored in the memory card can be read with the help of card reader.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 4.
Write a short note on Pen Drive.
Answer:
A pen drive is a portable Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash memory device. It is used to store and transfer audio, video and data files from a computer. The major advantage of USB pen drives over other portable storage devices such as floppy disks or DVDs / CDs is their compact shape and size; they work faster and can store more data.

Question 5.
Write about CD.
Answer:
A compact disc (CD) is a type of optical secondary storage media. It is circular in shape and small in size. A CD is a portable device that we use for ,, storing text, video, audio, graphics, images, or taking backup of data, programs and software. A CD can store around 700 MB data.

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on Primary Memory.
Answer:
The primary memory is also known as the main memory of a computer. It is in-built memory of a computer in which data and instructions are stored for processing. It is essential for the working of a computer.
There are two types of primary memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM:
RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This is a volatile memory. This means it stores data or instructions temporarily. It is located on the motherboard. When you start the computer, Data and instructions from the hard disk are stored in RAM.

RAM is further divided into two types:

  • SRAM (Static Random Access Memory): This stores a bit of data using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
  • DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory): This stores a bit data using a pair of transistor and. capacitor which constitute a DRAM memory cell.

ROM:
The term ROM stands for Read Only Memory. It is a non-volatile memory. As the name indicated, information can only be read from this type of – memory. It stores the data permanently.
Types of Read Only Memory (ROM):

  • PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
  • EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory).

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 2.
What is HDD? Explain.
Answer:
Hard disks are the secondary storage devices used to store data permanently. It is directly connected to the disk controller on the motherboard. Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disk platters typically spin very fast at 5400 to 7200 cycles/minute.
There are two types of Hard disks:

1. Internal Hard Disk:
Internal hard drives are located inside your computer. Most computers come with a single internal hard drive, which includes the operating system and pre-installed applications.

2. External Hard Drive:
An external hard drive, also called a portable hard drive. It is a device connected to the outside of a computer via a USB connection. It is often used to back up a computer or portable storage.

Question 3.
What is Secondary Memory? Explain any one secondary memory device.
Answer:
Secondary memory is permanent memory. It is not directly accessible by CPU. It communicates with the CPU through the main memory. Secondary memory stores data and holds it even when power is off. It is used to store large amount of data or programs. It is less expensive than the primary memory.

Pen Drive:
A pen drive is a portable universal serial bus (USB) flash memory device. It is used to store and transfer audio, video and data files from a computer. The major advantage of USB pen drives over other portable storage devices such as floppy disks or DVDs/CDs is their compact shape and size; they work faster and can store more data.

Question 4.
Write precautions that we must follow while using CD/DVD.
Answer:
While using CDs and DVDs, we should keep the following in mind :

  • CD / DVD should always be covered.
  • The back shiny part of the CD / DVD should not be touched.
  • Don’t write on the back of the CD / DVD.
  • CD / DVD should not be folded.
  • To clean CDs / DVDs, a soft cloth should be used. You can also use water to remove dust from it.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 5.
What is External Hard Disk drive? Write its advantages.
Answer:
External disk drive is a portable secondary memory. It has large storage capacity. It is a removable device. The external disk drive is connected to computer through USB port. These disks allow user to put sensitive, confidential or important information on them, then disconnect them and store them in secure locations.

Activity

Question 1.
Put the following Terms in respective Groups
1. RAM
2. CD
3. Hard Disk
4. ROM
5. EPROM
6. Memory Card
7. DVD
8. EEPROM
PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices 1
Answer:

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

PSEB 7th Class Computer Guide Storage Devices Important Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The size of a commonly used floppy is ……………. inches.
(a) 2.5
(b) 3.5
(c) 4.5
(d) 5.25
Answer:
(b) 3.5

Question 2.
A CD can store ……………..MB data.
(a) 600
(b) 700
(c) 800
(d) 200.
Answer:
(b) 700

Question 3.
1 GB ……………. is equal to MB.
(a) 512
(b) 8
(c) 1024
(d) 256.
Answer:
(c) 1024

Question 4.
Primary memory is divided into ……………. parts.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five.
Answer:
(a) Two

Question 5.
Used to store a lot of multimedia information …………….  .
(a) CD
(b) DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
(c) B.D.
(d) Floppy.
Answer:
(b) DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 6.
1024 bytes = ……………. .
(a) 1 MB
(b) 1 GB
(c) 1 KB
(d) 10 MB.
Answer:
(c) 1 KB

Question 7.
Which of the following is an optical storage media?
(a) Hard disk
(b) CD
(c) RAM
(d) Floppy.
Answer:
(b) CD

Question 8.
Which of the following stores high definition videos?
(a) CD
(b) DVD
(c) Blu-ray
(d) Floppy Disk.
Answer:
(c) Blu-ray

Question 9.
The CPU directly retrieves information or data from the …………….  .
(a) Hard disk
(b) CD
(c) RAM
(d) DVD.
Answer:
(c) RAM

Question 10.
Which of the following is a secondary storage device?
(a) ROM
(b) Cache
(c) Hard disk
(d) RAM.
Answer:
(c) Hard disk

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

2. True/False

1. The main memory is available in the form of an electronic chip.
Answer:
True

2. The floppy disk can store 700 MB of data.
Answer:
False.

3. A DVD can store 4.7 GB data.
Answer:
True

4. Always write with a sharpened pen on the back of the CD/DVD.
Answer:
False.

5. Do not keep the floppy in a dry, clean and cool place.
Answer:
False.

6. A hard disk can store 2 TB to 5 TB data.
Answer:
True

7. The primary memory comprises of RAM and ROM.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

8. The secondary memory is also known as main storage.
Answer:
False.

9. 1 GB is equal to 1024 MB.
Answer:
True

10. Individually, a binary number is known as bit.
Answer:
True

11. RAM is not faster than secondary storage devices.
Answer:
True

12. Bits and bytes are units of computer memory.
Answer:
True

13. A portable hard disk is generally used for taking back up.
Answer:
True

14. The instructions that are written onto ROM can be altered.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

3. write the Full Forms

Question 1.
1. KB.
2. MB,
3. GB,
4. TB,
5. ROM,
6. RAM,
7. CD,
8. DVD.

Answer:

1. KB: Kilobytes
2. MB: Megabytes
3. GB: Gigabytes
4. TB: Terabytes
5. ROM: Read Only Memory
6. RAM: Random Access Memory
7. CD: Compact Disc
8. DVD: Digital Versatile Disc.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

4. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name two types of primary memory.
Answer:

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • ROM (Read Only Memory).

Question 2.
Name four storage devices.
Answer:

  • CD (Compact Disc)
  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
  • Floppy disk
  • Hard disk.

Question 3.
Explain the differences between RAM and ROM.
Answer:
Following are the important differences between RAM and ROM:

RAM ROM
1. RAM stands for Random Access Memory 1. ROM stands for Read Only Memory.
2. RAM data is volatile. Data is present till power supply is present. 2. ROM data is permanent. Data remains even after power supply is not present.
3. RAM data can be read, erased or modified. 3. ROM data is read only.
4. RAM is used to store data that CPU needs for current instruction processing. 4. ROM is used to store data that is needed to bootstrap the computer.
5. RAM speed is quite high. 5. ROM speed is slower than RAM.
6. CPU can access data stored on RAM. 6. Data to be copied from ROM to RAM so that CPU can access its data.
7. RAM memory is large and of high capacity. 7. ROM is generally small and of low capacity.
8. RAM is used as CPU Cache, Primary Memory. 8. ROM is used as firmware by micro controllers.
9. RAM is costly. 9. ROM is cheap.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 4.
What is a floppy disk?
Answer:
It is a secondary device in which data is stored. It is a circular plastic plate. It is 3.5 inches in size. The floppy disk can store 1.44 MB of data.

Question 5.
Provide information about CD ROM.
Answer:
The full name of CD ROM is Compact Disk Read Only Memory. It can store up to 700 MB of data. The information is written only once in Read Only CD. It cannot be changed after that.

Question 6.
Why we use DVD?
Answer:
The full name of DVD is Digital Versatile Disk. It can store a lot of data. DVD is a type of optical media used to store digital data. A DVD can store 2 TB to 5 TB data.

5. Long Answer Type Questions

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 1.
Describe the types of memory. Answer in detail.
Answer:
Types of Computer Memory –
There are many types of memory in a computer; the most basic is primary memory, also called system memory, and the secondary memory, commonly called storage. Details about these memories are given ahead:

Primary Memory:
Primary memory is the main memory of a computer system. It stores the data temporarily. It holds only those data on which computer is currently working. Primary memory is directly accessed by the CPU. It has limited storage capacity and data is lost when power is switched off. Primary memory is a semiconductor memory because it is manufactured using semiconductor devices. The capacity of primary memory is very limited and is always less than that of secondary memory. It is more expensive than secondary memory.

Characteristics of Main Memory:

  • These are semiconductor memories.
  • It is known as the main memory.
  • Usually volatile memory.
  • Data is lost in case power is switched off.
  • It is the working memory of the computer.
  • Faster than secondary memories.
  • A computer cannot run without the primary memory.

Types of Primary Memory:
There are two types of primary memory:
1. RAM (Random Access Memory)
2. ROM (Read Only Memory)

1. RAM:
RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This is a volatile memory. This means it stores data or instructions temporarily. It is located on the motherboard. When you start the computer, Data and instructions from the hard disk are stored in RAM. The CPU uses this data to perform the required functions. RAM loses all data as soon as you shut down the computer.

The most important thing to understand about RAM is that RAM memory is very fast, it is a read/write memory. It is much more expensive than secondary memory. Due to the high cost of RAM, most computer systems use both primary and secondary memory, RAM is further divided into two types :

(a) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory): This stores a bit of data using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
(b) DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory): This stores a bit data using a pair of transistor and capacitor which constitute a DRAM memory cell.

SRAM:

  • Transistors are used to store information in SRAM.
  • Capacitors are used to store data in DRAM.
  • SRAM is faster as compared to DRAM.
  • DRAM provides slow access speeds.
  • These are expensive.
  • These are cheaper.
  • SRAMs are low density devices.
  • DRAMs are high density devices.
  • These are used in cache memories.
  • These are used in main memories.

2. ROM:
This means read only memory. It is a non-volatile memory. It stores the data permanently. These are the IC (integrated circuits) inside the PC that makes up the ROM. ROM stores a startup program called ‘Bootstrap Loader’. When the computer’s power is turned on “Bootstrap Loader” checks and starts the device connected to the PC. ROM can only be read by CPU but cannot be changed.
Types of Read Only Memory (ROM) :

(a) PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory):
PROM is read¬only memory that can be modified only one time by a user.. Once programmed, the data and instructions contained in it cannot be changed.

(b) EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory):
It can be reprogrammed. To delete data from it, place it in front of an ultra violet light. To re-program it, delete all previous data

(c) EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory):
Data stored in EEPROM can be deleted and modified as many times as user wants. Implementing electric field can erase data, no need for ultra-violet light. We can only delete parts of the chip.

Secondary Memory:
Secondary memory is permanent memory. It is not directly accessible by CPU. It communicates with the CPU through the main memory. Secondary memory stores data and holds it even when power is off. It is used to store large amount of data or programs. It is less expensive than the primary memory.

Secondary memory refers to the various storage media on which a computer can store data and programs. Floppy disks, Hard Disks, magnetic disks, magnetic tapes are the examples of secondary memory.
The Secondary storage media are of two types :

  • Fixed: Fixed Storage media is an internal storage medium like hard disk that is fixed inside the computer.
  • Removable: Storage medium that are portable and can be taken outside the computer are termed as removable storage media like CD, DVD, Pen drive etc.

Characteristics of Secondary Memory:

  • These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as the backup memory.
  • It is a non-volatile memory.
  • Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off.
  • It is used for storage of data in a computer.
  • Computer may run without the secondary memory.
  • Slower than primary memories.

(i) Magnetic Tapes:
Magnetic discs are made of hard metal or synthetic plastic material. Magnetic material is coated on both sides of the disc platter and both sides can be used for storage. The magnetic disk provides direct access to both small and large computer systems. Magnetic audio tapes are used to record sound and music. Magnetic video tapes are used to record analog voice and video signals. These are low cost tapes. Hard disks and floppy disks are examples of magnetic tapes.

(ii) Floppy Disk:
Also known as floppy diskette, it is a removable, portable secondary storage device. This was created in 1964 by IBM. It is a small plastic disc about 3.5 inches in size. These disks have very low storage capacity and can store approximately 1.4 MB of data. It can be read or written by a floppy disk drive.

(iii) Hard Disk:
Hard disks are the secondary storage devices used to store data permanently. It is directly connected to the disk controller on the motherboard. Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disk platters
typically spin very fast at 5400 to 7200 cycles/minute.

It has unlimited storage space and its storage capacity ranges from 20 GB to 500 GB. It used to install a new program or application on the device. Software programs, images, videos, etc. all can be saved to the hard drive. There are two types of hard disks.
1. Internal Hard Disk: Internal hard drives are located inside your computer. Most computers come with a single internal hard drive, which includes the operating system and pre-installed applications.

2. External Hard Drive:
An external hard drive, also called a portable hard drive. It is a device connected to the outside of a computer via a USB connection. It is often used to back up a computer or portable storage.

(iv) Optical Drives:
Optical drives are a storage medium from which data is read and written by a laser. Optical disks can store up to 6GB of data. Optical storage devices are the most widely used and reliable storage devices. The most commonly used types of optical storage devices are:

    1. CD-ROM
    2. DVD-ROM
    3. CD-RECORDABLE
    4. CD-REWRITABLE
    5. PHOTO-CD

CD:
A compact disc is a flat, round, optical storage medium invented by James Russell. It is a portable storage medium that was used to digitally store and play the audio, video and other data. Compact discs have greater storage capacity than floppy disks. These disks can store 650-700 MB of data. This is a very reliable storage media. There are two types of CDs :

(а) CD-R:
CD-R stands for Compact Disc-Recordabie, also known as ROM is a digital optical disk storage format. A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and arbitrarily read multiple times.

(b) CD-RW:
CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) is a digital optical disk storage format introduced in 1997. A CD-RW compact disc (CD-RW) can be read, written, erased, and rewritten.

2.DVD:
Stands for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc. It is a digital optical disc data storage format that was invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. DVD is a type of optical media used to store digital data. It is the same size of a CD, but it has a large storage capacity. Some DVDs are specifically formatted for video playback, while others contain different types of data, such as software programs and computer files.

While using CDs and DVDs, we should keep the following in mind:

  • CD / DVD should always be covered.
  • The back shiny part of the CD / DVD should not be touched.
  • Don’t write on the back of the CD / DVD.
  • CD / DVD should not be folded.
  • To clean CDs / DVDs, a soft cloth should be used. You can also use water to remove dust from it.

Pen Drive:
A pen drive is a portable universal serial bus (USB) flash memory device. It is used to store and transfer audio, video and data files from a computer. The major advantage of USB pen drives over other portable storage devices such as floppy disks or DVDs / CDs is their compact shape and size; they work faster and can store more data. Memory Card: A memory card is a flash memory. It is used in electronic devices such as digital cameras, Mobile phones or video game consoles. The memory card can stores data, images, music, games or other computer files. Memory cards have no moving parts so they are not easily damaged. They are more compact and portable than CDs or DVDs, and they can store more data than CDs. The data stored in the memory card can be read with the help of card reader.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 2.
What is secondary memory? Explain its types in detail.
Answer:
Secondary Memory:
Secondary memory is permanent memory. It is not directly accessible by CPU. It communicates with the CPU through the main memory. Secondary memory stores data and holds it even when power is off. It is used to store large amount of data or programs. It is less expensive than the primary memory.

Secondary memory refers to the various storage media on which a computer can store data and programs. Floppy disks, Hard Disks, magnetic disks, magnetic tapes are the examples of secondary memory.
The Secondary storage media are of two types:

  • Fixed: Fixed Storage media is an internal storage medium like hard disk that is fixed inside the computer.
  • Removable: Storage medium that are portable and can be taken outside the computer are termed as removable storage media like CD, DVD, Pen drive etc.

Characteristics of Secondary Memory:

  • These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as the backup memory.
  • It is a non-volatile memory.
  • Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off.
  • It is used for storage of data in a computer.
  • Computer may run without the secondary memory.
  • Slower than primary memories.

(i) Magnetic Tapes:
Magnetic discs are made of hard metal or synthetic plastic material. Magnetic material is coated on both sides of the disc platter and both sides can be used for storage. The magnetic disk provides direct access to both small and large computer systems. Magnetic audio tapes are used to record sound and music. Magnetic video tapes are used to record analog voice and video signals. These are low cost tapes. Hard disks and floppy disks are examples of magnetic tapes.

(ii) Floppy Disk:
Also known as floppy diskette, it is a removable, portable secondary storage device. This was created in 1964 by IBM. It is a small plastic disc about 3.5 inches in size. These disks have very low storage capacity and can store approximately 1.4 MB of data. It can be read or written by a floppy disk drive.

(iii) Hard Disk:
Hard disks are the secondary storage devices used to store data permanently. It is directly connected to the disk controller on the motherboard. Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disk platters typically spin very fast at 5400 to 7200 cycles/minute.

It has unlimited storage space and its storage capacity ranges from 20 GB to 500 GB. It used to install a new program or application on the device. Software programs, images, videos, etc. all can be saved to the hard drive. There are two types of hard disks.
1. Internal Hard Disk: Internal hard drives are located inside your computer. Most computers come with a single internal hard drive, which includes the operating system and pre-installed applications.

2. External Hard Drive:
An external hard drive, also called a portable hard drive. It is a device connected to the outside of a computer via a USB connection. It is often used to back up a computer or portable storage.

(iv) Optical Drives:
Optical drives are a storage medium from which data is read and written by a laser. Optical disks can store up to 6 GB of data. Optical storage devices are the most widely used and reliable storage devices. The most commonly used types of optical storage devices are:

    1. CD-ROM
    2. DVD-ROM
    3. CD-RECORDABLE
    4. CD-REWRITABLE
    5. PHOTO-CD

1. CD:
A compact disc is a flat, round, optical storage medium invented by James Russell. It is a portable storage medium that was used to digitally store and play the audio, video and other data. Compact discs have greater storage capacity than floppy disks. These disks can store 650-700 MB of data. This is a very reliable storage media. There are two types of CDs :

(а) CD-R:
CD-R stands for Compact Disc-Recordabie, also known as ROM is a digital optical disk storage format. A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and arbitrarily read multiple times.

(b) CD-RW:
CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) is a digital optical disk storage format introduced in 1997. A CD-RW compact disc (CD-RW) can be read, written, erased, and rewritten.

2. DVD:
Stands for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc. It is a digital optical disc data storage format that was invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. DVD is a type of optical media used to store digital data. It is the same size of a CD, but it has a large storage capacity. Some DVDs are specifically formatted for video playback, while others contain different types of data, such as software programs and computer files.

While using CDs and DVDs, we should keep the following in mind:

  • CD / DVD should always be covered.
  • The back shiny part of the CD / DVD should not be touched.
  • Don’t write on the back of the CD / DVD.
  • CD / DVD should not be folded.
  • To clean CDs / DVDs / DVDs, a soft cloth should be used. You can also use water to remove dust from it.

3. Pen Drive:
A pen drive is a portable universal serial bus (USB) flash memory device. It is used to store and transfer audio, video and data files from a computer. The major advantage of USB pen drives over other portable storage devices such as floppy disks or DVDs / CDs is their compact shape and size; they work faster and can store more data.

4. Memory Card:
A memory card is a flash memory. It is used in electronic devices such as digital cameras, Mobile phones or video game consoles. The memory card can stores data, images, music, games or other computer files. Memory cards have no moving parts so they are not easily damaged. They are more compact and portable than CDs or DVDs, and they can store more data than CDs. The data stored in the memory card can be read with the help of card reader.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 3.
Explain the difference between primary and secondary memory.
Answer:
Differences between Primary Memory and Secondary Memory:
In this lesson, we have talked about both primary and secondary memory. Both are quite useful in their own way, now we will look at the difference between the both.

  1. Primary memory is also called internal memory. Secondary memory is also called backup memory or auxiliary memory.
  2. Primary memory can be accessed by data bus while secondary memory is accessed through I/O channels.
  3. Primary memory data is accessed directly by the processing unit. Secondary memory data cannot be accessed directly by the processor.
  4. Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. Secondary memory is cheaper than primary memory.
  5. Primary memory is both unstable and static. Secondary memory is always unchanging memory.

Question 4.
What is DVD? Explain in detail.
Answer:
DVD:
Stands for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc. It is a digital optical disc data storage format that was invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. DVD is a type of optical media used to store digital data. It is the same size of a CD, but it has a large storage capacity. Some DVDs are specifically formatted for video playback, while others contain different types of data, such as software programs and computer files.

While using CDs and DVDs, we should keep the following in mind :

  • CD / DVD should always be covered.
  • The back shiny part of the CD / DVD should not be touched.
  • Don’t write on the back of the CD / DVD.
  • CD / DVD should not be folded.
  • To clean CDs / DVDs / DVDs, a soft cloth should be used. You can also use water to remove dust from it.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 5.
What is a magnetic tape? Explain in detail.
Answer:
Magnetic Tapes:
Magnetic discs are made of hard metal or synthetic plastic material. Magnetic material is coated on both sides of the disc platter and both sides can be used for storage. The magnetic disk provides direct access to both small and large computer systems. Magnetic audio tapes are used to record sound and music. Magnetic video tapes are used to record analog voice and video signals. These are low cost tapes. Hard disks and floppy disks are examples of magnetic tapes.

Question 6.
What is a hard disk and how many types are there?
Answer:
Hard Disk:
Hard disks are the secondary storage devices used to store data permanently. It is directly connected to the disk controller on the motherboard. Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disk platters typically spin very fast at 5400 to 7200 cycles/minute.

It has unlimited storage space and its storage capacity ranges from 20 GB to 500 GB. It used to install a new program or application on the device. Software programs, images, videos, etc. all can be saved to the hard drive. There are two types of hard disks.

1. Internal Hard Disk:
Internal hard drives are located inside your computer. Most computers come with a single internal hard drive, which includes the operating system and pre-installed applications.

2. External Hard Drive:
An external hard drive, also called a portable hard drive. It is a device connected to the outside of a computer via a USB connection. It is often used to back up a computer or portable storage.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices

Question 7.
What do you mean by Optical drive?
Answer:
Optical Drives:
Optical drives are a storage medium from which data is read and written by a laser. Optical disks can store up to 6 GB of data. Optical storage devices are the most widely used and reliable storage devices. The most commonly used types of optical storage devices are:

    1. CD-ROM
    2. DVD-ROM
    3. CD-RECORDABLE
    4. CD-REWRITABLE
    5. PHOTO-CD

1. CD:
A compact disc is a flat, round, optical storage medium invented by James Russell. It is a portable storage medium that was used to digitally store and play the audio, video and other data. Compact discs have greater storage capacity than floppy disks. These disks can store 650-700 MB of data. This is a very reliable storage media. There are two types of CDs :

(а) CD-R:
CD-R stands for Compact Disc-Recordabie, also known as ROM is a digital optical disk storage format. A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and arbitrarily read multiple times.

(b) CD-RW:
CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) is a digital optical disk storage format introduced in 1997. A CD-RW compact disc (CD-RW) can be read, written, erased, and rewritten.

2. DVD:
Stands for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc. It is a digital optical disc data storage format that was invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. DVD is a type of optical media used to store digital data. It is the same size of a CD, but it has a large storage capacity. Some DVDs are specifically formatted for video playback, while others contain different types of data, such as software programs and computer files.

While using CDs and DVDs, we should keep the following in mind:

  • CD / DVD should always be covered.
  • The back shiny part of the CD / DVD should not be touched.
  • Don’t write on the back of the CD / DVD.
  • CD / DVD should not be folded.
  • To clean CDs / DVDs / DVDs, a soft cloth should be used. You can also use water to remove dust from it.

3. Pen Drive:
A pen drive is a portable universal serial bus (USB) flash memory device. It is used to store and transfer audio, video and data files from a computer. The major advantage of USB pen drives over other portable storage devices such as floppy disks or DVDs / CDs is their compact shape and size; they work faster and can store more data.

4. Memory Card:
A memory card is a flash memory. It is used in electronic devices such as digital cameras, Mobile phones or video game consoles. The memory card can stores data, images, music, games or other computer files. Memory cards have no moving parts so they are not easily damaged. They are more compact and portable than CDs or DVDs, and they can store more data than CDs. The data stored in the memory card can be read with the help of card reader.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Computer Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 Storage Devices Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Computer Science Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Computer Guide for Class 7 PSEB Introduction to Multimedia Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Multimedia is a combination of two words …………… and …………… .
(a) Images Sound
(b) Audio, Video
(c) Multi, Media
(d) Hardware, Software.
Answer:
(c) Multi, Media

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 2.
Animation is of two types, these are …………… and …………… .
(a) Analog, Digital
(b) Static, Hyper
(c) Raster, Bitmap
(d) Path, Frame.
Answer:
(d) Path, Frame.

Question 3.
Requirements for Multimedia are …………… and …………… .
(a) Images, Sound
(b) Analog, Digital
(c) Hardware, Software
(d) Multimedia.
Answer:
(c) Hardware, Software

Question 4.
Input devices consists of …………… and …………… .
(a) Monitor, Printer
(b) RAM, Hard Disk
(c) Keyboard, Mouse
(d) Hardware, Software.
Answer:
(c) Keyboard, Mouse

Question 5.
In Multimedia, Text is of …………… and …………… type.
(a) Analog, Digital
(b) Raster, Bitmap
(c) Static, Hyper
(d) Path, Frame.
Answer:
(c) Static, Hyper

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

2. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In how many types a video can be classified?
Answer:
Video can be divided into two types: Analog and Digital video.

Question 2.
There are how many types of text?
Answer:
There are two types of text, Static text and Hyper text.

Question 3.
Write the name of any one type of animation.
Answer:
Path animation.

Question 4.
Write any one application of Multimedia.
Answer:
Multimedia can be used in the field of education; it is used to teach students visually.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is an Animation?
Answer:
Animation is the process of displaying multiple images one after the other. For example: Cartoon movies, games etc. There are two types of animation.

Path Animation: In this animation, path geometry is used as an input.
Frame Animation: In this animation, pictures are shown moving in a frame.

Question 2.
What is Video?
Answer:
Video means moving pictures with sound. This is the best way to communicate with each other. It is used in multimedia to present more information and saves a lot of time. The most commonly used software for watching videos are: Quick Time, Real Player, window media player.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 3.
What is Multimedia Conferencing?
Answer:
Multimedia Conferencing is a process of interacting with various people all around the world using tools of multimedia like camera, microphone, a display and so on.
There are various software and applications that allow you to do that.

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Multimedia? Explain the components of multimedia.
Answer:
Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different types of data such as text, audio, images, animations or video into a single presentation. Components of multimedia are as follow :
1. Text:
It is a combination of characters and certain symbols. Text is commonly used to send messages. In multimedia we can present text in a very attractive way using fonts, colors and styles. The most commonly used software for viewing text files are Microsoft Word, Notepad, Word Pad etc.
We can use two types of text in multimedia

(а) Static Text: Static text is a simple text that we use to type messages or other documents or given along with images to describe the image.
(b) Hypertext: Hypertext is text that contains links to other texts.

2. Images: In multimedia we make the concept more effective and presentable with the help of images. There are two types of images :

(a) Raster or Bitmap Images: Bitmap images are real images that are captured from digital cameras or scanners.

(b) Vector Images:
Vector images are drawn using lines, circles and other mathematical equations. These images remain smooth even when zoomed in. Vector imagery requires less memory to store and thus we can use less data to represent the image. These images are editable.

3. Audio:
In multimedia audio means recording or playing sound, speeches, music etc. Audio is an important part of multimedia because the concept that we cannot understand in the form of text, we explain in audio format. Some sound formats are :

(а) MIDI:
The full name of MIDI is Musical Instrument Digital Identifier. It is a communication tool developed for computers and electronic devices. It’s a flexible and easy way to create music projects in multimedia.

(b) Digital Audio: Digital audio is a better alternative to MIDI files. Digital sound files are created from predefined music to record live music.

4. Video:
Video means moving pictures with sound. This is the best way to communicate with each other. It is used in multimedia to present more information and saves a lot of time. The video is divided into two parts:

(a) Analog Videos:
Analog video is created in a video camera. Analog video, represents moving visual images (video) in the form of analog signals. The red, green and blue intensities are used to record these videos.

(b) Digital Videos:
Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data. Digital video is audio/visual data in a binary format. Information is ‘ represented as a sequence of zeroes and ones.

5. Animation:
Animation is the process of displaying multiple images one after the other. Animation is a method in which images are shown as a video at high speed. For example: Cartoon movies, games etc. There are two types of animation.

  • Path Animation: In this animation, path geometry is used as an input.
  • Frame Animation: In this animation, pictures are shown moving in a frame.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 2.
What are the requirements for multimedia?
Answer:
In multimedia, projects are created by combining text, graphics, sounds, videos etc. These projects require verity of hardware and software. The hardware and software commonly used in multimedia are as follows :

Hardware Requirements:
The following hardware is required to create multimedia apps. These hardware include inputs, outputs and storage devices.
1. Input Devices: Those devices which are used to enter data and instructions into a computer are called input devices. They add text, graphics, sounds, videos etc. to projects. The following are the input
devices used in multimedia,

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner
  • Touch Screen
  • Microphone
  • Voice Recognition System
  • Digital Camera
  • Joystick
  • Light Pen

2. Output Devices:
Those devices which are used to receive data from a computer. For example: printing a document, displaying images on a screen and playing audio or video. Below are the names of some of the output devices.

  • Monitor
  • Audio Devices
  • Video Devices
  • Projectors
  • Speakers
  • Printers etc.

3. Storage Devices:
The process of permanently saving data and instructions is called storage and the devices in which multimedia projects are stored are called storage devices. The following are some of the storage devices used to store multimedia projects :

  • Hard Disk Drive
  • Magnetic Tape
  • RAM if) External Disk Drive
  • CD-R, CD-RW, DVD
  • Pen Drive

Software Requirements:
Multimedia software is a tool used to edit and manage the key elements of multimedia such as text, graphics, sound, animation and video. The following are some of the specific software used for multimedia projects.

  • Adobe Director
  • Create Together
  • Media Blander
  • Media Works 6.2
  • Play mo
  • Multimedia Builder

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 3.
What is a Multimedia Presentation? What should we keep in mind before preparing Multimedia presentation?
Answer:
The multimedia presentations are electronic documents that can include text, diagrams, graphics, photographs, sounds, animations, video clips etc.
Multimedia presentations are used to convey a message to others using a variety of communication methods. These presentations usually include text, animation, video, audio or interactive features such as forms, popup and more. The following should be kept in mind when creating a multimedia presentation :

  • Text should be kept to a minimum in multimedia presentations.
  • The level of audio and music quality should be good.
  • The keyboard and mouse should be accessible for the convenience of the user.
  • Multimedia presentation should be effective and small in size.

Question 4.
Write down applications of multimedia.
Answer:
Following are the common areas of applications of multimedia :
1. Education: Multimedia is used to teach students in school and colleges. Nowadays multimedia CDs are used instead of text books.

2. Business:
Multimedia applications are used in business for marketing, advertising, network communications, online shopping and more. It is also used in commercial marketing to motivate customers to buy products.

3. Advertisement:
Advertising industry uses multimedia to promote businesses, products and services. Multimedia advertising is done using animations and graphic design. Television, radio and print advertising are the most common mediums used in advertising.

4. Entertainment:
Multimedia is widely used in the entertainment industry. It is used especially in movies and video games to create special effects. Music and video apps are a great example of multimedia in entertainment.

5. Public Places:
Multimedia is available in many public places like trade shows, libraries, railway stations, museums, malls, airports, banks, hotels and exhibitions in the form of kiosks. It provides information to the customers and helps them.

6. Software:
Software engineers can use multimedia in computer entertainment to design everything from entertainment to digital games; it can be used as a learning process.

7. Medical Services:
Multimedia also use in Hospitals. For surgery methods, Tiny digital cameras are inserted in human body and it displays the inner scene of the body. In this way the medical practitioners were able to see the inner part without examine it.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

PSEB 7th Class Computer Guide Introduction to Multimedia Important Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Coral Draw is …………… software.
(a) Text
(b) Word
(c) System
(d) Graphics.
Answer:
(d) Graphics.

Question 2.
Graphics are of …………… type.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five.
Answer:
(a) Two

Question 3.
The movement of graphics is called …………… .
(a) Motion
(b) Move
(c) Animation
(d) Effect.
Answer:
(c) Animation

Question 4.
…………… video is created in a video camera.
(a) Analog
(b) Digital
(c) Motion
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Analog

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 5.
…………… devices are used to receive data from a computer.
(a) Input
(b) Storage
(c) Output
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(c) Output

Question 6.
A group of slides is known as a slide …………… .
(a) Group
(b) Deck
(c) Bunch
(d) Presentation.
Answer:
(b) Deck

Question 7.
The process of permanently saving data and instructions is called …………… .
(a) Storage
(b) Video
(c) Table
(d) Document.
Answer:
(a) Storage

Question 8.
Full form of the RTF is …………… .
(a) Read Table Format
(b) Rich Text Format
(c) Read Text Format
(d) Rich Table Format.
Answer:
(b) Rich Text Format

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

2. True/False

1. The combination of different media is called multimedia.
Answer:
True
2. In multimedia pictures can be animated and voice can be heard by the listeners.
Answer:
True
3. The size of the bitmap image is smaller than the vector image.
Answer:
False
4. Multimedia should be full of text.
Answer:
False

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

3. Write the Full Forms

Question 1
1. RTF
2. TIFF
3. DIB
4. BMP
5. GIF
6. JPEG
7. PNG
8. WAV
9. MP3
10. AIFF
11. WMA
12. RA
13. AVI
14. MPEG.
Answer:
1. RTF → Rich Text Format
2. TIFF → Tagged Image File Format
3. DIB → Device Independent Bitmap
4. BMP → Bitmap
5. GIF → Graphical Interface Format
6. JPEG → Joint Photographic Expert Group
7. PNG → Portable Network Graphics
8. WAV → Wave form Audio File Format
9. MP3 → MPEG Layer 3 Format
10. AIFF → Audio Interchange File Format
11. WMA → Windows Media Audio
12. RA → Real Audio Format
13. AVI → Audio/Video Interleave
14. MPEG → Moving Picture Expert Group.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

4. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are Graphics?
Answer:
Graphic is an image or visual presentations of an object, displayed on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawing, graphics designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text and illustration.

Question 2.
What is Multimedia?
Answer:
Multimedia means more than one medium. Multimedia is a collection of many media. It includes a wide variety of media. When a lot of media like pictures, texts, sounds, movies etc. come together it becomes multimedia. Multimedia is being used as a means of entertainment, for education.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 3.
Name the different media that make multimedia.
Answer:
The different media that make multimedia are as follow:

  • Text: Text is a combination of characters and certain symbols. Text is commonly used to send messages.
  • Images: In multimedia we make the concept more effective and presentable with the help of images.
  • Animation: Animation is the process of displaying multiple images one after the other.
  • Audio: In multimedia audio means recording or playing sound, speeches, music etc..
  • Film: It is an essential part of multimedia. Movies impress the audience a lot.

Question 4.
What kind of hardware is required for multimedia?
Answer:
The hardware required for multimedia is as follows:

  • Sound Card
  • Monitor
  • C.D. Rom Drive
  • Microphone
  • Web or Digital Camera
  • Headphones.

5. Long Answer Type Questions

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 1.
What are the file formats used in multimedia?
Answer:
File Format for Multimedia:
File formats are designed to store specific types of information. Such as JPEG for storing raster data, AI for storing vector data, WAV and MPEG for storing audio data and video data.
Before reading about the file format in multimedia, we need to know how many types of files are in multimedia. Multimedia consists of 3 types of files which are mentioned ahead:

  • Uncompressed: These are the files which are not compressed and are capable of storing a large file size.
  • Lossless: Files that can be compressed and when they are compressed there is no loss in image quality such as (Vector images) which do not lose quality even when zoomed in and the image will remain clear.
  • Lossy: Files that lose their quality when compressed. Such as bitmap Images. The easiest way to find any file type is to look at the file extension. The file extension determines which file it is.

Question 2.
Write the types of multimedia presentations.
Answer:
Types of Multimedia Presentation
There can be many types of multimedia presentations, some of which are as follows:
1. Virtual Presentation:
Where hosts and viewers attend the presentation remotely, are becoming common place. It is a technology that allows us to gather information on any topic and create a virtual presentation using high technology hardware software tools.

2. Slide Presentation:
A slide is a presentation page. A group of slides is known as a slide deck. A slide show is a display of a series of slides or images in an electronic device or on a projection screen. A slide can be a 35 mm slide seen with a slide projector. Presentation slides can be created in many pieces of software such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, LibreOffice Effects, Preeze.

3. Web Presentations:
When we add audio, video, animation etc. to web pages instead of static photos and text, web Pages turn into web presentations.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 3.
What are the audio file formats in multimedia?
Answer:
Audio File Format:
Audio file format is the file format used to store digital audio data on a computer system. Below are some audio file formats :
1. MP3:
The full form of MP3 is MPEG audio Layer-3. It is a standard technology and format that reduces the size of the file by one-tenth of the actual size and does not allow any loss in sound quality. The extension of these files is MP3.

2. WAV:
The most popular audio file format in Windows for storing compressed sound files. In order to the reduced the size of the files, these files can be converted to MP3 file format. The extension of these files is .WAV.

3. WMA (Window Media Audio):
These file formats are used to encode digital audio files similar to MP3. It can compress files at a higher rate than MP3. WMA files can be compressed to any size to match many different connection speeds or bandwidths. Their file extension is .wma.

4. AAC (Advanced Audio Coding):
The default audio format of Apple iTune. They work very well on Apple computing but do not work on web browsers. Their file extension is .aac.

5. Real Audio:
This format has been developed by Real Media to allow steaming of audio with low bandwidth. Its file extensions are ,rm, .ram.

Question 4.
What are the video file formats in multimedia?
Ans:
Video File Format:
Video files are a collection of images, audio and other data. The following are many different formats for encoding and saving video data.
1. AVI (Audio Video Interleave):
One of the oldest video formats developed by Microsoft. Due to its simple architecture, these files are able to run on different systems such as Windows, Macintosh, Linux. The file extension of these files is .avi.

2. MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group):
The first popular video format on the web is MPEG, These are compressed video files that can store both audio and video files. The file extension of these files is .mpeg.

3. MP4:
MP4 is one of the earliest digital video file formats introduced in 2001. Most digital platforms and devices support MP4. An MP4 format can store audio files, video files, still images and text. In addition, MP4 delivers high quality video with relatively small files. The file extension of these files is .mp4.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia

Question 5.
What are Image file formats in multimedia?
Answer:
Image File Format:
There are many different image formats and image file extensions that can be used to create and save images to a computer. The most common image formats are listed below :
1. TIFF:
Stands for Tagged Image File Format. TIFF file format is widely used bit mapped file format. TIFF files originally use lossless compression. Today TIFF files also use lossy compression according to the requirement. It allowing for very high-quality images but also larger file sizes.TIFF can store many different types of image such as 1 bit image, gray scale image, 8 bit color image, 24 bit RGB image etc. It is supported by many image editing applications, software used by scanners and photo retouching programs. The file extension of these files is .tiff.

2. BMP:
The bitmap file format (BMP) is a very basic format supported by most Windows applications. BMP files are uncompressed. It allowing for very high-quality images but also larger file sizes. Therefore, these are not suitable for the internet. BMP can store many different type of image: 1 bit image, grayscale image, 8 bit color image, 24 bit RGB image etc. The file extension of these files is .bmp.

3. GIF (Graphics Interchange Formats):
The GIF format is one of the most popular on the Internet due to its compact size. They are widely used for web graphics, as they are limited to 256 colors and can be animated. The file extension of these files is .gif.

4. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Groups):
Jpeg is a “loosy” format meaning it compresses the image to make it a smaller file. Compression of the image causes loss of image quality but this loss is usually not noticeable. JPEG files are very common on the Internet and JPEG is a popular format for digital cameras. The file extension of these files is -jpeg.

5. PNG (Portable Network Graphics):
PNG files are a lossless image format designed to actually improve and convert GIF format. Unlike the 256 colors supported by GIF, PNG files can handle up to 16 million colors. The file extension of these files is .png.

6. RAW:
Raw images are images that are not processed by a camera or scanner. Most digital SLR cameras can shoot in RAW format. The file extension of these files is .raw.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Computer Science Book Solutions Chapter 7 Introduction to Multimedia Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Computer Science Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Computer Guide for Class 7 PSEB Microsoft Word (Part-IV) Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
……………….. key is used to move the cursor in the next adjoining cell of a table.
(a) Ctrl
(b) Shift
(c) Tab
(d) Home.
Answer
(c) Tab

Question 2.
The table button is present on the …………. tab.
(a) Home
(b) Layout
(c) Insert
(d) View.
Answer
(c) Insert

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 3.
We can change the width of the column by selecting the ………….. button in the Table Group.
(a) Select
(b) View Grid lines
(c) Properties
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Properties

Question 4.
A ………………. consists of a number of columns and rows.
(a) Document
(b) Table
(c) View
(d) Data.
Answer:
(b) Table

Question 5.
A ………….. is an intersection of columns and rows.
(a) Cell
(b) Table
(c) View
(d) Data.
Answer:
(a) Cell

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

2. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which key is used to move the cursor to the next cell in a table?
Answer:
Pressing the Tab key or right arrow keys moves the cursor to the next cell.

Question 2.
Intersection of a column and row is called?
Answer:
The intersection area of the row and column is called the cell.

Question 3.
Which group of Layout tab contains the split cells option?
Answer:
The split cell option is in the Merge group of the Layout tab.

Question 4.
Which option can be used to join two or more cells?
Answer:
Two or more cells can be merged using the Merge option.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define Table.
Answer:
A table is a collection of rows and columns where data is grouped together. Rows are placed horizontally and columns are placed vertically in the table and the intersection of a row and column is known as Cell. Cells are small boxes in the worksheet where we enter data.

Question 2.
Write the name of options for inserting a table in Word document?
Answer:
In MS Word, we can create tables in three ways:

  • With the help of Table Buttons.
  • With the help of Insert Table option.
  • With the help of Draw Table option.

Question 3.
What is the use of Split Cells option?
Answer:
Microsoft Word allows cells to be divided into multiple cells. Steps to divide a cell into several smaller sub-cells are as follows:

  • Place mouse pointer inside the cell that you want to split into several cells.
  • Now click on the “Layout” tab and then click on the “Split cells” button from the “Merge” group.
  • A “Split Cells” dialog box will open and ask about the Number of columns/ Number of Rows.
  • Select the required number of rows and columns.
  • Click the OK button.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 4.
What is the use of Merged Cells option?
Answer:
Microsoft Word allows two or more cells to merge to form one large cell. You will often need to combine the columns in the top row to create a table title. You can combine cells row-by-column or column-by-column, you can’t mix cells diagonally.
The steps for merging cells are as follows:

  • Select the cells we want to merge.
  • Click the Merge Cells button from the Merge group on the Layout tab.
  • When clicked, this option will convert all selected cells into one cell.

Question 5.
How will you enter data in Table Cells?
Answer:
The steps for inserting text into a table are given below:
1. Click on the cell in which you want to insert the text.
2. Now type.
Or
You can also add text using copy paste.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do you insert a table in your document? Explain any method briefly.
Answer:
In MS Word, we can create tables in three ways:
1. With the help of Table Buttons.
2. With the help of Insert Table option.
3. With the help of Draw Table option.

1. Creating a table using the Table Button
The following are the steps to create a table with the help of table button:

  • Place your cursor where you want to create the table.
  • In the Insert tab, click on the “Table” command from the Table group.
  • Now a grid will open.
  • From this grid, select the rows and columns according to your need.
  • The table you selected will now appear on the screen.

2. Creating a table using the Insert Table option
Below are the steps to create a table using the Insert Table option:

  • In the Insert tab, click on the “Table” command from the Table group.
  • A drop-down menu will open. Click on the “Insert Table” option from this menu.
  • The Insert Table dialog box will appear.
  • In this box, specify the number of rows and columns and click on the ok button.

3. Creating a table with the help-of a Draw table option
The steps to create a table with the help of a draw table option are as follows:

  • In the Insert tab, click on the Table command from the Table group.
  • A drop-down menu will open, click on the Draw Table option from this menu.
  • The mouse pointer will turn into a pencil.
  • Draw a rectangle on the page with the help of a pencil.
  • Draw vertical and horizontal lines to form columns and rows as needed.

Question 2.
Explain Properties button of Layout Tab.
Answer:
With the Table Properties dialog box we can adjust the alignment of the table and the size of the row, column or cell.
PSEB 7th ClPSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 1.1ass Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 1
In MS Word we can also split or merged the Cells into a table.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

PSEB 7th Class Computer Guide Microsoft Word (Part-IV) Important Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Tables can be drawn in Word using the…………….and ……………. buttons.
(a) Home, Insert, Design table
(b) Table, Insert, Draw table
(c) Both Options are Correct
(d) Both Options are Incorrect.
Answer:
(b) Table, Insert, Draw table

Question 2.
……………. is called a set of rows and columns.
(a) Cell
(b) Table
(c) Documents
(d) None.
Answer:
(b) Table

Question 3.
The table command is available on the……………. tab.
(a) Home
(b) Design
(c) Review
(d) Insert.
Answer:
(d) Insert.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 4.
With the…………….option we can draw tables as we wish.
(a) Insert Table
(b) Add Table
(c) Draw Table
(d) Quick Table.
Answer:
(c) Draw Table

Question 5.
Clicking the ……………. arrow button moves the cursor to the next cell.
(a) Left arrow
(b) Right arrow
(c) Down arrow
(d) Up arrow.
Answer:
(b) Right arrow

Question 6.
The ……………. option is used to convert text to a table.
(a) Insert Table
(b) Convert Table to Text
(c) Draw Table
(d)Convert Text to Table.
Answer:
(b) Convert Table to Text

Question 7.
Split table is present in ……………. group of Layout tab.
(a) Merge
(b) Clipboard
(c) Style
(d) Design.
Answer:
(a) Merge

Question 8.
The ……………. option adds a new cell to the right of the existing cell.
(a) Auto fill
(b) Insert right
(c) Insert left
(d) Merge cell.
Answer:
(b) Insert right

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 9.
……………. option is used to delete the table.
(a) Merge Table
(b) Split Table
(c) Remove
(d) Delete Table.
Answer:
(d) Delete Table.

Question 10.
The ……………. option is used to add a new row at the above of insertion point.
(a) Insert Row
(b) Insert Below
(c) Insert Above
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(c) Insert Above

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the steps to covert text into table.
Answer:
Steps to convert text into table are as follows:

  • Select the text which you want to convert into table.
  • Click on the “Table” command in the ‘Table” group of the Insert tab.
  • Select the command “Convert Text To Table”.
  • The “Convert Text to Table” dialog box opens.
  • Select the desired option in the Separate text at section.
  • Click OK button.

Question 2.
With which tabs we can modify the table?
Answer:
Design and layout tabs are used to modify the tables.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 3.
Write the steps to add a row into the table.
Answer:
In MS Word we have 2 ways to add row into the table. Which are as follows:
Method 1.
Below are the steps to add rows to the table:

  • Place the cursor in the table where you want to add the new row.
  • Now right click on the mouse, a drop-down menu will appear on the screen.
  • Click on the Insert option from this menu.
  • If you want to add a new row above the insertion point, click on the “Insert Row Above” option.
  • If you want to add a new row below the insertion point, click on the “Insert Row Below” option.
  • A new row will appear above the insertion point.

Method 2.
The step of adding rows to the table is given below:

  • Place the cursor in the table where you want to add the new row.
  • From the “Rows & Columns” group of the “Layout tab”, click on the “Insert Above/Insert Below” option.
  • A new row will appear below/above the insertion point

Question 4.
Write the steps to add columns from right click.
Answer:

  • Place the insertion point where you want to add new column.
  • Right-click on the mouse. A menu will appear.
  • Click on the Insert option from this menu.
  • If you want to add a new column to the left of the insertion point, click on the “Insert Column to the left” option.
  • If you want to add a new column to the right of the insertion point, click on the “Insert Column to the right” option.
  • A new column will now appear to the right or left of the cursor.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 5.
Write the steps to remove a column.
Answer:
Here are the steps to delete a row or column from the table:

  • Select a row or column.
  • Right click your mouse. A menu will appear.
  • Click on the Delete Cells option.
  • A Delete Cell dialog box will now open.
  • Click “Delete entire column” option to delete the column.
  • The appropriate column will be deleted.

Delete columns using the Layout tab

  • Select the row or column you want to delete.
  • Click the “Delete” button from the Rows & Columns group of the Layout tab.
  • A drop-down menu will open.
  • From this menu, click the “Delete Column” option to delete the column.

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How can a table be converted into text and text into a table?
Answer:
Below are the steps for inserting text into a table:
1. Click on the cell in which you want to insert the text.
2. Now type
Or
You can also add text using copy paste

To Convert Text to a Table
Steps to convert text into table are as follows:

  • Select the text which you want to convert into table.
  • Click on the “Table” command in the “Table” group of the insert tab.
  • Select the command “Convert Murine of rows: Text To Table”.
  • The “Convert Text to Table” dialog box opens.
  • Select the desired option in the Separate text at section.
  • Click OK button.

Convert Table into Text:
Steps to convert table into text are as follows:

  • Select the rows of tables you want to convert to text.
  • On the Layout tab, in the Data section, click “Convert To Text”.
  • In the Convert Table box, under Separate Text With, click on the different character you want to use instead of the column boundaries. Rows will be separated by paragraph symbols.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 2.
Write about the inclusion of a cell in a table.
Answer:
Adding Cells to Tables:
In MS Word, you can add a new cell around the selected cell, such as right, left, up or down. The steps to add a new cell are as follows:

  • Click in the cell.
  • Press the right mouse button inside the cell.
  • From this menu click “Insert” and then click “insert cell” option.
  • Choose which side of the selected cell you want new cell.
    PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 2

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV)

Question 3.
What are table properties and how they can be used?
Answer:
Properties of Tables
With the Table Properties dialog box we can adjust the alignment of the table and the size of the row, column or cell.
In MS Word we can also split or merged the Cells into a table.

PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 4

Question 4.
What is ‘Splitting’ and how to split a table, a cell?
Answer:
Splitting the Cell:
Microsoft Word allows cells to be divided into multiple cells. Steps to divide a cell into several smaller sub-cells are as follows:
1. Place mouse pointer inside the cell that you want to split into several cells.
2. Now click on the “Layout” tab and then click on the “Split cells” button from the “Merge” group.
PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 7
3. A “Split Cells” dialog box will open and ask about the Number of columns/ Number of Rows.
PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 8
4. Select the required number of rows and columns
5. Click the OK button.

Splitting the Table:
Microsoft Word allows a table to be split into multiple tables but a single operation always splits the table into two tables.
The following are simple steps to split a table into two tables in a World Document.
1. Place the cursor in the row that you want to be the first row of the second table.
2. Click the Split Table button ‘ from the Merge group on the Layout tab.
PSEB 7th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) 9

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Computer Science Book Solutions Chapter 6 Microsoft Word (Part-IV) Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.