PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’ Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

A. Transformation of Sentences

1. Assertive sentences : ये वाक्य किसी बात, तथ्य अथवा घटना का वर्णन करते हैं। ये वाक्य तीन प्रकार के हो सकते हैं-
(i) Affirmative

  • Mohan wrote a letter.
  • I helped my friends.
  • She hopes to pass this year.
  • Mohan has two pens.

(ii) Negative

  • Mohan did not write a letter.
  • I did not help my friends.
  • She does not hope to pass this year.
  • Mohan has no pen.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

(iii) Emphatic

  • Mohan did write a letter.
  • I did help my friends.
  • She does hope to pass this year.
  • You do tell lies.

2. Interrogative sentences : इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में कोई प्रश्न पूछा जाता है। इन के अन्त में प्रश्न-वाचक चिन्ह (?) – Question Mark – लगाया जाता है।

  • What is your father ?
  • Why are the boys making a noise ?
  • Are you not happy here?
  • Did the teacher punish him ?

3. Imperative sentences : इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में किसी आदेश, आज्ञा, उपदेश, प्रार्थना, आदि को व्यक्त किया जाता है। इन वाक्यों में कर्ता शब्द (You) का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

  • Bring a glass of water, please.
  • Tell him to leave the room at once.
  • Switch on the lights.
  • March forward.

4. Exclamatory sentences : इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में किसी अकस्मात शोक, हर्ष, हैरानी, घृणा, आदि के भाव को व्यक्त किया जाता है। इनके अन्त में (अथवा विस्मय-बोधक शब्द के अन्त में) विस्मय-वाचक चिन्ह (!) – Mark of Exclamation – लगाया जाता है।

  • Hurrah ! we have won.
  • Alas ! he is ruined.
  • What a lovely flower (it is) !
  • How foolish he is !

5. Optative sentences : इस प्रकार के वाक्य किसी इच्छा अथवा प्रार्थना को प्रकट करते हैं। इनके अन्त में विस्मय-वाचक चिन्ह (!) – Mark of Exclamation – लगाया जाता है।

  • May you succeed in life !
  • O that she were alive!
  • Would that I were young again !
  • If only I could win the first prize !

नोट : परीक्षा-पत्र में प्राय: Assertive वाक्यों को ही Negative या Interrogative रूप में बदलने के लिए कहा जाता है। इस सम्बन्ध में निम्नलिखित नियम याद रखिए।

1. V1 वाले वाक्यों को Negative या Interrogative में बदलने के लिए helping verb के रूप में do का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

2. V1 + s / es वाले‌ ‌वाक्यों‌ ‌को‌ ‌Negative‌ ‌या‌ ‌Interrogative‌ ‌बनाने‌ ‌के‌ ‌लिए‌ ‌helping‌ ‌ verb‌ ‌के‌ ‌रूप‌ ‌में‌ ‌does‌ ‌का‌ ‌प्रयोग‌ ‌किया‌ ‌जाता‌ ‌है।‌ ‌यह‌ ‌बात‌ ‌ध्यान‌ ‌रखने‌ ‌योग्य‌ ‌है‌ ‌कि‌ ‌does‌ ‌लगाने‌ ‌के‌ ‌बाद‌ ‌V1‌ ‌ के‌ ‌साथ‌ ‌लगा‌ ‌हुआ‌ ‌s‌ ‌/‌ ‌es‌ ‌हटा‌ ‌दिया‌ ‌जाता‌ ‌है।‌

3. V2 वाले वाक्यों को Negative या Interrogative बनाने के लिए helping verb के रूप में did का प्रयोग किया जाता है। यह बात ध्यान रखने योग्य है कि did लगाने के बाद V2 के स्थान पर V1 का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

4. Interrogative वाक्यों में helping verb का प्रयोग वाक्य के आरम्भ में किया जाता है।

Transformation of Sentences

Affirmative to Negative

Affirmative – Negative
1. He was the most loved boy. – He was not the most loved boy.
2. The teacher was present. – The teacher was not present.
3. He killed the snake. – He did not kill the snake.
4. He does his duty. – He does not do his duty.
5. I am coming to your house. – I am not coming to your house.
6. The sun sets at 6 p.m. – The sun does not set at 6 p.m.
7. He is writing a letter. – He is not writing a letter.
8. I can solve this sum. – I cannot solve this sum.
9. The moon rose at 10 o’clock. – The moon did not rise at 10 o’clock.
10. It may rain today. – It may not rain today.
11. He is my friend. – He is not my friend.
12. You are a lucky man. – You are not a lucky man.

II. Assertive to Interrogative

Assertive – Interrogative
1. They laughed at us. – Did they laugh at us?
2. She is beautiful. – Is she beautiful ?
3. He does his duty. – Does he do his duty ?
4. He can help you. – Can he help you ?
5. We should respect our parents. – Should we respect our parents ?
6. We built a house there. – Did we build a house there?
7. It may rain today. – May it rain today?
8. We must go there. – Must we go there?
9. You are late. – Are you late ?
10. He was happy. – Was he happy ?
11. We shall come soon. – Shall we come soon?

III. Interrogative to Assertive

Interrogative – Assertive
1. Who can tell the future ? – Nobody can tell the future.
2. When can their glory fade ? – Their glory can never fade.
3. Who wants to die? – Nobody wants to die.
4. Who can challenge me? – Nobody can challenge me.
5. Shall I ever forget those happy days. – I shall never forget those happy days?
6. Who does not love his country? – Everybody loves his country.

IV. Exclamatory to Assertive

Exclamatory – Assertive
1. How interesting the story is ! – The story is very interesting.
2. How foolish I am! – I am very foolish.
3. What a lovely rose ! – The rose is very lovely.
4. What a nice book it is ! – It is a very nice book.
5. O that I were young again ! – I wish I were young again.
6. Alas ! I am undone. – It is sad that I am undone.

Change of Tenses in Sentences

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’ 1

अब नीचे दिए गए उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक कीजिए

Changing into Present Indefinite Tense

1. He spoke the truth. – He speaks the truth.
2. He was reading the newspaper. – He reads the newspaper.
3. The moon rose at 7 o’clock. – The moon rises at 7 o’clock.
4. I did not write a letter. – I do not write a letter.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Changing into Past Indefinite Tense

1. Mohan buys a beautiful pen. – Mohan bought a beautiful pen.
2. I go to see the fair. – I went to see the fair.
3. My brother is preparing tea. – My brother prepared tea.
4. She does her duty well. – She did her duty well.

Changing into Future Indefinite Tense

1. I gave him ten rupees. – I shall give him ten rupees.
2. I am doing it honestly. – I shall do it honestly.
3. I went to see the fair. – I shall go to see the fair.
4. He has been deceiving you. – He will deceive you.

Changing into Present Continuous Tense

1. Was he speaking the truth? – Is he speaking the truth?
2. I have taken my breakfast. – I am taking my breakfast.
3. The old man had died. – The old man is dying.
4. He will go to Delhi. – He is going to Delhi.

Changing into Past Continuous Tense

1. You will not trust him. – You were not trusting him.
2. The teacher called the roll. – The teacher was calling the roll.
3. He speaks the truth. – He was speaking the truth.
4. I took the rope for a snake. – I was taking the rope for a snake.

Changing into Future Continuous Tense

1. The sun rises at six in the the morning. – The sun will be rising at six in morning.
2. I have done the sums. – I shall be doing the sums.
3. You committed the mistake. – You will be committing the mistake.
4. Are you drinking water ? – Will you be drinking water ?

Changing into Perfect Tenses

Present Perfect Tense – Past Perfect Tense – Future Perfect Tense
1. I have done. my work. – I had done my work. – I shall have done my work.
2. He has visited Delhi. – He had visited Delhi. – He will have visited Delhi.

Changing into Perfect Continuous Tenses

Present Perfect Continuous Tense – Past Perfect Continuous Tense – Future Perfect Continuous Tense
1. She has been weeping since morning. – She had been weeping since morning – She will have been weeping since morning.
2. It has been raining for the last 4 days. – It had been raining for the last 4 days. – It will have been raining for the last 4 days.

Exercise

Change the following sentences as directed.
1. He does not run very fast. (Positive)
2. Sohan plays hockey. (Future Perfect Tense)
3. Once a thief always a thief. (Negative Interrogative)
4. Who kills the mad dogs ? (Past Perfect)
5. He gets up early in the morning. (Negative)
6. She prefers tea to milk. (Interrogative)
7. His dog wanders all night. (Negative)
8. Ram is taking his meals. (Future Indefinite Tense)
9. Kapil is the best player of cricket. (Interrogative)
10. Where does your brother live ? (Past Continuous)
11. She wrote a beautiful poem. (Negative)
12. I knew him. (Future Indefinite Tense)
13. What a lovely child ! (Assertive)
14. She wrote a letter. (Negative)
15. You told a lie. (Present Continuous Tense)
16. The old man had died. (Present Continuous Tense)
17. He spoke the truth. (Present Indefinite)
18. Who does not love his country? (Assertive)
19. Gandhiji was the greatest leader of India. (Negative)
20. He is my friend. (Negative)
21. I did not write a letter. (Present Indefinite Tense)
22. Who wants to be a slave ? (Assertive)
23. My brother is singing a song. (Negative)
24. He went to Delhi. (Negative)
25. What a beautiful flower ! (Assertive)
26. She sings a beautiful song. (Future Continuous)
27. This river freezes in winter. (Past Indefinite)
28. What a nice book it is ! (Assertive)
29. Did they kill the mad dog? (Negative)
30. He finished his work. (Interrogative)
Answer:
1. He runs very fast.
2. Sohan will have played hockey.
3. Is once a thief not always a thief?
4. Who had killed the mad dogs ?
5. He does not get up early in the morning.
6. Does she prefer tea to milk ?
7. His dog does not wander all night.
8. Ram will take his meals.
9. Is Kapil the best player of cricket?
10. Where was your brother living?
11. She did not write a beautiful poem.
12. I will know him.
13. The child is very lovely.
14. She did not write a letter.
15. You are telling a lie.
16. The old man is dying.
17. He speaks the truth.
18. Everybody loves his country.
19. No other leader of India was so great as Gandhiji.
20. He is not my friend.
21. I do not write a letter.
22. Nobody wants to be a slave.
23. My brother is not singing a song.
24. He did not go to Delhi.
25. The flower is very beautiful.
26. She will be singing abeautiful song.
27. This river froze in winter.
28. It is a very nice book.
29. Did they not kill the mad dog?
30. Did he finish his work ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

B. Interchange of Degrees of Comparison

Interchange of as adjective opt degree of comparison बदलना संभव होता है।
1. जब किसी वस्तु अथवा व्यक्ति की तुलना उसी प्रकार की किसी अन्य वस्तु अथवा व्यक्ति से की जाए तो हम Positive अथवा Comparative Degree का प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।

निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन करें:

1. He is as dull as an ass. (Positive)
An ass is not duller than he is. (Comparative)
2. She is not so wise as her sister. (Positive)
Her sister is wiser than she is. (Comparative)

(Comparative) उपयुक्त उदाहरणों से यह स्पष्ट है कि Positive Degree का कोई affirmative वाक्य Comparative Degree, में negative बन जाता है तथा इसका विपरीत भी सत्य है।
Affirmative वाक्य में Positive Degree के साथ as …….. as का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
He is as dull as an ass.

Negative वाक्य में Positive Degree के साथ so …….. as का प्रयोग किया जाता है।.
She is not so wise as her sister.

2. जब एक वस्तु अथवा व्यक्ति की तुलना उसी प्रकार की अन्य कई वस्तुओं अथवा व्यक्तियों से करनी हो, तो हम किसी भी degree का प्रयोग कर सकते हैं – Positive, Comparative अथवा Superlative.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’ 2

Adjective Degree:

Superlative – Comparative – Positive
the best – better than any other – no other …………… So good as
not the best – not better than some others – some ………. at least as good as
one of the best (of) – better than most others – very few …………… so good as
not one of the best – some others better than – not so good as some others.

Exercise

Change the Degree of Comparison without changing the meaning.

I. 1. She is as cunning as a fox.
2. He is as brave as a lion.
3. His skin is as black as coal.
4. Liza is as beautiful as the moon.
5. He runs as fast as a deer.
6. She is not so beautiful as her sister.
7. A bird can’t fly so fast as an aeroplane.
8. Iron is not so heavy as gold.
Answer:
1. 1. A fox is not cleverer than she (is).
2. A lion is not braver than he (is).
3. Coal is not blacker than his skin.
4. The moon is not more beautiful than Liza.
5. A dear does not – run faster than he.
6. Her sister is more beautiful than she (is).
7. An aeroplane can fly faster than a bird.
8. Gold is heavier than iron.

II. 1. Abdul is taller than Hamid.
2. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.
3. The younger sister is cleverer than the elder.
4. A live ass is stronger than a dead lion.
5. I work harder than you do.
6. Sham is not more hard-working than Prem.
7. A rose is not fairer than she is.
8. This room is not larger than that one.
Answer:
1. Hamid is not so tall as Abdul.
2. A foolish friend is not so good as a wise enemy.
3. The elder sister is not so clever as the younger.
4. A dead lion is not so strong as a live ass.
5. You do not work so hard as I do.
6. Prem is as hard-working as Sham.
7. She is as fair as a rose.
8. That room is as large as this one.

III. 1. Mumbai is the best seaport in India.
2. Riding is the best kind of exercise.
3. She is the most beautiful girl in our class.
4. Shakespeare was the greatest dramatist of England.
5. Forgiveness is the noblest form of revenge.
6. Ashok is not the best player of our team.
7. Quinine is not the bitterest of all medicines.
8. She is not the wisest of all the girls in our class.
Answer:
1. Mumbai is better than any other seaport in India.
(or)
No other seaport in India is so good as Mumbai.
2. Riding is better than any other exercise.
(or)
No other exercise is so good as riding.
3. She is more beautiful than any other girl in our class.
(or)
No other girl in our class is so beautiful as she.
4. Shakespeare was greater than any other dramatist of England.
(or)
No other dramatist of England was so great as Shakespeare.
5. Forgiveness is nobler than any other form of revenge.
(or)
No other form of revenge is so noble as forgiveness.
6. Ashok is not better than some other players of our team.
(or)
Some other players are at least as good as Ashok.
7. Quinine is not more bitter than some other medicines.
(or)
Some other medicines are at least as bitter as quinine.
8. She is not wiser than some other girls in our class.
(or)
Some other girls in our class are at least as wise as she.

C. Transformation of Simple, Compound & Complex Sentences

1. Converting Simple Sentences into Compound Sentences

Simple sentence को Compound sentence में परिवर्तित करने के लिए वाक्य के किसी शब्द या (Co-ordinate clause) निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें:

Simple – Compound

1. He must work very hard to make up for the lost time. – He must work very hard and make up for the lost time.
2. To our great surprise, he betrayed and his own friends. – He betrayed his own friends, this surprised us greatly.
3. Besides robbing the poor man, he also murdered him. – He not only robbed the poor man but also murdered him.
4. He must work very hard to win the first prize. – He must work very hard, or he will not win the first prize.
5. He must not attempt to cheat on pain of punishment. – He must not attempt to cheat, or he will be punished.
6. Owing to ill-luck, he met with a bad accident. – He was unlucky, and met with a bad accident.
7. The teacher punished the boy for disobedience. – The boy was disobedient, and the teacher punished him.

2. Converting Compound Sentences into Simple Sentences

Compound sentence को Simple sentence में परिवर्तित करने के लिए वाक्य के किसी एक Co-ordinate clauses को बदल कर वाक्यांश बना दें।
निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें:

Compound – Simple

1. We must eat, or we cannot live. – We must eat to live.
2. He must not be late, or he will be punished. – In the event of his being late, he will be punished.
3. He finished his homework and put away his books. – Having finished his homework, he put away his books.
4. You must either pay the bill at once or return the goods. – Failing immediate payment of the bill, the goods must be returned.
5. He was a mere boy, yet he offered to fight the giant. – In spite of his being a mere boy, he offered to fight the giant.
6. Not only did his father but his mother also give him money.
Besides his father, his mother also gave him money.
7. The men endured all the horrors of the campaign and not one of them complained at all.
The men endured all the horrors of the campaign without any of them making a complaint.

3. Converting Simple Sentences into Complex Sentences

Simple sentence को Complex sentence में परिवर्तित करने के लिए वाक्यांश को विस्तृत करके Subordinate clause ( जोकि कोई Noun, Adjective, या Adverb clause हो सकती है) बना

1. Listen to what the teacher says.
2. The fact is that he knows nothing.
3. He was told that he must not be late again.
4. That John was a thief was not known to me.
5. I was shocked to hear that his only son had died.
6. It is true that he risked his own life to save the child.
7. Learning that my brother had received serious injuries, I left for Shimla.

Adjective Clause वह उपवाक्य हातो है जोकि, किसी अन्य उपवाक्य के किसी शब्द के संबंध में एक विशेषण का कार्य कर रहा होता है। निम्नलिखित Complex Sentences में प्रत्येक वाक्य में रेखांकित शब्द Adjective Clause बनाते हैं।

1. There was none but wept.
2. He is not such a man as can be trusted.
3. The company that supplied goods has failed.
4. The house where my brother lives has been sold.
5. The complaint which he made against me is false.

Adverb Clause वह उपवाक्य हातो है जोकि, किसी अन्य उपवाक्य के किसी शब्द के संबंध में एक क्रिया विशेषण का कार्य कर रहा होता है।
प्रत्येक निम्नलिखित Complex Sentences में रेखांकित शब्द Adverb Clause बनाते हैं। .
1. He talks as if he were mad.
2. I work hard so that I may pass.
3. Where there is a will, there is a way.
4. You should act as the doctor advises you.
5. When the cat is away the mice will play.
6. As far as I know, Ram Lal is not to blame.
7. As you are over twelve, you will have to pay full fare.

निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें:

Simple – Complex
1. He confessed his crime. – He confessed that he was guilty.
2. His silence proves his guilt. – The fact that he is silent proves his guilt,
3. He bought his uncle’s house. – He bought the house which belonged to his uncle.
4. On the arrival of the police, the crowd dispersed. – The crowd dispersed as soon as the police arrived.
5. He owed his success to his father. – It was owing to his father that he suceeded.
6. He worked hard to pass the examination. – He worked hard that he might pass the examination.
7. Rahul, being jealous of Amit, struck him. – Rahul struck Amit because he was jealous of him.
8. Only students are admitted. – If you are not a student, you won’t be admitted.
9. The manangement is thoroughly it could be. – The management is as corrupt as corrupt.
10. A man’s modesty is in inverse proportion to his ignorance. – The more ignorant a man is, the less modest he is.

4. Converting Complex Sentences into Simple-Sentences

Complex sentence is Simple sentence किसी वाक्यांश में परिवर्तित कर देते हैं।
निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें :

Complex – Simple
1. Tell me where you live. – Tell me your address.
2. How long I shall stay is doubtful. – The duration of my stay is doubtful.
3. He died in the village where he was born. – He died in his native village.
4. The moment which is lost is lost for ever. – A lost moment is lost for ever.
5. Those that are healthy have no need of the physician. – Healthy persons have no need of the physician.
6. We came upon a hut where a peasant lived. – We came upon a peasant’s hut.
7. The exact time when this happened is not certain. – The exact time of its happening is not certain.
8. The place where the Buddha was cremated has been discovered. – The place of the Buddha’s cremation has been discovered.
9. I have no advice that I can offer you. – I have not advice to offer you.
10. You can eat as much as you like. – You can eat to your heart’s content.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

5. Converting Compound Sentences into Complex Sentences

निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें:

Compound – Complex
1. Search his pockets, and you will find the watch. – If you search his pockets, you will find the watch.
2. Do as I tell you, or you will you have to suffer. – Unless you do as I tell you, will have to suffer.
3. The lion was wounded, but not killed. – The lion was not killed although he was wounded.
4. Waste not, want not. – If you do not waste a thing, you will never feel its want.
5. He saw the danger, but kept on advancing. – Although he saw the danger, he kept on advancing.
6. He saw the danger and paused. – When he saw the danger, he paused.
7. He aimed at winning the prize, and worked hard. – He worked hard so that he might win the prize.
8. He was late, and missed the train. – As he was late, he missed the train.
9. He lives in Cherrapoonji and it rains there almost daily. – He lives in Cherrapoonji where it rains almost daily.
10. He wishes to become learned therefore, he is studying hard. – He is studying hard because he wishes to become learned.

6. Converting Complex Sentences into Compound Sentences

निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों का अध्ययन ध्यानपूर्वक करें:

Complex – Compound
1. I am certain you have made a mistake. – You have made a mistake, and I am certain of this.
2. I am glad that he has recovered from illness. – He has recovered from illness, and this gladdens me.
3. We can prove that the earth is round. – The earth is round, and we can prove this.
4. I have found the book that I had lost. – I had lost a book, but I have found it.
5. As soon as he got the message, he left in a taxi. – He got the message, and immediately he left in a taxi.
6. He worked hard so that he might win the prize. – He aimed at winning the prize and worked hard.
7. If he is at home, I shall see him. – He may be at home, and in that case I shall see him.
8. He lost more than he could afford. – He could not afford to lose so much as he did.
9. He is more a philosopher than a poet. – He is something of a poet, but more than that he is a philosopher.
10. If you do not hurry, you will miss the train. – You must hurry, or you will miss the train.

Exercise

1. Rewrite the following Simple sentences as Compound ones.

1. To avoid punishment, he ran away.
2. He was rejected owing to ill health.
3. Owing to drought, the crop is short.
4. With a great effort, he lifted the box.
5. Notwithstanding several efforts, he failed.
6. Being a cripple, he cannot ride a horse.
7. He must resign on pain of public protest.
8. Being dissatisfied, he resigned his position.
Answer:
1. He wanted to avoid punishment; therefore, he ran away.
2. He was not in good health; therefore, he was rejected.
3. There was drought; therefore, the crop is short.
4. He applied a great effort and lifted the box.
5. He made several efforts, yet he failed.
6. He is a cripple, and therefore, he cannot ride a horse.
7. He must resign, or the public will protest against him.
8. He was dissatisfied, and resigned his position.

2. Rewrite the following Compound sentences as Simple ones.

1. Be good and you will be happy.
2. He is rich, yet he is not contented.
3. Make haste, or else you will be late.
4. He tried hard, but he did not succeed.
5. He did this and so offended his master.
6. I called him, but he gave me no answer.
7. The girls not only sang, but danced also.
8. I have a lot of work and must do it now.
Answer:
1. Being good, you will be happy.
2. In spite of being rich, he is not contented.
3. Without making haste, you will be late.
4. In spite of trying hard, he did not succeed.
5. By doing this, he offended his master.
6. In spite of my calling him, he gave no answer.
7. Besides singing, the girls danced also.
8. Having a lot of work, I must do it now.

3. Convert the following Simple sentences into Complex sentences.

1. Tell the truth.
2. I request your help.
3. He confessed his fault.
4. I wish you to be quiet.
5. I overheard all his remarks.
6. He hoped to win the prize.
7. I expect to meet Rama tonight.
8. He is said to be a millionaire.
Answer:
1. Tell me what the truth is.
2. It is my request that you should help me.
3. He confessed that it was his fault.
4. I wish that you should be quiet.
5. I overheard all that he remarked.
6. He hoped that he would win the prize.
7. I expect that I will (shall / would) meet Rama tonight.
8. It is said that he is a millionaire.

4. Turn each of the following Complex sentences into a Simple sentence.

1. It is time you went.
2. Grant me what I ask.
3. Come when you can.
4. Tell me where you live.
5. Tell me how old you are.
6. Work as hard as you can.
7. I shall remain where I am.
8. He ran as fast as he could.
Answer:
1. It is time for you to go.
2. Grant me my request.
3. Come when possible.
4. Tell me the
place of your residence.
5. Tell me your age.
6. Work hard to the best of your ability.
7. I shall remain in my place.
8. He ran at the highest possible speed.

5. Convert the following Compound sentences into Complex sentences

1. We will win or die.
2. Be just, and fear not.
3. You or I must go away.
4. He is poor, but contented.
5. Listen, and I will tell you all.
6. You called me, and here I am.
7. Be quiet, or I shall punish you.
8. She must weep, or she will die.
Answer:
1. If we don’t win, we will die.
2. If you are just, you will have no fear.
3. If you do not
go away, I must.
4. Though he is poor, he is contented.
5. If you listen, I will tell you all.
6. As you called me, I am here.
7. If you are not quiet, I shall punish you.
8. If she does not weep, she will die.

6. Convert the following Complex sentences into Compound sentences.

1. He fell as I fired.
2. Come when you like.
3. We eat that we may live.
4. I could answer if I chose.
5. I know what you told him.
6. I do not think he will come.
7. If you run, you will be in time.
8. His bark is worse than his bite.
Answer:
1. I fired and he fell.
2. Come at any time, and you have the option in the matter.
3. We wish to live; and therefore, we eat.
4. I can answer, but I don’t choose to.
5. You told him something and I know it.
6. He will not come and I think so.
7. Run and you will be in time.
8. His bite is bad, but his bark is worse.

D. Removal And Use of ‘Too’

1. The news is too good to be true. = The news is so good that it cannot be true
2. She is too clever not to see through your tricks. = She is so clever that she will see through your tricks.
3. These mangoes are so cheap that they cannot be good. = These mangoes are too cheap to be good.

Exercise

I. Rewrite the following sentences removing the Adverb ‘too’.

1. This tree is too high for me to climb.
2. He speaks too fast to be understood.
3. He is far too stupid for such a difficult job.
4. She is sobbing too deeply to answer.
5. This fact is too evident to require proof.
6. Her dress is too striking not to attract attention.
7. He is too young to go on his own.
8. It is too late to do anything about it now.
Answer:
1. 1. This tree is so high that I can’t climb it.
2. He speaks so fast that he can’t be understood.
3. He is so stupid that he can’t do such a difficult job.
4. She is sobbing so deeply that she can’t answer.
5. This fact is so evident that it does not require any proof.
6. Her dress is so striking that it can’t fail to attract attention.
7. He is so young that he can’t go on his own.
8. It is so late that nothing can be done about it now.

II. Rewrite the following sentences using the Adverb ‘too’.

1. It is never so late that you can’t mend.
2. He is so proud that he won’t beg.
3. My heart is so full that I can’t find words to express myself.
4. He was so late that he couldn’t hear the first speech.
5. He is so ignorant that he can’t work as a postman.
6. The man was so old that it was not proper to rebuke him.
7. He is so weak that he cannot play.
8. Harish was so intelligent that he could understand this point.
Answer:
2. 1. It is never too late to mend.
2. He is too proud to beg.
3. My heart is too full for words.
4. He was too late to hear the first speech.
5. He is too ignorant to work as a postman.
6. The man was too old for a rebuke.
7. He is too weak to play.
8. Harish was too intelligent not to understand this point.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Miscellaneous Exercise (Based on Textual Sentences)

I. Rewrite the following sentences after removing ‘too’.

1. We must set things right before it is too late.
2. Water is too important a resource to be wasted.
3. Barb was too afraid to make a reply.
4. Sudha was too scared to go to meet Mr. JRD.
5. She was too old to have grown older.
6. Major Som Nath was too brave to quit even in the face of heavy firing.
7. I’m not too sure about it.
8. To spend too much time in studies is sloth.
9. We must hear the warning bells before it is too late.
Answer:
1. We must set things right before it is so late that we cannot mend them.
2. Water is so important a resource that it should not be wasted.
3. Barb was so afraid that she could not make a reply.
4. Sudha was so scared that she could not go to meet Mr. JRD.
5. She was so old that she could not have grown older.
6. Major Som Nath was so brave that he could not quit even in the face of heavy firing.
7. I’m not very sure about it.
8. It is sloth to spend so much time in studies.
9. We must hear the warning bells before it is so late that we can do nothing

II. Rewrite the following sentences using ‘too’.

1. We are so lazy that we do not care to lift the garbage lying around us.
2. The atombombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were really very destructive.
3. After his encounter with the grizzly, Malcolm had become so ugly that nobody could love him.
4. Scars are not so powerful that they can change the person.
5. The need of water conservation is so grave that it cannot be ignored.
Answer:
1. We are too lazy to care to lift the garbage lying around us.
2. The atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were too destructive.
3. After his encounter with the grizzly, Malcolm had become too ugly to be loved by anyone.
4. Scars are not too powerful to change the person.
5. The need of water conservation is too grave to be ignored.

Exercises From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Exercise 1
Look at the following sentences and identify them as simple, compound or complex sentences.

1. This is the town where he was born.
2. Be kind and help the poor.
3. He is a good player.
4. He saw a man who was limping.
5. Stay healthy and cheerful.
6. He knew what he wanted from them.
7. I shall speak to you when I reach home.
8. In spite of hard work, he could not win.
9. He heard what I said.
10. They shall come home now.
Answer:
1. Complex sentence
2. Compound sentence
3. Simple sentence
4. Complex sentence
5. Simple sentence
6. Complex sentence
7. Complex sentence
8. Simple sentence
9. Complex sentence
10. Simple sentence.

Exercise 2
Identify the following sentences as simple, compound or complex sentences.

1. He must weep or he will die.
2. I know Rajesh is a clever person.
3. The village in which he lives is every small.
4. The train leaves at 5 p.m.
5. There is no student but loves good teachers.
6. Whoever is learned is respected.
7. What you say is quite correct.
8. He is too fat to run.
9. He is so fast that you cannot catch him.
10. He is very rich yet very humble.
Answer:
1. Compound sentence
2. Complex sentence
3. Complex sentence
4. Simple sentence
5. Complex sentence
6. Simple sentence
7. Complex sentence
8. Simple sentence
9. Complex sentence
10. Complex sentence.

Exercise 3
Identify the following sentences as simple, compound or complex sentences.

1. I can prove that he is a liar.
2. God made man and man made a machine.
3. He is more a fool than a cheat.
4. He was tall and handsome.
5. He says that he will win.
6. This is the business in which huge profits can be earned.
7. Moga is the place of my birth.
8. As you sow so shall you reap.
9. We must eat to live.
10. I hoped that it was true.
Answer:
1. Complex sentence
2. Compound sentence
3. Simple sentence
4. Simple sentence
5. Complex sentence
6. Complex sentence
7. Simple sentence
8. Complex sentence
9. Simple sentence
10. Complex sentence.

Exercise 4
Transform the following simple sentences into compound sentences.

1. He shall succeed with your assistance.
2. Climbing up the table, he cleaned the ceiling fan.
3. You must rest to avoid losing your health.
4. Work hard to pass the examination.
5. Through his sincere efforts, he won the first position.
6. Besides being hard-working, he is intelligent.
7. Coming here, he took away my books.
8. Owing to his indiscipline, he was reprimanded.
9. Seeing a tiger coming, he fled.
10. Going to New York, Manav met his friend.
Answer:
1. Assist him, and he shall succeed.
2. He climbed up the table and cleaned the ceiling fan.
3. You must rest or you will lose your health.
4. Work hard and you will pass the examination.
5. He made sincere efforts and won the first position.
6. He is not only hard-working, but also intelligent.
7. He came here and (he) took away my books.
8. He showed indiscipline, therefore he was reprimanded.
9. He saw a tiger coming and he fled.
10. Manav went to New York and met his friend.

Exercise 5
Transform the following simple sentences into compound sentences.

1. Getting out of the car, Mr. Rattan Tata walked away.
2. Being hungry, he needed food.
3. We were surprised to see him at our place.
4. He will compel you to leave the room.
5. Being lazy, he failed.
6. He fell asleep on account of being tired.
7. In spite of being poor he is very honest.
8. Notwithstanding his failure, he is still hopeful.
9. She was credited for her hard work.
10. Taking a stone, the threw at the dog.
Answer:
1. Mr. Rattan Tata got out of the car and walked away.
2. He was hungry, therefore he needed food.
3. We saw him at our place and (we) were surprised.
4. He will compel you and you will leave the room.
5. He was lazy, therefore he failed.
6. He was tired and fell asleep.
7. He is poor but he is honest.
8. He failed but he is still hopeful.
9. She worked hard, therefore she was credited.
10. He took a stone and threw it at the dog.

Exercise 6
Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences.

1. He is sure of his success.
2. She doesn’t remember the exact date of her birth.
3. He knows the name of the best player in this team.
4. She promised to help me.
5. I owe my success to his guidance.
6. India is my land of birth.
7. His victory is certain.
8. His remarks pleased all.
9. He died in his youth.
10. He is too fat to run.
Answer:
1. He is sure that he will succeed.
2. She doesn’t remember the exact date when she was born.
3. He knows what the name of the best player in this team is.
4. She promised that she would help me.
5. I owe my success to him because he guided me.
6. India is the land where I was born.
7. It is certain that victory will be his.
8. It was his remarks that pleased all.
9. When he died, he was very young.
10. He is so fat that he cannot run.

Exercise 7
Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences.

1. I wish him success.
2. India’s victory is certain.
3. It is the way to learn new ideas.
4. We must help him, a poor man.
5. He is too weak to walk.
6. This book is too good to lose.
7. It is his duty to safeguard his children.
8. Father desired him to succeed.
9. Work hard for success.
10. He acts like a joker.
Answer:
1. It is my wish that he may succeed.
2. It is certain that victory will be India’s.
3. It is the way through which one can learn new ideas.
4. We must help him because he is a poor man.
5. He is so weak that he cannot walk.
6. This book is so good that I cannot afford to lose it.
7. It is his duty that he should safeguard his children.
8. Father desired that he (his son) should succeed.
9. Work hard so that you may succeed.
10. He acts as if he were a joker.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Exercise 8
Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences.

1. Owing to repeated failures, she made no effort.
2. He is too weak to stand.
3. They went to Chandigarh to buy a car.
4. He would be very pleased to help us in any way.
5. Of all the players, Virat is the best batsman.
6. On reaching the city, she went straight to her college.
7. Being lost in thoughts, I could not see him.
8. He got plucked in the tests because of his careless attitude.
9. On being caught red-handed, he had to admit his mistake.
10. In spite of all his riches, he had no peace of mind.
Answer:
1. She made no effort because she had failed repeatedly.
2. He is so weak that he cannot stand.
3. They went to Chandigarh so that they could buy a car there.
4. He would be very pleased if he could help us in any way.
5. As a batsman, Virat is so good that he cannot be compared with any other player.
6. When she reached the city, she went straight to her college.
7. I could not see him because I was lost in my thoughts.
8. He got plucked in the tests because he had a careless attitude.
9. He had to admit his mistake when he was caught red-handed.
10. He had all his riches, yet he had no peace of mind.

Exercise 9
Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences.

1. He felt utterly helpless.
2. Sheena admitted her guilt.
3. The boss is likely to punish her.
4. He has informed her of her result.
5. That is the way to do it.
6. Having renounced the world, these monks live on charity.
7. He comes of a rich and noble family.
8. There I saw many beautiful palaces.
9. She likes my style.
10. He seems to be a fool.
Answer:
1. He felt that he was utterly helpless.
2. Sheena admitted that she was guilty.
3. It is likely that the boss will punish her.
4. He has informed her about what her result is.
5. That is the way how it should be done.
6. These monks live on charity because they have renounced the world.
7. He comes of a family which is rich and noble.
8. I saw that there were many beautiful palaces there.
9. She says admiringly that my style is very good.
10. It seems that he is a fool.

Exercise 10
Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences.

1. Ms Sushma is said to be a good doctor.
2. The east wind cut like a knife.
3. Don’t leave the station without permission.
4. She speaks very fast for me to understand.
5. He is a lazy lad.
6. I like solving such problems.
7. His face expressions tell us a different story.
8. Today is the last day of this test match.
9. On being questioned, he confessed his fault.
10. Tell us the facts,
Answer:
1. It is said that Ms Sushma is a good doctor.
2. It seemed as if the east wind was cutting like a knife.
3. Don’t leave the station unless you are permitted.
4. She speaks so fast that I cannot understand her.
5. He is a lad who is lazy.
6. I am happy when I have to solve such problems.
7. His face expressions tell us that the actual story is different.
8. Today is the day which is the last day of this test match.
9. He confessed his fault when he was questioned.
10. Tell us what the facts are.

Exercise 11
Transform the following compound sentences into complex sentences.

1. He saw the lion and fled.
2. He got the message and replied at once.
3. I saw the thief and caught him.
4. You have to write it or you will forget it.
5. The teacher explained the sum and students noted it.
6. He finished his breakfast and left the table.
7. He was upset, but did not lose heart.
8. Be simple and you will win hearts.
9. She tried her best, but could not catch the thief.
10. The principal addressed the students and gave his message.
Answer:
1. He fled when he saw the lion.
2. He replied at once when he got the message.
3. As soon as I saw the thief, I caught him.
4. If you do not write it, you will forget it.
5. After the teacher had explained the sum, the students noted it.
6. He left the table after he had finished his breakfast.
7. Though he was upset, yet he did not lose heart.
8. You will win hearts if you are simple.
9. She could not catch the thief though she tried her best.
10. The principal gave his message to the students when he addressed them.

Exercise 12
Transform the following compound sentences into complex sentences.

1. He had lost the book and he has found it.
2. She read the letter and took off.
3. You must run or you will miss the meeting.
4. The nation calls us and we must respond.
5. We must eat or we can’t live.
6. He is unwell, but he doesn’t rest.
7. He must admit his fault or he will be thrown away.
8. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
9. Take care of your health and you will live longer.
10. Show me his picture, I will find him.
Answer:
1. He has found the book which he had lost.
2. As soon as she read the letter, she took off.
3. You will miss the meeting if you do not run.
4. We must respond when the nation calls us.
5. We can’t live if we don’t eat.
6. He doesn’t rest though he is unwell.
7. He will be thrown away if he does not admit his fault.
8. The child will be spoiled if you spare the rod.
9. If you take care of your health, you will live longer.
10. If you show me his picture, I will find him.

Exercise 13.
Transform the following compound sentences into complex sentences.

1. He must be advised or he will falter.
2. I must be informed about your loss or I shall not bother.
3. He cares for me so I respect him.
4. Write as I say or I will not help you.
5. She wrote to me and I responded immediately.
6. Be truthful and fear not.
7. Keep quiet or you will be punished.
8. We called the peon, but she did not appear.
9. She worked very hard, yet she did not top her class.
10. He was unhappy with his boss, so he left the job.
Answer:
1. He will falter if he is not advised.
2. If I am not informed about your loss, I shall not bother.
3. I respect him because he cares for me.
4. I will not help you if you don’t write as I say.
5. I responded immediately when she wrote to me.
6. You need not fear if you are truthful.
7. You will be punished if you don’t keep quiet.
8. The peon did not appear when we called her.
9. She did not top her class though she had worked very hard.
10. He left the job because he was unhappy with his boss.

Exercise 14
Transform the following compound sentences into complex sentences.

1. She asked me and I gave her all the details of the incident.
2. Either you tell us the truth or you will be sacked.
3. Finish this work in time, or I will not give any more orders.
4. He threw off his shirt and jumped into water to pull out the drowning child.
5. He has a charming smile, therefore, he has made many fans.
6. I found his mobile and he was very thankful to me.
7. He is an old friend, therefore, I respect him.
8. She must weep, or she will fall sick.
9. Milkha Singh was hard-working and he won many races.
10. They were afraid and they ran away.
Answer:
1. I gave her all the details of the incident when she asked me.
2. You will be sacked if you don’t tell us the truth.
3. I will not give any more orders if you don’t finish this work in time.
4. He threw off his shirt and jumped into water because he wanted to pull out the drowning child.
5. He has made many fans because he has a charming smile.
6. He was very thankful to me because I had found his mobile.
7. I respect him because he is an old friend.
8. She will fall sick if she doesn’t weep.
9. Milkha Singh won many races because he was hard working.
10. They ran away because they were afraid.

Exercise 15
Transform the following compound sentences into complex sentences.

1. He must resign, or he will be thrown out unceremoniously.
2. I rang up at your number, but you never responded.
3. Be diligent and you will succeed.
4. Be nice to others and you will be happy.
5. I not only make promises, but also fulfil them.
6. He took a break and started working again.
7. He should not be late or he may be fined.
8. Listen and she will explain.
9. Waste not, want not.
10. Give the papers to my secretary and I will sign them.
Answer:
1. He will be thrown out unceremoniously if he does not resign.
2. You never responded whenever I rang up at your number.
3. You will succeed if you are diligent.
4. You will be happy if you are nice to others.
5. I fulfil promises whenever I make them.
6. He started working again after he had taken a break.
7. He may be fined if he is late.
8. She will explain if you listen.
9. You will not want if you don’t waste.
10. I will sign the papers if you give them to my secretary.

Exercise 16
State which of the following sentences are ‘Compound and which are ‘Complex’.

1. He must cry or he will die.
2. He knows Reena who is a clever girl.
3. The village in which I was born is very small.
4. I returned home because I was tired.
5. He will treat them, as they treated him.
6. God made rivers and man made dams.
7. A guest is unwelcome when he stays too long.
8. He is not only handsome, but also clever.
9. I liked what he suggested.
10. She was sick, but still she attended school.
Answer:
1. Compound sentence
2. Complex sentence
3. Complex sentence
4. Complex sentence
5. Complex sentence
6. Compound sentence
7. Complex sentence
8. Compound sentence
9. Complex sentence
10. Compound sentence.

Exercise 17
State which of the following sentences are ‘Compound and which are ‘Complex’.

1. As I was sick, I could not go out.
2. The higher we go, the cooler it is.
3. We wish he should win.
4. She was ill, therefore, she could not come to school.
5. I was tired and fell asleep.
6. He had no advice that he could offer.
7. She is rich but she is miserly.
8. I will help him with the resources that he needs.
9. When he was questioned, he faltered.
10. She is very intelligent yet simple.
Answer:
1. Complex sentence
2. Complex sentence
3. Complex sentence
4. Compound sentence
5. Compound sentence
6. Complex sentence
7. Compound sentence
8. Complex sentence
9. Complex sentence
10. Compound sentence.

Exercise 18 (a)
State which of the following sentences are Compound and which are ‘Complex’.

1. This is the place where Gandhiji stayed.
2. I know what is in this packet.
3. I picked up the chalk and wrote on the board.
4. He can go wherever he likes.
5. Neither you nor he is wrong.
6. Don’t talk while I am speaking.
7. It was not so big as I thought.
8. It seems as if it might rain.
9. I will help her when she needs any help.
10. I got up and walked out of the meeting.
Answer:
1. Complex sentence
2. Complex sentence
3. Compound sentence
4. Complex sentence
5. Compound sentence
6. Complex sentence
7. Complex sentence
8. Complex sentence
9. Complex sentence
10. Compound sentence.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Exercise 18 (b)
Transform the following sentences into interrogative.

1. It is useless to blame her.
2. Everyone knows him.
3. Our soldiers are exceptionally brave.
4. It is not a foolish idea.
5. The deaf cannot hear.
6. Everyone loves his parents.
7. His arguments are baseless.
8. Cowards die many times before their death.
9. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
10. This is not the way a gentleman should behave.
Answer:
1. Isn’t it useless to blame her ?
2. Who doesn’t know him ?
3. Aren’t our soldiers exceptionally brave ?
4. Is it a foolish idea ?
5. Can the deaf hear ?
6. Who does not love his parents?
7. Aren’t his arguments baseless ?
8. Don’t cowards die many times before their death ?
9. Can a rolling stone gather moss ?
10. Is it the way a gentleman should behave ?

Exercise 19
Transform the following sentences into assertive.

1. Why cry over spilt milk ?
2. Why be dishonest ?
3. Who is free from guilt ?
4. Who can serve two masters ?
5. Is honesty not the best policy?
6. Why waste time in useless arguments ?
7. Why go to him ?
8. Who would not like to be a millionaire ?
9. Who likes to be the last ?
10. Can anybody say that he has never told a lie ?
Answer:
1. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
2. You should not be dishonest.
3. Nobody is free from guilt.
4. Nobody can serve two masters.
5. Honesty is the best policy.
6. It is no use wasting time in useless arguments.
7. It is no use going to him.
8. Everybody would like to be a millionaire.
9. Nobody likes to be the last.
10. Nobody can say that he has never told a lie.

Exercise 20
Transform the following exclamatory sentences into assertive.

1. O for a cup of coffee !
2. Would that I were an engineer !
3. How stupid of him to say that.
4. Alas ! He has lost his purse.
5. Hurrah ! We have won.
6. Oh ! you are going.
7. If I were the Prime Minister of India !
8. What a great start of the day !
9. What a lovely face !
10. How sweet of you!
Answer:
1. I long for a cup of coffee.
2. My greatest wish is to become an engineer.
3. It was very stupid of him to say that.
4. It is very sad that he has lost his purse.
5. It is a matter of great joy that we have won.
6. It is sad that you are going.
7. My greatest ambition is to become the Prime Minister of India.
8. It is a very great start of the day.
9. It is a very lovely face.
10. It is very sweet of you.

Exercise 21
Transform the following sentences into exclamatory.

1. I wish I had a cup of tea.
2. It was a very nice day.
3. It is very sad that she is undone.
4. It is very odd.
5. He narrates the story very cleverly.
6. Swami Vivekananda was a great speaker.
7. Kishore was, indeed, a great singer.
8. It is very stupid of him to critize others.
9. Man is a strange piece of work.
10. Death is very dreadful.
Answer:
1. O for a cup of tea !
2. What a nice day it was !
3. Alas ! She is undone.
4. How odd it is !
5. How cleverly he narrates the story !
6. What a great speaker Swami Vivekananda was !
7. What a great singer Kishore was !
8. How stupid of him to criticize others !
9. What a strange piece of work man is !
10. How dreadful death is !

Exercise 22
Transform the following sentences, using comparative degree of comparison.

1. He is not so tall as his brother.
2. He is the most honest employee.
3. No other boy is as good as Parth.
4. Jill is not as beautiful as Maggie.
5. I have never seen such a beautiful girl as Rekha.
6. No other metal is as useful as iron.
7. This book is not so good as that.
8. Himalaya runs as fast as a horse.
9. Mandeep is as strong as Sandeep.
10. Alisha does not sing so well as Lata.
Answer:
1. His brother is taller than him.
2. He is more honest than any other employee.
3. Parth is better than any other boy.
4. Maggie is more beautiful than Jill.
5. Rekha is more beautiful than any other girl I have ever seen.
6. Iron is more useful than any other metal.
7. That book is better than this one.
8. A horse doesn’t run faster than Himalaya.
9. Sandeep is not stronger than Mandeep.
10. Lata sings better than Alisha.

Exercise 23
Transform the following sentences, using positive degree of comparison.

1. She is not more intelligent than I.
2. Ravi is smarter than Kishan.
3. This poem is better than that.
4. Mercedes car runs faster than Honda bikes.
5. My brother is richer than me.
6. Mussoorie is cooler than Dehradun.
7. Water is the best drink.
8. Mother India is one of the best Indian movies.
9. Ashoka the Great was one of the best kings of all times.
10. Lead is the heaviest metal.
Answer:
1. I am as intelligent as she (is).
2. Kishan is not so smart as Ravi.
3. That poem is not so good as this one.
4. Honda bikes don’t run so fast as a Mercedes car.
5. I am not as rich as my brother.
6. Dehradun is not so cool as Mussoorie.
7. No other drink is so good as water.
8. Very few Indian movies are so good as Mother India.
9. Very few kings were so good as Ashoka the great in all times.
10. No other metal is so heavy as lead.

Exercise 24
Transform the following sentences, using superlative degree of comparison.

1. Kalidas is greater than any other poet in India.
2. He is more liberal than many people.
3. My city is cleaner than many other cities of Punjab.
4. Birds do not fly as fast as airplanes.
5. Simran is more intelligent than her friends.
6. No other hill station in India is so busy as Mussoorie in India.
7. No other flower is so good as rose.
8. No other season is so pleasant as spring.
9. Very few film-makers were as good as Raj Kapoor.
10. He is smarter than any other boy in our neighbourhood.
Answer:
1. Kalidas is the greatest poet in India.
2. He is one of the most liberal people.
3. My city is one of the cleanest cities of Punjab.
4. Airplanes fly the fastest.
5. Simran is the most intelligent girl among her friends.
6. Mussorie’ is the busiest hill station in India.
7. Rose is the best flower.
8. Spring is the most pleasant season.
9. Raj Kapoor was one of the best film-makers.
10. He is the smartest boy in our neighbourhood.

‘Do As Directed’ Type Exercises From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Exercise 1
Do as directed

1. The teacher is too weak to control the class. (remove ftoo)
2. Bullet trains run faster than mail trains. (Change the degree of comparison)
3. He hoped to pass the test. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He was honoured for his honesty. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. He must run fast or he will not catch the train. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Mumbai is the largest metro city of India. (Use positive degree of comparison)
7. Who doesn’t make mistakes ? (Change into an assertive sentence)
8. The case is too urgent to be postponed. (Removee too)
9. One more mistake and he will be fired. (Use If)
10. As soon as he lay on bed, the postman rang the doorbell. (Change into a negative sentence)
Answer:
1. The teacher is so weak that she cannot control the class.
2. Mail trains do not run so fast as the bullet trains.
3. He hoped that he would pass the test.
4. He was honest and so he was honoured.
5. He must run fast to catch the train.
6. No other metro city is so large in India as Mumbai.
7. Everyone makes mistakes.
8. The case is so urgent that it cannot be postponed.
9. If he makes one more mistake, he will be fired.
10. No sooner did he lie on bed than the postman rang the doorbell.

Exercise 2
Do as directed.

1. He is too composed to lose temper. (remove too)
2. She is not so intelligent her as sister is. (Change the degree of comparison)
3. He sold his lame horse.(Change into a complex sentence)
4. He asked for too much money as he was greedy. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. It was a possibility that was vague. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Ram is the tallest boy. (Use positive degree of comparison)
7. A sailor and afraid of storm! (Change into an assertive sentence)
8. She is so old that she cannot walk. (Use ‘too)
9. You cannot win competition unless you work hard. (Use If)
10. Everyone will believe her word. (Change into a negative sentence)
Answer:
1. He is so composed that he cannot lose temper.
2. Her sister is more intelligent than her.
3. He sold his horse that was lame.
4. He was greedy, so he asked for too much money.
5. It was a vague possibility.
6. No other boy is as tall as Ram.
7. A sailor is so brave that he cannot be afraid of storm.
(or)
A sailor cannnot be afraid of a storm.
8. She is too old to walk.
9. If you don’t work hard, you can’t win the competition.
10. Nobody will disbelieve (doubt) her word.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Exercise 3
Do as directed.

1. She is too practical to understand real love. (remove ‘too)
2. As soon as he saw a lion, he began shuddering with fear. (Rewrite using ‘No sooner….than)
3. The child is playing with a broken doll. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. The sun having set, we returned home. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. He admitted that he was at fault. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Very few kings were as great as Ashoka. (Change degree of comparison)
7. How fast Milkha ran! (Change into an assertive sentence)
8. She is so weak that she can’t even sit. (Use ‘too)
9. You will feel tired if you don’t take proper rest. (Use ‘unless)
10. She is a great artist. (Change into an exclamatory sentence)
Answer:
1. She is so practical that she cannot understand real love.
2. No sooner did he see a lion than he began shuddering with fear.
3. The child is playing with a doll that is broken.
4. The sun had set and we returned home.
5. He admitted his fault.
6. Ashoka was greater than many other kings.
7. Milkha ran very fast.
8. She is too weak even to sit.
9. Unless you take proper rest, you will feel tired.
10. What a great artist she is !

Exercise 4
Do as directed.

1. These fruits are too cheap to be good. (Remove ‘too)
2. As soon as I stepped out of my office, it started raining heavily. (Rewrite using “No sooner….than)
3. Everyone believes in my sincerity. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. Owing to his sickness, he could not play the match. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. She told me where she lived. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. The peacock is the most beautiful bird. (Change degree of comparison)
7. What a great shot ! (Change into an assertive sentence)
8. That man is too arrogant to be pleased. (Use ‘too)
9. You will fall sick if you don’t stop eating. (Use ‘unless)
10. This painting is a great piece of art. (Change into an exclamatory sentence)
Answer:
1. These fruits are so cheap that they cannot be good.
2. No sooner did I step out of my office than it started raining heavily.
3. Everyone believes that I am sincere.
4. He was sick and so he could not play the match.
5. She told me the place of her residence.
6. No other bird is so beautiful as the peacock.
7. It was a very good shot.
8. That man is so arrogant that he cannot be pleased.
9. Unless you stop eating, you will fall sick.
10. What a great piece of art this painting is !

Exercise 5
Do as directed.

1. This news is too good to be true. (Remove ‘too)
2. Hardly had he finished his work when his boss gave him another task. (Rewrite using ‘No sooner….than)
3. He is too proud to appreciate anyone else. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. Being lazy, he failed. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. The iron rod was so hot that he could not touch it.(Change into a simple sentence)
6. He is smarter than any other employee in his office. (Change degree of comparison)
7. Money cannot buy happiness. (Change into an interrogative sentence)
8. The water in the pool is so cold that one cannot swim in it. (Use ‘too)
9. He is poor. He is honest. (Use though)
10. Is there anything greater than the love for your motherland ? (Change into a negative sentence)
Answer:
1. This news is so good that it cannot be true.
2. No sooner did he finish his work than his boss gave him another task.
3. He is so proud that he cannot appreciate anyone else.
4. He was lazy, so he failed.
5. The iron rod was too hot for him to touch it.
6. He is the smartest employee in his office.
(or)
No other employee in his office is so smart as he is.
7. Can money buy happiness ?
8. The water in the pool is too cold for anyone to swim in it.
9. He is honest though he is poor.
10. Nothing is greater than the love for your motherland.

Exercise 6
Do as directed.

1. The tree was too tall for me to climb it. (Remove too)
2. As soon as the sun rose, the clouds disappeared. (Rewrite using ‘No sooner….than)
3. I saw the danger and moved on. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. With a great effort he passed the examination. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. If weather permits, they will play the match. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Kapil was the best of all all-rounders in the world. (Change degree of comparison)
7. He never drinks milk. (Change into an interrogative sentence)
8. He is so slow that he cannot win the race. (Use too)
9. We cannot go for picnic unless it stops raining. (Rewrite using ‘if)
10. Ram was older than Sham. (Change into a negative sentence)
Answer:
1. The tree was so tall for me that I could not climb it.
2. No sooner did the sun rise than the clouds disappeared.
3. Even though I saw the danger, I moved on.
4. He put in a great effort and passed the examination.
5. Weather permitting, they will play the match.
6. No other all-rounder in the world was so good as Kapil.
(or)
Kapil was better than any other all-rounder in the world.
7. Does he ever drink milk ?
8. He is too slow to win the race.
9. If it does not stop raining, we cannot go for picnic.
10. Sham was not so old as Ram.

Exercise 7
Do as directed.

1. The iron is too hot for me to touch. (Remove ‘too)
2. As soon as the moon rose, the stars disappeared.(Rewrite using No sooner….than)
3. He tried hard but he failed. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He is learned but he is not courteous. (Change into a complex sentence)
5. He failed though he worked hard. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Hari is as tall as Shyam. (Change degree of comparison)
7. The police will take steps to control the situation. (Change into interrogative sentence)
8. He is so stupid that he cannot handle such a situation. (Use ‘too)
9. Can money buy health ? (Change into an assertive sentence)
10. He played a great shot. (Change into an exclamatory sentence)
Answer:
1. The iron is so hot for me that I cannot touch it.
2. No sooner did the moon rise than the
stars disappeared. 3. Though he tried hard, he failed.
4. Though he is learned, he is not courteous.
5. He failed in spite of working hard.
6. Shyam is not taller than Hari.
7. Won’t the police take steps to control the situation ?
8. He is too stupid to handle such a situation.
9. Money cannot buy health.
10. What a great shot he played !

Exercise 8
Do as directed.

1. He is too slow to learn. (Remove too)
2. As soon as he saw the tiger, he took to heels. (Rewrite using No sooner….than)
3. This is Gandhiji’s birthplace. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. When the day dawned, we got up. . (Change into a compound sentence)
5. The boy was so weak that he could not stand properly. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Akshay is the best comedy actor. (Change degree of comparison)
7. Walk fast. You may miss the train. (Combine these sentences)
8. This news is so good that it cannot be true. (Use ‘too)
9. She confessed her fault. (Change into a complex sentence)
10. There is a doctor in the stadium. (Change into an interrogative sentence)
Answer:
1. He is so slow that he cannot learn.
2. No sooner did he see the tiger than he took to heels.
3. This is the place where Gandhiji was born.
4. The day dawned and we got up.
5. The boy was too weak to stand properly.
6. No other comedy actor is so good as Akshay.
(or)
Akshay is better than any other comedy actor.
7. Walk fast or you may miss the train.
(or)
If you don’t walk fast, you may miss the train.
8. This news is too good to be true.
9. She confessed that she was at fault.
10. Isn’t there a doctor in the stadium ?

Exercise 9
Do as directed.

1. He was too late to attend the meeting. (Remove ‘too)
2. As soon as his examination started, he started writing the answers. (Rewrite using No sooner….than)
3. Obey your parents or you will come to grief. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He punished his servant because he behaved rudely. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. This tree is so high that none can climb it. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Love is greater than any other thing in the world. (Change degree of comparison into superlative degree)
7. If you read, you will learn. (Remove if)
8. He is so arrogant that no one can like him. (Use ‘too)
9. None but sincere people can achieve success. (Change into affirmative)
10. Only Rekha has done justice to her role. (Replace ‘Only’ by ‘none)
Answer:
1. He was so late that he could not attend the meeting.
2. No sooner did his examination start than he started writing the answers.
3. If you don’t obey your parents, you will come to grief.
4. His servant behaved rudely so he punished him.
5. This tree is too high for anyone to climb it.
6. Love is the greatest thing in the world.
7. You read and you will learn.
(or)
Unless you read, you will not learn.
8. He is too arrogant for anyone to like him.
9. Only sincere people can achieve success.
10. None but Rekha has done justice to her role.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Exercise 10
Do as directed.

1. She is too strong for her opponents. (Remove ‘too)
2. No sooner did I hear of his success than I congratulated him. (Remove No sooner….than)
3. I have no time to waste. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. The play being over, the audience left the hall. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. As soon as I arrived, I sent for her. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. This city has more parks than playgrounds. (Change degree of comparison)
7. Unless you write the correct answer, you will not get full marks.(Remove ‘Unless)
8. Tea is sweeter than it should be. (Use too)
9. He is insincere. (Change into negative)
10. Only the polar star remained in sight. (Replace ‘Only’ by ‘all)
Answer:
1. She is so strong that her opponents cannot compete with her.
2. As soon as I heard of his success, I congratulated him.
3. I have no time which I can waste.
4. The play was over and the audience left the hall.
5. Soon after my arrival, I sent for her.
6. This city does not have so many playgrounds as parks.
7. If you don’t write the correct answer, you will not get full marks.
8. Tea is too sweet for it to be good.
9. He is not sincere.
10. All the stars, except the polar star, were not in sight.

Exercise 11
Do as directed.

1. She is too proud to listen. (Remove ‘too)
2. No sooner did he start his bike than the petrol finished in the fuel tank. (Remove “No sooner….than)
3. A hard-working person succeeds in life. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He fell asleep on account of being tired. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. He is sure that he will succeed. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Our shopkeeper sells at a cheaper rate than any other shopkeeper in the area. (Change degree of comparison)
7. If you do not water the plants, they will not bloom. (Remove If )
8. It is never so late that one cannot tell the truth. (Use ‘too)
9. She is trying many dresses. (Change into negative)
10. She came here ten years ago. (Replace ‘ago’ by ‘since)
Answer:
1. She is so proud that she won’t listen.
2. As soon as he started his bike, the petrol finished in the fuel tank.
3. A person who is hard-working succeeds in life.
4. He was tired and so fell asleep.
5. He is sure of his success.
6. No other shopkeeper in the area sells at so cheap rate as our shopkeeper.
7. In the event of not being watered, the plants will not bloom.
(or)
Unless you water the plants, they will not bloom.
8. It is never too late for anyone to tell the truth.
9. She is not trying just a few dresses.
10. It is ten years since she came here.

Exercise 12
Do as directed.

1. The news is too good to be true. (Remove ‘too)
2. As soon as the referee blew the whistle, the athletes started running. (Use “No sooner….than)
3. The child was pleased at having the toy. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. Both the parties were happy with the solution that they arrived at. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. Men who work hard rise in life. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. He is not cleverer than his brother. (Change degree of comparison)
7. If you study, you will pass. (Remove ‘if)
8. Very few countries are as great as India. (Change into superlative degree of adjective)
9. Sometimes Kamal acts foolishly. (Change into negative)
10. Ten years have passed since we met. (Use ‘ago)
Answer:
1. This news is so good that it can’t be true.
2. No sooner did the referee blow the whistle than the athletes started running.
3. The child was pleased when it got the toy.
4. Both the parties arrived at a solution and they were happy about it.
5. Hard-working men rise in life.
6. His brother is as clever as he is.
7. Unless you study, you won’t pass.
8. India is one of the greatest countries.
9. Sometimes Kamal does not act wisely.
10. We met ten years ago.

Exercise 13
Do as directed.

1. She was too busy to go to cinema. (Remove ‘too)
2. No sooner did I learn of his illness than I took him to the doctor. (Rewrite using ‘as soon as)
3. He is poor but he is honest. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He was not only punished, but also fined. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. It was a trick that was difficult to understand. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Kolkata is the most populated city of India. (Change degree of comparison)
7. Speak the truth and you don’t have to be afraid. (Use if )
8. Who does not want peace ? (Change into assertive)
9. She did not forgive me. (Change into positive)
10. Everyone admires the brave. (Change into interrogative)
Answer:
1. She was so busy that she could not go to the cinema.
2. As soon as I learnt of his illness, I took him to the doctor.
3. He is honest although he is poor.
4. He was punished and also he was fined.
5. The trick was too difficult to understand.
6. No other city of India is so populated as Kolkata.
(or)
Kolkata is more populated than any other city of India.
7. If you speak the truth, you don’t have to be afraid.
8. Everybody wants peace.
9. She refused to forgive me.
10. Who does not admire the brave?

Exercise 14
Do as directed.

1. The soldiers are too disciplined to violate rules. (Remove ‘too)
2. If a woman is educated, her whole family is benefitted. (Rewrite using ‘Unless)
3. I love India, my motherland. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. He has all the virtues of a great man except straightforwardness. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. I was very tired after the day’s work and I sat down to take some rest. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. A wise foe is better than foolish friend. (Change degree of comparison)
7. We share our room and books. (Use not only…..but also)
8. Does the moon not revolve around the earth ? (Change into assertive)
9. You are not without wisdom. (Change into positive)
10. He drives very fast. (Change into interrogative)
Answer:
1. The soldiers are so disciplined that they don’t violate rules.
2. Unless a woman is educated, her whole family won’t be benefitted.
3. I love India which is my motherland.
4. He has all the virtues of a great man, but he is not a straightforward man.
5. Being very tired after the day’s work, I sat down to take some rest.
6. A foolish friend is not so good as a wise foe.
7. We share not only our room, but also our books.
8. The moon revolves around the earth.
9. You are wise.
(or)
You possess wisdom.
10. Doesn’t he drive very fast ?

Exercise 15
Do as directed.

1. It is too foggy outside to see anything. (Remove ‘too)
2. He left for USA two years ago. (Rewrite using Since)
3. Please write your address. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. She could not run fast as she was fat. (Change into a compound sentence)
5. Though he ran fast, he could not catch me. (Change into a simple sentence)
6. Swimming is the best exercise. (Change degree of comparison)
7. Seeta and Geeta are beautiful. (Use not only….. but also)
8. Does anyone like cheats ? (Change into assertive)
9. This sum is not difficult. (Change into positive)
10. That is not the way a lady should behave. (Change into interrogative)
Answer:
1. It is so foggy outside that it is not possible to see anything.
2. It is two years since he left for USA.
3. Please write where you live.
4. She was fat, so she could not run.
5. He could not catch me in spite of running fast.
6. No other exercise is so good as swimming.
(or)
Swimming is better than any other exercise.
7. Not only Seeta, but Geeta is also beautiful.
8. Nobody likes cheats.
9. This sum is easy.
10. Is this the way a lady should behave ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Transformation of Sentences & Removal and Use of ‘Too’

Exercise 16
Do as directed.

1. He is too smart to lose his focus. (Remove ‘too)
2. Walk fast. You might miss the bus. (Rewrite using ‘lest….should)
3. He is a hard-working person. (Change into a complex sentence)
4. Hurry up or you will be late for school. (Change into a complex sentence)
5. Since India is my motherland, I love her. (Change into simple sentence)
6. He is as wise as his brother (Change degree of comparison)
7. He is a painter and a poet. (Use not only…..but also)
8. How shameful ! (Change into assertive)
9. He is very talented. (Use too)
10. You cannot please everyone. (Change into interrogative)
Answer:
1. He is so smart that he can’t lose his focus.
2. Walk fast lest you should miss the bus.
3. He is a person who works hard.
4. You will be late if you don’t hurry up.
5. India being my motherland, I love her.
6. His brother is not wiser than him.
7. He is not only a painter but also a poet.
8. It is very shameful of him.
9. He is too talented.
10. Can you please everyone ?

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Examination-Style Fully Solved Passages

Passage 1

In many countries, only one language, the mother tongue, is enough to satisfy the need for expression of most of their inhabitants2. In India, however, the position is more complicated3. Here, an educated man is called upon to master more than one language. There is, first of all, the language that he learns on his mother’s lap, and through which he expresses his first needs and feelings. Naturally, it is in this that he gains the most proficiency4. But since India is a very large country, we really need an extra language – a lingua franca) — as a means of communication with states other than our own. But even this is not enough. An educated Indian also requires the mastery of an international language, one that is widely understood and is used in the dealings of one country with another. Ideally speaking then, an educated Indian should be able to read and write in three languages, and moreover, should be able to express himself in all three with ease and fluency’.PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 1

Question 1.
In many countries, only ………… is enough for people to express their ideas.
(a) mother tongue
(b) a foreign language
(c) local language
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) mother tongue

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 2.
In India, an educated man is expected to master …………….
(a) his mother tongue
(b) a foreign language
(c) more than one language
(d) the national language.
Answer:
(c) more than one language

Question 3.
What purpose does the language used by us serve ?
Answer:
It serves our need for expression and communication.

Question 4.
What is the position in India regarding the languages ?
Answer:
Here an educated person is expected to master three lauguages – the mother tongue, a lingua franca and a foreign language.

Question 5.
An educated Indian is supposed to be able to read and write in ……….. languages.
Answer:
three.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
big most
sufficient enough
large

Answer:
big – large;
sufficient – enough.

Passage 2

Food can maintain? or save life. It can destroy life as well. Proper food serves the purpose of medicine. Improper food works as poison and causes diseases. We may take pride in calling ourselves civilized; but we flout? all the norms about the quality or quantity of food. We mostly eat processed foods. We have drifted away from mother nature. Thus the incidence of diabetes has increased very much. According to a survey, diabetes was rare in the natives of Canada a few years ago. With the advent of processed and junk foods, the incidence of diabetes has shot up within a very short time. By offering chocolates, cakes and ice creams too often to our children and by attending parties every other day, we in fact, invite obesity and diabetes.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 2

Question 1.
Food can …………… our life.
(a) maintain
(b) save
(c) destroy
(d) all the above.
Answer:
(d) all the above.

Question 2.
The incidence of diabetes has …………… very much.
(a) decreased
(b) drifted
(c) increased
(d) rare.
Answer:
(c) increased

Question 3.
What is improper food ?
Answer:
Food that is harmful to health is improper food.

Question 4.
How have we changed our food habits ?
Answer:
We have started eating processed foods.

Question 5.
Diabates used to be ………… in the natives of Canada earlier.
Answer:
rare.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

A B
destroy advent
mostly create
rarely

Answer:
destory → create;
mostly → rarely.

Passage 3

Among the manifold’ misfortunes that may befall humanity, the loss of health is one of the severest?. All the joys, which life can give, can’t outweigh the suffering of the sick. Give the sick man everything and leave him with his suffering, he will feel half the world is lost to him. Lay him on a soft silken couch3, he will nevertheless4 groan sleepless under the presence of his suffering, while the miserable beggar, blessed with health, sleeps sweetly on the hard ground. Spread his table with dainty meals and choicest drinks and he will thrust back the hand that proffers them, and envy the poor man who thoroughly enjoys his dry crust. Surround him with the pomp of kings; let his chair be a throne and his crutch a world-swaying sceptre, he will look with contemptuous eyes on marble, on gold, on purple, and would deem himself happy, could he enjoy, even were it under a thatched roof, the health of the meanest of his servants.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 3

Question 1.
Loss of ………….. is one of the severest misfortunes.
(a) joy
(b) health
(c) money
(d) humanity.
Answer:
(b) health

Question 2.
The man who is suffering will be happy to ……..
(a) get marble
(b) receive gold
(c) be blessed with purple
(d) get back good health.
Answer:
(d) get back good health.

Question 3.
Which misfortune is regarded as one of the severest ?
Answer:
Loss of health is regarded as one of the severest misfortunes.

Question 4.
What is the strongest wish of a sick man ?
Answer:
His strongest wish is to get rid of his suffering.

Question 5.
A sick man will hate-marble, gold or …………..
Answer:
purple.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
purpose result
obesity fatness
aim

Answer:
purpose → aim;
abesity → fatness.

Passage 4

Good manners are not inherited?. And they don’t come naturally to intelligent people. They have to be learnt and practised. They are based upon the concept of consideration3 for others. They are easy to acquire4 and there is nothing more profitable. Good manners are a necessary complement in every walk of life, especially in business. Organisations with competent and well-mannered representatives enjoy a good reputation. The morale8, productivity and profits of such an organisation will be high. And this, in turn, will attract more business. There is no particular place or time when a person should show or begin his elementaryo courtesy. Courtesy, etiquette 10 and manners are tools that one should always carry with oneself, wherever one goes. The first step to success in life is treating others as courteously as we would wish others to treat us.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 4

Question 1.
Good manners don’t come ………. to intelligent people.
(a) ever
(b) unnaturally
(c) easily
(d) naturally.
Answer:
(d) naturally.

Question 2.
Good manners are more ………….. than any other thing.
(a) inherited
(b) profitable
(c) difficult
(d) practised.
Answer:
(b) profitable

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 3.
What are good manners ?
Answer:
Good manners mean a consideration for others.

Question 4.
How are good manners aequired ?
Answer:
Good manners have to be learnt and practised.

Question 5.
We must treat others as ………….. as we would wish them to treat us.
Answer:
courteously.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

A B
naturally nowhere
everywhere artificially
particularly

Answer:
naturally → artificially;
everywhere → nowhere.

Passage 5

For a student, walking is preferable to all other exercises. The advantage of this model of exercise is that it is simple. The apparatus2 is all at hand. You need not wait for the importationof machinery. It is in the open air that the lungs can at once receive the pure air of heaven and the eyes gaze upon hill and dale“, upon trees and flowers, upon the objects animate and inanimates. The very objects of sight and sound cheer the mind and raise the spirit. Another advantage of walking is that you can have a friend to walk with and unbend the mind by pleasant conversation. Once try the method of walking with a friend regularly for a few weeks and you will be surprised at the marvellouso results. On those afternoons when study is not required, be sure to take a long walk and lay up health for days to come.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 5

Question 1.
The advantage of walking is that it is ………..
(a) complicated
(b) tough
(c) simple
(d) energy-giving.
Answer:
(c) simple

Question 2.
The objects of sight and sound ………….. the mind.
(a) lift
(b) increase
(c) sharpan
(d) cheer.
Answer:
(d) cheer.

Question 3.
Which exercise is preferable for a student ?
Answer:
For a student, walking is preferable to all other exercises.

Question 4.
How are the lungs of a walker benefited ?
Answer:
His lungs receive the pure air of heaven.

Question 5.
The advantage of walking is that it is ………..
Answer:
simple.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
advantage benefit
heaven export
paradise

Answer:
advantage → benefit;
heaven → paradise.

Passage 6

If a man’s house is full of bottles of medicines, we think that the man is probably sick; but if his house is full of books, we concludea that he is intelligent. We consider the bottles of medicines as the sign of a sick body, but we do not consider the books as the sign of a sick mind. Surely that is not right. The wise men of the past took no pains to make life literate”; but they did much to make it meaningful. Books, after all, contain only letters. It is useless to hope to make life meaningful merelys by collecting books. Can we know swimming merely by reading a book on swimming ?

Real knowledge is to be found in life itself. Until we understand this, we shall never taste true knowledge.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 6

Question 1.
There will be many bottles of medicines in a …………… man’s house.
(a) sick
(b) healthy
(c) plump
(d) weak.
Answer:
(a) sick

Question 2.
The wise men of the past did much to make life
(a) easy
(b) simple
(c) luxurious
(d) meaningful.
Answer:
(d) meaningful.

Question 3.
What will we think if we see bottles of medicines in somebody’s house ?
Answer:
We will think that the man is probably sick.

Question 4.
What did the wise men of the past want to do?
Answer:
They wanted to make the life meaningful.

Question 5.
Real knowledge is to be found in ………….. itself.
Answer:
life.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

Α B
sick wrong
Right healthy
Read

Answer:
sick → healthy;
right → wrong.

Passage 7

People fight to settle disputes. Fighting means killing and civilized’ people ought to be able to find some way of settling their disputes? other than by seeing which side can kill the greater number of the other side, and then saying that the side which has killed most has won; and not only has won, but because it has won has been in the right. For that is what going to war means; it means saying that might is right. That is what the history of mankind on the whole has been like. Even our own age has fought the two greatest wars in history, in which millions of people were killed and mutilated.

And today while it is true that people don’t fight and kill each other in the streets, this is to say, we have got to the stage of keeping the rules or behaving properly towards each other in daily life, nations and countries have not learnt to do this yet and still behave like savages.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 7

Question 1.
Civilized people do not indulge in …………
(a) killings
(b) parties
(c) donations
(d) gambling.
Answer:
(a) killings

Question 2.
Our age has fought two ………….. wars in history.
(a) recorded
(b) greatest
(c) atomic
(d) important.
Answer:
(b) greatest

Question 3.
What should civilized people do ?
Answer:
They should find some peaceful way to settle their disputes.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 4.
What does ‘might is right’ mean?
Answer:
It means that the person who wins thinks himself to be right.

Question 5.
Now people don’t fight and kill each other in ……….
Answer:
streets.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
dispute treatment
behaviour disagreement
action

Answer:
dispute → disagreement;
behaviour → treatment.

Passage 8

Cheating in examinations is a major defectof our educational system. Cheating has become so common that students consider it their birthright to use unfair means in the examination. The root cause of this evil lies in our schools. Short-cuts have replaced hard labour. Guides and notes are encouraged in place of textbooks. In all school examinations, except the Middle and the Matric examinations, teachers show leniency3 to the students and pass most of them. Sometimes, even the parents are at fault. They get their undeserving wards promoted“ to the higher class. The students don’t cultivate the habit of self-study and hard work. Then in the Board Examination, students resort to copying. The teachers on duty encourage the students to use unfair means to pass the examinations. The desire to show good results motivates them to adopt wrong methods.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 8

Question
1. Students consider it their ………….. to cheat in examinations.
(a) rule
(b) duty
(c) responsibility
(d) birthright.
Answers:
(d) birthright.

Question 2.
The teachers on duty …………. students to use unfair means.
(a) deny
(b) refuse
(c) encourage
(d) discourage.
Answers:
(c) encourage

Question 3.
What does the given passage call as the major defect?
Answers:
It calls cheating in examinations as the major defect.

Question 4.
How are the parents responsible for the evil of cheating?
Answers:
They want their undeserving wards promoted to their higher class.

Question 5.
The students don’t cultivate the habit of ………….. and …………. work.
Answers:
self-study, hard.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
major defect
fault leniency
biggest

Answers:
major → biggest;
fault → defect.

Passage 9

Living on the earth is rather like being at the bottom of a sea hundreds of miles deep. Without atmosphere, there would be no people or animals, birds or fishes, trees or plants. There would be no weather, winds or rain. And there would be no blue sky, no rosy sunsets or dawns. Fire would be impossible without air, for burning is the union of oxygen with whatever is burned. Nor would there be any noise, which is the vibration? of air waves against our eardrums.

By day, the atmosphere serves as a great sunshade. It protects3 the earth from the full force of the sun by absorbing most of its harmful radiation4. But for the atmosphere, the daytime temperature would rise to 230 degrees Fahrenheit, hotter than boiling water. By night, the air acts like a giant greenhouse. It imprisons the heat collected during the day and prevents it from spreading into space.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 9

Question 1.
Without …………., there would be no life on the earth.
(a) atmosphere
(b) gases
(c) sea
(d) weather.
Answer:
(a) atmosphere

Question 2.
By day, the atmosphere serves as a great ………….. .
(a) ball
(b) star
(c) sunshade
(d) vibration.
Answer:
(c) sunshade

Question 3.
What is living on the earth like ?
Answer:
It is like being at the bottom of a deep sea.

Question 4.
What does the atmosphere serve as ?
Answer:
It serves as a great sunshade.

Question 5.
By night, the air acts like a giant ……………
Answer:
greenhouse.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

A B
bottom enjoy
protect top
kill

Answer:
bottom → top;
protect → kill.

Passage 10

Subhash Chandra Bose was a great leader of India. He was born on 23rd January 1896. People called him ‘Netaji’ because he led them to the right path. He went to jail many times. Soon he found out that more efforts had to be made to make India free. The British power was getting weakened in the second world war. He thought of striking it from all sides. One day, he escapedfrom Kolkata in the guise of a Pathan and went to Germany. From there, he went to Japan. He organised the Indian National Army that fought many battles against the British armies. He said to his countrymen, “Give me blood and I will give you freedom.” At this appeal, hundreds of Indians abroad4 gave their all for the good of India. It was a bad day for India when Netaji died in an air crash. We shall always remember him as the greatest fighter for the freedom of India.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 10

Question 1.
People called Subhash Chandra Bose as ………….. .
(a) Netaji
(b) great leader
(c) a revolutionary
(d) great guide.
Answer:
(a) Netaji

Question 2.
His army fought many battles against the ………….. army.
(a) British
(b) German
(c) Japanese
(d) foreign.
Answer:
(a) British

Question 3.
Why did the people call Bose as ‘Netaji’?
Answer:
Because he led them to the right path.

Question 4.
What did he organize ? Why?
Answer:
He organised Indian National Army to fight British armies.

Question 5.
His slogan was ‘Give me …………. and I will give you freedom.
Answer:
blood.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
effort correct
right endeavour
up

Answer:
effort → endeavour;
right → correct.

Passage 11

Deserts are wild waste stretches of land, usually covered with sand, where little can grow and few can live. There are deserts in Africa, Asia, Australia and America, but the greatest and the most famous is the Sahara covering about 35 lakh square miles of northern Africa. It extends from the Mediterranean southward to the Sudan, and from the Red Sea westward to the Atlantic Ocean.

Crossing a desert has always been a risky adventure. Temperatures are very high during the day and may fall below zero at night. Going from one oasis! to another may be a march of several days. The lack of water, the fierce? rays of the sun, sandstorms and other hardships have always made journeys across such deserts as the Sahara the worst kind of travel in the world. The old tracks across the sand are lined with the bones of men and beasts that have met their fate. Horses and oxen are not suited to these conditions and the only animal that can be used is the camel, which has a peculiar stomach in which water can be stored. Besides being able to go for three days without drinking, it can also live for a long time on small quantities of food. Since ancient times, the camel has been called the ship of the desert’.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 11

Question 1.
Deserts are wild waste …………. of land covered with sand.
(a) stretches
(b) spread
(c) spaces
(d) places.
Answer:
(a) stretches

Question 2.
Crossing a desert has always been a ………….. adventure.
(a) huge
(b) giant
(c) risky
(d) preferable.
Answer:
(c) risky

Question 3.
What is a desert ?
Answer:
A desert is a wild waste stretch of land covered with sand.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 4.
What is the camel called since ancient times ?
Answer:
It has been called the ship of the desert.

Question 5.
………….. is a place in the desert where some plants grow.
Answer:
Oasis.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
lack shortage
beasts vegetation
animals

Answer:
lack → shortage;
beasts → animals.

Passage 12

In the modern times, with the coming of the motor cars and the aeroplanes, the desert may be said to have been conquered as far as travel is concerned. There are still special dangers for the car, including breakdowns, but an aeroplane can fly over a desert as easily as anywhere else. However the journey is made, wireless messages can be sent out if help is needed.

Yet in other ways, the desert has not yielded. It is the enemy and never the friend of man. Just as the sea, year after year, gradually eats away the land, so the sand of the desert, blown by the winds, advances yard by yard over the cultivated? fields. The remains of the old towns and villages, half-buried in the sand show that men once lived and grew their crops where there is no life today. One of the problems of the present century is how to stop this continuous extension4 of sandy wastes and save food-producing districts from destruction.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 12

Question 1.
What modes of transport have been mentioned in the passage ?
(a) Motor cars.
(b) Aeroplanes.
(c) Both (a) & (b).
(d) Camels.
Answer:
(c) Both (a) & (b).

Question 2.
If help is needed, …………. message can be sent.
(a) telegraphic
(b) telephone
(c) wireless
(d) satellite.
Answer:
(c) wireless

Question 3.
What does the author think about the desert ?
Answer:
He thinks that the desert is an eneny which can never be a friend of man.

Question 4.
What is the problem of the present century ?
Answer:
It is how to stop the continuous extension of sandy wastes.

Question 5.
The desert is …………… the friend of man.
Answer:
never.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

А B
modern friend
foe ancient
enemy

Answer:
modern → ancient;
foe → friend.

Passage 13

In India, every boy and every girl now reading in schools is the future citizen of the country. Although he or she is not immediately called upon to vote or to make laws, he or she will have to do this in the near future. As the citizen of tomorrow, every young man should, therefore, prepare himself for the great task. The young citizen’s first duty is to learn how not to hurt- others, to be careful not to play unfairly, in the playing field, and not to speak a word which may give pain to anyone, not to make fun of others, or say things behind one’s back. He should not waste or throw away a grain4 of food, considering that there are many poor people in India who do not have enough to eat. Lastly, he should get training in the use of his leisure”.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 13

Question 1.
Every …………. reading in schools in the future citizen of the country.
(a) boy
(b) girl
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) child.
Answer:
(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 2.
We should not waste or throw a …………… of food.
(a) piece
(b) fragment
(c) grain
(d) lot.
Answer:
(c) grain

Question 3.
What is the great task of a citizen ?
Answer:
It is to lead a disciplined life.

Question 4.
Who is the future citizen of the country ?
Answer:
Every school-going boy and girl.

Question 5.
We should not waste or …………… away even a grain of food.
Answer:
throw.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
hurt sufficient
enough injure
lack

Answer:
hurt → injure;
enough → sufficient.

Passage 14

Gandhiji’s mother was a very sweet, kind and religious woman. She visited the temple daily, often taking her little son with her. She fasted frequently2, too. Once she made a vow to eat only one meal a day for four months, and not to take even that one meal unless she had first seen sunshine. As she had made this vow in the rainy season, it was often difficult to see sunshine at all. Her children, who could not bear4 to think of their dear mother going without food all the twenty-four hours, would stand staring up at the sky waiting to catch the first gleams of the sun.

As soon as a ray appeared, they would dash? into the house and call their mother to come and see for herself. By the time she came out, the sun had often gone behind the clouds again. “It does not matter,” she would say cheerfully. “God does not want me to eat today,” and back she would go to her household tasks. In this way, Gandhiji learnt from his good mother how to do penance cheerfully for love of God.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 14

Question 1.
Gandhiji’s mother was a very …………… woman.
(a) sweet
(b) kind
(c) religious
(d) all of the above.
Answer:
(d) all of the above.

Question 2.
Gandhiji’s mother made the vow in the …………. season.
(a) summer
(b) rainy
(c) pleasant
(d) rough.
Answer:
(b) rainy

Question 3.
What could the children not bear?
Answer:
They could not bear their mother going without food all the 24 hours.

Question 4.
What did Gandhiji learn from his mother?
Answer:
He learnt from his mother how to do penance cheerfully.

Question 5.
In the rainy season, it was often difficult to see …………… at all.
Answer:
sunshine.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their opposites in column B.

Α B
sweet cruel.
kind noble
bitter

Answer:
sweet → bitter;
kind → cruel.

Passages From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Passage 1

There are in our country, as in other countries of the world, thousands of differently abled persons, such as those who are blind or deaf and dumb. In some cases, these persons may have been born blind or deaf while in others, they may have gone blind or deaf as a result of some illness or accident.

You sometimes hear people say of such handicapped persons : “It is the work of fate.” or “It is the will of God.” Some even say, “They suffer the fruits’ of their own actions in the past.” Even the parents of differently abled children often express such feelings and opinions, and they scarcely ever think of how they can help these unfortunate ones. This certainly is not the way to look at the problems of the differently abled.
Whatever may be the cause of their suffering, we have got to treat the differently abled with sympathy and understanding. In many instances, physically challenged children suffer neglect and are left to themselves in their homes.

This makes their life extremely sad and lonely3. Our first duty is to make these children happier and less lonely by engaging them in different activities suitable for them. Secondly, we have got to educate these children and help them to live meaningful lives. We should secure“ benefits of education for them in schools intended for them. We ought to make them self-reliant by creating suitable opportunities for them. They will then have a sense of achievement. We will also feel satisfied that we have done our duty towards them.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 15

Question 1.
How should we treat the differently abled children ?
(a) Indifferently.
(b) With sympathy and understanding.
(c) By ignoring their loneliness.
(d) By neglecting them.
Answer:
(b) With sympathy and understanding.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 2.
According to the author, what is our first duty towards handicapped children ?
(a) To make them homeless.
(b) To make them healthy.
(c) To make them happier and less lonely.
(d) To make them run fast.
Answer:
(c) To make them happier and less lonely.

Question 3.
How do some children become differently abled ?
Answer:
Some of them may be born handicapped, e.g. deaf, dumb, etc. Others may become handicapped later due to some illness or accident.

Question 4.
What makes the life of handicapped children sad and lonely?
Answer:
The handicapped children start feeling sad and lonely when they have to suffer neglect and are left to their lot in their homes.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with a suitable word from the passage.
We must ……… these children with love and sympathy.
Answer:
treat.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their meanings in column B:

A B
sympathy sad
unhappy nearly
feeling pity and tenderness

Answer:
sympathy → feeling pity and tenderness;
unhappy → sad.

Passage 2

In a reversal of the norm elsewhere, in India policy-makers and economists have become optimists’ while bosses do the worrying. The country’s Central Bank has predicted that India’s economy is likely to grow at a double-digit rate during the next 20-30 years. India has the capability with its vast labour and lauded? entrepreneurial spirit. But the private sector which is supposed to do the heavy lifting that turns India from the tenth largest economy to the third largest by 2030, has become fed up.

Business people often crib about India’s problems, but their irritation this time has a nervous edge. In the first quarter of 2011, GDP grew at an annual rate of 7.8 per cent; in 2015-17, it managed 6-7 per cent. The economy may be slowing naturally as the low interest rates and public spending that got India through the global crisis are belatedly withdrawn. At the same time, the surge in inflation caused by exorbitant food prices has spread more widely, casting doubt over whether India can grow at 8-10 per cent in the medium term without overheating.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 16

Question 1.
What rate of growth does the Central Bank predict for the Indian economy for the next 20-30 years ?
(a) Eight per cent.
(b) Seven per cent.
(c) Double-digit per cent.
(d) Five per cent.
Answer:
(c) Double-digit per cent.

Question 2.
Who is supposed to do the heavy lifting to turn India into third largest economy ?
(a) Govt. agencies.
(b) Private sector.
(c) Public sector.
(d) Property owners.
Answer:
(b) Private sector.

Question 3.
What is India’s capability to grow based on ?
Answer:
It is based on our large labour force and the entrepreneurial spirit of our people.

Question 4.
What is casting doubts over India’s growth rate ?
Answer:
Two main reasons for the doubt are (i) withdrawal of low interest rates and public spending and (ii) a surge in inflation brought about by extremely high food prices.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with a suitable word from the passage.
He suffered from a ……… breakdown.
Answer:
nervous.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their meanings in column B:

A B
crisis large
optimist difficult phase
one who looks forward to a positive outcome

Answer:
crisis → difficult phase;
optimist → one who looks forward to a positive outcome.

Passage 3

Brain drain, also referred to as human capital flight, is the action of having highly skilled and educated people leaving their country to work abroad. It has actually become one of the most serious concerns’ for the developing nations. While many people believe that immigration is a personal choice that must be understood and respected, others look at this phenomenon from a different perspective?. What makes those people leave their country, their own people, should be seriously considered and a distinction between pull and push factors must be made. The push factors include low wages and a lack of satisfactory working and living conditions.

Social unrest, political conflicts and wars may also be the determining causes. The pull factors, however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research. Brain drain has a negative impact on the economic prospects and competitiveness of sender countries. It reduces the number of dynamic and creative people who can contribute to the development of their country. Likewise, with more entrepreneurs taking their investments abroad, developing countries are missing the opportunity of wealth creation.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 17

Question 1.
The term “brain drain’ is also referred to as:
(a) Capital flight
(b)Human capital flight
(c) Pull factors
(d) Push factors.
Answer:
(b)Human capital flight

Question 2.
Brain drain has terrible consequences on the economic development of:
(a) Sending countries
(b) Receiving countries
(c) Developed countries
(d) Undeveloped countries.
Answer:
(a) Sending countries

Question 3.
What do you mean by the term ‘brain drain’ ?
Answer:
‘Brain drain’ is the name given to the activity of the skilled people of a country migrating to foreign countries for better prospects.

Question 4.
Enumerate the push factors that lead to brain drain.
Answer:
The push factors behind ‘brain drain’ are low wages and a lack of satisfactory working and living conditions in the sending countries.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with a suitable word from the passage.
Every citizen must ……. to the development of the nation wholeheartedly.
Answer:
contribure.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their meanings in column B:

A B
conflicts decrease
reduce disputes
increase

Answer:
conflicts → disputes;
reduce → decrease.

Passage 4

One night a man came to our house and told me, “There is a family with eight children. They have not eaten for days.” I took some food and went out. When I finally came to the family, I saw the faces of those little children disfigured’ by hunger. There was no sorrow or sadness in their faces, just the deep pain of hunger. I gave the rice to the mother. She divided it into two and went out, carrying half the rice with her. When she came back, I: asked her, “Where did you go ?” She gave me this simple answer, “To my neighbour, they are also hungry.” I was not surprised because poor people are generous but I was surprised that she knew they were hungry.

As a rule, when we are suffering, we are so focused on ourselves, we have no time for others. We become selfish and self-centred. Having experienced the pangs“ of sufferings, we should rather extend a helping hand to the poor and the needy.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 18

Question 1.
The faces of the children reflected:
(a) sorrow
(b) joy
(c) hunger
(d) greediness.
Answer:
(c) hunger

Question 2.
The action of the mother shows:
(a) selfishness
(b) hatred
(c) gratitude
(d) love.
Answer:
(d) love.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 3.
Where did the mother go after dividing the rice and why ?
Answer:
She went to her neighbour’s house. She went there to share rice with them. She knew they were hungry like her and also needed food like her.

Question 4.
Why was the gentleman surprised ?
Answer:
The man knew that the poor people are generous, but he was surprised to find that the woman knew for certain that her neighbour’s family was also hungry like her own family. Normally, the people remain selfcentred.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with a suitable word from the passage.
The faces of the little children were ………
Answer:
disfigured.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their opposites under column B:

A B
simple complicated
generous hatred
selfish

Answer:
simple → complicated;
generous → selfish.

Passage 5

Health and hygiene go hand in hand. Health refers to a state of sound mind and physically fit body, free from any form of sickness, disorder or ailment’. Hygiene refers to the good practices that prevent disease and lead to good health through cleanliness, proper sewage? disposal, balanced and nutritious food, regular exercise, proper sleep, pure and fresh air and supply of safe drinking water. The proverb, ‘Health is Wealth’, is truly said of all things in the world. Health is the most valuable thing that one can possess.

Money is undoubtedly a prized’ possession, but can it provide pleasure to a ruined health? As body and mind are closely related, the mind can never be sound and cheerful without sound health. An unhealthy man may have intelligence, merit and wealth, but he cannot put them to use and reap their benefits. We must, therefore, adopt proper hygienic measures to preserve and maintain good health. Too much work or exercise, eating or drinking are injurious to health. A regulated life coupled with clear and pure mind makes life worth living.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 19

Question 1.
Hygiene refers to practices that lead to good health through:
(a) balanced diet
(b) impure air
(c) abundant wealth
(d) regular play.
Answer:
(a) balanced diet

Question 2.
Life can become worth living through:
(a) gambling and drinking
(b) regulated life
(c) pure mind
(d) healthy body.
Answer:
(b) regulated life

Question 3.
What does the term ‘health refer to ?
Answer:
Health refers to a state of sound mind and a body that is physically fit and free from sickness, disorder or ailment.

Question 4.
Can a wealthy but unhealthy man enjoy life?
Answer:
No, an unhealthy man cannot enjoy life because nothing can provide pleasure to a man with ruined health. And without sound health, man cannot have a sound mind also.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with suitable words from the passage.
The selection in Army service is made purely on ……… .
Answer:
the soundness of both body and mind.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their opposites under column B:

A B
fresh use
preserve stale
destroy

Answer:
fresh → stale;
preserve → destroy.

Passage 6

Named after former Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral’s mother, Pushpa Gujral Science City located on Jalandhar-Kapurthala Road, just west of Jalandhar, is extremely thrilling. Almost every branch of science is exhibited, right from physical, applied, natural and social sciences to health sciences, human evolution and civilization, engineering, technology, agriculture, the environment, ecosystems and Jurassic Park. In the Dome Theatre, large-format films are projected on 23-metre tilted dome. Semi-circular giant dome screen produces huge images that soar and swoop above, beside and behind you, to give you a spectacular, immiscible? experience.

The Light-Speed 3-D Digital Theatre presents three-dimensional computer graphics, videos and the most advanced animation. Amazing Living Machine Gallery presents the intricate structures and functions of the human body using large human models. The Flight Simulator provides the visitors a sense of adventure. The Laser Theatre presents laser shows that carry the visitors to a wonderland to experience a mind-boggling mix of sound and laser beams. The Dinosaur Park displays the evolution of dinosaurs and the probable reasons for their extinction”. There is also a kids’ park containing tunnels, rides, bouncers, etc. and an artificial lake that allows the visitors to indulge in boating. With all the wonderful attractions, a visit to the Science City would be highly informative and enjoyable.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 20

Question 1.
Which facility provides a sense of adventure ?
(a) Kids’ Park.
(b) Dome Theatre.
(c) Flight Simulator.
(d) Laser Theatre.
Answer:
(c) Flight Simulator.

Question 2.
Large human models are found in:
(a) Amazing Living Machine Gallery
(b) Dinosaur Park
(c) Digital Theatre
(d) Laser Theatre.
Answer:
(a) Amazing Living Machine Gallery

Question 3.
Where is the Pushpa Gujral Science City located ?
Answer:
It is located on Jalandhar-Kapurthala Road, just west of Jalandhar.

Question 4.
What is displayed in the Dinosaur Park ?
Answer:
The Dinosaur Park displays the evolution of dinosaurs and the likely reasons of their extinction.

Question 5.
Fill in the blank with a suitable word from the passage.
The works of famous painters are ……… in the Tagore Art Gallery.
Answer:
exhibited.

Question 6.
Match the words under column A with their meanings under column B:

A B
spectacular huge
giant amazing

Answer:
spectacular – amazing;
giant – huge.

Passages For Practice

Passage 1

Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to protect the weak from the strong. No ‘era of good feeling’ can justify discharging the police force or giving up the idea of public control over concentrated private wealth. On the other hand, it is obvious that a spirit of self-deniall and moderation? on the part of those who hold economic power, will greatly soften the demand for absolute equality. Men are more interested in freedom and security than in an equal distribution of wealth. The extent to which the government must interfere with business, therefore, is not exactly measured by the extent to which economic power is concentrated into a few hands. The required degree of government interference depends mainly on whether economic powers are oppressively used and on the necessity of keeping economic factors in a tolerable state of balance.

The powers of government are unavoidably increased, whichever political party may be in office. The growth of government is a necessary result of the growth of technology and of the problems that go with the use of machines and science. Since the government, in our nation, must take on more powers to meet its problems, there is no way to preserveo freedom except by making democracy more powerful.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 21

Question 1.
Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to ……… the weak from the strong.
(a) protect
(b) differentiate
(c) separate
(d) preserve.

Question 2.
Two things in which men are more interested than in equal distribution of wealth
are (a) freedom and power
(b) freedom and security
(c) power and security
(d) power and insecurity

Question 3.
What do you mean by the growth of government ?

Question 4.
How can we justify ‘era of good feeling’ ?

Question 5.
The growth of ………… is the necessary result of the growth of ……….. .

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

Α B
growth bear
tolerate decline
development

Passage 2

In today’s world, everybody talks much about his rights. There is a great hue and cry if our rights are infringed?. But nobody seems to bother much about his duties. That is why there is a great unrest in our present-day life. Actually duties come first, and rights afterwards.

Many a time, one man’s right is another man’s duty and vice versa4. For example, every man has the right to have an undisturbed sleep. So it becomes the duty of his neighbour not to tune his radio at too high a pitch. If we want to enjoy our rights, we should act in such a way that the rights of others are not trespassed. It can happen only if we take due account of our duties also. In short, rights and duties are complementary things and not contradictory?

It is difficult to agree on which rights should be guaranteed to a citizen. For example, does a child have the right to be educated in his / her mother tongue ? Some enthusiasts may say ‘certainly’. But others may say that while everyone must have a right to education, the government should not be forced to spend money to employ special teachers for the language of every group and community. Take another example. Does every adult have a right to job? Some will say ‘yes’. Others will disagree and say that this is a privilege’, not a right. They say that in these days of population explosion, it is not possible for any government to ensure10 full employment.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 22

Question
1. There is a great unrest in present-day life because ………….
(a) everybody wants to enjoy his rights
(b) nobody wants to bother about his duties
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) neither (a) nor (b).

Question 2.
We should act in such a way that other’s ……… .
(a) rights are trespassed
(b) duties are trespassed
(c) rights are not trespassed
(d) duties are not trespassed.

Question 3.
What argument can be given against the right of every adult to have a job?

Question 4.
Give one example from the passage to show that one man’s right is another man’s duty.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 5.
It is not ………. for any government to ……… full employment.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

Α B
encroached infringed
violated allowed
trespassed

Passage 3

1. Summer vacation offers families dilemmas and opportunities. For too many kids, it becomes a period of intellectual passivity and stalled personal growth. For others and their parents – it’s a time of overload and frantic scheduling.

2. “Summer is a great time for parents to build relationship with their children,” says a renowned child psychologist. And it’s an opportunity both for the kids to learn and for the family to grow together. To make this a reality, educators and psychologists point to several simple strategies that parents can start planning before summer gets underway.

3. “Summer’s a perfect time for kids to test the skills they’ve learnt in a classroom and use them in new ways,” notes a well-known educator. Comparing prices in a grocery shop can sharpen children’s mental maths skills. Taking measurements to build a new tree house or design a simple plaything teaches geometry. Car trips provide opportunities to study maps and learn geography. Some libraries offer free summer reading programmes for children. “It’s the daily doses of stimulation? intellectual, creative, esteembuilding – that parents can give their children that have the greatest impact,” says an eminent researcher.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 23

Question 1.
Parents can give their kids a special summer vacation by ……….
(a) building relationship with them
(b) providing them opportunities to use their skills
(c) giving them daily doses of stimulation
(d) all of the three.

Question 2.
………. is a great time for parents to build relationship with their children.
(a) Spring
(b) Summer
(c) Winter
(d) Autumn

Question 3.
Mention the three ways in which children can use the skills learnt in class.

Question 4.
What do car trips provide ?

Question 5.
To test the ……… children have learnt in their classroom ………. is a perfect time.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

Α B
stimulation talent
skill passion
encouragement

Passage 4

1. The Egyptian mummies have always remained a fascination for all. The method of embalming? or treating the dead body, that the ancient Egyptians used, is called mummification. Using special processes, they removed all moisture from the dead body, leaving only a dried form that would not easily decay. It was an important Egyptian religious belief to preserve the dead body in as lifelike a manner as possible.

2. The first step in the process was the removal of all internal parts that might decay rapidly. The brain was removed by carefully inserting special hooked instruments up through the nostrils. It was a delicate operation, one which could easily disfigure the face. The embalmers then removed the organs of the abdomen and chest through a cut usually made on the left side of the abdomen. They left only the heart in place, believing it to be the centre of a person’s being and intelligence. The other organs were preserved separately, with the stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines placed in special boxes or jars. Such jars are today called the canopic jars.

3. The embalmers next removed all moisture from the body. This they did by covering the body with natron, a type of salt which has great drying properties, and by placing additional natron packets inside the body.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 24

Question 1.
Mummification is a process by which a dead body is ………..
(a) destroyed
(b) preserved
(c) mutilated
(d) cremated.

Question 2.
The process of mummification was followed by ancient ………….
(a) Egyptians
(b) Aryans
(c) Europeans
(d) Negroes.

Question 3.
What was done with the internal parts of the body and why ?

Question 4.
What was done with those organs that were removed from the dead body ?

Question 5.
The method of ………. or treating the dead body is called mummification.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
disfigure dislocate
sunken hollow
mutilate

Passage 5

1. Trees are the most useful gift of nature to man. Without trees, it would be a very bleak? world. Without them, life would be impossible. Now let’s see what trees do for us.
2. Men in olden days used wood for making their homes, rafts?, canoes3 and weapons. They used it as fuel to cook and to keep themselves warm.

3. In addition to wood, man was dependent on trees for many other things also. He got from them fruits and nuts for his food. Leaves of the palm and other trees were used for thatching roofs. The bark and the leaves of trees were used for clothing. Utensils were made from calabashes, coconuts and the shells of other fruits. A number of medicines, dyes, tanning materials and species were obtained from trees.

4. In present times also, man is no less dependent on trees. He has, no doubt, invented many things that can take the place of wood. He has begun to use concrete, steel, glass and plastics in place of wood. But even then, the demand for wood has increased vastly. For example, we
need lots and lots of wood for making paper, cardboard and packing cases.

5. Trees are invaluable for other reason also. There is oxygen in the air, but it is being constantly used up and turned into carbon dioxide. When animals breathe and things burn, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced. The green leaves of trees absorb this carbon dioxide. With the help of sunlight, they break it into carbon and oxygen. The carbon is used by green leaves to make starch. The oxygen is released back into the air.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 25

Question 1.
If there were no trees, no ………. would be possible on the earth.
(a) life
(b) death
(c) nature
(d) calamity.

Question 2.
Utensils were made from ……….
(a) calabashes
(b) coconuts
(c) shells of other fruits
(d) all of these three.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 3.
How did men in olden days make use of trees ?

Question 4.
How do trees treat the carbon dioxide produced by us ?

Question 5.
For making paper, cardboard and packing cases, we need ………….

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
invaluable priceless
bleak fragile
miserable

Passage 6

1. Grammar can be a way of comparing different languages. To most people, grammar is a set ef rules for speaking and writing a language correctly. Usually, before you can speak any language well – even your own language which you have gradually been learning since you were little – you have to know something about its grammar. Small children start to pick up the grammar of their own language almost by instinct, by hearing how their parents talk and by seeing how words were put together in sentences in the books they read. Before long, they learn that some expressions sound wrong, or are ‘bad grammar’, such as ‘they looked at he’ instead of what it should be, they looked at him? or ‘the boys fighted for a hour’ instead of the boys fought for an hour’. By being exposed to the language over a period of time, they eventually know how to say the right things and avoid? saying the wrong things in order to be understood.

2. However, when children begin to learn a foreign language, they find that they have to set about deliberately3 learning its grammar rules by heart. It is not simple enough to know the words of a new language, or a person could learn it just by reading a dictionary. The words by themselves do not mean very much until they are fitted together to form sentences, and it is grammar that shows how to do this.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 26

Question 1.
To be able to learn a language well, we have to learn something about its ………
(a) pronunciation
(b) rules
(c) diction
(d) grammar.

Question 2.
The words do not mean very much until they are arranged in order to form ………
(a) tenses
(b) narration
(c) sentences
(d) voice.

Question 3.
How are even small children able to distinguish a wrong expression from a correct one ?

Question 4.
How does grammar help in learning a foreign language ?

Question 5.
………. can be a way of comparing different languages.

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their antonyms in column B.

A B
different carelessly
deliberately similar
intentionally

Passage 7

Gandhiji does not reject machinery as such. He observes “How can I be against all machinery, when I know that even this body is the most delicatel piece of machinery ? The spinning wheel is a machine, a little toothpick is a machine. What I object to is the craze? for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’ till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation.

I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all. I want the collection of wealth, not in the hands of a few, but in the hands of all. Today, machinery merely helps a few to ride on the back of millions. The impetus behind it all is not philanthropys to save labour, but greed. It is against this constitution of things that I am fighting with all my might. The machine should not tend to atrophy the limbs of man. Factories run by power-driven machinery should be nationalized, state-controlled. The supreme consideration is man.”

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages 27

Question 1.
Gandhiji objects to the ………. for machinery, not machinery itself.
(a) craze
(b) interest
(c) intention
(d) want.

Question 2.
The phrase ‘thrown on the open streets’ means ………..
(a) employed people
(b) enslaved people
(c) unemployed people
(d) freed people.

Question 3.
What is it about machinery that Gandhiji really objects to ?

Question 4.
Machines save time and labour, not for the poor worker, but for the rich factory owner. Explain how it happens.

PSEB 11th Class English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passages

Question 5.
Gandhiji does not want factories run by ……… machinery to be ……….

Question 6.
Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B
craze credit
impetus stimulus
fad

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Grammar Translation Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

1. Present Indefinite Tense (V1 + s / es)

1. मैं गीत गाता हूं। – I sing a song.
2. हम परिश्रम करते हैं। – We work hard.
3. आप झूठ नहीं बोलते हैं। – You do not tell lies.
4. में कक्षा में शोर नहीं मचाता हूं। – I do not make a noise in the class.
5. क्या गुरमीत आपकी सहायता करता है ? – Does Gurmeet help you ?
6. क्या बच्चे आंख-मिचौली खेलते हैं ? – Do the children play hide and seek ?
7. आप क्या चाहते हैं ? – What do you want ?
8. क्या आप अपना समय बर्बाद नहीं करते हैं ? – Do you not waste your time ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. राम सदा सवेरे उठता है।
2. आजकल उसका मुश्किल से गुज़ारा होता है।
3. पक्षी हवा में उड़ते हैं।
4. मेरी घड़ी ठीक समय नहीं देती है।
5. हम अपने देश की सेवा करते हैं।
6. क्या बच्चे का आधा टिकट नहीं लगता है ?
7. वह दुकानदार कम तोलता है।
8. यह सड़क अमृतसर को जाती है।
9. मैं तुम्हें नहीं जानता हूं।
10. क्या वह लिखना जानता है ?
Hints:
1. gets up early;
2. hardly makes both ends meet;
4. correct time;
5. serve;
6. travel half fare;
7. gives a short measure;
8. leads to.

2. Past Indefinite Tense (V2)

1. ज़रूरत के समय उसने मेरी मदद की। – He helped me in need.
2. आपने डॉक्टर को बुलाया। – You sent for the doctor.
3. हमने आपको धोखा नहीं दिया। – We did not deceive you.
4. लड़कियों ने गीत नहीं गाया। – The girls did not sing a song.
5. क्या अध्यापक ने नया पाठ पढ़ाया ? – Did the teacher teach a new lesson ?
6. क्या आप कल झील पर नहीं गए ? – Did you not go to the lake yesterday ?
7. क्या गुरदीप ने हरजीत को कोई सूचना नहीं दी ? – Did Gurdeep not give any information to Harjeet ?
8. तुमने झूठ क्यों बोला ? – Why did you tell a lie ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. क्या विद्यार्थियों ने परीक्षा दी ?
2. वे मैच हार गए।
3. मेरे भाई ने मुझे दस रुपये का नोट दिया।
4. मैंने उसे पांच रुपए उधार दिएं।
5. क्या सुमन ने छात्रवृत्ति प्राप्त नहीं की ?
6. सिपाही को देखकर चोर सिर पर पांव रखकर भागा।
7. क्या उसने मेरी स्लेट तोड़ी ?
8. मैंने उसे चिट्ठी लिखी।
9. हम समय पर स्टेशन पहुंच गए।
10. वह मुझे प्रतिदिन मिला करता था।
Hints:
1. take the test;
2. lost;
3. a ten-rupee note;
4. lent;
5. scholarship;
6. took to heels;
7. break.

3. Future Indefinite Tense (will / shall + V1)

1. आप अच्छे लड़कों से मित्रता करोगे। – You will make friends with good boys.
2. हम मन लगा कर पढ़ेंगे। – We shall study whole-heartedly.
3. आप यह काम समाप्त नहीं करोगे। – You will not finish this work.
4. मैं स्वार्थी मित्रों का विश्वास नहीं करूंगा। – I shall not trust the selfish friends.
5. क्या हम अपने देश की सेवा करेंगे? – Shall we serve our country ?
6. वह आपकी फीस कब देगा? – When will he pay your fees ?
7. क्या आपके पिता जी बैठक की अध्यक्षता नहीं करेंगे? – Will your father not preside over the meeting?
8. क्या राम वहां तीन दिन नहीं ठहरेगा? – Will Ram not stay there for three days ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. मैं नई घड़ी खरीदूंगा।
2. वहां मैं दिल लगाकर पढूंगा।
3. नाव डूब जाएगी।
4. राम अच्छे अंक लेकर पास होगा।
5. मैं उसे बीस रुपए उधार दूंगा।
6. वह अपनी प्रतिज्ञा पूरी करेगा।
7. स्कूल दीवाली के कारण बन्द रहेगा।
8. क्या रोगी कुछ दिनों में अच्छा हो जाएगा ?
Hints:
2. whole-heartedly;
3. sink;
6. keep word;
7. on account of.

4. Present Continuous Tense (is / are / am + V1+ing)

1. मेरा सिर चकरा रहा है। – I am feeling giddy.
2. बूंदा-बांदी हो रही है। – It is drizzling.
3. आकाश में तारे नहीं चमक रहे हैं। – The stars are not shining in the sky.
4. सीता पूरा प्रयत्न नहीं कर रही है। – Sita is not doing her best.
5. क्या वह अपने बाल संवार रही है? – Is she combing her hair ?
6. क्या सारे बच्चे तालियां बजा रहे हैं? – Are all children clapping ?
7. क्या वह मुझे धोखा नहीं दे रहा है? – Is he not deceiving me ?
8. तुम चिल्ला क्यों रहे हो? – Why are you shouting ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. क्या आप यह मकान छोड़ रहे हैं ?
2. बाग में फ़व्वारे चल रहे हैं ?
3. मैं आपकी ही प्रतीक्षा कर रहा हूं।
4. आज ठण्डी-ठण्डी हवा चल रही है।
5. मज़दूर कुआं खोद रहे हैं।
6. बाहर बूंदाबांदी हो रही है।
7. क्या बच्चे भिखारी की हंसी उड़ा रहे हैं ?
8. शीला हारमोनियम बजा रही है।
Hints:
1. leaving;
2. playing;
3. waiting for;
6. drizzling;
7. making fun of;
8. playing on.

5. Past Continuous Tense (was / were + V1+ing)

1. मैं अपना जूता पालिश कर रहा था। – I was polishing my shoe.
2. वह ज़ोर-ज़ोर से बोल रही थी। – She was talking loudly.
3. कुम्हार नए बर्तन नहीं बना रहा था। – The potter was not making new pots.
4. आकाश में बादल नहीं गरज रहे थे। – The clouds were not thundering in the sky.
5. क्या वह अपना भोजन नहीं कर रही थी? – Was she not taking her meals ?
6. क्या वे पागल कुत्ते के पीछे नहीं दौड़ रहे थे? – Were they not running after the mad dog ?
7. क्या माली पौधों को पानी दे रहा था? – Was the gardener watering the plants ?
8. नौकर कमरे में झाडू क्यों नहीं लगा रहा था? – Why was the servant not sweeping the room ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. हवा तेजी से चल रही थी।
2. वे समाचार-पत्र पढ़ रहे थे।
3. आकाश में बादल गरज रहे थे।
4. क्या वह झूठा बहाना बना रहा था।
5. लोग उसे बधाई पर बधाई दे रहे थे।
6. लड़के भिखारी का मज़ाक उड़ा रहे थे।
7. क्या तुम उसे तंग कर रहे थे ?
8. मोहन शतरंज खेल रहा था।
Hints:
1. blowing hard;
3. thundering;
4. lame excuse;
5. congratulations;
6. laughing at;
7. teasing;
8. playing at chess.

6. Future Continuous Tense (will / shall + be + V1+ing)

1. मैं उसका विरोध कर रहा हूंगा। – I shall be opposing him.
2. मदारी अपना खेल दिखा रहा होगा। – The juggler will be showing his tricks.
3. हम हॉकी का मैच देखने नहीं जा रहे होंगे। – We shall not be going to see the hockey match.
4. आपका नौकर बिस्तर नहीं लगा रहा होगा। – Your servant will not be making the bed.
5. क्या वह भाषण दे रहा होगा? – Will he be making a speech ?
6. क्या मैं उसे व्यर्थ के बहाने बना कर टाल रहा हूँगा? – Shall I be putting him off with lame excuses ?
7. क्या बच्चा सिसकियां नहीं भर रहा होगा? – Will the child not be sobbing ?
8. तुम्हारे मित्र तुम्हारी भलाई क्यों नहीं चाह रहे होंगे? – Why will your friends not be wishing you well ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. कमला इस समय सो रही होगी।
2. मेरा भाई आपकी प्रतीक्षा कर रहा होगा।
3. दादी बच्चों को कहानी सुना रही होगी।
4. गड़ेरिया भेड़ें नहीं चरा रहा होगा।
5. वे गाड़ी में यात्रा कर रहे होंगे।
6. वह कक्षा में ऊँघ रहा होगा।
7. श्याम अपने कमरे में होगा।
8. नल चल रहा होगा।
9. लड़का पशु चरा रहा होगा।
10. आप भाषण दे रहे होंगे।
Hints:
3. grandmother;
4. shepherd;
6. doze;
8. tap will be running.

7. Present Perfect Tense (has / have + V3)

1. मेरे भाई ने अपना काम समाप्त कर लिया है। – My brother has finished his work.
2. किसानों ने फसलें काट ली हैं। – The farmers have reaped the crops.
3. मैंने आपकी सलाह नहीं मानी है। – I have not acted upon your advice.
4. आपने अपना वचन पूरा नहीं किया है। – You have not kept your word.
5. क्या आपको जुकाम नहीं हो गया है ? – Have you not caught cold ?
6. क्या उसने सिगरेट पीना नहीं छोड़ दिया है? – Has he not given up smoking ?
7. क्या गाड़ी आ गई है? – Has the train steamed in ?
8. अंग्रेज़ी में कौन प्रथम आया है? – Who has stood first in English ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. मैंने जीवन में बड़े उतार-चढ़ाव देखे हैं।
2. धन-दौलत ने उसका सिर फेर दिया है।
3. बरसात का मौसम शुरू हो गया है।
4. उन्होंने नगर छोड़ दिया है।
5. क्या तुमने कभी शेर देखा है ?
6. क्या आपकी घड़ी बन्द नहीं हो गई है ?
7. आकाश में सितारे निकल आए हैं।
8. उसके टखने में मोच आ गई है।
9. उसने काम नहीं किया है।
10. क्या हमने आपकी सलाह नहीं मानी है ?
Hints:
1. ups and downs;
2. riches, turned;
3. set in;
7. appeared;
8. sprained.

8. Past Perfect Tense (had + V3)

1. मैं पहले ही अपना काम समाप्त कर चुका था। – I had already finished my work.
2. उसके स्कूल पहुंचने से पहले ही घण्टी बज चुकी थी। – The bell had gone before he reached the school.
3. जब मैं स्टेशन पर पहुंचा तो गाड़ी जा चुकी थी। – The train had left when I reached the station.
4. मोहन ने कल तक अपना पाठ याद नहीं किया था। – Mohan had not learnt his lesson till yesterday.
5. सारे सदस्यों के आने से पहले प्रस्ताव पास नहीं – The resolution had not been passed before all the members came.
6. रोगी अभी मरा नहीं था। – The patient had not died yet.
7. क्या आप पहले कभी आगरा गए थे ? – Had you ever been to Agra before ?
8. क्या तुम्हारे बस स्टैंड पर पहुँचने से। – Had the bus not left before you.
9. पहले बस जा नहीं चुकी थी ? – reached the bus stand ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. डॉक्टर के आने से पहले रोगी मर चुका था।
2. मैंने कभी सूअर नहीं देखा था।
3. उसने पिछले वर्ष मैट्रिक की परीक्षा नहीं दी थी।
4. मैं पहले ही खाना खा चुका था।
5. हम उसे उसकी शादी के बाद नहीं मिले थे।
6. पुलिस के पहुंचने से पहले चोर भाग चुके थे।
7. मैं तो पहले ही इस काम से निपट चुका था।
8. आपके आने से पहले सारी तैयारी कर ली गई थी।
Hints:
4. had had the meal;
7. had finished;
8. all preparations had been made.

9. Future Perfect Tense (will / shall + have + V2)

1. आप सूर्य अस्त होने तक लौट चुके होंगे। – You will have returned by sunset.
2. गाड़ी अब तक आ चुकी होगी। – The train will have arrived by now.
3. रात होने से पहले वे शहर पहुंच गए होंगे। – They will have reached the city before the night falls.
4. सुबह होने तक मैं सवाल हल कर चुका हूंगा। – I shall have solved the sums before the day breaks.
5. आपके आने से पहले मैं तस्वीर पूरी नहीं कर चुका हूँगा। – I shall not have completed the picture before you come.
6. चार बजे तक हम सौ दौड़ें नहीं बना चुके होंगे। – We shall not have scored one hundred runs by four o’clock.
7. क्या दवाई लेने से पहले रोगी मर चुका होगा? – Will the patient have died before taking चुका होगा? the medicine ?
8. क्या अगले महीने तक मुझे आराम आ चुका होगा? – Shall I have recovered by next month ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. प्रातः होने से पूर्व माली पौधों को पानी दे चुका होगा।
2. छ: बजने से पहले मैं डॉक्टर को टेलीफोन कर चुका हूंगा।
3. वह अक्तूबर तक नौकरी छोड़ चुका होगा।
4. वह अब तक बर्तन साफ कर चुकी होगी।
5. क्या आपके सभा में पहुंचने से पहले वक्ता भाषण नहीं दे चुके होंगे ?
6. लड़ाई खत्म होने से पहले हज़ारों लोग मर चुके होंगे।
7. तुम्हारे उच्च न्यायालय में पहुंचने से पहले न्यायाधीश अपना फैसला सुना चुका होगा।
8. उसने अभी तक पाठ्यक्रम खत्म नहीं किया होगा।
Hints:
2. shall have rung up;
8. syllabus.

10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (has / have / been + V1+ing)

1. दो दिन से लगातार वर्षा हो रही है। – It has been raining continuously for two days.
2. लड़के सुबह से तैर रहे हैं। – The boys have been swimming since morning.
3. वे 1990 से यहां नहीं रह रहे हैं। – They have not been living here since 1990.
4. रजनी कई दिनों से स्कूल नहीं आ रही है।। – Rajni has not been coming to school for many days.
5. क्या वह पिछले दो सालों से गुम है? – Has he been missing for the last two years ?
6. क्या आप अगस्त से हमारी प्रतीक्षा नहीं कर रहे हैं? – Have you not been waiting for us since August ?
7. पांच मिनट से दरवाज़ा कौन खटखटा रहा है? Who has been knocking at the door for five minutes ?
8. वह इतने दिनों से यहां क्यों ठहरा हुआ है ? – Why has he been staying here for so many days ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. दो घण्टे से छत का पंखा चल रहा है।
2. किसान प्रातः चार बजे से खेत में बीज बो रहा है।
3. शाम कई दिनों से बीमार है।
4. नल कल से चल रहा है।
5. प्रात: चार बजे से बूंदाबांदी हो रही है।
6. तेजिन्द्र दस बजे से हारमोनियम बजा रही है।
7. हम 1995 से होशियारपुर में रह रहे हैं।
8. तीन घण्टे से वर्षा हो रही है।
Hints:
1. ceiling fan;
2. sowing seeds;
4. running;
5. drizzling;
6. playing upon harmonium;
7. since 1995.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

11. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (had + beon + V1+ing)

1. वह एक घण्टे से फूल तोड़ रहा था। – He had been plucking flowers for an hour.
2. उसकी चाची बचपन से ही उसकी देखभाल कर रही थी। – Her aunt had been looking after her since childhood.
3. बच्चा तीन घण्टे से रो नहीं रहा था। – The child had not been crying since three o’clock.
4. रोगी पिछले सप्ताह से कुछ नहीं खा रहा था। – The patient had been taking nothing since last week.
5. क्या अध्यापक चार वर्षों से आपको पढ़ा रहे थे ? – Had the teachers been teaching you for four years?
6. क्या विद्यार्थी दो दिन से वृक्ष नहीं लगा रहे थे ? – Had the students not been planting trees for two days ?
7. क्या उसके पिता जी 1999 से शिमला में नहीं रह रहे थे? – Had his father not been living in Shimla since 1999 ?
8. वह सुबह से क्या पढ़ रहा था? – What had he been reading since morning ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. मैं प्रातः सात बजे से अपनी पुस्तक पढ़ रहा था।
2. मोहन दो वर्ष से नौकरी की खोज कर रहा था।
3. महात्मा गांधी जी दो साल से अन्याय के विरुद्ध लड़ रहे थे।
4. क्या हम एक घण्टे से कुएं से पानी खींच रहे थे ?
5. वह तीन घण्टे से प्रश्न हल कर रहा था।
6. धोबी प्रभात से कपड़े धो रहा था।
7. क्या वह काफ़ी देर से चिल्ला रहा था ?
8. कुत्ता आधी रात से भौंक रहा था।
Hints:
2. searching for a job;
3. fighting against injustice;
4. drawing; 8. barking.

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(will / shall / have + been + V1+ing)

1. शीला सुबह से गा रही होगी। – Sheela will have been singing since morning.
2. वह एक घण्टे से सितार बजा रही होगी। – She will have been playing on sitar for an hour.
3. हम सोमवार से परीक्षा नहीं दे रहे होंगे। – We shall not have been taking the examination since Monday.
4. सुन्दर सायं से अफसर की खुशामद नहीं कर रहा होगा। – Sunder will not have been flattering his officer since evening.
5. क्या वह प्रातः से गीता पढ़ रही होगी? – Will she have been reading the Gita since morning ?
6. क्या हम दो घण्टे से भजन नहीं गा रहे होंगे? – Shall we not have been chanting hymns for two hours ?
7. एक सप्ताह से वह कौन-सा पाठ दोहरा रही होगी? – Which lesson will she have been revising for a week ?
8. क्या डाकिया दो घण्टे से पत्र नहीं छांट रहा होगा? – Will the postman not have been sorting the letters for two hours ?

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. हम दो दिन से मैच खेल रहे होंगे।
2. वह चण्डीगढ़ में पन्द्रह दिन से ठहरा हुआ होगा।
3. पक्षी दो घण्टे से चहचहा रहे होंगे।
4. क्या रोगी चार दिन से बिस्तर पर नहीं पड़ा रहा होगा।
5. लोग प्रातः से मेले को जा रहे होंगे।
6. नल कब से बेकार चल रहा होगा?
7. बच्चे दो घण्टे से अपना पाठ याद कर रहे होंगे।
8. क्या वह पिछले सप्ताह से नौकरी की तलाश कर रहा होगा?
Hints:
2. staying;
3. chirping;
4. confined to bed;
6. running;
8. searching for.

13. Imperative Sentences
(वाक्य के आरम्भ में Bare Infinitive का प्रयोग)

1. बुरी संगत में मत बैठो। – Avoid bad company.
2. मुझ पर तरस खाओ। – Have pity on me.
3. फर्श पर मत थूको। – Do not spit on the floor.
4. किसी की चुगली मत करो। – Do not backbite anyone.
5. बकवास मत करो। – Do not talk nonsense.
6. निर्धनों की सहायता अवश्य कीजिए। – Do help the poor.
7. तुम्हें जो आदेश देता हूं, वह करो। – Do as I command you.
8. मोमबत्ती को फूंक मार कर बुझा दो। – Blow out the candle.
9. डॉक्टर को फोन करो। – Ring up the doctor.
10. नाखून काट लो। – Pare your nails.
11. कृप्या मुझे एक रुपए की रेज़गारी दो। – Please give me change for a rupee.
12. अतिथियों को अन्दर लाओ । – Show the guests in.
13. इधर-उधर की मत हांको, मतलब की बात करो। – Do not beat about the bush, come to the point.
14. मोटर गाड़ियां यहां मत खड़ी करो। – Do not park vehicles here.
15. तौलिया निचोड़ दो। – Wring out the towel.
16. संतरा छील लो। – Peel off the orange.
17. गड़े मुर्दे मत उखाड़ो। – Don’t rip up old sores.
18. परमात्मा पर विश्वास रखो और नेक काम करो। – Trust in God and do the right.
19. तकल्लुफ न करो। – Do not stand on ceremony.
20. अपनी आय से अधिक खर्च न करो। – Do not spend beyond your means.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. काम से जी न चुराएं।
2. निर्धनों को घृणा की दृष्टि से न देखें।
3. ईमानदार बनो।
4. जेबकतरों से सावधान रहो।
5. अपने पर्चे नत्थी करो।
6. तुम्हें जो आदेश देता हूं, वह करो।
7. किसी की चुगली मत करो।
8. उसे परेशान मत करो।
9. आओ ताश खेलें।
10. चलो कुछ अच्छा करें।

14. Exclamatory And Optative Sentences

1. वे कितने बहादुर हैं ! – How brave they are !
2. कितना सुन्दर चित्र है ! – What a beautiful picture !
3. अहा ! हमने मैच जीत लिया है। – Hurrah ! We have won the match.
4. काश ! मै लखपति होता। – Would that I were a millionaire !
5. कितनी सुन्दर साड़ी है ! – What a beautiful sari !
6. कितना मूर्खतापूर्ण विचार है ! – What a foolish idea !
7. कितना प्यारा फूल है ! – What a lovely flower !
8. अफसोस ! वृद्धा स्त्री का पुत्र मर गया है। – Alas ! The old woman’s son is dead.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. तुम कितने मूर्ख हो !
2. तुम कितने बुज़दिल हो !
3. परमात्मा करे कि आप परीक्षा में सफल हों !
4. बेटी, तुम्हारी आयु लम्बी हो !
5. ईश्वर आपको संतान दे !
6. अफसोस ! मैं लुट गया।
7. शाबाश, लड़कों ! तुमने कमाल कर दिया।
8. अहा ! मेरा भाई प्रथम आया है।
9. ईश्वर इस पापी को क्षमा करे !
10. काश ! मैं मंत्री होता।

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

15. Causative Sentences

1. उसने मुझे हंसाया। – He made me laugh.
2. गाय को पानी पिलाओ। – Water the cow.
3. मेरे जूते पालिश करवाओ। – Have my shoes polished.
4. उसने हमसे बहुत प्रतीक्षा करवाई। – He kept us waiting for a long time.
5. मैंने अपने मकान को सफ़ेदी करवाई। – I got my house whitewashed.
6. मेरे पिता जी ने मुझे बाहर नहीं जाने दिया। – My father did not let me go out.
7. मैंने सीटें आरक्षित करवा ली हैं। – I have got the seats reserved.
8. मेरे शत्रु ने मेरे भाई को मरवा दिया। – My enemy got my brother murdered.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. रुपए से सब काम चलता है।
2. उसने मुझे रुलाया।
3. यह कोट धुलवा दो।
4. उसने अपना मकान खाली करवाया।
5. क्या तुमने टायफाइड का टीका लगवा लिया है ?
6. अपना जीवन बीमा करवा लो।
7. क्या आपने अपने मकान के दरवाजों को रंग करवा लिया है?
8. भिखारी ने सबको रुला दिया है।
9. मैंने बाल कटवाए।
10. चैक भुना लो।

16. Conditional Sentences

1. यदि आप अच्छा भोजन नही खाएंगे, तो आप बीमार हो जाएंगे। – If you do not eat good food, you will fall sick.
2. यदि अपने उसका अपमान किया तो आपने बहुत घटिया बात की। – If you insulted him, you did something very mean.
3. यदि मैंने आपका विरोध किया, तो मैंने अपना बदला लिया है। – If I have opposed you, I have taken my revenge.
4. यदि उसने परिश्रम किया होता, तो उसने छात्रवृति| प्राप्त कर ली होती। – If he had worked hard, he would have won a scholarship.
5. यदि आप दिल्ली गए, तो मेरे लिए कैमरा लाना। – If you go to Delhi, bring a camera for rne.
6. यदि पास होना है, तो परिश्रम करो। – If you want to pass, work hard.
7. यदि आप अमीर हैं, तो आपको ग़रीबों की सहायता| करनी चाहिए। – If you are rich, you should help the poor.
8. यदि मैं आपके स्थान पर होता, तो उसे क्षमा कर देता। – If I were you, I would forgive him.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. यदि आप अमृतसर गए, तो मेरे भाई के पास ठहरना।
2. यदि मैं परिश्रम करूंगा, तो पास हो जाऊंगा।
3. यदि मैं आपकी जगह होता, तो उसे मज़ा चखा देता।
4. यदि आप धनी होते, तो ग़रीबों की सहायता अवश्य करते।
5. यदि आज वर्षा हुई, तो मैं स्कूल नहीं जाऊंगा।
6. यदि वह चाहता, तो तुम्हें नीचा दिखा सकता था।
7. यदि वह आए, तो उसे भगा देना।
8. यदि वह ग़रीब न होता, तो कोई उसका अपमान न करता।

17. Use Of Introductory ‘It’ AND ‘There’

1. आज आसमान साफ़ है। – It is clear today.
2. आपकी बड़ी कृपा है। – It is very kind of you.
3. कार से दिल्ली जाने में सात घण्टे लगेंगे। – It will take seven hours to reach Delhi by car.
4. इस डिब्बे में कोई खाली जगह नहीं। – There is no room in this compartment.
5. कल बैठक नहीं होगी। – There will be no meeting tomorrow.
6. युद्ध नहीं होगा। – There will be no war.
7. कल तूफ़ानी दिन होगा। – It will be a stormy day tomorrow.
8. अब चाय पीने का समय है। . – It is time to take tea now.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. हमारे देश में बहुत से डॉक्टर नहीं हैं।
2. सड़क के दोनों ओर छायादार वृक्ष नहीं हैं।
3. हमारे देश में बहुतसी समस्याएं हैं।
4. स्कूल जाने का समय है।
5. आपकी ईमानदारी में कोई सन्देह नहीं है।
6. आज बहुत सुहावना मौसम है।
7. लो, छुट्टी की घंटी बज गई।
8. उसे उपदेश देने का कोई लाभ नहीं।
9. आज हवा बंद है।
10. सवा दस बजे हैं।

18. Use of : ‘Can’, ‘Could’, ‘Might’, ‘Should’,’Would’, ‘Must’ & ‘Ought’

1. क्या तुम इस खेत का क्षेत्रफल निकाल सकते हो? – Can you find out the area of this field ?
2. वह हंसे बिना न रह सका। – He could not help laughing.
3. शायद उसने आत्महत्या की हो। – He might have committed suicide.
4. आपको नए विचार अवश्य स्वीकार करने चाहिएं।| – You must accept the new ideas.
5. अमीरों को निर्धनों की सहायता करनी चाहिए। – The rich ought to help the poor.
6. मनुष्य नदियों के बहाव को भी रोक सकता है। – Man can change the course of rivers even.
7. वह मेरी सहायता कर सकता था। – He could have helped me.
8. हमें अपना वचन पूरा करना चहिए। – We should keep our word.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. क्या वह आज समय पर स्कूल नहीं पहुंच सका?
2. शायद आज वर्षा हो।
3. क्या मैं अन्दर आ सकता हूं ?
4. मैं सितार बजा सकता हूं।
5. हमें अपने अध्यापकों का सम्मान करना चाहिए।
6. मैं यहां आया ताकि आपको मिल लूं।
7. हमें अपने देश से प्यार करना चाहिए।
8. वह हंसे बिना न रह सका।
9. शायद आज ओले पड़ें।
10. हमें ज़रूरतमंदों की सहायता करनी चाहिए।

19. Sequence of Tenses

1. वह कहता है कि इस वर्ष वह पहाड पर जाएगा।। – He says that he will go to hills this year.
2. मैं कहूंगा कि तुम बेईमान हो। – I shall say that you are dishonest.
3. उपदेशक ने कहा कि ईश्वर सर्व-व्यापक है। – The preacher said that God is omnipresent.
4. पिता जी ने कहा कि दो और दो चार होते हैं। – Father said that two and two make four.
5. हम नहीं जानते कि हमारी किस्मत में क्या लिखा है। – e do not know what is in store for us.
6. वह जानता है कि मैं उसका दोस्त हूं। – He knows that I am his friend.
7. मैं कहता हूं कि आप ग़लती पर हैं। – I say that you are in the wrong.
8. मैंने देखा कि मकान को आग लगी हुई है। – I saw that the house was on fire.

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. वह कहता है कि आज बारिश होगी।
2. मैं कहूँगा कि तुम बहुत चालाक हो।
3. उसने कहा कि ईश्वर बहुत दयालु है।
4. अध्यापक ने शिक्षा दी कि हमें परिश्रम करना चाहिए।
5. उसने कहा कि सत्य की हमेशा जीत होती है।
6. शाम परिश्रम करेगा ताकि पास हो जाए।
7. उसने कहा कि उसने एक पत्र लिखा है।
8. पिता जी ने मुझसे पूछा कि क्या मैं बाज़ार गया था।

20. Some Idiomatic Sentences

1. मुझे भूख नहीं है। – I have no appetite.
2. सच्चाई कड़वी होती है। – Truth tastes bitter.
3. झूठ के पांव नहीं होते हैं। – A lie has no legs to stand on.
4. मेरी बातों का बुरा न मानना। – Do not take offence at my words.
5. इस मामले को दबा दो। – Hush up this matter.
6. हमने उसे उल्लू बनाया। – We made a fool of him.
7. तुम मुंह क्यों चिढ़ाते हो? – Why do you make faces ?
8. तुम सारे काम अधूरे करते हो। – You do things by halves.
9. वह उसके झांसे में आ गया। – He fell into his trap.
10. यह सुनी सुनाई बात है। – It is a hearsay.
11. टोनी ने मेरे नाक में दम कर रखा है। – Tony has got on my nerves.
12. उसने मेरे ज़ख्मों पर नमक छिड़क दिया है। – He has added insult to my injury.
13. यह बात तुम्हारे और मेरे मध्य है। – It is between you and me.
14. उसके मस्तिष्क में गड़बड़ है। – He has a screw loose in his brain.
15. बहती गंगा में हाथ धो लो। – Make hay while the sun shines.
16. यह बूढ़ा कुछ दिन का मेहमान है। – This old man’s days are numbered.
17. उसकी आशाओं पर पानी फिर गया। – His hopes were dashed to the ground.
18. तुम मेरे पीछे क्यों पड़े हो? – Why are you after me ?
19. वह तुम्हारी मुट्ठी में है। – He is a puppet in your hands.
20. उन्होंने लज्जा बेच खाई है। – They have no sense of shame.
21. इधर-उधर की मत हांको। – Do not beat about the bush.
22. समय सारे घाव भर देता है। – Time is a great healer.
23. वह पूरा बदमाश है। – He is a rogue of the first water.
24. दूसरों के दोष मत निकालो। – Do not find fault with others.
25. बस खचाखच भरी हुई थी। – The bus was packed to capacity.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

Exercise

Translate into English:
1. गले पड़ा ढोल बजाना ही पड़ता है।
2. फौज ने पूरे जोर से शत्रु का मुकाबला किया।
3. मेरे कामों में अपनी टांग मत अड़ाओ।
4. उसने मेरा सुख-दुःख में साथ दिया।
5. वह खुशी से फूला नहीं समाया।
6. मेरा समय काटे नहीं कटता।
7. आओ हम अपने मतभेद मिटा दें।
8. दाल में कुछ काला है।
9. बस खचाखच भरी हुई थी।
10. सच्चाई कड़वी होती है।

21. Some Proverbs

1. अन्त भले का भला। – All is well that ends well.
2. लोहे को लोहा काटता है। – Diamond cuts diamond.
3. अपना-अपना, पराया-पराया। – Blood is thicker than water.
4. ईंट का जवाब पत्थर। – Tit for tat.
5. आगा दौड़, पीछा चौड़। – Haste makes waste.
6. आज का काम कल पर मत छोड़ो। – Do not put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
7. तेल देखो तेल की धार देखो। – Let us see which way the wind blows.
8. वह हरफनमौला है। – He is a jack of all trades.
9. अपनी गली में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है। – Every cock fights best at his own dunghill.
10. आप मरे जग प्रलय।- Death’s day is doomsday.
11. उलटे बांस बरेली को। – To carry coals to Newcastle.
12. जैसा करोगे, वैसा भरोगे। – As you sow, so shall you reap.
13. होनहार बिरवान के होत चीकने पात। – Coming events cast their shadows before.
14. नीम-हकीम, खतरा-ए-जान। – A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
15. घमंडी का सिर नीचा। – Pride hath a fall.
16. खाली दिमाग़ शैतान का घर है। – An idle brain is the devil’s workshop.
17. अपनी चादर देख कर पैर पसारो। – Cut your coat according to your cloth.
18. भागते चोर की लंगोटी ही सही। – Something is better than nothing.“
19. बात का बतंगड़ मत बनाओ। – Do not make a mountain of a mole hill.
20. कुत्ते का कुत्ता बैरी। – Two of a trade seldom agree.
21. एकता में बल है। – Union is strength.
22. सेवा बिन मेवा नहीं। – No pains, no gains.
23. जिसकी लाठी उसकी भैंस। – Might is right.
24. एक पंथ, दो काज। – To kill two birds with one stone.
25. जहां चाह, वहां राह। – Where there is a will, there is a way.

Exercise

Translate into English:

1. आंख से दूर, दिल से दूर।
2. खोदा पहाड़ निकला चूहा।
3. दिल को दिल से राह।
4. नीम हकीम खतराए-जान।
5. लोहे को लोहा काटता है।
6. अपनी चादर देख कर पैर पसारो।
7. बुरी संगत से आदमी अकेला भला।
8. भूख में चने बादाम।
9. बात का बतगंड़ मत बनाओ
10. दरिया में रह कर मगरमच्छ से बैर।

Sentences From Grammar Book

A. Affirmative Sentences
1. वह मेरा दोस्त है। – He is my friend.
2. मैं एक खिलाड़ी हूं। – I am a player.
3. आप ठीक हो। – You are right.
4. वे चालाक थे। – They were clever.
5. अमित मेरा विद्यार्थी था। – Amit was my student.

B. Negative Sentences

1. वह लेखक नहीं है। – He is not a writer.
2. हमें जल्दी नहीं हैं। – We are not in a hurry.
3. मैं नेता नहीं हूँ। – I am not a leader.
4. मैं बेईमान नहीं था। – I was not dishonest.
5. बच्चे दुःखी नहीं थे। – Children were not unhappy.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या वह आपका दोस्त है? – Is he your friend ?
2. क्या शमां कंजूस है? – Is Shama a miser ?
3. क्या मनजीत ईमानदार है? – Is Manjit honest?
4. क्या आप सही थे? – Were you right?
5. क्या लड़के खुश थे? – Were the boys happy ?

Exercise

1. वह भूखा है। – He is hungry.
2. ईमानदारी सबसे उत्तम नीति है। – Honesty is the best policy.
3. मैं कवि हूँ। – I am a poet.
4. हमें रोज़ सैर करनी चाहिए। – We should go for a walk daily.
5. वे भ्रष्ट नहीं थे। – They were not corrupt.
6. यह मकान बिकाऊ नहीं है। – This house is not for sale.
7. राज किसान नहीं था। – Raj was not a farmer.
8. क्या दस बजे हैं? – Is it ten o’clock ?
9. क्या आपके पिता जी बहुत अमीर थे? – Was your father very rich ?
10. क्या यह आम रास्ता है? – Is it a thoroughfare ?

I. Present Indefinite Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. विद्यार्थी हर रोज़ मैदान में खेलते हैं। – Students play in the ground every day.
2. मैं अपने माता-पिता का दिल से सम्मान करता हूं। – I respect my parents from the core of my heart.
3. सतजोत डी० ए० वी० कॉलेज, जालन्धर में पढ़ता है। – Satjot studies in D.A.V. College, Jalandhar.
4. प्रिंसिपल आधी छुट्टी के समय स्कूल का चक्कर लगाता है। – The Principal takes a round of the school in the recess.
5. हम सड़क के नियमों का पालन करते हैं। – We obey the traffic rules.

B. Negative Sentences

1. सीता अपने भाई के साथ बाज़ार नहीं जाती है। – Sita does not go to the market with her brother.
2. तुम मुझे पसंद नहीं करते हो। – You don’t like me.
3. आजकल विद्यार्थी पढ़ाई से जी नहीं चुराते हैं। – The students do not shirk studies these days.
4. वह मेरी ओर बिल्कुल भी ध्यान नहीं देती है। – She does not pay any attention to me.
5. वह आटा गूंधना नहीं जानता। – He does not know how to knead flour.

C. Interrogative Sentonces

1. क्या आप किराए के मकान में रहते हैं? – Do you live in a rented house ?
2. क्या अध्यापक विद्यार्थी को सज़ा देता है? – Does the teacher punish the students ?
3. क्या वह स्वैटर नहीं बुनती है ? – Does she not knit sweater ?
4. क्या हम शाम को खेलने जाते हैं ? – Do we go to play in the evening ?
5. क्या दादा जी रोज़ मंदिर जाते हैं ? – Does grandfather go to temple everyday ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

II. Past Indefinite Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. मैंने परसों नई कार खरीदी। – I bought a new car the day before yesterday.
2. वह अपना पर्स घर भूल गई। – She forgot her purse at home.
3. तुमने मेरे दोस्तों के सामने मुझे अपमानित किया। – You insulted me in the presence of my friends.
4. राजीव ने बहुत सुंदर तसवीर खींची। – Rajiv clicked a beautiful photograph.
5. जासूस ने अपने देश के साथ गद्दारी की। – The spy betrayed his country.
6. उसने मुझे रसीद दे दी। – She/he handed over the receipt to me.

B. Negative Sentences

1. चौकीदार ने दरवाज़े की कुंडी नहीं लगाई। – The watchman did not bolt the door.
2. अध्यापक ने टैस्ट नहीं लिया। – The teacher did not give the test.
3. हमें गर्मजोशी से स्वागत नही मिला। – We did not receive a warm welcome.
4. वह अदरक छीलना नहीं जानती थी। – She did not know how to peel ginger.
5. माता जी ने चादर तह नहीं की। – The mother did not fold the bed sheet.

C. Interrogative Sontences

1. क्या उसने मेरा जिक्र किया ? – Did he talk about me ?
2. क्या आप कल वहाँ गए ? – Did you go there yesterday?
3. क्या मुख्यमंत्री ने झंडा लहराया ? – Did the Chief Minister hoist the flag ?
4. क्या आपने उससे जुर्माना नहीं लिया ? – Did you not collect fine from him ?
5. क्या बावर्ची ने खाना परोसा ? – Did the chef serve the food ?

III. Future Indefinite Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. अतिथि रोटी घर ही खायेंगे। – The guests will take food at home only.
2. वह मंगलवार तक कार्य समाप्त कर लेगा। – He will complete the work by Tuesday.
3. मेरे पिता जी मेरा कर्ज चुकाएंगे। – My father will pay my debt.
4. वह अवश्य तुम्हें धोखा देगी। – She will definitely deceive you.
5. पहलवान कुश्ती जीत लेगा। – The wrestler will win the fight/bout.

B. Negative Sentences

1. मैं आपको निराश नहीं करूंगा। – I will not disappoint you.
2. हम आपकी शिकायत नहीं करेंगे। – We won’t complain against you.
3. नौकरानी बर्तन साफ़ नहीं करेगी। – The maid will not wash the utensils.
4. हम अपना आस-पास साफ़ रखेंगे। – We shall keep our surroundings clean.
5. विद्यार्थी अपनी कक्षा में कूड़ा-कर्कट नहीं डालेंगे। – The students will not litter the class.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या आप कल साक्षात्कार में शामिल होंगे? – Will you appear in the interview tomorrow?
2. क्या हम इस साल पहाड़ों पर जाएंगे? – Shall we go to mountains this year?
3. क्या आप आज बिल बना लोगे? – Will you prepare the bill today?
4. क्या उसे कभी बोलने का तरीका आएगा? – Will he ever learn how to speak ?
5. क्या वह हमारे लिए चाय बनाएगी? – Will she prepare tea for us?

IV. Present Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. नेता जी इधर-उधर की बातें कर रहे हैं। – The leader is beating about the bush.
2. वह तौलिया निचोड़ रही है। – She is wringing out the towel.
3. रमेश अपनी कल होने वाली परीक्षा की तैयारी कर रहा है। – Ramesh is preparing for his next day’s exam.
4. अध्यापक हमें अच्छे कार्य करने हेतु प्रेरित कर रहा है। – The teacher is motivating us to do good deeds.
5. पिता जी कपड़ों को इस्तरी कर रहे हैं। – The father is ironing the clothes.

B. Negative Sentences

1. वह मेरी बात नहीं सुन रही है। – She is not listening to me.
2. बच्चे पंक्ति में नहीं चल रहे हैं। – Children are not walking in a queue.
3. मै आपकी योग्यता पर शक नहीं कर रहा हूँ। – I am not doubting your competence.
4. न्यायाधीश सही निर्णय नहीं कर रहा है। – The judge is not delivering the right verdict.
5. राजनेता हमें मूर्ख नहीं बना रहे हैं। – The politicians are not befooling us.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या तुम मेरी उपेक्षा कर रहे हो? – Are you avoiding me?
2. क्या अधिकारी कर्मचारियों का शोषण कर रहा है? – Is the officer exploiting the employees?
3. क्या वह मेरा फ़ोन नहीं उठा रहा है? – Is he not receiving my call ?
4. क्या तुम धूप में बैठे हो? – Are you sitting in the sun ?
5. क्या वह अपना सामान अपने साथ ला रहा है? – Is he bringing his luggage along with him ?

V. Past Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. वह मेरा मज़ाक उड़ा रहा था। – He was making fun of me.
2. वह शीशे के सामने अपने बालों को कंघी कर रही थी। – She was combing her hair in front of the mirror.
3. जब आपने फ़ोन किया था, तब मेरी माता जी मुझे सलाह दे रही थीं। – My mother was giving me a piece of advice when you called me up.
4. बच्चा पिता जी को मूर्ख बनाने की कोशिश कर रहा था। – The child was trying to befool his father.

B. Negative Sentences

1. भोली अपने पिता जी के साथ बहस नहीं कर रही थी।। – Bholi was not arguing with her father.
2. संगीतकार एक नई धुन की रचना नहीं कर रहा था। – The musician was not composing a new tune.
3. राम लाल अपनी बेटी की चिंता नहीं कर रहा था।| – Ram Lal was not worrying about his daughter.
4. बच्चा रो नहीं रहा था। – The child was not crying.
5. मेज़बान मेहमान को खाना नहीं परोस रहा था।| – The host was not serving food to the guest.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या आप उसके बचाव की कोशिश कर रहे थे? – Were you trying to defend him ?
2. क्या प्रिंसिपल उस समय कागज़ तसदीक कर रहा था? – Was the principal attesting the papers at that time ?
3. क्या रमेश उस समय अपनी गलती के लिए माफी मांग रहा था? – Was Ramesh apologizing for his mistake at that time ?
4. जब मैंने उसको बुलाया था, क्या तब बच्चा भोजन का आनन्द ले रहा था? – Was the child relishing the food when I called him ?

VI. Future Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. वह अगले साल से बैंक में नौकरी कर रहा होगा। – He will be working in a bank next year.
2. हम अपनी परीक्षा की तैयारी कर रहे होंगे। – We shall be preparing for our examination.
3. उस समय माली पौधों को पानी दे रहा होगा। – The gardener will be watering the plants at that time.
4. जब मैं घर पहुंचूंगा, सूर्य अस्त हो रहा होगा। – The sun will be setting when I reach home.

B. Negative Sentences

1. जब आप उसके घर जाओगे, वह रात का खाना नहीं खा रहा होगा। – He will not be taking dinner when you go to his house.
2. जब आप हमें मिलने आओगे, हम आराम नहीं कर रहे होंगे। – We shall not be resting when you visit us.
3. हम एक सप्ताह तक वहां नहीं रहेंगे। – We shall not be staying there for a week.
4. तब वर्षा नहीं हो रही होगी। – It will not be raining then.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

C. Interrogative Sentencos

1. क्या तब वहां वर्षा नहीं हो रही होगी? – Will it not be raining there then ?
2. जब आप खेल के मैदान में पहुँचोगे, क्या विद्यार्थी पंक्तियों में खड़े होंगे? – Will the students be standing in queues when you reach the playground ?
3. क्या सितम्बर में वृक्ष के पत्ते झड़ रहे होंगे? – Will the tree be shedding off its leaves in September ?
4. क्या कल सुबह सात बजे पुलिस चोर का पीछा कर रही होगी? – Will the police be chasing the thief at 7 a.m. tomorrow ?

VII. Present Perfect Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. उसने चाय पी ली है। – He has taken tea.
2. तकनीक ने बहुत उन्नति कर ली है। – Technology has developed a lot.
3. हमने अपने स्कूल में विज्ञान मेले का आयोजन किया है। – We have organized a science fair in our school.
4. महंगाई ने हमारे जीवन को बहुत प्रभावित किया है। – Inflation has affected our lives a lot.
5. वे काफी समय पहले इस स्थान को छोड़ चुके हैं। – They have left this place long ago.

B. Negative Sentences

1. उसने रिश्ते से मना नहीं किया है। – She has not refused the marriage proposal.
2. मैंने उसे मनाने की कोशिश नहीं की है। – I have not tried to convince her.
3. उसने नया संगीत नहीं सुना है। – He has not listened to the latest music.
4. आपके लड़के ने मेरे साथ अच्छा व्यवहार नहीं किया है। – Your son has not behaved well with me.
5. हमने अपनी गलती का अहसास नहीं किया है।| – We have not realized our mistake.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या उसने स्वयं को मुसीबत में डाल लिया है? – Has he got himself into trouble ?
2. क्या उसने अपनी स्कूल की शिक्षा पूरी कर ली है? – Has he completed his schooling ?
3. क्या आपने बारहवीं में विज्ञान का चयन नहीं – Haven’t you opted for Science stream in grade 12 ?
4. क्या मुख्य अतिथि ने विद्यार्थियों के प्रदर्शन किया है? – Has the Chief Guest applauded the performance of the students ?
5. क्या उसने वोट डाल दी है? – Has he cast his vote?

VIII. Past Perfect Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. वह नई कार 2011 तक खरीद चुका था। – He had bought a new car by 2011.
2. अपने पिता जी की मौत के बाद उसने अपना पारिवारिक व्यवसाय ही चाल रखा था। – He had continued his family business after his father’s death.
3. मैं पहले ही इस कारखाने में दो साल नौकरी कर चुका था। – I had already worked for two years in this factory.
4. हड़ताल के बाद कंपनी ने पिछले साल कई कर्मचारी नौकरी से निकाल दिये थे। – The company had fired many employees after the strike last year.

B. Negative Sentences

1. दो बजे तक अध्यापक ने सारे उत्तर चैक नहीं किये थे। – The teacher had not checked all the answers by 2 p.m.
2. मई 2016 तक सरकार ने कोई नोटिस जारी नहीं किया था। – The government had not issued any notice till May 2016.
3. जब वह आया, तब तक मैं अपना कार्य समाप्त नहीं कर चुका था। – I had not finished my work when he came.
4. वे वर्षा रुकने के बाद ही गए। – They left after the rain had stopped.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या उपभोक्ता ने धोखा खाने के बाद कम्पनी के खिलाफ केस दायर कर दिया था? – Had the consumer filed a case against the company after he was cheated ?
2. जब आप हवाई अड्डा पहुंचे, क्या हवाई जहाज़ उड़ान भर चुका था? – Had the flight taken off when you reached the airport?
3. जब आप स्टेशन पहुंचे, क्या रेलगाड़ी आ गयी थी? – Had the train arrived when you reached the station ?
4. क्या उसने 2017 तक काफी धन इकट्ठा कर लिया था? – Had he accumulated a lot of wealth by 2017 ?

IX. Future Perfect Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. उसने अपना गृहकार्य शाम छ: बजे तक समाप्त कर लिया होगा। – She will have finished her homework by 6 o’clock.
2. मैं जब विद्यालय पहुंचूंगा, विद्यार्थी मैदान में एकत्रित हो चुके होंगे। – The students will have gathered in the ground when I reach school.
3. आपके तैयार होने तक मैं पगड़ी बांध चुका हूँगा। – I shall have tied the turban by the time you get ready.
4. हम सूरज छिपने तक विरोधी पक्ष को हरा चके होंगे। – We will have defeated the opponents by sunset.
5. हम सभी मिलकर नौ बजे तक जन्मदिन मना चुके होंगे। – We all shall have celebrated the birthday by 9 p.m.

B. Negative Sentences

1. पिता जी पाँच बजे तक घर नहीं पहुंच चुके होंगे। – Father will not have reached home by 5 p.m.
2. गाड़ी के आने तक कुली सारा सामान नहीं ले गया होगा। – The porter will not have carried the entire luggage by the time the train arrives.
3. अगले पांच साल तक हम नई खोज नहीं कर चुके होंगे। – We shall not have made a new discovery in the next five years.
4. अगले सप्ताह तक आप सारे तरीके नहीं आजमा चुके होंगे। – You will not have tried all the ways by I the next week.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या आप सोमवार तक हवाई यात्रा कर चुके होंगे? – Will you have travelled by air by Monday ?
2. क्या मंत्री जी ने अन्त में चुनाव भारी अंतर से जीत लिये होंगे? – Will the minister have won the election by a big margin in the end ?
3. क्या हवाई जहाज़ दोपहर दो बजे तक उतर चुका होगा? – Will the plane have landed by 2 p.m. ?
4. क्या मज़दूर संघ ने अगले महीने हड़ताल खत्म कर दी होगी? – Shall the workers’ union have called off the strike by the next month ?
5. क्या पीड़ित ने दिसम्बर तक अदालत में अपील लगाई होगी? – Will the victim have appealed in the court by December ?

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

X. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. मैं पिछले 20 सालों से इस मकान में रह रहा हूँ। – I have been living in this house for last twenty years.
2. दोनों सहेलियाँ सुबह से ही गप्पें मार रही हैं। – Both the friends have been gossiping since morning.
3. दोनों परिवार काफी समय से एक-दूसरे से लड़ रहे हैं। – Both the families have been quarrelling with each other since long.
4. वह काफी समय से इस दिन की तैयारी (प्रतीक्षा)कर रहा है। – He has been waiting (preparing) for this day since ages (long).
5. मैं 2:00 बजे से फिल्म देख रहा हूँ। – I have been watching the movie since 2 o’clock.

B. Negative Sentences

1. रमेश कई दिन से स्कूल नहीं आ रहा है। – Ramesh has not been coming to school for many days.
2. उम्मीदवार पिछले सप्ताह से चुनाव प्रचार नहीं कर रहा है। – The candidate has not been canvassing since last week.
3. आप कई दिनों से मुझे मिलने नहीं आए हो। You have not come to meet me for many days.
4. उसकी दादी जी सुबह से खाना नहीं खा रही हैं। – Her grandmother has not been eating since morning.
5. बच्चा शाम से अपने माता-पिता की बात नहीं सुन रहा है। – The child has not been listening to his parents since evening.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या आप 1990 से यहां काम कर रहे हो? – Have you been working here since 1990?
2. क्या मैकेनिक सुबह से मोटर ठीक कर रहा है? – Has the mechanic been repairing the motor since morning ?
3. क्या आप कई महीनों से परीक्षा की तैयारी कर रहे हो? – Have you been preparing for exam for many months ?
4. क्या किराएदार पिछले छः महीनों से किराया नहीं दे रहा है? – Has the tenant not been paying the rent for the last six months ?
5. क्या अध्यापक सुबह से पढ़ा रहा है? – Has the teacher been teaching since morning ?

XI. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentonces

1. जब उसके पिता जी की मृत्यु हो गयी, वह पिछले दस सालों से मेहनत कर रहा था। – He had been working hard for the last ten years when his father died.
2. जब मैं उससे मिलने गई, बच्चा सुबह से ही रो रहा था। – The child had been crying since morning when I visited her.
3. जब मैं घर पहुंचा तो पिछले दो घण्टे से वह मेरी प्रतीक्षा कर रहे थे। – They had been waiting for me for the last two hours when I reached home.
4. मैं पिछले कई दिनों से इस पुस्तक को पढ़ रहा था। – I had been reading this book for läst many days.
5. प्रकाश पिछले कई सालों से टैनिस खेल रहा था। – Prakash had been playing tennis for last many years.

B. Negative Sentences

1. माली सोमवार से पौधों को पानी नहीं दे रहा था। – The gardener had not been watering the plants since Monday.
2. सचिन दो सालों से क्रिकेट नहीं खेल रहा था। – Sachin had not been playing cricket for two years.
3. रवि पिछले दस दिनों से स्कूल नहीं आ रहा था। – Ravi had not been coming to school for the last ten days.

C. Interogative Sentences

1. क्या आप यहां पिछले पांच सालों से काम। कर रहे थे? – Had you been working here for the last five years ?
2. क्या बच्चा पिछले पन्द्रह दिनों से बीमार था? – Had the child been sick for the last fifteen days ?
3. जब वह घर आए तो क्या उनकी बेटी दो घंटे से काम कर रही थी? – Had his daughter been working for two hours when he came home ?

XII. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

A. Affirmative Sentences

1. उसके पिता जी सुबह दो घण्टे से बगीचे में वृक्ष लगा रहे होंगे। – His father will. have been planting trees in the garden for two hours in the morning.
2. वह चार घंटों से दो बजे तक मेरी प्रतीक्षा कर रहा होगा। – He will have been waiting for me for four hours by 2 o’clock
3. वह अगले महीने कार चलाना सीख रहा होगा। – He will have been learning how to drive a car next month.

B. Negative Sentences

1. कल इस समय नेता जी लम्बे-लम्बे भाषण नहीं दे रहे होंगे। – The leader will not have been delivering long speeches by this time tomorrow.
2. जब मैं स्कूल जाऊंगा, लड़के फुटबाल नहीं खेल रहे होंगे। – When I go to school, the boys will not have been playing football.
3. मैं जब घर पहुंचूंगा, माता जी खाना नहीं बना रही होंगी। – The mother will not have been cooking when I reach home.

C. Interrogative Sentences

1. क्या ड्राइवर लगातार 15 दिन से लगातार कार चला रहा होगा? – Will the driver have been continuously driving the car for fifteen days?
2. क्या हम मई महीने में हर रोज़ दो घंटे पैसे इकट्ठे कर रहे होंगे? – Shall we have been collecting the money for two hours every day in May ?
3. क्या जब मैं घर वापिस आऊँगा, बच्चे सुबह से पतंग उड़ा रहे होंगे? – Will the children have been flying the kites since morning when I return home?

Imperative Sentences

1. अपने अध्यापकों की आज्ञा का पालन करो। – Obey your teachers.
2. गरीबों की सहायता करो। – Help the poor.
3. इस पत्र को डाक द्वारा भेजो। – Post this letter.
4. पशुओं की हत्या न करो। – Don’t kill animals.
5. आग से मत खेलो। – Never play with fire.

Affirmative Sentences

1. परमात्मा पर विश्वास रखो। – Trust in God.
2. बड़ों का सत्कार करें। – Obey your elders.
3. जेब कतरों से बचें। – Beware of the pickpockets.
4. उसे जाने दो। – Let him go.
5. जल्दी करो। – Hurry up.

Negative Sentences

1. मुझे तंग न करो। – Don’t disturb me.
2. गरीब का मज़ाक न उड़ाओ। – Don’t make fun of the poor.
3. अफवाह न फैलाओ। – Don’t spread rumours.
4. किसी की चुगली न करो। – Don’t backbite anyone.
5. बकवास न करो। – Don’t talk nonsense.

Miscellaneous Exercises from Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Exercise 1

1. नंगे पांव न चलो। – Don’t walk barefoot.
2. अपने स्वास्थ्य का ध्यान रखो। – Take care of your health.
3. समय बर्बाद न करें। – Don’t waste time.
4. समय का सदुपयोग करें। – Make a proper use of time.
5. बाएं हाथ चलें। – Keep to the left.
6. पुलिस को बुलाओ। – Call the police.
7. अभ्यास करो। – Do the practice.
8. अपना कार्य स्वयं करें। – Do your work yourself.
9. अपना ध्यान रखें। – Take care of yourself.
10. परिश्रम करें। – Work hard.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Translation

Exercise 2

1. सूरज अस्त हो गया है। – The sun has set.
2. मन्द मन्द हवा चलनी शुरू हो गई है। – Light breeze has started blowing.
3. बहुत सारे लोग स्टेशन के बाहर एकत्रित हो गए थे। – Many people had gathered outside the station.
4. मुझे यह पुस्तक चाहिए। – I need this book.
5. भूगोल मेरा मनपसंद विषय है। – Geography is my favourite subject.
6. मुझे स्कूल पहुंचने में देर हो गई है। – I am late for school.
7. जब तक आप कहोगे, वह जागती रहेगी। – She will keep awake till you want
8. माली पौधों को पानी दे रहा था। – The gardener was watering the plants.
9. यह बहुत ही मनोरंजक कहानी है। – This is a very interesting story.
10. वह शायद आज आ जाए। – He/She might come today.

Exercise 3

1. वह कई घंटे लगातार कार्य कर सकता है। – He can work for many hours at a stretch.
2. रेखा मेरी मनपसंद अभिनेत्री है। – Rekha is my favourite actress.
3. सिगरेट पीना स्वास्थ्य के लिए हानिकारक है। – Smoking is injurious to health.
4. वह अनाथ था। – He was an orphan.
5. दहेज प्रथा समाज पर एक कलंक है। – Dowry system is a blot on the society.
6. वह उम्र में मुझसे बड़ी है। – She is older than I.
7. दोनों भाइयों की आपस में नहीं बनती। – Both the brothers dont see each other eye to eye.
8. हरिद्वार भारत का बहुत प्रसिद्ध तीर्थस्थान है। – Haridwar is the most famous pilgrimage of India.
9. डॉ० ए० पी० जे० अब्दुल कलाम एक विश्व प्रसिद्ध वक्ता थे। – Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a world famous speaker.
10. जनसंख्या में भारत विश्व में दूसरे स्थान पर है। – As regards population, India occupies second place in the world.

Exercise 4

1. वह एक अच्छा कलाकार है। – He is a very good artist.
2. आज धूप बहुत तेज़ है। – The sun is very sharp today.
3. क्या आपको मुझ पर भरोसा नहीं? – Don’t you trust me ?
4. जज ने उसको जमानत दे दी। – The judge has granted him bail.
5. जी गरजते हैं; वे बरसते नहीं। – Barking dogs seldom bite.
6. वह आपंको उल्लू बना रहा है। – He is befooling you.
7. गरीब का शाप कभी न लो।। – Never have curses of the poor.
8. सड़क की मरम्मत नहीं की गई। – The road was not repaired.
9. जैसा करोगे, वैसा भरोगे। – As you sow, so shall you reap.
10. क्या मैं आपकी प्रतीक्षा करूं? – Shall I wait for you?

Exercise 5

1. शहर में डेंग फैल रहा है। – Dengue is spreading in the city.
2. वहां क्या हो रहा है? – What is happening there ?
3. एकता में बल है। – Unity is strength.
4. जीवन में संतुष्टि भी एक वरदान है। – Contentment in life is also a bliss.
5. उसे सारा निबंध मौखिक याद था। – He had learnt the whole essay by heart.
6. साफ़-सफ़ाई करना अच्छी आदत है। – Cleanliness is a good habit.
7. बच्चा क्यों रो रहा है? – Why is the child crying ?
8. वातावरण साफ रखना हर नागरिक का कर्तव्य है। – It is every citizen’s duty to keep the environment clean.
9. रोगी की हालत ठीक हो रही है। – The patient’s condition is improving.
10. विद्या व्यक्ति को सूझवान बनाती है। – Education makes man wise.

Exercise 6

1. वह टेढ़ी खीर है। – He is a hard nut to crack.
2. पढ़ाई में अपना मन लगाओ। – Concentrate on your studies.
3. क्या आप गरीबों की सहायता करते हो? – Do you help the poor?
4. मैं यह अपमान सहन नहीं कर सकूँगा। – I will not be able to bear this insult.
5. क्या हवाई यात्रा सुरक्षित है? – Is the air travel safe ?
6. मैंने उसे गले लगा लिया। – I embraced him.
7. उसकी जुबान इतनी क्यों चलती है? – Why does he talk so much ?
8. वह रात बहुत ठंडी थी।। – That night was very cold.
9. आप अपना भविष्य खतरे में क्यों डाल रहे हो? – Why are you endangering your future ?
10. बाहर घनघोर अंधेरा था। – It was pitch dark outside.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Composition Notice Writing Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

Note-making means presenting big chunks of knowledge in a neat and brief form. The characteristics of good notes are:

  1. They are brief.
  2. Only relevant facts are given.
  3. Only words or phrases are used. Full sentences are often not necessary. In other words, the language used in making or taking notes may not be grammatically very correct.
  4. Information is presented in a tabular form. It is divided and sub-divided. The division may be : main sections : 1, 2, 3, etc; sub-sections : a, b, c, etc.
  5. Abbreviations and symbols are used instead of complete words.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

Common abbreviations are given in dictionaries. In addition, every individual can use his or her own set of abbreviations and symbols. For example, ‘Parliament may be reduced to ‘parlť or ‘par’ or ‘Po. But care should be taken that one abbreviation does not stand for more than one word.

A Solved Example
Passage

About 2,500 million years ago (according to present theories), the earth on which we live was a ball of gas which, on cooling, grew smaller and became liquid. The liquid continued to cool, giving off some of its heat by radiation and when liquids grew colder they solidified. The crust of the earth is the solid matter that resulted from this cooling, but probably inside the earth there is still a mass of molten material which has not cooled as much as the outer crust.

The crust on which we live and from which we obtain almost everything that we need is not quite rigid. The volcanoes of Etna and Stromboli in the Italian islands remind us from time to time of the force and heat below the ground. Various places on the earth are subject to earthquakes, the country that has suffered most from these being Japan. The study of earthquakes, the science of seismology, has shown that the origin of many of them is under the bottom of the sea and near the coast of a continent or large island. In an earthquake, the surface of the land may move suddenly in any direction, bringing houses down, changing a straight railway-track into a useless zigzag, altering the course of rivers, changing the shape of hills, and sometimes causing an immense sea wave to rush on to the nearest shore and leading to immense destruction. This tidal wave, as it is called, is wrongly named because it has nothing to do with the tide.

Title : THE EARTH’S CRUST
Notes : 1. Formation of the earth
(a) 2,500 million yrs. ago – earth – a ball of gas;
(b) gradually gas grew cooler – became liquid;
(c) liquid cooled and solidified – this became earth’s crust.

2. Volcanoes and earthquakes
(a) Vol. indicate force and heat below earth’s crust.
(b) Ea. qs. – origin and effects :
(i) origin of many
1. under bottom of the sea
2. near the coast of continents.

(ii) effects-
1. bring widespread destruction, e.g., of houses, railways
2. alter-courses of rivers-shape of hills
3. cause tidal waves.

Examination-Style Fully Solved Passages

Passage 1

1 Men who have studied the ways of ants tell strange things about their social life. Just as in ancient days, men kept slaves to work for them, so also some ants raid the homes of other ants, and making captives, bring them back to their own nests and compel them to work for their captors’. Ants, indeed, are by no means the only inhabitants? of ants’ nests. We are told that several hundreds of other small creatures such as beetles and crickets make their home with ants. Some of these creatures are useful to the ants and clean up the nest and do other duties, while others seem to be mere boarders”, and do nothing for their keep“. Why the ants allow them to stay no one knows. Is it sheer good nature ?

2 Ants, we are told, play games. They nurse their sick, bury their dead and see that everyone does its share of the work, and that no one is allowed to be lazy. All this seems to show that ants have some form of reasonable government. A celebrated naturalist? tells how he captured an ant and covered it with a piece of clay so that only its head showed. For some time, the little captive was not discovered, then one of its fellow ants found out what had happened and tried to set it free. But this task proved too much for one ant, and very soon it hurried away, to return in a few minutes with a dozen companions who at once set to work and in a very short time set the captive free.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 1

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. str. – strange
2. soc. – social
3. sl. – slaves
4. act. – activities

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Ants:
(a) str., soc. insects
(b) keep ant sl. to work for them
(c) have many others in their nests.
→ clean the nests
→ do other duties

2. Ant act-
(a) play games
(b) nurse their sick
(c) bury their dead
(d) keep everyone busy
(e) help those in need.

(B) Title : The Social Life of Ants

Passage 2

1 Why don’t I have a telephone ? Not because I pretend to be wise or pose as unusual. There are two chief reasons : because I don’t really like the telephone, and because I find I can still work and play, eat, breathe, and sleep without it. Why don’t I like the telephone ? Because I think it is a pest’ and a time-waster. It may create unnecessary suspense and anxiety, as when you wait for an expected call that doesn’t come; or irritating delay, as when you keep ringing a number that is always engaged. As for speaking in a public telephone box, that seems to me really horrible. You would not use it unless you were in a hurry, and because you are in a hurry, you will find other people waiting before you. When you do get into the box, you are half asphyxiated? by stale, unventilated air, flavoured with cheap face powder and chain-smoking; and by the time you have begun your conversation, your back is chilled by the cold looks of somebody who is fidgeting to take your place.

2 If you have a telephone in your house, you will admit that it tends to ring when you least want it – when you are asleep, or in the middle of a meal or a conversation, or when you are just going out, or when you are in your bath. Are you strong-minded enough to ignore it, to say to yourself, ‘Ah well, it will be the same in a hundred years time.’ ? You are not. You think there may be some important news or message for you. Have you never rushed dripping from the bath, or chewing from the table, or dazed4 from bed, only to be told that you are wrong number ? You were told the truth. In my opinion, all telephone numbers are wrong numbers. If, of course, your telephone rings and you decide not to answer it, then you will have to listen to an idiotic bell ringing and ringing in what is supposed to be the privacy of your own home. You might as well buy a bicycle bell and ring it yourself.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 2

Questions
(a) Make notes on the basis of your reading of the above passage, using headings and sub headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. wr. – writer
2. tlph. – telephone
3. ppl. – people anxiety.
4. unwtd. – unwanted

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Why the wr. dislikes having a tlph.
(a) can do without it in all ways
(b) thinks it a pest and a time-waster
(c) creates unnecessary suspense and anxiety

2. What he thinks of using a tlph. box
(a) ppl. waiting before you
(b) can’t use when in hurry
(c) smelly, stinking boxes
(d) cold looks of ppl. waiting behind you.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

3. The nuisance of having a tlph.
(a) unwtd. disturbance during sleep, meals, conversation, etc.
(b) can’t be ignored in any case
(c) even if ignored, the idiotic bell is most jarring.

(B) Title : Telephone — An Avoidable Nuisance

Passage 3

1. Gandhiji, the greatest political genius’ of our time, indicated the path to be taken. He gave living testimony to the fact that man’s will, sustained by an indomitable* conviction”, is more powerful than material forces that seem insurmountable’. On the whole, I believe that Gandhiji held the most enlightened? views of all the political men in our times. We should strives to do things in his spirit : not to use violence in fighting for our cause and to refrain’ from taking part in anything we believe as evil. Revolution without the use of violence was the method by which Gandhiji brought about the liberation of India. It is my belief that the problem of bringing peace to the world on a supranational basis will be solved only by employing Gandhiji’s method on a large scale.

2 The veneration1l in which Gandhiji has been held throughout the world rests on the recognition2, for the most part unconscious, that in our age of moral decay, he was the only statesman who represented that higher conception of human relation in the political sphere to which we must aspire 3 with all our powers. We must learn the difficult lesson that the future of mankind will only be tolerable when our course in world affairs as in all other matters, is based upon justice and law rather than the threat of naked” power, as has been true so far.

3 Gandhiji was a victim of his own principle, the principle of non-violence. He died because he did not take any personal armed protection in the times of disorder and general unrest in the country. He fully believed that the use of force is an evil in itself to be shunned?s by those who strive for absolute justice. He adopted this faith throughout his life and led the nation to the path of liberation.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 3

Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. pol. = political
2. rev. – revolution
3. conc. – conception
4. pers. – personal
5. prot. – protection

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Gandhiji
(a) the greatest pol. genius of our time
(b) followed the path of non-violence
(c) believed in the power of the will
(d) believed in the rev. without the use of violence.

2. For tolerable future of mankind
(a) Gandhiji’s higher conc. of human relations
(b) application of justice and law instead of naked power.

3. Gandhiji, victim of his own principle of non-violence
(a) neglected pers. prot.
(b) called the use of force an evil

(B) Title : Gandhiji and Non-violence

Passage 4

1 Two determining factors pertaining to the nation’s health and well-being are family planning and nutrition. While talking about our country and its problems, let us remember that many of these problems are the result of our success and development. Our population problem is an example. As an eminent doctor has rightly remarked, doctors themselves are the creators of the population explosion. They must also find a way out. A child brings happiness. As Kabir, the saint-poet, has said, “A child comes crying into the world but the people around are swathed insmiles.” But such is the economic lot of the bulk of our people that even the birth of a child adds to their anxiety.

2 The aim of family planning is to restore4 joy to motherhood and to make every child a wanted child, with a fair chance of health, education and employment. Until now, our major difficulty was to create motivation and psychological climate. Our campaign has been successful in certain pockets. It is not unlikely that soon a nationwide clamour? for doctors and appliances for family planning will build up. And delay or failure in the family planning campaign will cause a setback to all our programmes. The other important health problem is that of nutrition. However good our harvest may be, let us not forget that a large part of our people are chronicallyundernourished in terms of calories as well as life-building proteins. If nothing is done about this protein scarcity’, these masses will remain condemned 10 to an incomplete and lustrelessl life.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 4

Questions

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. nut. – nutrition
2. dev. — development
3. drs. – doctors
4. pop. – population
5. prob. – problem
6. ch. – child
7. ed. – education
8. emp. – employment
9. diff. – difficulties
10. mot. – motivation
11. psy. – psychological
12. camp. – campaign
13. prog. – programme

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Factors belonging to the nation’s health:
(a) Family planning
(b) Nut.

2. Our country’s problems:
(a) results of success and dev. e.g.
(i) Drs. responsible for pop. prob.
(ii) Birth of ch. brings anxiety.

3. Aim of family planning
(a) restore joy to motherhood
(b) provide every child health, ed. and emp.

4. Our major diff.:
(a) to create mot. and psy. climate
(b) camp. successful only in certain areas.

5. Delay or failure in family planning prog. :
(a) cause setback to all other progs.

6. Prob. of nut.:
(a) people undernourished
(b) condemned to incomplete and lustreless life.

(B) Title : Family Planning and Nutrition

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

Passage 5

Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist’ is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important thing is that you must talk about the other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity?. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them, and you will get a reputation for good fellowship*, charming wito and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interests.

2 It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid as what subject to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket? or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant topics. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their own problems, not in yours. Sickness or death bores everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is the doctor, but he gets paid for it.

3 To be a good conversationalist, you must know not only what to say, but how to say it. Be civil and modest. Don’t overemphasizeyour own importance. Be mentally quick and witty. But don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally, try to avoid mannerism in your conversation.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 5

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. con. – conversationalist
2. sub. – subject
3. imp. – importance
4. mann. — mannerism

(A) Notes on the Passage :
1. To become a good con. :
(a) find sub. that interests listeners
(b) be civil and modest
(c) be mentally quick and witty

2. Avoid :
(a) talking about yourself
(b) talking about sickness and death
(c) overemphasizing your own imp.
(d) hurting others with your wit
(e) mann.

(B) Title : How to Become a Good Conversationalist

Passage 6

1 There is a big difference between the natural slavery of man and the unnatural slavery of man to man. Nature is kind to her slaves. If she forces you to eat and drink, she makes eating and drinking so pleasant that when we can afford it, we eat and drink too much. We must sleep or go mad : but then sleep is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in getting up in the morning. Thus, instead of resenting’ our natural wants as slavery, we take the greatest pleasure in their satisfaction. We write sentimental songs in praise of them.

2 The slavery of man to man is the very opposite of this. It is hateful to the body and to the soul. Our poets do not praise it; they proclaim that no man is good enough to be another man’s master. The latest of the great Jewish prophets, a gentleman named Mars, spent his life in proving that there is no extremity+ of selfish cruelty at which the slavery of man to man will stop if it is not stopped by law. You can see for yourself that it produces a continual civil war called the class war between the slaves and their masters, organised as trade unions on one side and employer’s federations on the other. We shall never have a peaceful and stable society until this struggle is ended by the abolition of slavery altogether and the compulsions of everyone to do his share of the world’s work with his own hands and brain, and not to attempt to put it on anyone else.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 6

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. slav. – slavery
2. nat. – natural
3. res. – resent
4. sent. — sentimental
5. soc. – society
6. imp. – impossible

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Slav. of nat. kind
(a) forces to eat, drink and sleep
(b) makes them pleasant.

2. Results of natural slav.
(a) we do not res.
(b) take pleasure
(c) write sent. songs.

3. Slav. of man to man
(a) hateful
(b) no poets praise
(c) no man good enough to be another man’s master.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

4. Results of slav. of man to man
(a) continuous civil war
(b) peaceful and stable soc. imp.

(B) Title : Natural Slavery v/s Slavery of Man to Man

Passage 7

1. Much before medical science discovered it, Reader’s Digest’ came out with the prescription? – Laughter is the Best Medicine. Newspapers and magazines which regularly run humour columns are, therefore, doing their bit to keep the readers in good health. Reading light articles, whether they be satirical, comic or just humorous, relieves the tedium of work a-days world. Some pieces may even tickleó one’s grey matter?

2. It is said that if you laugh for ten minutes, you will be in a better position to put up with pain for two hours. According to US researchers, laughter is a good antidote8 to stress that tones up the system. Facial laugh muscles instruct the brain to ‘feel good? regardless of how you feel.

3. According to a French doctor, laughter deepens breathing, improves blood circulation, speeds up the process of tissue healing and stabilises many body functions. In short, it acts as a power drug with no side effects. Researchers state that laughter stimulates production of beta-endorphins, natural painkillers in the body and improves digestion. Those who laugh are less prone to digestive disorders and ulcers.

4. Some people in France have made it a career. You can hire a “jovialist who cracks jokes and laughs and promises to make you dissolve your worries in helpless laughter.

5 A word of caution. Although laughing is a good exercise for toning up the facial muscles, laughing at others’ expense, particularly at their disabilities, is in bad taste and is to be avoided. Secondly, laughing with food in the mouth is dangerous as the foodstuff can get into the windpipe and may choke the respiratory system.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 7

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used :
1. mdcn. – medicine
2. facl. – facial
3. hlth. – health
4. tdm – tedium
5. efts. – effects
6. p. killers – painkillers

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Laughter :
(a) the best mdcn.
(b) antidote to stress
(c) tones up facl. muscles.

2. Humorous articles in newspapers, magazines:
(a) keep readers in good hlth.
(b) relieve the tdm. of everyday life
(c) tickle one’s grey matter (intelligence).

3. A power drug with no side efts.:
(a) deepens breathing
(b) improves blood circulation
(c) speeds up the process of tissue healing
(d) stimulates natural p. killers in the body.

4. Never laugh:
(a) at the expense of others
(b) while eating.

(B) Title : Laughter, the Best Medicine

Passage 8

1. Every year, a large number of Siberian cranes come to the bird sanctuary’ at Bharatpur. Year after year, in the beginning of winter these birds cover thousands of miles from Siberia in the north of Russia to come to Bharatpur, and then, as winter ends, they once again return to their original habitat?, without making any mistake in the direction they have to take in their long flights. It is surprising how these birds find their way over such long distances, especially when vast stretches of land happen to be covered with clouds so that familiar landmarks”, which could have guided them, are not even visible. The same phenomenon“ has been observed in other parts of the world as well. By way of experiment, light metal rings with specific information are put on the legs of some migratory birds, and it is observed that they keep returning to the winter sanctuary year after year without fail.

2. Pigeons are well known for finding their way back home in spite of all odds. At one time, it was believed that they could find their way with the help of familiar landmarks which they had seen and remembered. In an experiment, some pigeons were carried to a considerable distance in cages covered with black cloth so that they could not see anything on the way. However, when they were released, they still managed to come back to the place from where they had been taken away in covered cages. To check whether the pigeons remembered the direction of movement even when they could not see anything, another experiment was undertaken. To confuse their sense of direction, some pigeons were carried in an aeroplane and then released. Many of them still managed to return home on their own. One possibility is that these birds somehow sense the direction of the magnetic poles of earth and use that to find their direction.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 8

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. sanc. – sanctuary
2. mis. – mistake of each winter.
3. exp. – experiments
4. yr. – year
5. dir. – direction
6. mag. – magnetic

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Siberian cranes:
(a) come to Bharatpur sanc. in the beginning
(b) go back at the end of winter.
(c) cover thousands of miles without making any mis.

2. Exp. prove the same birds return yr. after yr.
(light metal rings put on the legs of some birds).

3. Pigeons are known for their sense of dir. Exp.:
(a) carried to considerable distances in cages covered with black cloth.
(b) carried in an aeroplane.
(c) managed to return home on their own. 4. One possibility :
Birds somehow sense the dir. of mag. poles of the earth and use it to find dir.

(B) Title : Migratory Birds

Passage 9

1. Few animals are as useful or as unpopular as the goat. From ancient times, it has supplied people with milk and meat. Its skin has been made into leather and the wool of some breeds2 woven into soft, warm cloth. Goats are hardy creatures, and can live on the green remains of a thorny bush or a poor grassland. Nevertheless, they have always had a bad reputation. Perhaps this is because the billy goats (males) often have a bad temper and a strong, unpleasant smell. Goats also do serious damage to young trees and other plants,
and can quickly reduce a lush grazing land to a barren wasteland.

2. For its size, the goat provides man with more useful things than almost any other animal, yet it often does not receive the food and care given to other animals. The goat will try to eat anything and will put up with the most uncomfortable surroundings. But if it is well fed and carefully housed, the goat will produce much better milk, flesh and wool.

3. The goat is very closely related to the sheep. In fact, it looks very much like a sheep except for three things. It has a shorter tail which turns up instead of hanging down. Goats (both males and females) have beards and backward-slanting4 horns, whereas male sheep (rams) have curly horns. Goats have a hairy coat whereas sheep have a wolley one.

woolly one. Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 9

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. unpop. – unpopular
2. bly. – billy
3. difrs. – differs

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Goat-one of the most useful, yet one of the most unpop. animals.

2. Uses-meat, milk, wool.

3. Reasons of being hated:
(a) unpleasant smell of bly. goats
(b) bad temper
(c) damage to crops.

4. Positive Points:
(a) Needs least care
(b) Proper care can give better milk, wool and flesh.

5. How it difrs. from the sheep:
(a) tail
(b) horns
(c) coat.

(B) Title : The Goat and the Sheep

Passage 10

1. One question that often troubles today’s youth is the relevance of the education they are receiving. They feel disheartened by the thought that the degrees they are pursuing may not be of much help to them in earning their livelihood. So they lose interest in studies and let themselves drift with time. They do not realize that they are frittering away the golden phase of life when their mind is free from the routine worries of a householder and when they can enrich their mind with knowledge. This is also the time when they can develop their intellect and moral vision as they look at the society and the world around them with an open mind.

2 Relevance of any system of education has to be seen from three angles : (1) How far does it nurture the values that are highly respected by society ? (2) How far does it develop the individuals’ capabilities and give them confidence in themselves so that they can think and decide what is right, and can act according to that instead of always being influenced by propaganda and persuasion ? (3) How far does the system of education equip them with such skills and knowledge as would constructively help them in finding some occupation which would enable them to earn their living and satisfy their emotional needs as human beings ?

3 Our system of education may have some limitations as far as these purposes of education are concerned; however, a great deal can be achieved even from a somewhat defective system of education, if the students have an eager and open mind and are keen to learn and grow.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 10

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. ed. – education
2. rel. – relevant
3. att. – attitude
4. int. – intellect
5. soc. social

(A) Notes on the Passage :
1. Youth feel troubled:
(a) ed. they receive not rel.
(b) degree they pursue won’t help to earn their livelihood.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

2. Harms of such an att.:
(a) waste away the golden phase of life
(b) fail to develop their int. and moral vision.

3. Relevance of ed. has to be judged by :
(a) how far it nurtures soc. values
(b) how far it develops the individuals capacities to think and decide independently
(c) How far it enables the youth to earn their living and satisfies their emotional needs.

4. Our system of ed.:
(a) may be somewhat defective
(b) if pursued with an eager and open mind, a great deal can be achieved.

(B) Title : Relevance of Education

Passages From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Passage 1

Social media has impacted the world in many ways. Millions of people are using Facebook, Twitter and Instagram worldwide. Such websites have proved to be the best way to connect and communicate with friends and family. These have also become the best tool to keep oneself abreast with latest buzz in every field. These are so convenient that one tends to forget that such tools are to be used very judiciously?. One needs to learn to be a responsible social media user. Especially young children must be taught to use social media very carefully. It is the responsibility of the parents and teachers to teach them proper use of social media.

Facebook started by Mark Zukerberg is the most used social media tool. Its business depends on persuading* people into sharing their personal experiences with public or their known people. Posting pictures, updating status has become an important part of their daily routine. No one is immune to its addictive effect. Periodically looking at their phones for any updates has become a norm for people. Users must be made aware of the fact that sharing personal details and photos can be misused by criminals or antisocial elements.

One must understand that every post on Facebook or such sites is not always backed by facts or truth. One must not make friends with unknown persons. Time and effort spent on social media can be used productively. Some people may use social media to spread religious fanaticism? or hatred. Social media should be used to help connect with people, not to disconnect or disintegrate from mainstream. It should be used to bring harmonys and love only.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 11

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used :
1. wldwd.- worldwide
2. effve. – effective
3. jdes. – judicious with near ones
4. respl. – responsible

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc.:
(a) popular wldwd.
(b) effve. means to remain in contact
(c) help us to keep abreast of current events.

2. Some cautions while using them :
(a) shouldn’t forget to make a jdcs. use of them
(b) should be respl. social media users
(c) young children to be taught their correct use.

3. The advantages of social media:
(a) sharing personal experiences
(b) can be shared with general public also.

4. Some grave possibilities:
(a) misuse by criminals
(b) not based on facts
(c) unknown / suspicious persons can become friends.

5. Useful advice:
(a) shouldn’t spend much time on the social media
(b) must not be influenced by fanaticism or hatred
(c) should be used to spread harmony and love.

(B) Title : Social Media — a Boon or a Bane?

Passage 2

Windows give the character to a house, just as final features reflect the personality in a face. Small changes in style, finish or proportions of windows can destroy the spririt of home. Consider carefully the effect that changes will make to the outside as well as the inside of the building. Until the seventeenth century, most windows were of the four-panel casement type. They opened outwards (or inside) like a door on butt hinges. The particular irregularity of the glass is important, and such windows are ruined by insensitive and mechanical metal casements and phoney lead lights.

Thereafter, sash window became more common in Britain and America; usually they open vertically, but horizontal-sliding sash windows have a peculiar charm and work well in wide, low frames. Today, we see a great use of glass, but originally windows were busily divided by mullions. The fine art of fenestration seems to have fallen by the wayside. Proper leaded lights, decorative Geogrian fanlights, and the dignified proportions conveyed by a satisfying geometry of wooden mullions seem to be a thing of the past. Replacing old windows with modern versions is almost always to the detrimento of house. Unfortunately, almost all double-glazing is hideous and metal-frames windows are heinous; terrible crimes are committed in the name of fuss-free windows. And blocking in a window or a glazed door can have a quite disproportionate effect on the light within – look closely at the path of light shed by the glazing in question before you decide to remove it.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 12

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations use:
1. chrct. – character
2. dest. — destroy
3. cfly. – carefully
4. otwds. – outwards
5. inwd. – inward
6. fnstn. – fenestration

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Importance of windows:
(a) give chrct. to house
(b) changes in finish & proper, can dest. spirit of house.
(c) effect of changes must be cfly. considered.

2. The windows in the seventeenth country:
(a) opened otwd. or inwd. like a door.
(b) such windows common in Britain & America.

3. Scenario today:
(a) people used to glass grates
(b) fine art of fnstn. has given way.

(B) Title : Significance of the Arrangement of Windows in a Building

Passage 3

In negotiation’, tactics and strategy are many a time mixed up. In simple words, tactics means negotiating small-scale and short-term interim? issues whereas strategy is about large-scale, longterm and final outcomes. For example, the strategic decisions about a journey will be about where the journey is from and to, the mode of travel – car, train, plane or boat – and when the journey takes place. On the other hand, from a tactical point of view, you would think of route and the terrain, the kind of traffic and other details regarding the nature of interaction with different people enroute this journey. So in negotiations, strategically you are more focused on the outcomes of your journey and tactically you think how to react to a situation or an action.

To be a successful negotiator, you need to take into account both these factors. We must choose them with care and with due regard for the outcome that we yearn for. Also they must be very effectively used. Having common interests with the negotiator will be an added advantage while making a negotiation. Such strategy leads to mutually beneficial agreements that can result in great satisfying needs of all parties. Such a strategy will require a high level of trust and a willingness to share ideas and make adjustments.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 13

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used:
1. strgy. – strategy
2. otcm. – outcome interim issues
3. undtk. – undertake
4. ptcl. – particular

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. In any negotiation :
(a) a mixture of tactics and strgy.
(b) tactics pertain to short-term
(c) strategy – the name given to long-term otcms.

2. Strategic decisions explained with journey as an example:
(a) will pertain to starting and finishing points
(b) will be about the mode of travel
(c) may be about the best time to undtk. the journey.

3. From the tactical point of view :
(a) one would think of route and terrain
(b) one would take into account the traffic, etc.
(c) the nature of interaction with people enroute will have to be considered.

4. Essentials to be a successful negotiator :
(a) need to be focused on the otcms. of the journey
(b) must know how to react in a ptcl. situation
(c) must choose them with care for a desired otcm.

5. Added advantages can be had by :
(a) an effective use of both – strgy. and tactics
(b) having common interests with the negotiator
(c) such strgy. will bring satisfaction to all parties.

6. Requirements of such a strgy.:
(a) a high level of mutual trust
(b) a ready willingness to make adjustments.

(B) Title : Negotiation – How it is Akin to a Journey

Passage 4

Swami Vivekanand wrote: We say, “Newton discovered Gravitaion. Was it sitting anywhere in a corner waiting for him?” It was in his mind. The time came and he found it out. All knowledge that the world has ever received comes from the mind. The infinite library of the universe is in your own mind. The external world is only the suggestion, the occasion’ which sets you to study your own mind. “No one was never really taught by anyone. Each of us has to teach himself. The external teacher offers only the suggestion which rouses the internal teacher to work to understand things. You cannot teach a child any more than you can grow a plant. The plant develops its own nature’. The child also teaches itself. But you can help him to go forward in his own way. Parents are constantly taxing their children to read and work, telling them that they will never learn anything and calling them fools and so forth”; the latter do actually turn out to be so in many cases. If you speak kind words to them and encourage them, they are bound to improve in time.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 14

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
Abbreviations used :
1. grvtn.- gravitaion
2. opprn.- opportune
3. knlge. — knowledge
4. lib. – library
5. extl. – external

(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Swami Vivakanand said about gravtn.
(a) was always there
(b) was not waiting in a corner
(c) in fact, was in Newton’s mind
(d) he found it at the opprn. moment.

2. What he said about the mind:
(a) all knlge. comes from the mind
(b) it is the infinite lib. of the universe
(c) extł. world only a suggestion, an occasion.

3. About teaching:
(a) no one can teach another
(b) everyone of us has to teach himself
(c) an extl. teacher can only offer a useful help.

4. Similarity between a child and a plant:
(a) a plant develops its own nature
(b) a child teaches itself.

5. What can we do to help a child ?
(a) should not tax our children to read and work.
(b) should not always call them witless or fools.
(c) If done so, they may actually turn into fools.
(d) should treat them kindly and always encourage them.
(e) This done, they are bound to improve in time.

(B) Title : The Mind – its Boundless Potential

Passage 5

The energy conservation’ in street lighting is a new concept. But various technologies applied to achieve the goals are not new. It has been adopted and tested in various Industrial and Medical applications from decades. So these technologies are trustworthy’, when adopted at street lighting energy conservation. This will yield results in conserving the electrical energy. However, when such technologies are applied in public domain”, the measurement and verification procedures should be strong and should be in place before implementing such projects. In case of energy efficiency projects in Karnataka, there was no baseline of energy consumption.

As a result, it has become very difficult to realize the savings on records. So without baseline reference, crystalline realization of Energy Savings is impossible. These projects were implemented for a portion of the entire town / city. The maximum area covered under the project is about 20% of the total city lamp population. Under such circumstances, it is difficult to bifurcate and analyse the bills. Moreover, billing pattern from electricity companies to the municipalities is very erratic and needs lots of modificaitions.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 15

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.
Model Answers
(A) Notes on the Passage:
1. Energy cons. in street lighting:
(a) a new concept
(b) various techs. applied
(c) techs. are t.worthy.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

2. When applied in public domain:
(a) should be in place before impmtg.
(b) Karnataka – no baseline in e.s.
(c) without baseline no e.s. possible

3. Project implementation in city / town:
(a) only 20% area covered
(b) not easy to bifct. & analyse bills
(c) bill patn. very erratic.

(B) Title : Energy Conservation in Street Lighting

Abbreviations used:
1. cons. – conservation
2. techs. – technologies
3. t.worthy. – trustworthy
4. impmtg. – implementing
5. e.s. – energy saving
6. bifct. – bifurcate
7. patn. – pattern

Passages For Practice

Passage 1

1. “Reading comprehension’ is the ability to know and understand what has been read. For example, when you read a passage about trains, you learn certain facts about this form of transport. Once you have finished reading, your teacher may ask you questions to find out how well you understood the passage. The meaning of a passage lies within the material being read, and you may understand or comprehend the meaning when you read a given passage. This can be termed as local comprehension.

2. Recently another idea about reading comprehension has become more common. Instead of simply asking the reader what meaning he or she has obtained from a given passage, a teacher may stress the importance of what ideas the passage stimulates in the reader’s mind. These ideas or these feelings are influenced by the reader’s own experience of what he or she is reading about. So when you read about trains, you may remember some of your own experiences when you were once travelling on or looking at trains. Words such as ‘engine’, ‘station’, or ‘passenger’ have their own special meaning for you.

For one person, an article about trains might bring memories of the time when a train he was in was three hours late because of a terrible storm. Another person might remember a train journey to a hill station during a holiday. A third person might recall4 a story she read about an exciting railway trip in a foreign land. Each reader ‘comprehends’ in a different manner. This can be termed as ‘global comprehension.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 16

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

Passage 2

1. Many people enjoy collecting things as a hobby. If you already have several costume dolls (i.e. dolls with dresses of particular period), or a pile of old comics, or a scrapbook containing picture cards, then you are already a collector. Collecting need not take up a lot of time, or cost a lot of money, but it can be rewarding and informative pastime. Everywhere you go, you may come across something new to add to your collection.

2. It does not really matter? what you collect. You can collect model aircraft, badges, postcards, glassware, pottery, matchbox labels, sports programmes, autographs, rocks, fossils”, and practically anything small enough to bring home and keep in a box or drawer. As your collection grows4, you will become more expert in the subject that most interests you. Yet, the more you know, the more there will be still to discover. You will make friends with other collectors, and perhaps join a collectors’ club or society.

3 A collection need not be of costly things. A scrapbook filled with newspaper cuttings and holiday photogaphs will grow in interest and value with the passing years. If it is kept safely, it will be a treasure store of interest, not just for you when you are older, but perhaps for your children and grandchildren in years to come. 4 Simple everyday things (food cans, magazines, buttons, and toys are examples) can become collector’s items in future. Some may become valuable. Greeting cards made in the 19th century, for instance, are now carefully collected. In a hundred years’ time, someone may be keenly interested in your last year’s birthday cards !

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 17

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

Passage 3
1. How does television affect our lives ? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world; there are high-quality programmes that help us understand many fields of study; science, medicine, the arts and so on. Moreover, television benefits very old people, who can’t often leave the house as well as patients in hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantages of daily informal language practice. They can increase their vocabulary and practise listening.

2. On the other hand, there are several serious disadvantages of television. Of course, it provides us with a pleasant way to relax? and spend our free time, but in some countries, people watch the ‘boob-tube’ for an average of six hours or more a day. Many children stare at a television screen for more hours each day than they do anything else, including studying and sleeping. It is clear that the tube has a powerful influence on their Yives and that its influence is often negative.

3. Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of television, a person’s brain ‘relaxes’ the same way that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television on the human brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration4. Children who view a lot of television can often concentrate on a subject for only fifteen to twenty minutes. They can pay attention only for the amount of time between commercials.

Word-meanings :
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 18

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

Passage 4

1. Tourism has emerged as the world’s largest industry. Growing rapidly in the last two
decades’, today it accounts for 6% of world output? and employs some 100 million people around the globe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has developed immense revenue and development potential* and stands today as a unique natural renewables
resource industry.

2. Tourism – the travel-based recreation – provides people with a change of place and a break from the monotony? of daily life. It brings people of different nations together, allowing them to come into close contact with each other’s customs and other aspects of life. It reveals the scenic beauty8 and past heritage of a country of people belonging to other nations. The knowledge and experience gained in the process can lead to greater understanding and tolerancelo, and can even foster world peace.

3. The contribution of tourism can be seen nowhere more clearly than on the economic front. A study conducted by the United Nations has shown that developing countries, in particular, can reap handsome benefits out of tourism which greatly boosts national income. 4 Tourism generates employment, and adds to the entrepreneurial wealth of a nation. While tourism’s advantages are many, its undesirable side effects have raised fresh problems.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 19

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

Passage 5
1. It’s headache having a headache. Almost all of us have suffered from a headache at some time or the other. For some, a headache is a constant companion and life can be a painful hell of wasted time.

2. The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. In tension headaches (two-hand headache), a feeling of a tight band around the head exists along with pain in the neck and shoulders. It usually follows activities such as long stretches of driving, typing or sitting on the desk. They are usually short-lived but can also last for days or weeks.

3. A headache is usually caused due to spinal misalignment of the head and due to poor posture. Sleeping on the stomach with the head turned to one side and bending over positions for a long time make it worse.

4. In migraine headaches (one-handed headaches), the pain is usually on one side of the head and may be accompanied by nausea”, vomiting, irritability and bright spots of flashes of light. This headache is made worse by activity, especially bending. The throbbing pain in the head gets worse by noise and light. Certain triggers for migraines may be chocolate, caffeine”, smoking or MSU in certain food items. The pain may last from 8 to 24 hours and there may be a hangover’ for two-three days.

5. Migraines are often preceded by an ‘aura’ – changes in sight and sensation. There is usually a family history of migraine.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 20

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

Passage 6

1. Properly planned and executed’ holidays can tone up2 both mind and body. But many of us don’t know how to take a holiday. Good planning is all-important. A leading clinical psychologist reports that many people seek his help after poorly planned holidays that have led to family quarrels. Instead of making their holiday a period of rest, development of understanding and love for their families, people try to block everything out with ‘funpacked’ activity. When the ‘fun’ is over, they return in worse shape, mentally and physically,
than when it began.

2. Here are other common holiday errors which, as a doctor, I caution against : some of us delude ourselves into thinking that a quick holiday will give instanto relaxation and get us back on the track. Most people need a full three weeks or longer. To get any lasting good out of your holiday, you must have a change of pace and scene. That is one reason why travel can be so helpful. Thus, spending your entire holiday at home may be a mistake. Another common error that tourists often make is trying to see and do far too much. To be able to live in peace and quiet for a time is a mark of maturity. It gives you a chance to think about your family and yourself.

3. A holiday’s success is measurable by the results it produces. A good one is often marked by relaxed muscles, more satisfying sleep, slower heart rate and reduction in blood pressure.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 21

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making

Passage 7
1. Contrary to popular belief, the camel does not store water in its hump?. The hump is a food reserve composed mainly of fat. Although water is produced when the fat is broken down, the oxygen used in the process causes an additional loss of water through the lungs. This more or less cancels the amount of water gained from the hump. The main advantage of the hump is that the camel’s fat is concentrated in a single place – allowing the camel to lose heat freely from the rest of its body.

2. Another way in which camels conserve water is by retaining the urea which most mammals excrete in their urine. The urea is built up into proteins by bacteria in the camel’s stomach.

3. In addition, camels avoid sweating by allowing their body temperature to vary over a greater range than that of any other mammal. Camels do not begin to sweat until their body temperature reaches 46°C. After a lengthy period without water, camels will drink up to 180 litres at a time. They swell visibly in the process, and dilute their blood and tissue fluids to an extent that would kill most other mammals. Part of the explanation for the camel’s prodigiouss drinking ability may be the unusual shape of its blood corpuscles. They are oval rather than round. When it drinks, its blood as well as its tissues can absorb large amounts of water because the oval corpuscles can swell into spheres without any danger of the cell-walls bursting.

Word-meanings:
PSEB 11th Class English Composition Note-Making 22

Questions
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Give a suitable title to the passage.

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Notice Writing Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing Speech

A notice is a publicly displayed written or printed information of something about to happen or that has happened. It is a kind of information meant for others to know and follow.

Always remember-

  1. The language of a notice should be impersonal. It should be written in the third person.
  2. First and second person Pronouns like T and you should never be used.
  3. The notice must be put in a square box.
  4. It must contain complete information.
  5. The purpose of the notice must be made very clear.
  6. Date of writing the notice should also be mentioned.
  7. It should carry all necessary information.
  8. It must have a signature and the designation.

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

A Specimen of Notice-writing

You are the Secretary, Cultural Club of your school. The school is celebrating its Annual Day on the 25th of February. Draft a notice to be put up on the noticeboard of your school, informing the badge holders and house captains of a meeting you are going to conduct to take decisions on some important matters regarding the conduct of the programme. The notice should not exceed 50 words.
PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing 1

Examination-Style Examples of Notices

1. A debate on the uses and abuses of mobile phones is being organised in your school on 18 April 20 ………. The Education Minister will be the chief guest. All the students of classes 8th to 12th are invited to participate. The Principal of the school has asked you, the student secretary of the cultural committee, to inform the students about the programme and to ask the interested participants to give their names to Mr Singh, the English teacher.

Write a notice for the students’ noticeboard, inviting the students to give their names within four days. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Notice

10 April 20 …….

A debate on the uses and abuses of mobile phones is being organised in our school on 18 April 20……. . The Education Minister will be the chief guest. All the students of classes 8th to 12th are invited to participate. Those interested to take part in the debate should give their names to Mr Singh, the English teacher, within four days.

Avinash Kapoor
Student Secretary
Cultural Society

2. Samson of class X has just passed his annual examination. Two of his books are in a fairly good condition and he wants to sell them at reduced prices. He puts up a notice on the school noticeboard, giving all the necessary details. Write the notice, using not more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Notice

18 April 20 …….

Second-Hand Books For Sale
High School English Grammar
Tulip English Reader, Book 10.

The above two books are in a very good condition and can be had at only 50% of their printed price. Those interested may please contact the undersigned.

Samson
Class XI-A
(Last year in X-A)

3. A boy is missing. The police are trying to find him. They ask his parents about him. The police have to draft a notice to he published in a newspaper about the missing boy. Draft the notice in not more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Notice

18 April 20 …….

The Missing Boy

A boy, aged twelve, of fair complexion and tall thin body, has been missing from the Krishna Nagar locality of the town since Monday evening. The boy was last seen in the Nehru Park and was wearing a striped shirt with blue jeans. Anyone who can provide a clue in tracing the missing boy will be suitably rewarded. Such persons can inform the nearest police station or ring up 100.

4. Mr Vivek Kumar, a child psychologist, wants to open a nursery school. He asks you to draft a notice on his behalf to be published in a newspaper. Give necessary details without any extra information.
Answer:
25 January 20………

Lovedale Nursery School
Admission Notice

No one can train your child better than a child psychologist. And here at Lovedale Nursery School, your child will learn and grow under the direct guidance of a child psychologist in a healthy child-friendly environment. Admission starts from the 15 th of February. Admission forms can be had from the school office between 10.00 a.m. and 2.00 p.m. on ail working days.

5. Meenakshi Goel is the Sports Captain of Navodava School. The sports day is to be held on March 21st which is just two weeks away. She has to inform House Captains that they have to submit the names of the participants to her in a week’s time. A student cannot take part in more than three events excluding the relay. Any delay or wrong information will lead to disqualification of the student.
Write the notice for Meenakshi, using not more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Notice

7 March 20 …….

Navodaya School, Rampur Participants For Sports Day Events

For the Sports Day to be held on 21st March, House Captains should submit the names of the participants in a week’s time. No student can take part in more than three events, excluding the relay. Any delay or wrong information will lead to disqualification.

Meenakshi (Sports Captain)

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

6. You are Anupam, the secretary of the school quiz club. You want to hold an inter¬class competition to decide on the entries for the Inter-school Quiz Competition to be held 2 weeks from now. Draft a notice for the students’ noticeboard, inviting the intending participants. Mention all details required like entry dates, prizes, etc. Give your notice an appealing heading. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Notice

7 March 20 …….

Prizes Through Quizzes

The Inter-school Quiz Competition is going to be held two weeks from now. In. order to decide on the entries for the same, we have decided to hold an inter¬class competition on Monday, the 15th. All those who desire to participate should give their names to the undersigned by tomorrow. The best three participants shall be awarded free school blazers.

Anupam
(Secretary, School Quiz Club)

7. You are Rubina, the Head Girl of City Public School, Moga. You were given the following letter and told to put up a notice on the school noticeboard. Including the details from the letter, write the notice in not more than 50 words. Do not give any extra information. Put the notice in a box.

Arpana Clinic
Rajaji Street
Moga
20 February 20 ………
The Principal
City Public School
Moga
Sir

I acknowledge the receipt of your letter and accept your invitation to speak to the children on dental care. Your efforts to make children aware of dental hygiene should be appreciated.

The 25th of this month would be a convenient day for me. I will speak to them for an hour and make it interesting through demonstrations and slides. I hope you will inform them of the same.

Thank you very much
Yours faithfully
Dr Celine
Answer:

Notice

21 February 20 ………..

City Public School, Moga Lecture On Dental Care & Hygiene

Dr Celine, the eminent dentist of the city, has very kindly agreed to give a lecture on dental care and hygiene. The lecture will be held on the 25th of this month in the school hall, at 11.30 a.m. It will be an interesting and useful lecture through demonstrations and slides. All are requested to attend.

Rubina
(Head Girl)

8. You are Sharat, the President of the Interact Club of your school. You wish to organize a snack bar on the Sports Day of your school. The proceeds of the sale will go for charity. You have to put up a notice on the noticeboard of your school, calling for a meeting to discuss the same. Draft the notice, giving all the details in not more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Students’ Noticeboard

23 March 20 ………..

It has been desired by some members of the Interact Club that a snack bar should be organised on the Sports Day of the school. The Principal has given his consent. The proceeds of the sale will go for charity to the local orphanage.

In order to discuss about the same, a meeting will be held in the club office on the 27th of this month in the recess period. All the members are requested to attend the meeting.

Sharat
(President)
Interact Club

9. You are the Student Secretary of your school. You are asked by the Principal of the school to inform students of classes 8th to 12th about an Inter-school Debate Competition to be held in your school on 5th April 20 Draft a suitable notice for the same.
Answer:

Notice

25 March 20 ……….

Blossoms Public School, Ludhiana

An Inter-school Debate Competition for the students of classes 8th to 12th will be held in our school on 5th April 20 The topic of the debate will be ‘Caste-Based Reservation : a Bane or a Boon. Those who want to take part in this debate should give their names to the undersigned within three days.

Munish Verma
(Student Secretary)

10. You are Akhil / Akanksha, the Head Boy / Girl of Modern Public School, Raikot. As part of social service, your school has decided to clean the surroundings. Write a notice, in not more than 50 words, for your school noticeboard, asking for the names of the students of senior wing who wish to participate wholeheartedly.
Answer:

Notice

20 April 20………..

Modern Public School, Raikot

The school has decided to clean its surroundings as part of social service on 30 April 20 ……. The students of senior wing who wish to participate in it are requested to give names to the undersigned by the 25th of this month. The participants must be willing to work wholeheartedly in this social cause.

Akhil
(Head Boy)

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

11. You are Salman / Salma of St. Joseph s School, Ramnagar. Your school is organizing a charity show in aid of the victims of recent floods. Write a notice to be put up on the school noticeboard, inviting names of the students from classes IX-XII interested in participating. Also urge them to contribute generously to the cause. Write the notice in not more than 50 words.
Answer:

Notice

20 April 20……….

St. Joseph’s School, Ramnagar

The recent floods in the stare have caused a great havoc. The school has decided to organize a charity show to collect funds for the victims of these floods. The students of Classes IX to XII who are interested in participating should give thqpr’ names to the undersigned by the 25th of this month. Ail students are also requested to donate generously for this noble cause.

Salman
(Head Boy)

Exercise From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

1. You are Amrinder, the Secretary of the Eco Club of your school. Write a notice for the students about the celebration of ‘Ban Plastics Day’ to create awareness regarding the dangers of using plastic products. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

N. M. Oswal Public School, Jagraon
Notice
Eco Club

24 December 20 ……….

To create awareness regarding the dangers of using plastic products, the Eco Club of the school is going to hold the celebration of ‘Ban Plastics Day’ on 30 December 20 …….. on the school grounds, at 11.00 a.m. Eminent environmentalists will deliver lectures on the dangers posed by plastics. The students of all classes have to be present there. They can bring with them posters, articles and placards against the use of plastics.

Amrinder
Secretary

2. You are Krishna, the Head Boy of Guru Nanak Public School, Nabha. You found a tiffin box in the playground. Draft a notice for the school noticeboard. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

Guru Nanak Public School, Nabha
Notice
Lost And Found

30 March 20 …………

A tiffin box has been found in the school playground. It is of brown colour and is of Milton make. The owner can collect it from the school office after proving his / her ownership of the item.

Krishna
(Head Boy)

3. You are Priya, the Head Girl of S.D. Public School, Moga. Your school is organizing its Annual Day Function. Your school Activities In-charge has asked you to call a meeting of all the members of the School Students’ Council to allocate different duties for the Annual Day Function. Draft a notice for all members to attend the meeting. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

S. D. Public School, Moga
Notice
Annual Day Function

4 Februaiy 20 ………..

Our school is organizing its Annual Day Function on the 25th of February. For this purpose, a meeting of all the members of the School Students’ Council has been called for allocating different duties for the Function tomorrow at 10.00 a.m. in the office of the Activities In-charge. All the members must attend the meeting.

Priya
(Head Girl)

4. Suppose you are Akshay. You are the Secretary of Arya Model Senior Secondary School, Ludhiana. Write a notice for students, informing them about the details of an Inter¬class Science Quiz to be organized in your school.
Answer:

Arya Model Sen. Sec. School, Ludhiana
Notice
Inter-Class Science Quiz

5 September 20………..

This is to inform all the students that an Inter-class Science Quiz is going to be held on the 20th of this month. Dr Narendra Gautam, the famous scientist, will act as the judge. Those who wish to take part in the Quiz should give their names to the undersigned by the 15th of this month.

Akshay
(School Secretary)

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

5. Suppose you are Navneet, the President of the Readers’ Club of the your school. ‘Penguin Books’ is organizing a book fair in your school to promote the habit of reading among students. Draft a notice, inviting the students to visit this fair and get the best books. Put the notice in a box.
Answer:

A. B. Sen. Sec. School, Kapurthala
Notice
A Book Fair

14 May 20 ……….

With a view to promoting the habit of reading among students, the famous publishers, ‘Penguin Books’, are organizing a book fair in our school from the 20th to 23rd of this month. Books on all possible subjects will be on display. Books will be available for purchase on maximum discount. Therefore, the students are advised to visit this book fair in maximum numbers and buy the books of their choice.

Navneet
President
Readers’ Club

6. You are Muskan. You are the Secretary of ‘Literacy Club’ of Government Senior Secondary School, Bhim Nagar, Moga. Your school is organising a lecture by famous English author, Ruskin Bond, during the ‘Literacy Week’ being organized in your school. Draft a notice, informing the students about the lecture.
Answer:

Govt. Sen. Sec. School, Bhim Nagar, Moga
Notice
Lecture By Ruskin Bond

25 November 20 ………

Our school is going to organize a lecture by the famous English author, Ruskin Bond, during the ‘Literacy Week’ which will be celebrated by the school from 30 November 20…….. to 5 December 20 …….. Students will do well to attend this lecture in maximum numbers. This is bound to be a very educative lecture. Don’t miss it.

Muskan
Secretary
Literacy Club

7. You are Mohan, Sports Secretary of R.S.D. College, Firozpur. Your school is organizing a T-20 match with a nearby college. Draft a notice for the students, giving them details about the time and venue, etc.
Answer:

R.S.D. College, Firozpur
Notice
T-20 Cricket Match

27 October 20 ……….

Our college is organizing a T-20 cricket match against the local Khalsa College. The match will be played on the 30th of October on the college grounds. This will be a very interesting match. Timing of the match will be from 3.00 p.m. onwards. Students are requested to come and watch this match in maximum numbers.

Mohan
(Sports Secretary)

8. Your District Transport Officer has issued an advisory for a week-long Anti-Pollution Drive in your district. Draft a notice about it for the general public.
Answer:

District Transport Officer, Moga
Public Notice
Anti-Pollution Drive

16 June 20 ………

This is to inform the general public that a week-long Anti-Pollution Drive will be launched from the 20th of June to the 25th of june. During this drive, the pollution control certificate of every vehicle will be checked.

Narottam Purohit
(D.T.O, Moga)

9. The Northern Railways, Ambala, has issued a public notice for some special trains for the comfort of passengers arranged during the celebration of the ‘Kumbh Mela’ at Kurukshetra. Draft the notice, giving the details of the special trains and their schedule.
Answer:

Northern Railways, Ambala
Public Notice
Special Trains For Kumbh Mela

17 June 20 ………

Northern Railways have decided to run special trains to cope up with the passengers’ rush during the Kumbh Mela that will be held in Kurukshetra. These are the names and numbers of the special trains : 1006 Up Kurukshetra Express, 3006 Up Pilgrim Express and 0211 Down Shalimar Express. The dates and timings of these trains can be obtained from the Railway enquiry number 139.

Sd/ ……..
(Commercial Superintendent)

10. As the Head Girl of your school, you are organizing a Career Counselling Seminar for the students of classes XI and XII. Draft a notice for the students, giving details about the timing and venue.
Answer:

S.D. Vidya Manoir, Jalandhar
Notice
Career Counselling Seminar

18 July 20 ………..

A Career Counselling Seminar is being organized in the school on 20 July 20 ……… Famous Career Counseller, Vidya Devi, has graciously consented to preside over the seminar. This is a great opportunity for the students seeking career in different fields. The students of XI and XII classes should particularly make it a point to attend the seminar. Timing of the seminar will be from 3.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m.

Paramjit Kaur
(Head Girl)

11. You are Aarti, the Secretary of the Social Welfare Club of Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Khanna. Your school is organizing a special cultural show in aid of Children with Special Needs of your city. Draft a notice, informing the schoolchildren about the details of this programme.
Answer:

Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Khanna
Notice
Special Cultural Benefit Show

20 July 20 ……….

Our school is organizing a special cultural benefit show in the aid of Children with Special Needs (CWSN) of our city on 25 July 20 . In this show, skits, songs, jokes and folk dance will be presented by the children of our school. Tickets for this show are available with the school office. The money collected through the show will be sent to the Composite Rehabilitaion Centre of our city. All people are invited to this show. Venue for the show is the auditorium of our school. Timing of the show is 4.00 p.in. to 7.00 p.m.

Aarti
Secretary
Social Welfare Club

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

12. You are Yogesh, the Head Boy of Jain Public School, Bamala. Draft a notice regarding a bicycle found in the school campus.
Answer:

Jain Public School, Barnala
Notice
Lost And Found

20 August 20………

A bicycle was found in the school campus yesterday. It is an Avon cycle of black colour with red seat cover. Whosoever is the owner of the bicycle should collect it from the school office during working hours.

Yogesh
(Head Boy)

13. You are Lovepreet, President of Guru Gobind Singh Apartments Society, Mohali. There is a serious problem of frequent power failure in your society. You want to organize a meeting to find a solution to this problem. Draft a notice for all residents, inviting them to attend the meeting.
Answer:

Guru Gobind Singh Apartments Society, Mohali
Notice

26 October 20 ……….

The residents of Guru Gobind Singh Apartments Society are nowadays facing the problem of frequent power failure. To find a solution to this problem, a meeting of the residents is being organized tomorrow at 6.00 p.m. in the Community Centre. All residents should make it a point to attend the meeting.

Lovepreet
President

14. You are the President of Eco Club of your school. Draft a notice, requesting the students to keep the school campus clean and green.
Answer:

Arya Sen. Sec. School, Hoshiarpur
Notice

17 November 20 ……..

It has been found that some students are indulging in making the school look dir|y by throwing paper scraps and other rubbish here and there and destroying the plants. It tarnishes the image of the school. The students should think it their duty to keep the campus clean and green. They should treat the school as their second home. If they don’t mend their ways, strict action will be taken against such students.

Raman
President
Eco Club

15. You are Sujan Singh, Executive Engineer with State Highways Authority, Punjab. Draft a tender notice for the widening of the road between Chandigarh and Ludhiana.
Answer:

State Highways Authority, Punjab
Tender Notice

15 March 20……….

The road between Chandigarh and Ludhiana is to be widened. For this purpose, State Highways Authority, Punjab, invites tenders from reputed road-construction firms. Sealed tenders should reach the headquarters of State Highways Authority, Punjab, at Chandigarh within 15 days from the publication of this notice.

Sujan Singh
(Executive Engineer)

16. Suppose you are the Principal of Government Senior Secondary School, Dhaliwal. Your school needs some new desktop computers. Draft a tender notice for the supply of the desktop computers..
Answer:

Govt. Sen. Secondary School, Dhaliwal
Tender Notice

20 April 20……….

Government Senior Secondary School, Dhaliwal, requires 20 desktop computers for its new computer laboratory which is under construction. For this purpose, tenders are invited from reputed computer firms. Sealed tenders should reach the Administrative Officer of the School by 5 May 20………

Sdl-
(Principal)

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

17. Suppose you are the Principal of Swami Vivekanand School, Jalandhar. Your school wants to dispose of some of the old desktop computers and printers. Draft a tender notice for the sale of the old desktop computers and printers.
Answer:

Swami Vivekanand School, Jalandhar
Tender Notice
Sale Of Old Computers

27 August 20 ……..

The school has many old desktop computers and printers. The school intends to dispose of them. For that purpose, tenders are invited from the firms that deal with second-hand things. Sealed tenders should reach the office of Swami Vivekanand School, Jalandhar, within ten days from.the publication of the tender notice.

Sd/…….
(Principal)

18. You are the Property Incharge of your school. Your school is constructing a new classroom. Draft a tender notice for the supply of construction material for the room.
Answer:

Nyaan International School, Rajpura
Tender Notice

6 February 20………..

A new classroom is to be constructed for the new Senior Secondary Wing of the school. For that purpose, tenders are invited from the construction material suppliers. Sealed tenders should reach the office of the school by the 10th of this month.

Gurdarshan Singh
(Property Incharge)

19. Your father has left an old Fiat car for you. You don’t need it. So draft a notice for its auction.
Answer:

Auction Notice
Old Car For Sale

25 September 20………

As I am going abroad soon, I wish to dispose of my Maruti Swift car as soon as possible. It is a 2011 model of white colour. It has done 7000 kms and is accident- free, fully insured and in a very good running condition. Its auction is going to be held at my house – 113, Ashiana Enclave, Rajpura Road, Ludhiana – on 5 October 20….. at 4.00 p.m. Interested bidders may come on the given date, time and place.

Bhanu Pratap

20. Your school has some old furniture and almirahs lying in the stores. Draft an auction notice for their disposal.
Answer:

Prabh Dayaal Public School, Hoshiarpur
Auction Notice

16 July 20……….

Some old furniture and almirahs are lying in the stores of the school. The school wants to dispose of them. For this purpose, an auction of these items will be held in the school campus on 28 July 20 at 11.00 a.nr. Interested bidders should reach the auction venue on the given date and time.

Rajinder Vaswani
(Property Incharge)

Notice-Writing Tasks For Practice

1. Rahul of X-A wants to start an Art Club in school. He has spoken to a well-known artist, who has agreed to conduct art workshops after school. His Principal has given permission for the workshops and for an Art Exhibition to be held to celebrate the Independence Day of India. Rahul decides to write a notice to get those interested in art to take part in the programme. Write out the notice in not more than 50 words. Give the notice an appealing heading. Put the notice in a box.

2. Write a notice for the school noticeboard, informing students about the school inspection to be held on 2.3.20 by the District Education Officer. The notice should be of maximum 50 words, stressing on punctuality, cleanliness and discipline. Put the notice in a box.

3. A notice for the students’ noticeboard is to be prepared regarding a tree plantation ceremony to be held on 7th July, 20 in the school premises, inviting students to participate in it by contributing at least five plants from each class. The notice should not have more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.

4. The school has decided to hold a fete in the school playground. The Principal has asked you to write, as the Head Boy / Head Girl of the school, a notice about this fete, inviting the students and the teachers to participate in it. The notice should include all necessary details. Write out the notice in not more than 50 words excluding the heading. Put the notice in a box.

5. You are the Head Girl of St. Clare’s High School. The office-bearers and the Principal have had a meeting on raising funds for the slum-dwellers in the neighbourhood. A certificate and an award will be given for the one who donates most. Write the notice for your school noticeboard, requesting the students to donate generously. The notice should not be in more than 50 words. Put the notice in a box.

6. You are the Student Editor of your school magazine (Gandhi Memorial School, Ludhiana). Write out a notice in not more than 50 words, inviting the names of those who would like to give articles, stories, cartoons, etc. for the school magazine. Put the notice in a box.

PSEB 11th Class English Notice Writing

7. Ramesh Kaushal of Class XI-A has lost his bus pass somewhere in the school compound. The pass bears his name as well as photograph. He puts up a notice on the school noticeboard, giving all the necessary details. Write the notice, using not more than 50 words. Try to make this notice catch people’s attention. Put the notice in a box.

8. Your school has decided to choreograph a dance drama for the school Annual Day. You are the Cultural Secretary of the school. Write a notice in not more than 50 words for your school noticeboard, inviting talented students on 12th Nov. in the auditorium. They will be selected by the famous dancer, Sarala Nagpal. Put the notice in a box.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 English Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the peasant’s routine before breakfast ?
Answer:
The peasant would go to his field early in the morning. He would take his breakfast with him. There he would plough his field before taking his breakfast.

प्रातः किसान बहुत सवेरे अपने खेत की ओर जाता। वह अपना नाश्ता अपने साथ ले जाता। वहां वह अपना नाश्ता करने से पहले अपने खेत में हल चलाया करता।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 2.
Who had stolen the peasant’s bread ? Why ?
Answer:
An imp had stolen the peasant’s bread. He had come there to obey his master’s command. He had been ordered to corrupt the gentle peasant. He wanted to make the peasant swear. He wanted to make him call on the name of the devil.

एक इम्प ने किसान की रोटी चुराई थी। वह वहां अपने मालिक के आदेश का पालन करने आया था। उसे भोलेभाले किसान को बिगाड़ने का आदेश मिला था। वह किसान से अपशब्द बुलवाना चाहता था। वह चाहता था कि किसान डेवल का नाम ले-ले कर पुकारे।

Question 3.
What was the peasant’s reaction when he found his breakfast stolen by the imp?
Answer:
When the peasant found his breakfast stolen, he didn’t get angry. He did not swear in the name of the Devil. He only said, “After all, I shall not die of hunger ! No doubt, whoever took the bread needed it. May it do him good !”.

जब किसान ने देखा कि उसका नाश्ता किसी ने चुरा लिया था तो वह क्रोधित नहीं हुआ। उसने शैतान के नाम से गालियां नहीं निकाली। उसने सिर्फ इतना कहा, “आखिर मैं भूख से मर नहीं जाऊँगा ! निस्सन्देह जो भी रोटी ले गया है, उसे इसकी ज़रूरत होगी। ईश्वर करे इससे उसका भला हो !”

Question 4.
Why was the imp upset to find the peasant calm ?
Answer:
The imp was upser because he had failed in his business. He had stolen the peasant’s bread to provoke him to swear in the name of the Devil. But the peasant did not get angry. Rather he remained calm. The imp had not been able to make the peasant do any wrong. So he was upset.

इम्प परेशान था क्योंकि वह अपने काम में असफल रहा था। उसने किसान को भड़काने के लिए उसकी रोटी चुराई थी ताकि वह शैतान के नाम से गालियां निकाले। परन्तु किसान क्रोधित नहीं हुआ। बल्कि वह शान्त रहा। इम्प किसान से कोई भी ग़लत काम नहीं करवा पाया था। इसलिए वह परेशान था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 5.
What was the threat given to the imp by his master, the devil ?
Answer:
The devil had ordered the imp to corrupt the gentle peasant. But the imp failed in it. At this, the devil became angry with the imp. He said to the imp that if in three years, he did not get the better of the peasant, he would be thrown into holy water.

डेवल ने इम्प को आदेश दिया था कि वह भोले-भाले किसान को बिगाड़ दे। परन्तु इम्प इस काम में असफल रहा। इस पर डेवल उससे क्रोधित हो गया। उसने इम्प से कहा कि यदि वह तीन वर्षों में उस किसान को अपने वश में नहीं कर सका, तो उसे पवित्र पानी में फेंक दिया जाएगा।

Question 6.
What advice did the imp give to the peasant in the first year ?
Answer:
The imp wanted to make the gentle peasant corrupt. For this, he decided to make the peasant rich. And that could be done only if the peasant had good crops. So the first year, the imp advised the peasant to sow corn in a low-lying damp place.

इम्प भोले-भाले किसान को बिगाड़ना चाहता था। इसके लिए उसने किसान को अमीर बनाने का निश्चय किया। और ऐसा तभी किया जा सकता था, यदि किसान को अच्छी फसल प्राप्त होती। इसलिए पहले वर्ष में इम्प ने किसान को परामर्श दिया कि वह अनाज को निचली नम जगह में बोए।

Question 7.
What was the result of the imp’s advice ?
Answer:
The peasant took the imp’s advice and sowed corn in a low-lying damp place. That year happened to be a very dry one. The hot sun burnt up the crops of the other peasants. But the poor peasant had a very good crop.

किसान ने इम्प का परामर्श मान कर बीजों को निचली नम जगह में बो दिया। वह वर्ष बहुत सूखे का वर्ष रहा। तेज़ धूप से अन्य किसानों की फसलें झुलस गईं। किन्तु उस गरीब किसान की फसल बहुत अच्छी रही।

Question 8.
What was the imp’s advice the second year ?
Answer:
The second year, the imp advised the peasant to grow corn on a hill.
दूसरे वर्ष इम्प ने किसान को परामर्श दिया कि वह अनाज को किसी पहाड़ी पर बोए।

Question 9.
What happened during the second year ?
Answer:
That year, it happened to be a wet summer. It rained heavily. As a result, the crops of the other people were beaten down with rain. But the peasant’s crop was on the hill. It grew very fine once again and it made the peasant rich.

उस वर्ष ग्रीष्म ऋतु बहुत बरसात वाली रही। बहुत जोरों की बरसात हई। इसके परिणाम स्वरूप अन्य लोगों की फसलें वर्षा के चलते नीचे बैठ गईं। परन्तु उस किसान की फसल पहाड़ी के ऊपर थी। यह एक बार फिर से बहुत बढ़िया उग आई और इसने किसान को धनी बना दिया।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 10.
What did the imp teach the peasant to do with the excess grain he had ?
Answer:
The imp taught the peasant how he could crush the grain and make vodka from it. In fact, the imp had got the better of the peasant. He had only made certain that the peasant had more grain than he needed. Then he showed him the way to get pleasure out of it. He showed him the way of drinking.

इम्प ने किसान को सिखाया कि वह अनाज को पीस कर उससे वोदका (शराब) कैसे बना सकता था। वास्तव में इम्प ने किसान को अपने वश में कर लिया था। उसने सिर्फ इस बात को निश्चित किया था कि किसान के पास उसकी ज़रूरत से ज्यादा अनाज हो जाए। फिर उसने उसे इस में से खुशी प्राप्त करने का रास्ता दिखा दिया। उसने उसे शराब पीने का रास्ता दिखा दिया।

Question 11.
What happened when the guests in the peasant’s house drank the first glass of vodka?
Answer:
When the guests in the peasant’s house drank the first glass of vodka, they started telling nice lies about each other. They made soft speeches full of lies. They behaved like foxes, trying to please each other. Thus they began to cheat each other with their false talk.

जब किसान के घर आए मेहमानों ने वोदका (शराब) का पहला गिलास पिया, तो उन्होंने एक-दूसरे के बारे में मीठे-मीठे झूठ बोलने शुरू कर दिए। वे झूठ से भरी मीठी-मीठी बातें करने लगे। एक-दूसरे को खुश करने की कोशिश में वे लोमड़ों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे। इस प्रकार वे अपनी झूठी बातों से एक-दूसरे को धोखा देने लगे।

Question 12.
What happened as they drank the second glass ?
Answer:
As they drank the second glass of vodka, their talk became wilder and rougher. Instead of making soft speeches, they began to grow angry. Soon, they started behaving like fierce wolves. They started fighting and abusing each other. They hit each other on the nose.

जैसे ही उन्होंने वोदका का दूसरा गिलास पिया, उनकी बातें पहले से ज़्यादा गंवारों वाली और उग्र हो गईं। मीठीमीठी बातें करने की बजाए अब वे क्रोधित होने लगे। शीघ्र ही वे भयंकर भेड़ियों की तरह व्यवहार करने लगे। वे एकदूसरे से लड़ने लगे तथा गालियां निकालने लगे। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे की नाक पर चूंसे मारे।

Question 13.
What happened when the guests had their third glass ?
Answer:
When the guests had their third glass of vodka, they stopped fighting with each other. Now they started behaving like pigs. They made strange noises. They shouted without knowing why. They did not listen to one another.

जब मेहमानों ने वोदका (शराब) का तीसरा गिलास पिया, तो उन्होंने एक-दूसरे के साथ लड़ना बंद कर दिया। अब उन्होंने सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया। वे अजीब-अजीब आवाजें करने लगे। बिना कोई कारण जाने वे चिल्लाने लगे। वे एक-दूसरे की कोई बात नहीं सुन रहे थे।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 14.
What exactly had the imp done ?
Answer:
The imp had got the better of the peasant. He had only made certain that the peasant had more grain than he needed. Then he showed him the way to get pleasure out of it. He showed him the way of drinking.

इम्प ने किसान को अपने वश में कर लिया था। उसने केवल यह बात निश्चित की थी कि किसान के पास ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा अनाज हो जाए। फिर उसने किसान को इसमें आनन्द प्राप्त करने का रास्ता बताया। यह रास्ता शराब पीने का रास्ता था।

Question 15.
How was the imp rewarded by his master ?
Answer:
The imp had finally succeeded in his plan to corrupt the gentle peasant and thus he had obeyed the command of his master. The master forgave the imp for his former mistake and gave him a position of high honour.

इम्प आखिरकार भोले-भाले किसान को बिगाड़ने की अपनी योजना में सफल हुआ था, और इस प्रकार उसने अपने मालिक की आज्ञा का पालन किया था। मालिक ने इम्प को उसकी पहले वाली गलती के लिए क्षमा कर दिया और उसे ऊँचे सम्मान की एक जगह दे दी।

Question 16.
What did the peasant not understand when he lifted his coat ?
Answer:
When the peasant lifted his coat, he found his breakfast missing. He looked here and there. He turned the coat over and shook it. But he found the bread nowhere. The peasant could not understand all this.

जब किसान ने अपना कोट उठाया, तो उसने देखा कि उसका नाश्ता गायब था। उसने इधर-उधर देखा। उसने कोट को उल्टा करके इसे झटकाया। परन्तु उसे रोटी कहीं नजर न आई। किसान को यह बात बिल्कुल समझ न आई।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 17.
What happened when the imp advised the peasant to sow the corn on the hill ?
Answer:
That year, it happened to be a wet summer. The crops of the other people were beaten down with rain. But the peasant’s crop was on the hill. It grew very fine.

उस वर्ष ग्रीष्म ऋतु बहुत बरसात वाली रही। अन्य लोगों की फसलें वर्षा के कारण नीचे बैठ गई। परन्तु उस किसान की फसल पहाड़ी के ऊपर थी। यह बहुत बढ़िया उग आई।

Question 18.
How did the peasant behave when his wife fell and a glassful of vodka splashed on to the floor?
Answer:
The peasant’s wife fell against a table. A glassful of vodka splashed on the floor. The peasant started shouting at her, “You foolish woman ! Do you think that this good drink is dirty water that you can pour all over the floor ?”

किसान की पत्नी एक मेज से टकरा कर गिर गई। वोदका का एक भरा हुआ गिलास फर्श पर बिखर गया। किसान ने उस पर चिल्लाना शुरू कर दिया, “अरे मूर्ख औरत! क्या तुम यह समझती हो कि यह बढ़िया शराब कोई गन्दा पानी है जिसे तुम पूरे फर्श पर फैला सकती हो?”

Question 19.
How did the peasants behave after having had their third glass of drink?
Answer:
When the guests had their third glass of vodka, they started behaving like pigs. They made strange noises without knowing why. They did not listen to one another.

जब मेहमानों ने वोदका (शराब) का तीसरा गिलास पी लिया, तो उन्होंने सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया। बिना कोई कारण जाने वे अजीब-अजीब आवाजें करने लगे। वे एक-दूसरे की कोई बात नहीं सुन रहे थे।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 20.
What was the imp’s answer when the Devil asked him about mixing the blood of animals in the drink?
Answer:
The imp told the Devil that he had not mixed any animal blood in the Vodka. He had only made certain that the peasant had more grain than he needed. When man has more than he needs, the blood of wild animals automatically springs up in him.

इम्प ने डेवल को बताया कि उसने वोदका में कोई जानवरों का खून नहीं मिलाया था। उसने केवल यह बात निश्चित की थी कि किसान के पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा अनाज हो जाए। जब मनुष्य के पास जरूरत से ज़्यादा हो जाता है तो जंगली जानवरों का खून स्वयमेव उसमें उछलने लगता है।

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the scene of the party going on at the peasant’s house.
Answer:
The peasant had invited his wealthy friends. He was giving them drinks. His wife was going round with the drinks. She fell against a table and a glassful fell on the floor. The peasant shouted angrily at her. He began to serve the drinks himself. Then he also sat down to drink with his friends.

Soon, they started behaving like foxes. They tried to please each other. Then they took another glass each. Now they started fighting like wolves. They hit one another on the nose. And after another glass, they started making noises like the pigs.

When the guests started leaving, the peasant went out to bid them goodbye. He fell down on his nose in the mud. He lay there making noises like a pig.

किसान ने अपने धनी मित्रों को आमन्त्रित कर रखा था। वह उन्हें मदिरा पेश कर रहा था। उसकी पत्नी मदिरा के गिलास उठाए घूम रही थी। वह एक मेज़ के साथ टकरा कर गिर पड़ी और मदिरा का एक भरा हुआ गिलास फर्श पर जा गिरा। किसान उस पर क्रोधपूर्वक चिल्लाया। उसने मदिरा खुद परोसनी शुरू कर दी। फिर वह भी अपने मित्रों के साथ मदिरा पीने बैठ गया। शीघ्र ही उन लोगों ने लोमड़ों के जैसा व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया।

वे एकदूसरे को खुश करने की कोशिश कर रहे थे। फिर उन्होंने (मदिरा का) एक-एक गिलास और पिया। अब वे भेड़ियों की तरह लड़ने लगे। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे की नाक पर घूसे लगाए। और एक अन्य गिलास लेने के बाद वे सूअरों की भांति शोर करने लगे। जब मेहमान वहां से आने लगे तो किसान उन्हें विदा कहने बाहर आया। वह नाक के बल कीचड़ में गिर पड़ा। वह एक सूअर की भांति शोर करता हुआ वहीं पड़ा रहा।

Question 2.
What made the devil happy ?
Answer:
The devil saw that the peasant had invited his wealthy friends. He was giving them drinks. His wife was going around with the drinks. She fell against a table. A glassful fell on the floor. The peasant shouted angrily at her. He began to serve the drinks himself. A poor man came in. He was very tired and thirsty. But the peasant did not give him any drink.

He kept drinking with his rich guests. Soon, they started behaving like foxes. They told nice lies about each other. Then they took another glass each. Now they started fighting like wolves. And after another glass, they started making noises like pigs.

Then the guests started leaving. The peasant went out to bid them goodbye. He fell on his nose into the muddy water. He Jay there making noises like a pig. All this pleased the devil very much.

डेवल ने देखा कि किसान ने अपने धनी मित्रों को आमन्त्रित कर रखा था। वह उन्हें पीने के लिए मदिरा दे रहा था। उसकी पत्नी मदिरा के गिलास उठाए घूम रही थी। वह एक मेज़ के साथ टकरा कर गिर पड़ी। एक भरा हुआ गिलास फ़र्श पर जा गिरा। किसान उस पर क्रोधपूर्वक चिल्लाया।

उसने स्वयं मदिरा परोसनी शुरू कर दी। एक ग़रीब आदमी वहां आया। वह बहुत थका हुआ और प्यासा था। किन्तु किसान ने उसे पीने को कुछ न दिया। वह अपने धनी मेहमानों के साथ बैठ कर पीता रहा। शीघ्र ही उन्होंने लोमड़ों के जैसा व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया। वे एकदूसरे के बारे में प्यारे-प्यारे झूठ बोलने लगे।

फिर उन्होंने एक-एक गिलास और पिया। अब वे भेड़ियों की भांति लड़ने लगे तथा एक अन्य गिलास के बाद वे सूअरों की भांति शोर करने लगे। फिर मेहमान जाने शुरू हो गए। किसान उन्हें विदा कहने के लिए बाहर गया। वह अपनी नाक के बल कीचड़ वाले पानी में गिर पड़ा। वह एक सूअर की भांति शोर करता हुआ वहां पड़ा रहा। इस सबसे डेवल को बहुत खुशी महसूस हुई।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 3.
Describe the effect of vodka on the peasant’s guests.
Answer:
The peasant and his guests behaved like wild animals after drinking vodka. First, they behaved like foxes. They told nice lies about each other. They were trying to please each other. When they drank another glass each, their talk became wilder and rougher. They began to shout at one another. Soon, they started fighting. They hit one another on the nose.

The peasant also joined in the fight. All of them looked like wolves. After taking another glass each, they strated behaving like pigs. They made strange noises. They shouted without knowing why. They didn’t listen to one another. When the guests started leaving, the host went out to bid them goodbye. He fell on his nose in the mud. He lay there making noises like a pig.

वोदका पीने के बाद किसान तथा उसके मेहमान जंगली जानवरों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे। पहले तो उन्होंने लोमड़ों के जैसा व्यवहार किया। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे के बारे में मीठे-मीठे झूठ बोले। वे एक-दूसरे को खुश करने की कोशिश कर रहे थे। जब उन्होंने एक-एक गिलास और पिया, तो उनकी बातें पहले से अधिक गंवारों जैसी और उग्र हो गईं। वे एक-दूसरे पर चिल्लाने लगे। शीघ्र ही वे लड़ने लगे।

उन्होंने एक-दूसरे को नाक पर घूसे लगाए। किसान भी लड़ाई में शामिल हो गया। वे सभी भेड़ियों के जैसे लग रहे थे। एक-एक गिलास और पीने के बाद वे सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे। उन्होंने अजीब-अजीब शोर किए। वे बिना कारण जाने चिल्लाने लगे। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे की कोई बात न सुनी। जब मेहमान जाने शुरू हो गए, तो मेज़बान उन्हें विदा कहने के लिए घर से बाहर गया। वह नाक के बल कीचड़ में गिर गया। सूअरों की भांति आवाज़ करता हुआ वह वहीं पड़ा रहा।

Question 4.
What is the message contained in the story, ‘The Peasant’s Bread ? Explain.
Answer:
The message contained in this story is that when a man has more than he needs, he begins to find ways of pleasure. And these pleasures at last land him into the hands of the devil. As long as the peasant, the main character in the story, was poor, he remained contented.

He made no trouble when he lost his only piece of bread. But when he had much corn to spare, he looked for pleasure in vodka. Now the blood of wild animals like the fox, the wolf and the pig showed itself in him. In fact, the blood of wild animals is always there in men.

It is kept under control as long as men have as much as they need. But when they have more than they need, the blood of wild animals automatically springs up in them. And they fall into the hands of the devil.

इस कहानी में निहित संदेश यह है कि जब मनुष्य के पास उसकी ज़रूरत से अधिक हो जाता है, तो फिर वह भोग-विलास के स्रोत ढूंढने लगता है। और वह आनंद के साधन अंत में उसे डेवल के हाथों तक पहुँचा देते हैं। जब तक कहानी का मुख्य पात्र किसान गरीब था, वे सन्तुष्ट रहता था।

उसने कोई हल्ला न किया जब उसका रोटी का एकमात्र टुकड़ा जाता रहा। परन्तु जब उसके पास फालतू अनाज इकट्ठा हो गया तो वह वोदका में आनन्द तलाशने लगा। अब लोमड़, भेड़िया और सूअर जैसे जंगली जानवरों का खून उसमें नज़र आना शुरू हो गया। वास्तव में, जंगली जानवरों का खून इन्सानों में हमेशा रहता है।

यह तब तक काबू में रहता है जब तक आदमियों के पास उतना ही होता है, जितने की उन्हें ज़रूरत होती है। परन्तु जब उनके पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा हो जाता है तो जंगली जानवरों का खून उनमें स्वयंमेव उछलने लगता है और वे डेवल के वश में आ जाते हैं।

Question 5.
Is wealth bad in itself ? How can it destroy people ? Give your views.
Answer:
In fact, nothing is good or bad in itself. It all depends upon the use we put it to. Similarly wealth, too, is not bad in itself. No doubt, wealth is a great source of pleasure. But it depends on us what sort of pleasure we want to derive from it. Wealth is a blessing if we use it for noble purposes and it is a curse if we use it for evil purposes.

Wealth itself does not lead man to the way of destruction. Wealth destroys only those persons who adopt evil ways in their life. It kills the human instinct in those persons and turns them into heartless beasts. The rich persons, who use their money in drinking and gambling, surely go to the dogs one day. And the wealthy men who use their money for the welfare of others are adored by the world.

वास्तव में कोई भी चीज़ अपने आप में अच्छी अथवा बुरी नहीं होती। यह सब तो उस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि हम इसका प्रयोग किस प्रकार करते हैं। इसी प्रकार धन भी अपने आप में बुरा नहीं होता। निस्सन्देह धन खुशी का एक बहुत बड़ा स्रोत होता है। परन्तु यह हम पर निर्भर करता है कि हम इससे किस प्रकार की खुशी पाना चाहते हैं। धन एक वरदान है यदि हम इसका प्रयोग नेक कामों में करते हैं और यह एक अभिशाप है यदि हम इसका प्रयोग बुरे कामों में करते हैं। धन स्वयं मनुष्य को विनाश के मार्ग पर नहीं ले जाता।

धन सिर्फ उन्हीं व्यक्तियों को नष्ट करता है जो अपने जीवन में बुरे रास्ते अपनाते हैं। यह उन व्यक्तियों के अन्दर की मानवीय संवेदनाओं को खत्म कर देता है और उन्हें निर्दय जानवर बना देता है। धनी लोग जो अपने पैसे का प्रयोग शराब पीने तथा जुआ खेलने में करते हैं, वे एक दिन निश्चित रूप से बर्बाद हो जाते हैं। और वे दौलतमंद आदमी जो अपने पैसे का प्रयोग दूसरों की भलाई के लिए करते हैं, उनकी संसार पूजा करता है।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 6.
What lesson does the story teach you ?
Answer:
The story teaches us that wealth is a blessing if we use it for noble purposes and it is a curse if we use it for evil purposes. Wealth destroys only those persons who adopt evil ways in their life. It kills the human instinct in those persons and turns them into heartless beasts. The rich persons who use their money in drinking and gambling surely go to the dogs onė day. And the wealthy men who use their money for the welfare of others are adored by the world.

यह कहानी हमें यह शिक्षा देती है कि धन एक वरदान होता है यदि हम इसका प्रयोग नेक कामों में करें और यह एक अभिशाप होता है यदि हम इसका प्रयोग बुरे कामों में करें। धन सिर्फ उन्हीं व्यक्तियों को नष्ट करता है जो अपने जीवन में बुरे रास्ते अपनाते हैं। यह उन व्यक्तियों के अन्दर की मानवीय संवेदनाओं को खत्म कर देता है और उन्हें निर्दय जानवर बना देता है। धनी लोग, जो अपने पैसे का प्रयोग शराब पीने तथा जुआ खेलने में करते हैं, एक दिन निश्चित रूप से बरबाद हो जाते हैं। और वे दौलतमंद आदमी जो अपने पैसे का प्रयोग दूसरों की भलाई के लिए करते हैं, संसार उनकी पूजा करता है।

Question 7.
How did the imp succeed in his plan to corrupt the gentle peasant ?
Answer:
The imp started working with the peasant. The first year, he advised the peasant to sow corn in a low-lying damp place. It happened to be a very dry year. The hot sun burnt up the crops of the other peasants. But the poor peasant had a very good crop.

He had enough for his needs and much to spare. The next year, the imp advised the peasant to sow on the hill. This year, it rained very heavily. The crops of the other peasants were beaten down. But the peasant’s crop on the hill was a fine one.

Now he had even more grain to spare. He did not know what to do with it all. The imp taught the peasant to make vodka from it. The peasant made vodka and began to drink it. Thus imp succeeded in his plan to corrupt the gentle peasant.

इम्प किसान के साथ काम करने लगा। पहले वर्ष उसने किसान को एक निचली दलदली जगह में बीज बोने का परामर्श दिया। वह साल बहुत सूखा रहा। गर्म तपते हुए सूर्य ने दूसरे किसानों की फसलें झुलसा दीं। परन्तु उस ग़रीब किसान को बहुत अच्छी फसल प्राप्त हुई। अपनी ज़रूरतों के लिए उसके पास पर्याप्त अनाज था और काफी सारा फालतू भी बचा रहा। अगले साल इम्प ने किसान को पहाड़ी पर बुआई करने की सलाह दी।

इस साल बहुत भारी वर्षा हुई। दूसरे किसानों की फसलें नष्ट हो गईं। परन्तु उस किसान को पहाड़ी पर बहुत अच्छी फसल प्राप्त हुई। अब उसके पास और भी अधिक फालतू अनाज हो गया। उसे समझ नहीं आ रहा था कि वह इस सारे अनाज का क्या करे। इम्प ने किसान को इस अनाज से वोदका बनानी.सिखाई। किसान ने वोदका बना कर पीनी शुरू कर दी। इस प्रकार इम्प उस भले किसान को भ्रष्ट बनाने की अपनी योजना में सफल हो गया।

Question 8.
“The blood of wild animals is always present in men.’ Explain.
Answer:
The blood of wild animals is always there in men. It is kept under control as long as men have as much as they need. But when they have more than they need, the blood of wild animals automatically springs up in them.

And then they look for ways to get pleasure out of it. The imp showed the peasant one such way. It was the way of drinking. The peasant looked for pleasure in vodka. And then the blood of wild animals like the fox, the wolf and the pig showed itself in him.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

जंगली जानवरों का खून इन्सानों में हमेशा रहता है। यह तब तक काबू में रहता है जब तक आदमियों के पास उतना ही होता है, जितने की उन्हें ज़रूरत होती है। परन्तु जब उनके पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा हो जाता है तो जंगली जानवरों का खून उनमें स्वयंमेव उछलने लगता है।

और फिर वे इसमें आनन्द प्राप्त करने के रास्ते ढूँढने लगते हैं। इम्प ने किसान को एक ऐसा ही रास्ता बता दिया। यह रास्ता शराब पीने का रास्ता था। किसान वोदका में आनन्द तलाशने लगा। और फिर लोमड़, भेड़िए और सूअर जैसे जंगली जानवरों का खून उसमें नज़र आना शुरू हो गया

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Who wrote the story, ‘The Peasant’s Bread’?
Answer:
Leo Tolstoy.

Question 2.
Where did the peasant go early in the morning ?
Answer:
He went to plough his field.

Question 3.
Where did the peasant hide his breakfast ?
Answer:
He hid it under a bush.

Question 4.
Who had stolen the peasant’s bread ?
Answer:
It was an imp who had stolen the peasant’s bread.

Question 5.
Why had the imp stolen the peasant’s bread ?
Answer:
He wanted to make the peasant swear and call on the name of the Devil.

Question 6.
Did the peasant get angry when he found his bread stolen ?
Answer:
No, he only said, “Whoever took the bread needed it.”

Question 7.
Why was the imp upset to find the peasant calm ?
Answer:
Because he had not been able to make the peasant do any wrong.

Question 8.
What was the threat given to the imp by the Devil ?
Answer:
That he would be thrown into holy water if he didn’t get the better of the peasant.

Question 9.
What advice did the imp give to the peasant in the first year ?
Answer:
He advised him to sow corn in a low-lying damp place.

Question 10.
What advice did the imp give to the peasant in the second year ?
Answer:
He advised him to sow corn on the hill.

Question 11.
What suggestion did the imp give to the peasant regarding the spare grain ?
Answer:
He asked him to make vodka from it.

Question 12.
What happened when the guests took the first glass of vodka ?
Answer:
They started telling nice lies about each other.

Question 13.
What happened when the guests took the third glass of vodka ?
Answer:
They started behaving like pigs.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

Question 14.
What did the Devil give the imp as his reward ?
Answer:
He gave him a position of high honour.

The Peasant’s Bread Summary in English

The Peasant’s Bread Introduction in English:

A poor peasant went off one morning to plough his field. He hid his breakfast under a bush and began to plough. When he felt hungry, he came to have his breakfast. But it was not there. An imp had stolen it. The peasant didn’t get angry. He only said, “Whoever took the bread, needed it. May it do him good !” The imp went back to the Devil and reported what had happened.

The Devil grew angry with the imp. He said, “You don’t understand your business !” The imp’s business was to make a man do wrong. But the imp had failed in his business. The Devil told the imp that he would punish him if he could not have the peasant in his control in three years.

The imp made a plan to get the better of the peasant. And he succeeded in it. He made the peasant behave like wild animals. The Devil was so pleased with the imp’s success that he gave him a position of high honour.

The Peasant’s Bread Summary in English:

Early one morning, a poor peasant went to plough his field. He took his breakfast with him. He put his coat round the breakfast and hid it under a bush. Then he started his work. After a while, he felt hungry. He came to the bush to have his breakfast. But it was not there. The peasant looked here and there. But it was nowhere.

The peasant could not understand this at all. “I saw no one here. But someone has been here and has stolen the bread !” he said. In fact, it was an imp who had stolen his breakfast. He had stolen it while the peasant was ploughing. Now he was sitting behind the bush. He wanted to hear the peasant swear. He was waiting to see him call on the name of the Devil.

But the peasant didn’t swear at anybody. He only said, “After all, I shall not die of hunger ! No doubt, whoever took the bread, needed it. May it do him good.” The peasant went to the well, drank some water and began ploughing again.

The imp went back to the Devil, his master, and reported what had happened. The Devil grew angry with the imp and said, “It was your fault if you couldn’t get the better of the man. You don’t understand your business !” He further said that if the imp did not get the better of that peasant within three years, he would be thrown into the holy water.

The imp was so frightened that he hurried back to the earth. He wanted to make up for his failure. He thought of a plan to get the better of the poor peasant. The imp changed himself into a working man and went to work with the poor peasant. The first year, he advised the peasant to sow corn in a low-lying damp place. The peasant took the imp’s advice.

It happened to be a very dry year. The hot sun burnt up the crops of the other peasants. But the poor peasant had a very good crop. He had enough for his needs and much to spare. The next year, the imp advised the peasant to sow on the hill. Again the peasant accepted the imp’s advice. This year, it rained very heavily. The crops of the other peasants were beaten down.

But the peasant’s crop on the hill was a fine one. Now he had even more grain to spare. He did not know what to do with it all. The imp asked the peasant to make vodka from it. He showed the peasant how he could make vodka from the grain. The peasant made vodka and began to drink it.
Then the imp reported to the Devil about his success.

The Devil said that he would himself go to the earth and see it. Then the Devil came to the peasant’s house. He saw that the peasant had invited his wealthy friends. His wife was offering the drink to the guests. But as she took it round, she fell against a table. A glassful of vodka splashed on to the floor. The peasant shouted angrily at his wife, “You foolish woman !

Do you think that this good drink is dirty water that you can pour all over the floor ?” The imp said to the Devil, “Now see for yourself. That is the man who made no trouble when he lost his only piece of bread.” Just then, a poor peasant came there. He was on his way from work. He was feeling very thirsty.

Though he had not been invited, he hoped that he too would be given some vodka. But the host didn’t offer him any. Rather he said dryly, “I cannot find drink for everyone who comes here.” This pleased the Devil even more. Then the Devil saw that the peasant and his friends were drinking and telling nice lies about each other. Then they had another glass and started behaving like foxes, trying to please each other.

They had another glass each. Their talk became rougher and wilder. Soon they started fighting like wolves. They hit one another on the nose. The peasant also joined them. After taking another glass each, they started behaving like pigs. They made strange noises. When the guests started leaving, the host went out to bid them goodbye. He fell down on his nose in the mud. He lay there making noises like a pig.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

The Devil was much pleased with the imp. He thought that in preparing vodka, the imp first added to it the blood of foxes, then of wolves and lastly of pigs. That was why first the peasants behaved like foxes, then like wolves and in the end like pigs.

But the imp told the Devil that he had not done any such thing. He had only made certain that the peasant had more grain than he needed. When man has more than he needs, the blood of wild animals automatically springs up in man. The Devil was so pleased with the imp that he gave him a position of high honour.

The Peasant’s Bread Summary in Hindi

The Peasant’s Bread Introduction in Hindi:

एक गरीब किसान एक सुबह अपने खेतों में हल चलाने के लिए गया। उसने अपना नाश्ता एक झाड़ी के नीचे छिपा दिया और हल चलाने लगा। जब उसे भूख लगी तो वह अपना नाश्ता करने के लिए आया। किन्तु वह वहां पर नहीं था। एक इम्प ने इसे चुरा लिया था। किसान को क्रोध न आया।

उसने केवल यही कहा, “जो भी रोटी ले गया है, उसे इसकी ज़रूरत होगी। ईश्वर करे उसका इससे भला हो !” इम्प डेवल (शैतान) के पासँ वापस गया और जो भी घटित हुआ था, उसे बता दिया। डेवल इम्प से नाराज़ हो गया। उसने कहा, “तुम्हें अपने काम की समझ नहीं है !” इम्प का काम था, किसी भी व्यक्ति से ग़लत काम करवाना।

लेकिन इम्प अपने काम में असफल हो गया था। डेवल ने इम्प से कहा कि वह उसे दण्ड देगा यदि वह किसान पर तीन वर्षों के भीतर काबू न पा सका। इम्प ने किसान को काबू में करने के लिए एक योजना बनाई। और वह इसमें सफल हो गया। उसने किसान से जंगली जानवरों की भांति व्यवहार करवाया। डेवल इम्प की सफलता से इतना प्रसन्न हुआ कि उसने उसे ऊंचे सम्मान की एक जगह दे दी।

The Peasant’s Bread Summary in Hindi:

एक प्रात: बहुत जल्दी एक गरीब किसान अपने खेत में हल चलाने के लिए गया। वह अपना नाश्ता अपने साथ ले गया। उसने अपना कोट नाश्ते के गिर्द लपेटा और इसे एक झाड़ी के नीचे छिपा दिया। फिर उसने अपना काम शुरू कर दिया। कुछ देर पश्चात् उसे भूख लगी। वह अपना नाश्ता लेने के लिए झाड़ी की तरफ गया। परन्तु वह वहां नहीं था। किसान ने इधर-उधर देखा। लेकिन वह उसे कहीं भी दिखाई न दिया।

किसान को यह बात बिल्कुल भी समझ न आई। “मुझे तो यहां कोई भी दिखाई न दिया। लेकिन कोई-न-कोई यहां अवश्य आया है और रोटी ले गया है !” उसने कहा। वास्तव में यह एक इम्प (नरकदूत) था जो नाश्ता चुराकर ले गया था। उसने इसे उस समय चुराया था जब किसान हल चला रहा था। अब वह झाड़ी के पीछे बैठा था। वह किसान को अपशब्द बोलते हुए सुनना चाहता था। वह यह देखने के लिए इंतज़ार कर रहा था कि वह डेवल (शैतान) का नाम ले-लेकर पुकारे।

किन्तु किसान ने किसी को भी अपशब्द न बोला। उसने सिर्फ इतना कहा, “आखिर मैं भूख से मर नहीं जाऊंगा ! निस्सन्देह जो भी रोटी ले गया है, उसे इसकी ज़रूरत होगी। ईश्वर करे इससे उसका भला हो।” किसान कुएँ पर गया, थोड़ा-सा पानी पिया और दोबारा हल चलाने लगा।

इम्प अपने स्वामी डेवल के पास गया और उसे घटित हुई पूरी बात बता दी। डेवल को इम्प के ऊपर क्रोध आ गया और उसने कहा, “यह तुम्हारा ही दोष था अगर तुम उस आदमी को काबू में नहीं कर सके। तुम्हें अपने काम की समझ नहीं है!” उसने आगे कहा कि अगर इम्प तीन वर्ष में उस किसान पर काबू न पा सका तो उसे पवित्र पानी में फेंक दिया जाएगा। इम्प इतना अधिक डर गया कि वह जल्दी से धरती को लौट गया। वह अपनी ग़लती सुधारना चाहता था। उसे किसान को अपने काबू में करने के लिए एक योजना सूझी।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

इम्प ने स्वयं को एक मजदूर के वेश में बदल लिया और उस ग़रीब किसान के साथ काम करने लगा। पहले वर्ष उसने किसान को एक निचली दलदली जगह में बीज बोने का परामर्श दिया। किसान ने इम्प का परामर्श मान लिया। वह साल बहुत सूखा रहा। गर्म तपते हुए सूर्य ने दूसरे किसानों की फसलें जला दीं। परन्तु उस ग़रीब किसान को बहुत अच्छी फसल प्राप्त हुई। अपनी ज़रूरतों के लिए उसके पास पर्याप्त अनाज था और काफी सारा फालतू भी बचा रहा।

अगले साल इम्प ने किसान को पहाड़ी पर बुआई करने की सलाह दी। किसान ने फिर से इम्प की सलाह मान ली। इस साल बहुत भारी वर्षा हुई। दूसरे किसानों की फसलें नष्ट हो गईं। परन्तु उस किसान को पहाड़ी पर बहुत अच्छी फसल प्राप्त हुई। अब उसके पास और अधिक फालतू अनाज हो गया। उसे समझ नहीं आ रहा था कि वह इसका क्या करे। इम्प ने किसान को सलाह दी कि वह इस अनाज से वोदका (एक तेज़ किस्म की रूसी शराब) बनाए।

उसने किसान को सिखाया कि अनाज से वोदका कैसे बनाई जाती है। किसान ने वोदका बना कर पीनी शुरू कर दी।  फिर इम्प ने डेवल को अपनी सफलता की सूचना दी। डेवल ने कहा कि वह स्वयं वहां जाकर देखेगा। फिर डेवल किसान के घर गया। उसने देखा कि किसान ने अपने धनी मित्रों को निमन्त्रित कर रखा था। उसकी पत्नी मेहमानों को मदिरा पेश कर रही थी। परन्तु जब वह इसे लेकर जा रही थी तो वह एक मेज़ के साथ टकरा कर गिर गई। वोदका का एक भरा हुआ गिलास फर्श के ऊपर बिखर गया। किसान क्रोध से अपनी पत्नी पर चिल्लाया, “ओ

मूर्ख औरत! क्या तुम समझती हो कि यह अमृत कोई गन्दा पानी है जिसे पूरे फर्श पर बहाया जा सकता है ?” इम्प ने अपने मालिक से कहा, “अब आप स्वयं देख लीजिए। यह वही आदमी है जिसने कोई हो-हल्ला नहीं किया था जब उसकी रोटी का एकमात्र टुकड़ा जाता रहा था।” उसी समय एक गरीब किसान वहाँ आया।

वह अपने काम से लौट कर आ रहा था। उसे बहुत प्यास लगी थी। यद्यपि उसे वहां निमन्त्रित नहीं किया गया था, परन्तु उसे लगता था कि उसे भी पीने के लिए थोड़ी वोदका दी जाएगी। परन्तु मेज़बान ने उसे पीने के लिए कुछ नहीं दिया, बल्कि उसने तो बहुत रूखे भाव से कहा, “मैं यहां आने वाले प्रत्येक आदमी के लिए मदिरा पैदा नहीं कर सकता हूं।” इससे डेवल और भी खुश हो गया।

फिर शैतान ने देखा कि किसान और उसके दोस्त मदिरा पी रहे थे और एक-दूसरे के बारे में झूठ बोल रहे थे। फिर उन्होंने एक और गिलास लिया। अब वे एक-दूसरे को प्रसन्न करने की कोशिश में लोमड़ों जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे। उन्होंने एक-एक गिलास और पिया। उनकी बातें पहले से अधिक गंवारों जैसी और उग्र हो गईं। शीघ्र ही वे भेडियों के जैसे लडने लगे। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे को नाक पर घुसे लगाए।

किसान भी लड़ाई में शामिल हो गया। एक-एक गिलास और पीने के बाद वे सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे। उन्होंने अजीब-अजीब से शोर किए। जब मेहमान जाने शुरू हो गए तो मेजबान उन्हें विदा कहने के लिए घर से बाहर गया। वह नाक के बल कीचड़ में गिर पड़ा। वहां वह एक सूअर की भांति शोर करता हुआ पड़ा रहा।

डेवल इम्प से बहुत प्रसन्न हुआ। उसे लगा कि इम्प ने वोदका को तैयार करने के लिए इसमें पहले लोमड़ों का खून, फिर भेड़ियों का खून तथा अन्त में सूअरों का खून मिलाया होगा। इसी कारण से किसान सबसे पहले लोमड़ों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे थे, फिर भेड़ियों के जैसा और अन्त में सूअरों के जैसा।

परन्तु इम्प ने डेवल को बताया कि उसने ऐसा कुछ नहीं किया था। उसने केवल यह बात निश्चित की थी कि किसान के पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा अनाज हो जाए। जब मनुष्य के पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा हो जाता है तो जंगली जानवरों का खून स्वयमेव उसमें उछलने लगता है। डेवल इम्प से इतना प्रसन्न हुआ कि उसने इम्प को उच्च सम्मान का एक स्थान प्रदान कर दिया।

सरल हिन्दी में कहानी की विस्तृत व्याख्या

एक प्रात: बहुत सवेरे एक किसान अपने खेत में हल चलाने के लिए गया। वह अपने साथ नाश्ते के लिए रोटी का एक टुकड़ा ले गया। उसने अपने हल को तैयार कर लिया। उसने अपना कोट अपनी रोटी के गिर्द लपेटा और इसे एक झाड़ी के नीचे छिपा दिया। फिर उसने अपना काम करना शुरू कर दिया। कुछ समय के बाद उसे भूख लगी और उसका घोड़ा भी थक गया। किसान ने हल चलाना बन्द कर दिया और अपने घोड़े को चरने के लिए खुला छोड़ दिया। वह अपना कोट और अपना नाश्ता लेने के लिए झाड़ी की तरफ गया।

उसने अपना कोट उठाया, किन्तु वहां से उसकी रोटी गायब थी। उसने बहुत ध्यानपूर्वक इधर-उधर देखा। उसने कोट को उल्टा करके इसे झटकाया। किन्तु रोटी उसे कहीं न मिली। किसान को यह बात बिल्कुल समझ न आई।
“बहुत अजीब बात है,” वह सोचने लगा। “मुझे तो यहां कोई भी दिखाई नहीं दिया। किन्तु कोई न कोई यहां अवश्य आया है और रोटी ले गया है।”

यह एक इम्प (नरकदूत) था जो रोटी चुरा कर ले गया था। उसने वह उस समय चुराई थी जब किसान हल चला रहा था। अब वह झाड़ी के पीछे की तरफ बैठा हुआ था। वह किसान को अपशब्द बोलते हुए सुनना चाहता था। वह देखना चाहता था कि किसान डेवल का नाम ले-ले कर पुकारे।

किसान को अपनी रोटी खोने पर दुःख हुआ, किन्तु उसने किसी को कोई अपशब्द नहीं कहा। उसने केवल इतना कहा, ‘अब क्या हो सकता है। आखिर मैं भूख से मर नहीं जाऊँगा ! निस्सन्देह जो भी रोटी ले गया है, उसे इसकी ज़रूरत होगी। ईश्वर करे उसका इससे भला हो !’ वह कुएँ पर गया और वहां से थोड़ा-सा पानी पिया। उसने कुछ देर आराम किया। फिर उसने अपने घोड़े को पकड़ा और इसे हल के साथ जोत दिया। अब वह फिर से हल चलाने लगा।
इम्प परेशान हो गया। वह किसान से कोई भी ग़लत काम नहीं करवा पाया था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

वह अपने स्वामी डेवल (शैतान) के पास गया, और उसे घटित हुई पूरी बात बता दी। उसने डेवल को बताया कि उसने किस तरह किसान की रोटी ले ली थी, किन्तु किसान कुछ भी बुरा-भला न बोला। उसने केवल इतना कहा, “ईश्वर करे इससे उसका भला हो!”

डेवल को क्रोध आ गया। उसने इम्प से कहा, “यह तुम्हारा ही दोष था कि तुम उस आदमी को अपने काबू में नहीं कर सके। तुम्हें अपने काम की समझ ही नहीं है ! यदि किसान लोग और उनकी पत्नियां इस तरह से व्यवहार करेंगे, तब तो हम नष्ट हो जाएँगे। इस बात को यहीं छोडा नहीं जा सकता है। अभी वापस जाओ और पूरी बात को ठीक करो। यदि तीन वर्ष में तुम किसान पर काबू न पा सके तो तुम्हें पवित्र पानी में फेंक दिया जाएगा।”

इम्प डर गया। वह जल्दी से धरती को लौट गया। वह सोच रहा था कि वह अपनी गलती को कैसे सुधारे। वह सोचता जा रहा था। अन्त में उसे एक बढ़िया योजना सूझ गई। इम्प ने स्वयं को एक मजदूर के वेश में बदल दिया। वह ग़रीब किसान के पास काम करने के लिए चला गया। पहले वर्ष उसने किसान को एक निचली दलदली जगह में बीज बोने का परामर्श दिया। किसान ने इम्प का परामर्श मान लिया और उस जगह बीज बो दिए।

वह वर्ष बहुत सूखे का वर्ष रहा। तेज़ धूप से अन्य किसानों की फसलें जल गईं। किन्तु उस ग़रीब किसान की फसल बहुत अच्छी रही। उसके पास पूरा वर्ष चलने के लिए पर्याप्त अनाज हो गया। उसके पास बहुत-सा फालतू अनाज भी बच गया।

उससे अगले वर्ष इम्प ने किसान को एक पहाड़ी के ऊपर बीज बोने का परामर्श दिया। किसान ने इम्प का परामर्श मान लिया। वह ग्रीष्म ऋतु बहुत बरसात वाली रही। अन्य लोगों की फसलें वर्षा के कारण नीचे बैठ गईं, किन्तु उस किसान की फसलें पहाड़ी के ऊपर थी। वह बहुत बढ़िया उग गई। किसान के पास पहले से भी ज्यादा फालतू अनाज हो गया।
फिर इम्प ने किसान को बताया कि अनाज को पीस कर उससे वोदका (तेज़ किस्म की रूसी मदिरा) कैसे बनाई जाती है। किसान ने वोदका बना कर पीनी शुरू कर दी।

उसने यह अपने मित्रों को भी पेश की। इसलिए इम्प अपने स्वामी डेवल के पास गया। वहां उसने गर्व सहित दावा किया कि अब वह सफल हो गया था जबकि पहले वह असफल रहा था। डेवल ने कहा कि वह स्वयं वहां जाकर देखेगा।
डेवल किसान के घर आ गया। उसने देखा कि किसान ने अपने धनी मित्रों को निमन्त्रित कर रखा था। वह उन्हें मदिरा पिला रहा था। उसकी पत्नी मेहमानों को मदिरा पेश कर रही थी। किन्तु जब वह इसे लेकर जा रही थी तो वह एक मेज़ के साथ टकरा कर गिर गई। वोदका का एक भरा हुआ गिलास फर्श के ऊपर गिरकर बिखर गया।

किसान अपनी पत्नी के साथ क्रोधपूर्वक बोला। “मूर्ख औरत !” उसने कहा। “तुम क्या कर रही हो ? क्या तुम समझती हो कि यह अमृत कोई गन्दा पानी है जिसे पूरे फर्श पर बहाया जा सकता है ? तुम इतनी लापरवाह हो।”  इम्प ने अपने स्वामी डेवल की तरफ इशारा किया। “अब आप स्वयं देख लीजिए,” उसने कहा। “यह वही आदमी है जिसने कोई हल्ला नहीं किया था जब उसकी रोटी का एकमात्र टुकड़ा जाता रहा था।”

किसान अपनी पत्नी के ऊपर फिर से चिल्लाया। वह मदिरा को स्वयं उठा कर इसे मेहमानों के पास ले जाने लगा। तभी एक ग़रीब किसान अन्दर आ गया। वह अपने काम से लौट कर आ रहा था। उसे आमन्त्रित नहीं किया गया था। किन्तु वह अन्दर आ गया और उसने सभी का अभिवादन किया। उसने देखा कि वे मदिरापान कर रहे थे और वह उनके मध्य बैठ गया। दिन भर के काम के बाद वह थका हुआ था।

उसने महसूस किया कि वह वोदका की एक बूंद पीना चाहेगा। वह बहुत देर तक बैठा रहा। उसकी प्यास बढ़ती जा रही थी। किन्तु मेज़बान ने उसे कोई मदिरा पेश न की। “मैं यहां आने वाले प्रत्येक आदमी के लिए मदिरा पैदा नहीं कर सकता हूं।” उसने रूखे भाव से कहा। इससे डेवल खुश हो गया। इम्प प्रसन्नतापूर्वक हंस दिया और बोला, “इन्तज़ार कीजिए। अभी कुछ और होने वाला है।”

धनी किसान मदिरा पीते रहे, और उनका मेज़बान भी पीता रहा। शीघ्र ही वे एक-दूसरे के बारे में प्यारी-प्यारी बातें बोलने लगे। वे झूठ से भरे हुए भाषण करने लगे। डेवल सुनता रहा। वह इम्प की प्रशंसा करता रहा। “इस मदिरा ने उन्हें कितना लोमड़ों के जैसा बना दिया है! वे एक-दूसरे को धोखा देने लगे हैं।

शीघ्र ही वे सब हमारे शिकन्जे में आ जाएँगे।” “अभी देखिए क्या होने वाला है,” इम्प ने कहा। “उन्हें एक-एक गिलास और पीने दीजिए। अभी तक वे लोमड़ों के जैसे हैं। वे अपनी दुमें हिला रहे हैं। वे एक-दूसरे को खुश करने की कोशिश कर रहे हैं। लेकिन शीघ्र ही आप उन्हें भयानक भेड़ियों के जैसा व्यवहार करते हुए देखेंगे।”

किसानों ने मदिरा का एक-एक गिलास और पिया। उनकी बातें पहले से ज़्यादा गंवारों वाली और उग्र हो गईं। कोमल भाषण करने की बजाए वे क्रोध–भरी बातें करने लगे। वे एक-दूसरे पर चिल्लाने लगे। शीघ्र ही वे लड़ने लगे। उन्होंने एक-दूसरे को नाक पर घूसे मारे। मेज़बान भी लड़ाई में शामिल हो गया। उसकी भी अच्छी पिटाई हो गई।
डेवल यह सब बहुत प्रसन्नतापूर्वक देखता रहा। “बहुत बढ़िया है,” उसने कहा।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

किन्तु इम्प ने उत्तर दिया, “प्रतीक्षा कीजिए – सबसे बढ़िया बात तो अभी होनी रहती है। तब तक इन्तज़ार कीजिए जब तक वे तीसरा गिलास नहीं पी लेते। अब वे भेड़ियों के जैसा व्यवहार कर रहे हैं। लेकिन उन्हें एक और गिलास पीने दीजिए तब वे सूअरों के जैसे हो जाएंगे।”

किसानों ने एक-एक तीसरा गिलास ले लिया। अब उन्होंने बिल्कुल सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया। वे अजीब किस्म के शोर करने लगे। वे बिना कारण जाने चिल्लाने लगे। कोई एक-दूसरे की बात सुन नहीं रहा था। इसके बाद मेहमान जाने शुरू हो गए। कुछ अकेले ही चले गए। कुछ दो-दो करके गए, और कुछ तीन-तीन करके। सभी लड़खड़ाते हुए जा रहे थे। वे गली में पहले एक तरफ और फिर दूसरी तरफ लड़खड़ाते हुए जा रहे थे।

मेजबान अपने मेहमानों को विदा कहने के लिए बाहर गया। वह नाक के बल पानी में गिर गया। वह सिर से पांव तक कीचड़ से भर गया। वह वहां एक सूअर की भांति आवाजें करता हुआ पड़ा रहा। इससे डेवल और भी प्रसन्न हो गया। “तुमने एक बढ़िया पेय खोज निकाला है,” डेवल ने इम्प से कहा। “तुमने अपनी रोटी वाली ग़लती की कमी बिल्कुल पूरी कर दी है। लेकिन मुझे बताओ कि यह पेय तुमने कैसे बनाया था।

मेरे विचार से तुमने इसमें पहले लोमड़ का खून डाला होगा। यही चीज़ थी जिसने किसानों को लोमड़ों के जितना चालाक बना दिया। फिर तुमने इसमें मेरे विचार से भेड़िये का खून डाला होगा। इसी से वे भेड़ियों की भांति भयानक बन गए थे। तथा अन्त में तुमने अवश्य ही इसमें सूअरों का खून डाला होगा। उसी से वे सूअरों के जैसा व्यवहार करने लगे थे।” “मैंने ऐसा नहीं किया था,” इम्प ने कहा।

“मैंने केवल इतना निश्चित कर दिया कि किसान के पास ज़रूरत से ज्यादा अनाज हो जाए। जंगली जानवरों का खून मनुष्यों में सदा रहता है। यह काबू में रहता है जितनी देर तक मनुष्यों के पास केवल उतना ही अनाज होता है जितने की उनको ज़रूरत होती है। किसान ने अपनी रोटी का अन्तिम टुकड़ा खो जाने पर भी कोई हल्ला नहीं किया था। किन्तु जब उसके पास फालतू अनाज हो गया, वह इसमें से आनन्द-प्राप्ति के रास्तों की तलाश करने लगा।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread

और मैंने उसे एक आनन्द का रास्ता दिखा दिया – मदिरा पीने का रास्ता। और जब उसने ईश्वर के शुभ उपहार को अपनी निजी खुशी के लिए तेज़ मदिरा में बदल दिया तो लोमड़, भेड़िए और सूअर सभी का खून उसमें उभर आया। और यदि वह इस मदिरापान को जारी रखेगा तो वह सदा एक जंगली जानवर के जैसा बना रहेगा।” डेवल ने इम्प की प्रशंसा की। उसने उसकी पहली ग़लती क्षमा कर दी, और उसे ऊँचे सम्मान की एक जगह दे दी।

Word Meanings

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 The Peasant’s Bread 1

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलते समय निम्नलिखित परिवर्तन किए जाते हैं-

(1) Direct Speech में प्रयोग किए गए inverted commas हटा दिए जाते हैं।

(2) Reporting Verb के बाद लगा हुआ comma हटा दिया जाता है।

(3) यदि आवश्यकता हो तो Reporting Verb के बाद that, if अथवा whether का प्रयोग एक जोड़क
शब्द (linking word) के रूप में किया जाता है।

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

(4) Pronouns के सम्बन्ध में होने वाले परिवर्तनों के लिए निम्नांकित नियम याद रखिए
(i) Reported Speech में जो First Person के Pronouns होते हैं, उन्हें Reporting Verb के Subject (कर्ता) के Person में बदला जाता है।
(ii) Reported Speech में जो Second Person के Pronouns होते हैं, उन्हें Reporting Verb के Object (कर्म) के Person में बदला जाता है।
(iii) Reported Speech में जो Third Person के Pronouns होते हैं, उन के Person में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है।
(iv) Pronouns को एक Person से दूसरे Person में बदलने के लिए नीचे दिया गया चार्ट याद रखिए-

First Person Second Person Third Person
I you he, she
my your his, her
me you him, her
we you they
our your their
us you them

(5) Tenses अथवा Verbs के सम्बन्ध में होने वाले परिवर्तनों के लिए निम्नांकित नियम याद रखिए-
(i) Reporting Verb का Tense कभी भी बदला नहीं जाता है।
(ii) Reporting Verb में said to के स्थान पर told, asked, requested, ordered, exclaimed आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है, परन्तु इसका Tense वही रहता है।
(iii) Reporting Verb यदि Present Tense अथवा Future Tense में हो, तो Reported Speech के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है।

(iv) Reporting Verb यदि Past Tense में हो, तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense नीचे दिए नियमों के अनुसार बदला जाता है*
V1 को V2 में बदल दो।
V2 को had + V3 में बदल दो।

(v) Reported Speech में यदि किसी Universal Truth, Habit, Fact अथवा किसी Historical Truth का वर्णन हो, तो इसे Indirect में बदलते समय इसके Tense में
कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है, यद्यपि Reporting Verb का Tense कुछ भी हो।।

(vi) यदि Reported Speech में दो क्रियाएं एक ही समय पर हो रही हों (two actions taking place at the same time), तो इसे Indirect में बदलते समय इसके Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है, यद्यपि Reporting Verb का Tense कुछ भी हो।

(vii) Reported Speech में दिया गया वाक्य यदि साधारण (Assertive) हो, तो जोड़क के रूप में that का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(viii) Reported Speech में दिया गया वाक्य यदि प्रश्न-वाचक हो, तो जोड़क के रूप में if या whether का प्रयोग किया जाता है। परन्तु यदि प्रश्न-वाचक वाक्य What, When, Where, Why, Which, Who, How आदि प्रश्न-वाचक शब्दों से आरम्भ हुआ हो, तो किसी भी जोड़क का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है। वाक्य के आरम्भ में लगा हुआ प्रश्न-वाचक शब्द ही जोड़क का काम करता है। प्रश्न-वाचक वाक्य को indirect में बदलने के बाद उस वाक्य को साधारण (Assertive) बना दिया जाता है।

(ix) Reported Speech में दिया हुआ वाक्य यदि Imperative हो, तो Indirect में बदलते समय नीचे दिए परिवर्तन किए जाते हैं-
Reporting Verb में दिए गए said to के स्थान पर ordered, asked, requested, begged, advised आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
* Imperative Verb के आगे to लगाकर उसे Infinitive बना दिया जाता है।

(6) Adverbs के सम्बन्ध में होने वाले परिवर्तनों के लिए निम्नांकित तालिका याद रखिए- .

Direct Indirect
Now Then
This That
These Those
Here There
Ago Before
Today That day
The next day Tomorrow
The previous day Yesterday
The previous night Last night
The following month Next month

किन्तु ये परिवर्तन नहीं किए जाते हैं यदि समय अथवा स्थान की दूरी का भाव क्रिया के रूप से ही स्पष्ट हो जाता हो।

Solved Examples

(1) Change of Pronouns (First Person)

Direct Indirect
1. I say, “I am ill.” I say that I am ill.
2. You say, “I am ill.” You say that you are ill.
3. She says, “I am ill.” She says that she is ill.
4. He says, “I am ill.” He says that he is ill.
5. They will say, “We are ill.” They will say that they are ill.

(Second Person)

Direct Indirect
1. He says to me, “You have done your duty.” He tells me that I have done my duty.
2. He says to us, “You have done your duty.” He tells us that we have done our duty.
3. He says to you, “You have done your duty.” He tells you that you have done your duty.
4. He says to him, “You have done your duty.” He tells him that he has done his duty.
5. He says to her, “You have done your duty.” He tells her that she has done her duty.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

(Third Person)

Direct Indirect
1. I say, “He is an honest man.” I say that he is an honest man.
2. She will say, “They have done their work.” She will say that they have done their work.

(2) Change Of Tenses

Direct Indirect
1. I said to the teacher, “I am sorry.” I told the teacher that I was sorry.
2. I said to the teacher, “I am working hard.” I told the teacher that I was working hard.
3. I said, “I have been ill since Monday.” I said that I had been ill since Monday.
4. I said to him, “I was doing my duty.” I told him that I had been doing my duty.
5. He said to me, “You have done well.”  He told me that I had done well.
6. He said, “I shall go there.” He said that he would go there.
7. She said to me, “You will miss the train.” She told me that I would miss the train.

(3) Universal Truths

Direct Indirect
1. He said, “God is great.” He said that God is great.
2. The boy said, “I take exercise daily.” The boy said that he takes exercise daily.
3. The teacher said, “The First Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526.” The teacher said that the First Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526.”
4. “Gandhiji believed in non-violence, said the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister said that Gandhiji  believed in non-violence.

(4) Interrogative Sentences

Direct Indirect
1. The teacher said to me, “Are you feeling well today?” The teacher asked me if I was feeling well  that day.
2. The traveller said to me, “Can you tell me the way to the nearest inn?” The traveller asked me if I could tell him the way to the nearest inn.
3. Hari said to his father, “May I go picture that night. Hari asked his father if he might go to the to the picture tonight?”
4. I said to her, “Do you want my help?” I asked her if she wanted my help.
5. She said, “Kamla, do you like this book ?” She asked Kamla if she liked that book.
6. He said to the old man, “What do you want He asked the old man what he wanted.
7. The teacher said to Hari, “Why haven’t you done your homework ?” The teacher asked Hari why he hadn’t done his homework.
8. Sohan said to her, “If you fail, what will you do ?” Sohan asked her what she would do if she failed.

(5) Imperative Sentences

Direct Indirect
1. The teacher said to the boy, “Shut the door.” The teacher asked the boy to shut the door.
2. Mohan said to Rajan, “Please go to the station with me.” Mohan requested Rajan to go to the station with him.
3. He said to me, “Trust in God and do the right.” He advised me to trust in God and to do the right.
4. The boy said, “Papa ! Forgive me that time. The boy begged his papa to forgive him this time.”
5. I said to my teacher, “Pardon me, sir.” I respectfully begged my teacher to pardon me.
6. He said to his friends, “Please let me study.” He requested his friends to let him study.

(6) Exclamatory Sentences

Direct Indirect
1. She said, “May you succeed, my son !” She prayed for the success of her son.
2. He said, “What a great misery !” He exclaimed with sorrow that it was a great misery.
3. The merchant said, “Alas ! I am ruined.” The merchant exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.
4. The captain said, “Hurrah ! We have won.” The captain exclaimed with joy that they had won.
5. Sita said, “Goodbye, my friend.” Sita bade her friend goodbye.

Miscellaneous Exercise (Based on Textual Sentences)

(1) Change the narration of the following.

1. Barb shouted, “Malcolm, hold on. I’m going for help.”
2. Barb said, “I loved Malcolm before the accident and I will always love him.”
3. The grandmother said, “I am not going to waste any more time talking to you.”
4. The boy said to the girl, “Aren’t you happy to see me ?”
5. “I see,” said the Colonel, “you don’t know how to return a salute.”
6. I asked him, “Where do you come from?”
7. The old woman said, “May you live long !”
8. The policeman said to the driver, “Show me your licence.”
9. An elderly gentleman said to Sudha, “Do you know why we said lady candidates need not apply ?”
10. He said to Mr. JRD Tata, “Sudha is the first woman to work on the Telco’s shop floor.”
Answer:
1. Barb urged Malcolm to hold on and said that she was going for help.
2. Barb said that she had loved Malcolm before the accident and declared that she would always love him.
3. The grandmother said that she was not going to waste any more time talking to them.
4. The’boy asked the girl if she was not happy to see him.
5. The Colonel told me that he could see that I did not know how to return a salute.
6. I asked him where he came from.
7. The old woman wished for my long life.
8. The policeman asked the driver to show him his licence.
9. An elderly gentleman asked Sudha if she knew why they had said lady candidates need not apply.
10. He told Mr. JRD Tata that Sudha was the first woman to work on the Telco’s shop floor.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

(2) Change the narration of the following.

1. Sudha said to the panel, “You must start somewhere, otherwise no woman will ever be able to work in you factories.”
2. The Sergeant Major said to the author, “Always remember, discipline begins with the officers !”
3. Dr. Kalam said to girl, “What is your goal in life ?”
4. The teacher will say, “Gita is performing on the stage.”
5. She said, “If I were rich, I would help him.”
6. “Oh, Tom,” she said, “I am so ashamed of you !”
7. The lawyer asked Bob, “Do you still deny the charges ?”
8. The principal said, “Virtue is its own reward.”
9. The girl said to Dr. Kalam, “I want to live in a developed India.”
10. Mr. Tinaikar said to Dr. Kalam, “In America, every dog owner himself has to clean the droppings of his pet.”
Answer:
1. Sudha told the panel that they must start somewhere, otherwise no woman would ever be able to work in their factories.
2. The Sergeant Major asked the author to remember always that discipline begins with the officers.
3. Dr. Kalam asked the girl what her goal in life was.
4. The teacher will say that Gita is performing on the stage.
5. She said that if she had been rich, she would have helped him.
6. She rebuked Tom saying she was very much ashamed of him.
7. The lawyer asked Bob if he still denied the charges.
8. The principal said that virtue is its own reward.
9. The girl told Dr. Kalam that she wanted to live in a developed India.
10. Mr. Tinaikar told Dr. Kalam that in America, every dog owner himself has to clean the droppings of his pet.

(3) Change the narration of the following.

1. Mr. Tinaikar said to Dr. Kalam, “Will the Indian citizen behave in a responsible manner in his own country ?”
2. Major Som Nath informed Brigade HQ, “I shall not withdraw an inch, but will fight to our last man and our last round.”
3. Kalam says, “India has made a wonderful success in many fields.”
4. “Gandhiji believed in non-violence,” said the Prime Minister.
5. Rita said to me, “Trust in God and do the right.”
6. “Don’t run away, Hughie,” said he.
7. “What an amazing model !” shouted Trevor.
8. Major Som Nath sent a message to Brigade HQ, “The enemies are only 50 yards from us.”
9. C.V. Raman says, “Water is the true elixir of life.”
10. Colonel Sams said to Junod, “Leave these photographs with me. I want to show them to General MacArthur.”
Answer:
1. Mr. Tinaikar asked Dr. Kalam if the Indian citizen would behave in a responsible manner in his own country.
2. Major Som Nath informed Brigade HQ that he would not withdraw an inch, but would fight to their last man and their last round.
3. Kalam says that India has made a wonderful success in many fields.
4. The Prime Minister said that Gandhiji believed in non-violence.
5. Rita advised me to trust in God and do the right.
6. He asked Hughie not to run away.
7. Trevor shouted that it was an amazing model.
8. Major Som Nath informed Brigade HQ that the enemies were only 50 yards from them.
9. C.V. Raman says that water is the true elixir of life.
10. Colonel Sams asked Junod to leave those photographs with him. He further said that he wanted to show them to General MacArthur.

(4) Change the narration of the following.

1. C.V. Raman says, “Water in a landscape may be compared to the eyes in a human face.”
2. General Fitch said to Marcel Junod, “What do you want from us?”
3. Colonel Sams said to Junod, “It is not possible for the United States Army to organize any direct relief action.”
4. Barb shouted, “Malcolm, hold on. I am going for help.”
5. I said, “What a mean act !”
6. “Most of you will be leaving school within six months,” said the teacher to his pupils.
7. I asked my guest, “Did you have a bad night ?”
8. She said, “I sold my car myself.”
9. He said to Junod, “General MacArthur is willing to let you have fifteen tons of medicaments and hospital material.”
10. Colonel Sams said to Junod, “A commission of inquiry is leaving for Hiroshima tomorrow.”
Answer:
1. C.V. Raman says that water in a landscape may be compared to the eyes in a human face.
2. General Fitch asked Marcel Junod what he wanted from them.
3. Colonel Sams told Junod that it was not possible for the United States Army to organize any direct relief action.
4. Barb shouted to Malcolm to hold on. She further told him that she was going for help.
5. I exclaimed that the act was very mean.
6. The teacher told his pupils that most of them would be leaving school within six months.
7. I asked my guest if he had a bad night.
8. She said that she had sold her car herself.
9. He told Junod that General MacArthur was willing to let them have fifteen tons of medicaments and hospital material.
10. Colonel Sams told Junod that a commission of inquiry was leaving for Hiroshima the next day.

(5) Change the narration of the following.

1. Colonel Sams said to Junod, “Medicaments and hospital material can be distributed under the control of the Red Cross.”
2. Junod said to the American officers, “A rescue expedition should be organised at once.”
3. The surgeon said to Barb, “Restoring Malcolm’s face was like putting a jigsaw puzzle together.’
4. Malcolm’s friends said to Barb, “He simply can’t believe you still love him.”
5. Barb said, “Handicaps should be accepted in life.”
6. The old woman said to Rahim Khan, “Your wife has gone to her brother at Nurpur.”
7. “Poor old chap !” said Hughie. “How miserable he looks !”
8. “What a duffer the Baron must think me !” said Hughie.
9. “Has your son again been arrested for revenue arrears ?” said Rahim Khan to the old woman.
10. The host said to the poor peasant, “I cannot find drink for everyone who comes here.”
Answer:
1. Colonel Sams told Junod that medicaments and hospital material could be distributed under the control of the Red Cross.
2. Junod suggested to the American officers that a rescue expedition should be organised at once.
3. The surgeon told Barb that restoring Malcolm’s face had been like putting a jigsaw puzzle together.
4. Malcolm’s friends told Barb that he simply couldn’t believe that she still loved him.
5. Barb said that handicaps should be accepted in life.
6. The old woman told Rahim Khan that his wife had gone to her brother at Nurpur.
7. Hughie pitied the old beggar and remarked that he looked very miserable.
8. Hugie felt upset thinking that Baron would consider him a duffer.
9. Rahim Khan asked the old woman if her son had again been arrested for revenue arrears.
10. The host told the poor peasant that he could not find drink for everyone who came there.

(6) Change the narration of the following.

1. The journalist said to Junod, “By the evening, the fire began to die down and then it went out.”
2. General MacArthur said, “Force is not a solution to man’s problems.”
3. Malcolm said, “Barb, are you okay?”
4. Gordy Peyto said to Malcolm, “I always end up looking after you, man.”
5. Malcolm said to Gordy Peyto, “My wrist is broken.”
6. General MacArthur said to Junod and his delegation, “A new war would leave nothing worthy of mention.”
7. Rahim Khan shouted, “Why are you running away ? I am not going to beat you.”
8. “Why don’t you speak, woman?” Rahim Khan said to the old woman.
9. Hughie said, “Well Alan ! Did you get the picture finished all right ?”
10. The doctors said, “Well Malcolm, you shall look fine after the grafts are finished.”
Answer:
1. The journalist told Junod that by the evening, the fire had begun to die down and then it had gone out.
2 General MacArthur said that force is not a solution to man’s problems.
3. Malcolm asked Barb if she was okay.
4. Gordy Peyto told Malcolm jokingly that he always ended up looking after him.
5. Malcolm told Gordy Peyto that his wrist was broken.”
6. General MacArthur told Junod and his delegation that a new war would leave nothing worthy of mention.
7. Rahim Khan shouted to the children why they were running away. He assured them that he was not going to beat them.
8. Rahim Khan asked the old woman why she did not speak.
9. Hughie asked Alan if he had got the picture finished all right.
10. The doctors told Malcolm that he would look fine after the grafts were finished.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

(7) Change the narration of the following.

1. Brigadier General Baker said to Junod, “General MacArthur wishes to receive the delegation of the International Red Cross.”
2. General MacArthur said to the delegation, “I thank you for the work you have done on behalf of the imprisoned Americans.”
3. He said, “The supreme value of human life and human blood has been forgotten.”
4. Malcolm said to his friends, “How can Barb love a freak like me ?”
5. Barb said, “Scars don’t change the person.”
6. “Shall I come too, father?” said Tembu.
7. Rahim Khan asked the old woman, “Has your daughter-in-law delivered another baby?”
8. The peasants said, “Poor fellow, he has gone mad. We shall send for his wife to look after him.”
9. The astrologer said to his client, “A knife was passed through you once.”
10. The astrologer said to Guru, “You were pushed into a well and left for dead.”
Answer:
1. Brigadier General Baker told Junod that General MacArthur wished to receive the delegation of the International Red Cross.
2. General MacArthur thanked the delegation for the work they had done on behalf of the imprisoned Americans.
3. He said that the supreme value of human life and human blood had been forgotten.
4. Malcolm asked his friends how Barb could love á freak like him.
5. Barb said that scars don’t change the person.
6. Tembu asked his father if he too should come.
7. Rahim Khan asked the old woman if her daughter in-law had delivered another baby.
8. The peasants sympathised with him and said that he had gone mad. They added that they would send for his wife to look after him.
9. The astrologer told his client that a knife had passed through him once.
10. The astrologer told Guru that he had been pushed into a well and left for dead.

Exercises From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Exercise 1
Change the narration.

1. She said to me, “I will go to Delhi next week.”
2. Rajan said to him, “I returned your book yesterday.”
3. My sister said to me, “I have to finish my work before 5 o’clock today.”
4. The teacher said to the students, “You must attend your classes regularly.”
5. The stranger said to me, “I belong to Rajasthan.”
6. The captain said to the players, “In case of rain, we will cancel the match.”
7. My friend said to me, “You can take my book if you want to study.”
8. My neighbour said to me, “Someone has stolen my scooter.”
9. His brother said to him, “I am going to watch a movie.”
10. Riya said to me, “I shall go to Chennai next week.”
Answer:
1. She told me that she would go to Delhi the following week.
2. Rajan told him that he had returned his book the previous day.
3. My sister told me that she had to finish her work by 5 o’clock that day.
4. The teacher impressed upon the students that they had to attend their classes regularly.
5. The stranger told me that he belonged to Rajasthan.
6. The captain told the players that in case of rain, they would cancel the match.
7. My friend told me that I could take his book if I wanted to study.
8. My neighbour told me that someone had stolen his scooter.
9. His brother told him that he was going to watch a movie.
10. Riya told me that she would go to Chennai the following week.

Exercise 2
Change the narration.

1. The shopkeeper said to the boy, “What do you want to buy?”
2. The student said to the teacher, “Can you explain the sum again ?”
3. The father said to his son, “Where have you kept my spectacles ?”
4. The teacher said to the student, “Why have you come late today ?”
5. I said to him, “When are you shifting to your new house ?”
6. My father said to my sister, “Why have you not prepared your lessons ?”
7. He said to his guest, “Shall I make you a cup of tea ?”
8. The secretary said to the visitor, “Whom do you want to see ?”
9. He said to me, “Are you building a new house ?”
10. My uncle said to me, “When does the postman come every day?”.
Answer:
1. The shopkeeper asked the boy what he wanted to buy.
2. The student asked the teacher if he could explain the sum again.
3. The father asked his son where he (the son) had kept his spectacles.
4. The teacher asked the student why he had come late that day.
5. I asked him when he was shifting to his new house.
6. My father asked my sister why she had not prepared her lessons.
7. He asked his guest if he should make him a cup of tea.
8. The secretary asked the visitor whom he wanted to see.
9. He asked me if I was building a new house.
10. My uncle asked me when the postman came every day.

Exercise 3
Change the narration.

1. The teacher said to the students, “Don’t make a noise.”
2. She said to her father, “Let me marry the boy I want to.”
3. The Principal said to the boys, “Work hard if you want to succeed.”
4. My mother said to me, “Clean your room and arrange your books.”
5. The beggar said, “Please give me a rupee.”
6. The leader said to his followers, “Let’s do something for our motherland.”
7. He said to his son, “Never tell a lie.”
8. The Principal said to the peon, “Bring that file to me.”
9. The captain said to the soldiers, “Fire at the enemy.”
10. My friend said to me, “Let’s play cricket.”
Answer:
1. The teacher asked the students not to make a noise.
2. She requested her father to let her marry the boy she wanted to.
3. The Principal advised the boys to work hard if they wanted to succeed.
4. My mother asked me to clean my room and arrange my books.
5. The beggar begged me to give him a rupee.
6. The leader proposed to his followers that they should do something for their motherland.
7. He advised his son never to tell a lie.
8. The Principal ordered 1 commanded the peon to bring that file to him.
9. The captain commanded the soldiers to fire at the enemy.
10. My friend proposed to me that we should play cricket.

Exercise 4
Change the narration.

1. My brother said, “Hurrah ! I have got the first rank in my class.”
2. He said, “Alas ! I have lost my son.”
3. She said to me, “Good Heavens ! You have come again.”
4. He said to the boy, “Pooh ! Pooh! What a dirty fellow you are !”
5. The students said, “How difficult the question paper is !”
6. She said to her son, “Hush ! The baby is sleeping.”
7. My friend said to me, “How nice of you to have come.”
8. She said, “Hurrah ! My brother has won a lottery prize.”
9. The boy said, “Oh ! I have forgotten my book at home.”
10. I said, “What a tongue-twister !”
Answer:
1. My brother exclaimed with joy that he had got the first rank in his class.
2. He exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his son.
3. She exclaimed with surprise that I had come again.
4. He exclaimed disdainfully that the boy was a very dirty fellow.
5. The students exclaimed despairingly that the question paper was very difficult.
6. She asked her son to remain quiet as the baby was sleeping.
7. My friend praised me saying that it was very nice of me to have come.
8. She exclaimed with joy that her brother had won a lottery prize.
9. The boy exclaimed with sorrow that he had forgotten his book at home.
10. Taken aback, I exclaimed that it was a great tongue-twister.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

Exercise 5
Change the narration.

1. I said to my friend, “May you get well soon.”
2. My friend said to me, “Good luck to you !”
3. John said, “O for a house to live in.”
4. He said, “I wish I were the Prime Minister.”
5. My mother said to me, “May you get all the success in life.”
6. The blind man said, “May God bless you !”
7. I said to my parents, “Goodnight !”
8. The teacher said to the students, “May you all fare well in your examination.”
9. She said to her friend, “May you recover soon !”
10. He said, “O for a cup of tea !”
Answer:
1. I wished for my friend that he might get well soon.
2. My friend wished me good luck.
3. John desired strongly for a house to live in.
4. He wished that he had been the Prime Minister.
5. My mother wished that I might get all the success in life.
6. The blind man wished that God might bless me.
7. I wished my parents goodnight.
8. The teacher wished that all the students might fare well in their examination.
9. She wished that her friend might recover soon.
10. He strongly desired for a cup of tea.

Exercise 6
Change the narration.

1. He said to me, “You can go now.”
2. Radha said, “I bought these books yesterday.”
3. Priyanka said to me, “I lost my book last night.”
4. He said, “I have found a gold coin today.”
5. She said to me, “I will wait fou you here.”
6. Pratibha said to her friend, “I should go back home now.”
7. The servant says to his master, “The dinner is ready.”
8. Nehru said, “The Ganga has been a symbol of India’s culture.”
9. The teacher said to the students, “You should obey your parents.”
10. He said to the doctor, “There is no hope for him unless you treat him.”
Answer:
1. He told me that I could go then.
2. Radha said that she had bought those books the previous day.
3. Priyanka told me that she had lost her book the previous night.
4. He said that he had found a gold coin that day.
5. She told me that she would wait for me there.
6. Pratibha told her friend that she should go back home then.
7. The servant tells his master that the dinner is ready.
8. Nehru said that the Ganga had been a symbol of India’s culture.
9. The teacher advised the students that they should obey their parents.
10. He told the doctor that there was no hope for him unless he (the doctor) treated him.

Exercise 7
Change the narration.

1. The tourist said to the guide, “How long does it take to reach Manali ?”
2. He said to me, “Shall I help you ?”
3. I said to him, “When are you coming to my home ?”
4. The daughter said to her mother, “What have you prepared in lunch ?”
5. He said to his neighbour, “Who has spoiled my garden?”
6. She said to me, “Do you know the way to railway station ?”
7. I said to him, “What have you got as your birthday gift ?”
8. She said to me, “Why did you hurt my brother ?”
9. My friend said to me, “Are you looking for a new job ?”
10. Amit said to his brother, “How did you fare in your final examination ?”
Answer:
1. The tourist asked the guide how long it took to reach Manali.
2. He asked me if he should help me.
3. I asked him when he was coming to my home.
4. The daughter asked her mother what she had prepared in lunch.
5. He asked his neighbour who had spoiled his garden.
6. She asked me whether I knew the way to railway station.
7. I asked him what he had got as his birthday gift.
8. She enquired of me why I had hurt her brother.
9. My friend asked me whether I was looking for a new job.
10. Amit enquired of his brother how he had fared in his final examination.

Exercise 8
Change the narration.

1. He said to me, “You have no liking for poetry.”
2. She said, “May God bless the newborn baby.”
3. I said to him, “Did you go to school today?”
4. The boys screamed, “Bravo ! It is a big hit.”
5. The boy said to his mother, “Let me play for some time.”
6. He said to her, “Are you well ?”
7. She said, “You mustn’t break your promise.”
8. The officer said to his men, “Attack the enemy.”
9. The teacher asked her why she was late.
10. He said to me, “Let him play cunningly, he will not be able to defeat you.”
Answer:
1. He remarked that I had no liking for poetry.
2. She wished that God might bless the newborn baby.
3. I asked him whether he had gone to school that day.
4. The boys applauded loudly saying that it was a big hit.
5. The boy requested his mother to let him play for some time.
6. He asked her if she was well.
7. She impressed upon me that I mustn’t break my promise.
8. The officer ordered his men to attack the enemy.
9. The teacher said to her, “Why are you late ?”
10. He assured me that even if he played cunningly, he would not be able to defeat me.

Exercise 9
Change the narration.

1. Mother said, “Go ahead and do well in life.”
2. He said, “Do it at once.”
3. You said to us, “Why were they quarrelling at night ?”
4. Her sister said, “How stupid you are !”
5. He said, “I must win the prize.”
6. Sonam said to her mother, “Where are the keys ?”
7. We wished them success in life.
8. The fox said, “How clever I am !”
9. The Principal said to the students, “You should always respect your teachers.”
10. “What a lovely flower !” I said.
Answer:
1. Mother encouraged me to go ahead and do well in life.
2. He ordered me to do that at once.
3. You asked us why they had been quarrelling at night.
4. Her sister said disdainfully that she was very stupid.
5. He resolved that he had to win the prize. 6. Sonam asked her mother where the keys were.
7. We said to them, “May you succeed in life.”
8. The fox boasted that he was very clever.
9. The Principal advised the students that they should always respect their teachers.
10. I exclaimed in wonder that that was a very lovely flower.

Exercise 10
Change the narration.

1. I said to her, “Are you comfortable now ?”
2. He said to me, “You can trust me.”
3. He said to Sonam, “Whose car is that ?”
4. Money said to Simmy, “I am going to Jaipur tomorrow.”
5. Manav said to Hari, “Please lend me some money.”
6. I said to him, “Let us go to the cinema tonight.”
7. He said to me, “Let me know if I can do something for you.”
8. The officer said, “March forward, boys.”
9. The Guru said, “Do good and expect nothing in return,”
10. He said, “If he were a king!”.
Answer:
1. I asked her if she was comfortable then.
2. He assured me that I could trust him.
3. He asked Sonam whose car that was.
4. Money told Simmy that she was going to Jaipur the next day.
5. Manav requested Hari to lend him some money.
6. I proposed to him that we should go to the cimema that night.
7. He told me to let him know if he could do something for me.
8. Calling his men as boys, the officer ordered them to march forward.
9. The Guru advised them to do good and expect nothing in return.
10. He strongly desired him to become a king.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

Exercise 11
Change the narration.

1. She said to him, “Where are you staying ?”
2. I said to my secretary, “Don’t disturb me.”
3. Mother said to her, “Why don’t you finish your meals fast ?”
4. He said to the teacher, “Don’t blame me, sir.”
5. I said, “Goodbye, friends.”
6. “You are a coward,” said the girl.
7. Yoga teacher said, “Take a deep breath.”
8. The manager said to the waiter, “Shut up.”
9. “Alas ! I have no money,” said the gambler.
10. She said, “May I go home, sir ?”
Answer:
1. She asked him where he was staying.
2. I asked my secretary not to disturb me.
3. Mother asked her why she didn’t finish her meals fast.
4. Respectfully, he requested his teacher not to blame him.
5. I bade my friends goodbye.
6. The girl remarked that he was a coward.
7. The yoga teacher asked his pupils to take a deep breath.
8. The manager ordered the waiter to shut up.
9. The gambler exclaimed in sorrow that he had no money.
10. She asked respectfully whether she could go home.

Exercise 12
Change the narration.

1. I said to her, “Does that book belong to you ?”
2. He said to me, “When is your last paper ?”
3. I said to her, “Have you learnt your lesson ?”
4. She said to me, “I can help you in studies.”
5. His friend said to him, “You must work hard for success.”
6. I asked her where she had been missing.
7. The old woman said, “God be with you, my child.”
8. Children said to him, “Good morning, madam.”
9. His wife said to him, “Goodnight darling, I am going to sleep now.”
10. She said to me, “Let’s not run after the wealth.”
Answer:
1. I asked her if that book belonged to her.
2. He asked me when my last paper was.
3. I asked her whether she had learnt her lesson.
4. She assured me that she could help me in studies.
5. His friend impressed upon him that he had to work hard for success.
6. I said to her, “Where have you been missing ?”
7. Calling him as my child’, the old woman wished that God might be with him.
8. Addressing their teacher as madam, the children wished her good morning.
9. Very lovingly, his wife wished him goodnight and added that she was going to sleep then.
10. She impressed upon me that we should not run after the wealth.

Exercise 13
Change the narration.

1. The teacher said to the boys, “Are you ready for the test ?”
2. She said to her friend, “Where should I wait for you ?”
3. The bus conductor said, “Come inside, sir.”
4. I said, “Hurrah ! My buddy has won.”
5. The officer said, “Get ready for a long race.”
6. She said, “I wish I were the Prime Minister of India.”
7. Bose said to the volunteers, “Give me blood and I will get you freedom.”
8. He said to his boss, “Forgive my mistakes, sir.”
9. I said to the boy, “Get me a glass of water.”
10. The old man said, “Farewell, my son.”
Answer:
1. The teacher asked the boys whether they were ready for the test.
2. She asked her friend where she should wait for her.
3. Respectfully, the bus conductor asked the passenger to come inside.
4. I exclaimed with joy that my buddy had won.
5. The officer advised his men to get ready for a long race.
6. She strongly desired to become the Prime Minister of India.
7. Bose asked the volunteers to give him blood and assured them that he would get them freedom.
8. Respectfully, he asked his boss to forgive his mistakes.
9. I asked the boy to get me a glass of water.
10. The old man bade farewell to his son.

Exercise 14
Change the narration.

1. Rosy said to her mother, “I will come on Monday.”
2. She said to the peon, “Do you know when the Principal will come ?”
3. Surubhi said to her niece, “I am busy today.”
4. Prabhjot said to the child, “You better see the doctor now.”
5. I said, “Will you be quiet for some time ?”
6. Farzana said, “I must go soon.”
7. Anurag said, “I like this story.”
8. Bindu said, “I wish I could help you.”
9. Varinder said, “Did she like the movie ?”
10. Deepak said, “It’s a great idea to see the play today.”
Answer:
1. Rosy assured her mother that she would come on Monday.
2. She asked the peon if he knew when the Principal would come.
3. Surubhi told her niece that she was busy that day.
4. Prabhjot advised the child that she better saw the doctor then.
5. I asked the students if they would be quiet for some time.
6. Farzana insisted that she had to go soon.
7. Anurag said that he liked that story.
8. Bindu said that it was her wish that she could help her.
9. Varinder wanted to know if she had liked the movie.
10. Deepak said that it would be a great idea to see the movie that day.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech

Exercise 15
Change the narration.

1. Sachin said, “I don’t want to play anymore.”
2. “What is going on in your mind ?” Geeta said to her brother.
3. He reminded me that we would meet me the next day.
4. She says, “I will be a lawyer when I grow up.”
5. Pardeep said, “If I were rich, I would travel a lot.”
6. She remarked, “I needn’t hurry now.”
7. Samay said, “Do you know French ?”
8. He said, “My coffee is too cold.”
9. Her teacher said, “Don’t talk so fast.”
10. The teacher asked me where I had been.
Answer:
1. Sachin said that he didn’t want to play anymore.
2. Geeta asked her brother what was going on in his mind.
3. He said to me, “Remember that we will meet tomorrow.”
4. She says that she will be a lawyer when she grows up.
5. Pardeep exclaimed that if he were rich, he would travel a lot.
6. She remarked that she needed not hurry then.
7. Samay asked me if I knew French.
8. He said that his coffee was very cold.
9. Her teacher advised her not to talk that fast.
10. The teacher said to me, “Where have you been ?”

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions English Grammar Active and Passive Voice Exercise Questions and Answers, Notes.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Active Voice – जिस वाक्य में subject का सीधा सम्बन्ध Verb के साथ होता है (अर्थात् कर्ता के अनुसार क्रिया का रूप निर्धारित होता है) उसे Active Voice का वाक्य कहा जाता है।

Passive Voice – जिस वाक्य में कर्म के अनुसार क्रिया का रूप निर्धारित होता है (और कर्ता का क्रिया पर कोई प्रभाव नहीं होता), उसे Passive Voice का वाक्य कहा जाता है।

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को ध्यान से देखिए-

Active Voice Passive Voice
1. Ram writes a letter.

राम पत्र लिखता है।

1. A letter is written by Ram.

राम के द्वारा पत्र लिखा जाता है।

2. Children like sweets.

बच्चे मिठाइयां पसन्द करते हैं।

2. Sweets are liked by children.

बच्चों के द्वारा मिठाइयां पसन्द की जाती हैं।

ऊपर के वाक्यों में हमने देखा कि-
(1) Active Voice के वाक्य में जो Subject होता है, वह Passive Voice के वाक्य में Object बन जाता है।

(2) Active Voice के वाक्य में जो Object होता है, वह Passive Voice के वाक्य में Subject बन जाता है।

(3) Passive Voice के वाक्य में Object के साथ by अथवा कोई अन्य उपयुक्त Preposition लगाया जाता है।

(4) Subject से Object तथा Object से Subject का स्थान लेते समय Pronouns का रूप बदल जाता है;
जैसे-
Subject – Object
I – Me
He – him
She – her
We – us
You – you
They – them

(5) किसी वाक्य का Voice बदलते समय Verb का रूप बदल जाता है। इसके लिए नीचे दी गई नियम
तालिका याद रखिए-

Active Voice Passive Voice
1. Present Indefinite Tense V1 is / am / are + V3
2. Past Indefinite Tense V2 was / were + V3
3. Future Indefinite Tense will / shall + V1 will / shall + be + V3
4. Present Continuous Tense is / am / are + V1 -ing is / am / are + being + V3
5. Past Continuous Tense was / were + V1 -ing was / were + being + V3
6. Present Perfect Tense has / have + V3 has / have + been + V3
7. Past Perfect Tense had + V3 had + been + V3
8. Future Perfect Tense will / shall + have + V3 will / shall + have been + V3
9. Imperative Sentences V1 + Object Object + should be + V3
OrLet + Object + be + V3
10. can / could / may / might / must /ought to / should + V1 can / could / may / might / must / ought to / should + be + V3

I. Present Indefinite Tense
(is / am I are + V3)

Active Passive
1. She helps the poor. 1. The poor are helped by her.
2. We expect good news. 2. Good news is expected by us.
3. I know him. 3. He is known to me.
4. Radha does not sing a song. 4. A song is not sung by Radha.
5. Who teaches you English ? 5. By whom are you taught English ?
6. What do you want ? 6. What is wanted by you ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. The mother manages the house.
2. He grows wheat in his field.
3. This pot contains milk.
4. The rich hate the poor.
5. I do not know the reason of his coming.
6. He does not make any noise. (No noise. …..)
7. Does Sham tell a lie ?
8. Why do you not help him ?
9. What does he say?
10. My father sends me money every month.

(II) Past Indefinite Tense (was / were + V3)

Active Passive
1. She kept us waiting 1. We were kept waiting by her.
2. I employed two hundred men. 2. Two hundred men were employed by me.
3. The hunter did not aim at the bird. 3. The bird was not aimed at by the hunter.
4. Did he give you anything? 4. Were you given anything by him ?
5. Who lent you this book ? 5. By whom were you lent this book ?
6. Which picture did you see last night ? 6. Which picture was seen by you last night?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences :
1. We refused them admission.
2. I forgave him for his fault.
3. He watched the sports.
4. Sohrab gave Rustam a brave fight.
5. They took no notice of me.
6. Did Sita paint this picture ?
7. Who taught you French ?
8. Where did you find this book ?
9. Why did the teacher punish him ?
10. The dentist pulled out one of my teeth.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

(III) Future Indefinite Tense
(will / shall + be + V3)

Active Passive
1. I shall buy this pen. 1. This pen will be bought by me.
2. I will not take the test. 2. The test shall not be taken by me.
3. He will do his duty. 3. His duty will be done by him.
4. Will he not mend his ways ? 4. Will his ways not be mended by him ?
5. Which book will you read tomorrow ? 5. Which book will be read by you tomorrow?
6. Who will answer this question ? 6. By whom will this question be answered ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
(1) 1. The police will look into the matter.
2. The teacher will teach us a lesson.
3. The boys will catch these birds.
4. Will you look after her ?
5. Will your uncle pay your school fees ?
6. How will you settle the matter ?
7. Who will advise him ?
8. When shall I see you again ?
9. What will you do after passing the examination ?
10. Mohan will meet you at the station.

(2) Use of can, could, may, etc.
(can I could / may / etc. + be + V3)

1. Anybody can do it easily.
2. You should write the address neatly.
3. One cannot please everybody.
4. We should always speak the truth.
5. You must listen to his words.
6. One should do one’s duty.
7. Somebody must help this poor woman.
8. One can paint this picture easily.
9. You should not pluck flowers.
10. We must respect our elders.

(IV) Present Continuous Tense
(is / am /are + being + V3)

Active Passive
1. The gardener is plucking flowers. 1. Flowers are being plucked by the gardener.
2. He is driving a motor car. 2. A motor car is being driven by him.
3. Boys are flying kites. 3. Kites are being flown by boys.
4. Is she reading a book ? 4. Is a book being read by her ?
5. Why are you wasting your time? 5. Why is your time being wasted by you ?
6. Who is laughing at the beggar ? 6. By whom is the beggar being laughed at ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. The boys are learning their lessons.
2. The washerman is washing the clothes.
3. The teacher is not calling the roll.
4. The boys are making much noise.
5. He is speaking the truth.
6. Is the peon ringing the bell ?
7. Why are you teasing the beggar ?
8. Who is sending you these letters ?
9. What are you looking for?
10. The labourers are cutting down the trees.

(V) Past Continuous Tense (was / were + being + V3)

Active Passive
1. The hunter was aiming at the lion. 1. The lion was being aimed at by the hunter.
2. She was milking the cow. 2. The cow was being milked by her.
3. The peon was ringing the bell. 3. The bell was being rung by the peon.
4. The farmer was not ploughing the field. 4. The field was not being ploughed by the farmer.
5. Were they learning their lesson ? 5. Was their lesson being learnt by them?
6. What was Sohan doing? 6. What was being done by Sohan ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. Boys were playing cricket.
2. The President was giving away the prizes.
3. We were revising our lessons.
4. He was drawing a picture.
5. He was not solving the sums.
6. Were you throwing stones at the beggar ?
7. Who was beating my brother ?
8. Why were you not teaching the class ?
9. Why was his father beating him?
10. I was writing a letter to my friend.

(VI) Present Perfect Tense
(has / have + been + V3)

Active Passive
1. I have done my duty. 1. My duty has been done by me.
2. She has sold her cow. 2. Her cow has been sold by her.
3. They have not broken the window- pane. 3. The windowpane has not been broken by them.
4. Have you ever seen a lion ? 4. Has a lion ever been seen by you ?
5. Why has Sohan not finished his Sohan ? 5. Why has his work not been finished by sohan ?
6. Who has stolen my pencil ? 6. By whom has my pencil been stolen ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. The servant has posted the letter.
2. He has lent me ten rupees.
3. The farmers have reaped the harvest.
4. We have spent all the money.
5. I have not beaten the dog.
6. Has she taken her meals ?
7. Have you finished your work ?
8. How have you done it?
9. Why have you sent for the doctor ?
10. I have received a parcel just now.

(VII) Past Perfect Tense (had + been + V3)

Active Passive
1. The watchman had already opened the gate. 1. The gate had already been opened by the watchman.
2. We had never visited Amritsar before. 2. Amritsar had never been visited by us before.
3. Had you never seen this place before? 3. Had this place never been seen by you before ?
4. Who had invited you to the feast? 4. By whom had you been invited to the feast?
5. Had he finished his work by 4 p.m. ? 5. Had his work been finished by him by 4 p.m. ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. We had already missed the train.
2. He had received your letter when I met him.
3. Our team had played two matches by 6 p.m.
4. Ram had met my brother earlier also.
5. Who had swept the room ?
6. Why had you not prepared your lessons ?
7. They had not sent for the doctor when I reached home.
8. They had already completed the work.
9. I stood up after I had done my paper.
10. I had written the letter before you came.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

(VIII) Future Perfect Tense
(will / shall + have been + V3).

Active Passive
1. I shall have planted a tree. 1. A tree will have been planted by me.
2. He will have read this book. 2. This book will have been read by him.
3. He will have sold his house. 3. His house will have been sold by him.
4. She will have taken the test. 4. The test will have been taken by her.
5. Will he have written a letter? 5. Will a letter have been written by him ?

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. They will have bought some fruits.
2. The enemy will have attacked the city.
3. He will have cleared his account.
4. I shall have finished this work by evening.
5. The Magistrate will have sent him to jail.
6. The army will have captured the city.
7. They will have mown all the grass.
8. I will have watered the plants before sunset.
9. We will have destroyed the bridge.
10. She will have gathered all her followers.

(IX) Imperative Sentences (Object + should be + V3)
Or
(Let + object + be + V3)

Active Passive
1. Shut the door. 1. The door should be shut.
2. Obey your parents. 2. Let your parents be obeyed.
3. Carry it home. 3. Let it be carried home.
4. Never tell a lie. 4. A lie should never be told.
5. Let him play the match. 5. Let the match be played by him.
6. Please bring me a glass of water. 6. You are requested to bring me a glass of water.

Exercise

Change the voice of the following sentences:
1. Post this letter at once.
2. Please help me in my hour of need.
3. Lower the boats. 4. Send him to school.
5. Tell him to leave the room.
6. Carry out my orders.
7. Kindly do this much for me.
8. Do not starve the cow.
9. Do not hate the poor.
10. Let me try this question.

(X) Prepositional Verbs कुछ Verbs के साथ विशेष Prepositions या Adverb Particles का प्रयोग किया जाता है Active तथा Passive दोनों तरह के वाक्यों में ये Prepositions या Adverb Particles सम्बन्धित Verbs के साथ ही लगाए जाने चाहिएं। इन्हें Verbs से अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है।

Active Passive
1. The people listened to him with respect. 1. He was listened to with respect by the people.
2. I objected to his proposal. 2. His proposal was objected to by me.
3. The rich often laugh at the poor. 3. The poor are often laughed at by the rich.
4. We must take care of our health. 4. Health must be taken care of.
5. They switched off the lights. 5. The lights were switched off.
6. A car ran over an old man. 6. An old man was run over by a car.
7. The police charged her with murder. 7. She was charged with murder by the police.
8. The Principal turned down my request. 8. My request was turned down by the Principal.
9. The thieves cut down the telephone wires. 9. The telephone wires were cut down by the thieves.
10. I cannot think of such a thing. 10. Such a thing cannot be thought of by me.

Exercise

Change the voice of verbs in the following sentences :
1. A car ran over our dog.
2. I hate people looking at me.
3. He has written off all the bad debts.
4. Have you washed up all the dishes ?
5. I have carried out all his instructions.
6. We must go into this matter.
7. You cannot catch me out as easily as that.
8. I shall take down whatever you speak.
9. They turned down all our suggestions.
10. They have let off all the fireworks.

(XI) Passive of Infinitives

Active Passive
1. She begged the Principal to forgive her. 1. She begged the Principal to be forgiven.
2. I hope to overcome my difficulties. 2. I hope my difficulties to be overcome.
3. I have to do this work. 3. This work has to be done.
4. I expect you to finish the work today. 4. I expect the work to be finished by you today.
5. It is time to give the order. 5. It is time for the order to be given.

(XII) Use of Prepositions other than ‘by’

Active Passive
1. His behaviour disgusts me. 1. I am disgusted with his behaviour.
2. The jug contains milk. 2. Milk is contained in the jug.
3. The news surprised us. 3. We were surprised at the news.
4. Gardening interests my mother. 4. My mother is interested in gardening.
5. You cannot please her. 5. She cannot be pleased with you.
6. I know him. 6. He is known to me.
7. His jokes amused us. 7. We were amused at his jokes.
8. His conduct amazed us. 8. We were amazed at his conduct.

(XIII) Understood Subjects

Passive Voice के कुछ वाक्यों में by + agent नहीं दिया गया होता है किन्तु ऐसे वाक्यों में कर्ता का अनुमान लगाने में कोई कठिनाई नहीं होती है। अत: Passive Voice से Active Voice बनाने में उसी कर्ता का प्रयोग किया जाना चाहिए। किया जाना चाहिए।

Active Passive
1. You are wanted outside. 1. Someone wants you outside.
2. The thief has been arrested. 2. The police have arrested the thief.
3. The telephone wires were cut. 3. The thieves cut the telephone wires.
4. The matter will be discussed tomorrow. 4. The committee will discuss the matter tomorrow.
5. He was elected Member of Parliament. 5. People elected him Member of Parliament.

Miscellaneous Exercise (Based on the Textbook)

(1) Change the voice of the following.
1. The panel asked Sudha technical questions.
2. We have never employed any ladies on the shop floor.
3. Mr. Moolgaokar introduced Sudha to Mr. JRD Tata.
4. Sudha had to show some reports to Mr. Moolgaokar.
5. Hard work brings success.
6. Baron Hausberg buys all my pictures.
7. Will Pakistan build a nuclear breeder ?
8. His conduct amazed us.
9. Who is creating this mess ?
10. He is said to be very rich.
Answer:
1. Sudha was asked technical questions by the panel.
2. No lady has ever been employed on the shop floor by us.
3. Sudha was introduced to Mr. JRD Tata by Mr. Moolgaokar.
4. Some reports had to be shown to Mr. Moolgaokar by Sudha.
5. Success is brought by hard work.
6. All my pictures are bought by Baron Hausberg.
7. Will a nuclear breeder be built by Pakistan?
8. We were amazed at his conduct.
9. By whom is this mess being created ?
10. They say that he is very rich.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

(2) Change the voice of the following.
1. The wicked people look down upon books.
2. We should not use bookish knowledge to condemn others.
3. Physical exercises cure physical ailments.
4. We should read good books with full concentration.
5. Studies mould man’s character in a healthy manner.
6. I cannot accept your offer.
7. Crafty men condemn studies.
8. When will you pay your fees ?
9. Alas! we shall hear her voice no more.
10. She could not help me with my lessons.
Answer:
1. Books are looked down upon by the wicked people.
2. Bookish knowledge should not be used to condemn others.
3. Physical ailments are cured by physical exercises.
4. Good books should be read with full concentration.
5. Mans character is moulded in a healthy manner by studies.
6. Your offer cannot be accepted by me.
7. Studies are condemned by crafty men.
8. When will your fees be paid by you ?
9. Alas ! her voice will be heard no more by us.
10. I could not be helped with my lessons her.

(3) Change the voice of the following.
1. They had seen a mother grizzly and two cubs the previous day.
2. He found the skin of his left cheek hanging.
3. Handicaps should be accepted in life.
4. She never shooed them away.
5. She didn’t show any emotion.
6. I could hear her reciting prayers.
7. We have mortgaged our conscience to money.
8. We are threatening the third fundamental freedom.
9. We should not plunder the natural resources of the earth.
10. How can we prevent these conflicts ?
Answer:
1. A mother grizzly and two cubs had been seen by them the previous day.
2. The skin of his left cheek was found hanging by him.
3. We should accept handicaps in life.
4. They were never shooed away by her.
5. No emotion was shown by her.
6. She could be heard reciting prayers by me.
7. Our conscience has been mortgaged to money by us.
8. The third fundamental freedomis being threatened by us.
9. The natural resources of the earth should not be plundered by us.
10. How can these conflicts prevented by us ?

(4) Change the voice of the following.
1. We threw chapattis to them.
2. We shared the same room.
3. I know what I can do.
4. What should we do to encourage environment-friendly practices ?
5. The enemy surrounded Major Som Nath’s company from three sides.
6. He killed many of the intruders in hand-to-hand fighting.
7. The enemy aircraft dropped bombs on the ground targets.
8. Malcolm would open the door periodically.
9. He couldn’t bear the thought of people’s stares.
10. Malcolm gave Barb a beautiful ring.
Answer:
1. Chapattis were thrown to them by us.
2. The same room was shared by us.
3. What I can do is known to me.
4. What should be done by us to encourage environment-friendly practices ?
5. Major Som Nath’s company was surrounded by the enemy from three sides.
6. Many of the intruders were killed by him in hand-to-hand fighting.
7. Bombs were dropped on the ground targets by the enemy aircraft.
8. The door would be opened periodically by Malcolm.
9. The thought of peoples stares could not be borne by him.
10. Barb was given a beautiful ring by Malcolm.

(5) Change the voice of the following.
1. The surgeon put in more than 1000 stitches.
2. The doctor advised the patient not to eat rice.
3. The flies were laying eggs in her wounds.
4. Do you imitate others ?
5. I shall help you in every way.
6. Why did your brother give such a rude reply?
7. Discipline trains people to obey rules and orders.
8. The Major rebuked the author for not returning a salute properly.
9. Discipline does not cut down individual freedom.
10. A private soldier saluted the author.
Answer:
1. More than 1000 stitches were put in by the surgeon.
2. The patient was advised by the doctor not to eat rice.
3. Eggs were being laid in her wounds by the flies.
4. Are others imitated by you ?
5. You will be helped by me in every way.
6. Why was such a rude reply given by your brother ?
7. People are trained by discipline to obey rules and orders.
8. The author was rebuked by the Major for not returning a salute properly.
9. Individual liberty is not cut down by discipline.
10. The author was saluted by a private soldier.

(6) Change the voice of the following.

1. Malcolm was driving Barb to the town of Langley.
2. Did they move Malcolm to a hospital in Edmonton ?
3. Grandmother had already washed and plastered my wooden slate.
4. Grandmother was still reciting prayers.
5. What had the teachers taught you at the English school ?
6. The smell of blood and the bear had nauseated him.
7. How could anyone love a freak?
8. She was writing five to six letters to Malcolm every week.
9. The grizzly was making short grunting sounds.
10. The giant grizzly was gnawing the back of her neck.
Answer:
1. Barb was being driven to the town of Langley by Malcolm.
2. Was Malcolm moved by them to a hospital in Edmonton ?
3. My wooden slate had already been washed and plastered by Grandmother.
4. Prayers were still being recited by Grandmother.
5. What had you been taught by the teachers at the English school ?
6. He had been nauseated by the smell of blood and the bear.
7. How could a freak be loved by anyone ?
8. Malcolm was being written five to six letters by her every week.
9. Short grunting sounds were being made by the grizzly.
10. The back of her neck was being gnawed by the giant grizzly.

(7) Change the voice of the following.
1. She bathed and dressed me.
2. Both Malcolm and Barb loved the mountains.
3. How did the grizzly attack Malcolm and Barb ?
4. My mother threw sparrows breadcrumbs.
5. This time, the village dogs would meet us at the temple door.
6. The sun had warmed them.
7. One swat of the grizzly’s paw knocked him senseless.
8. The grizzly let out a deafening roar.
9. The nurse was changing his bandages.
10. When we carried my grandmother’s corpse off, the birds flew away quietly.
Answer:
1. I was bathed and dressed by her.
2. The mountains were loved by both Malcolm and Barb.
3. How were Malcolm and Barb attacked by the grizzly ?
4. Sparrows were thrown breadcrumbs by my mother.
5. This time, we would be met by the village dogs at the temple door.
6. They had been warmed by the sun.
7. He was knocked senseless by one swat of the grizzly’s paw.
8. A deafening roar was let out by the grizzly.
9. His bandages were being changed by the nurse.
10. When my grandmother’s corpse was carried off, the birds flew away quietly.

(8) Change the voice of the following.
1. In ancient India, people worshipped the forests.
2. Eyes lend a unique beauty to the human face.
3. We must conserve every drop of water.
4. What has man sought in vain through ages ?
5. Next morning, the sweeper swept the breadcrumbs.
6. As was customary, we laid her on the ground.
7. She ignored our protests.
8. The grizzly was raking his face again and again.
9. I had won a breathing space.
10. Malcolm and Barb had spent many hours together.
Answer:
1. In ancient India, the forests were worshipped.
2. A unique beauty is lent to the human face by eyes.
3. Every drop of water must be conserved.
4. What has been sought by man in vain through ages ?
5. Next morning, the breadcrumbs were swept by the sweeper.
6. As was customarys she was laid on the ground.
7. Our protests were ignored by her.
8. His face was being raked by the grizzly again and again.
9. A breathing space had been won by me.
10. Many hours had been spent together by Malcolm and Barb.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Exercises From Grammar Book (Fully Solved)

Exercise 1
Change the voice.

1. He reviews his work.
2. They revise their lessons.
3. She doesn’t tell stories.
4. Do you favour him ?
5. I bought a new car.
6. He always helped the poor.
7. The boys didn’t make a lot of noise.
8. Did he visit you?
9. I shall write a letter.
10. They will read the Ramayana.
Answer:
1. His work is reviewed by him.
2. Their lessons are revised by them.
3. Stories are not told by her.
4. Is he favoured by you ?
5. A new car was bought by me.
6. The poor were always helped by him.
7. A lot of noise was not made by the boys.
8. Were you visited by him ?
9. A letter will be written by me.
10. The Ramayana will be read by them.

Exercise 2
Change the voice.

1. He is singing a song.
2. They were flying kites.
3. You were eating fruits.
4. Are they doing their work ?
5. Were they making a noise ?
6. Who is drawing pictures ?
7. What are you saying?
8. Are you not doing mischief ?
9. Who are you waiting for?
10. I am favouring you.
Answer:
1. A song is being sung by him.
2. Kites were being flown by them.
3. Fruits were being
eaten by you.
4. Is their work being done by them ?
5. Was a noise being made by them ?
6. By whom are the pictures being drawn ?
7. What is being said by you ?
8. Is not mischief being done by you ?
9. Who is being waited for by you?
10. You are being favoured by me.

Exercise 3
Change the voice.

1. I have built a new house.
2. They have set up a cloth shop.
3. You had not bought a new car.
4. The police will have caught the thief.
5. What wrong has he done ?
6. Has he sung a song ?
7. Have you won the prize ?
8. Why have you selected her ?
9. Who will have spoken the truth?
10. He will have delivered the parcel.
Answer:
1. A new house has been built by me.
2. A cloth shop has been set up by them.
3. A new
car had not been bought by you.
4. The thief will have been caught (by the police).
5. What wrong has been done by him ?
6. Has a song been sung by him ?
7. Has the prize been won by you ?
8. Why has she been selected by you ?
9. By whom will the truth have been spoken ?
10. The parcel will have been delivered by him.

Exercise 4
Change the voice.

1. He is telling them an interesting story.
2. Who has taught him Punjabi ?
3. They sent us a message.
4. I promised her an award.
5. She gave them an extra chance.
Answer:
1. An interesting story is being told to them by him.
2. By whom has he been taught Punjabi ?
(or)
By whom has Punjabi been taught to him ?
3. A message was sent us by them.
(or)
We were sent a message by them.
4. An award was promised her by me.
(or)
She was promised an award by me.
5. An extra chance was given to them by her.
(or)
They were given an extra chance by her.

Exercise 5
Change the voice.

1. Mothers bring up their wards.
2. Children were laughing at the joker.
3. Students should listen to their teachers.
4. The conjuror played upon their weaknesses.
5. They looked for the enemy.
Answer:
1. Their words are brought up by mothers.
2. The joker was being laughed at by the children.
3. Their teachers should be listened to by the students.
4. Their weaknesses were played upon by the conjuror.
5. The enemy was looked for by them.

Change the voice.

1. Stand up at once.
2. Love your friends.
3. Always speak the truth.
4. Get up early in the morning.
5. Sit down.
6. Post this letter.
7. Kindly do it.
8. Never harm anybody.
9. Do not make a noise.
10. Call the doctor.
Answer:
1. You are ordered to stand up at once.
2. Let your friends be loved by you.
(or)
Your friends should be loved by you.
3. The truth should always be spoken.
(or)
Let the truth be always spoken by you.
4. You are advised to get up early in the morning.
5. You are ordered to sit down.
6. Let this letter be posted.
(or)
This letter should be posted.
7. You are requested to do it.
8. You are advised never to harm anybody.
(or)
Let nobody be ever harmed by you.
9. You are ordered not to make a noise.
(or)
Let a noise not be made by you.
10. You are requested to call the doctor.
(or)
Let the doctor be called.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Exercise 7
Change the voice.

1. Help your friends in need.
2. Enjoy the moment.
3. Don’t play with fire.
4. Never cheat anyone.
5. Get some water, please.
6. Hit the ball hard.
7. Be courteous to others.
8. Play the match fairly.
9. Always make new friends.
10. Take a break now.
Answer:
1. Let your friends be helped in need.
(or)
Your friends should be helped in need.
2. Let themoment be enjoyed.
3. You are warned not to play with fire.
4. Let no one be ever cheated by you.
5. You are requested to get some water.
6. The ball should be hit hard.
(or)
Let the ball be hit hard.
7. You are advised to be courteous to others.
8. You are advised to play the match fairly.
(or)
Let the match be played fairly.
9. Let new friends be always made (by you).
(or)
You are advised to make new friends always.
10. You are permitted to take a break now.
(or)
Let a break be taken by you now.

Exercise 8
Change the voice.

1. This news surprises me.
2. He does not know the answer.
3. The audience thronged the hall.
4. The students lined the field.
5. This jug contains milk.
6. His bag contains many books.
7. The warning bells alarmed the thieves.
8. His manners impressed his fiancee.
9. The sight of a lion frightened the child.
10. Her rude behaviour suprised her parents.
Answer:
1. I am surprised at this news.
2. The answer is not known to him.
3. The hall was thronged with the audience.
4. The field was lined with students.
5. Milk is contained in this jug.
6. Many books are contained in his bag.
7. The thieves were alarmed by the warning bells.
8. His fiancee was impressed with his manners.
9. The child was frightened by the sight of a lion.
10. Her parents were surprised at her rude behaviour.

Exercise 9
Change the voice.

1. I am sure to win the prize.
2. The judges had to praise him.
3. You will have to help him.
4. He had to recommend my work.
5. Will I have to drink the entire milk ?
6. Doctors have to attend him regularly.
7. He likes to admire his comrades.
8. Children have to show him their books.
9. She had to sing a song at the party.
10. Women like men to flatter them.
Answer:
1. The prize is sure to be won by me.
2. He had to be praised by the judges.
3. He will have to be helped by you.
4. My work had to be recommended by him.
5. Will the entire milk have to be drunk by me ?
6. He is to be attended regularly by the doctors.
7. He likes his comrades to be admired by him.
8. Their books have to be shown to him by the children.
9. A song had to be sung by her at the party.
10. Women like to be flattered by men.

Exercise 10
Change the voice.

1. It must be done.
2. The baby has been named Radha.
3. The agreements have been signed.
4. Gandhiji was refused entry into the cabin.
5. Her parents were informed.
6. The thieves were arrested.
7. Some boys were denied entry into the stadium.
8. The deals were finalized peacefully.
9. Some protestors were released on bail.
10. The winners have been awarded.
Answer:
1. You / They / He, etc. must do it.
2. The parents have named the baby Radha.
3. All the parties have signed the agreements.
4. The TTE refused Gandhiji the entry into the cabin.
5. The school authorities informed her parents.
6. The police arrested the thieves.
7. The authorities denied some boys the entry into the stadium.
8. The businessman finalized the deals peacefully.
9. The court released some protestors on bail.
10. The authorities have awarded the winners.

Exercise 11
Change the voice.

1. You could lend him some money.
2. He should be helped.
3. Your efforts must bear fruit.
4. We shall keep our area clean.
5. Youth must spread Swachh Bharat concept.
6. We shall create awareness about drugs.
7. Every citizen ought to follow the constitution.
8. Children should obey their parents.
9. We must love our motherland.
10. Teachers must be respected.
Answer:
1. He could be lent some money by you.
(or)
Some money could be lent to him by you.
2. You should help him.
3. Fruit must be borne by your efforts.
4. Our area will be kept clean by us.
5. Swachh Bharat concept must be spread by the youth.
6. Awareness about drugs will be created by us.
7. The constitution ought to be followed by every citizen.
8. The parents should be obeyed by their children.
9. Our motherland must be loved by us.
10. We must respect teachers.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Exercise 12
Change the voice.

1. Have you received the parcel in time?
2. Do you speak English at home?
3. Can you spot the mistakes in her contest?
4. Will they own up their faults?
5. Who will bell the cat ?
6. Why will you always rescue him ?
7. Where do you get such beautiful flowers ?
8. Will the boys defeat the girls in debate homework sheet ?
9. Why should you do it?
10. What can your parents do for you?
Answer:
1. Has the parcel been received by you in time ?
2. Is English spoken by you at home?
3. Can the mistakes in her homework sheets be spotted by you ?
4. Will their faults be owned up by them ?
5. By whom will the cat be belled ?
6. Why will he be always rescued by you ?
7. Where are such beautiful flowers got by you ?
8. Will the girls be defeated in debate contest by the boys ?
9. Why should it be done by you ?
10. What can be done by your parents for you?

Exercise 13
Change the voice.

1. Hear your inner voice.
2. Sea water tastes salty.
3. Hate none.
4. His new novel is printing.
5. Always speak the truth.
6. People elected him their Prime Minister.
7. Who brought you here?
8. Let an application be written by you.
9. Go out now.
10. You ought to win it.
Answer:
1. Your inner voice should be heard (by you).
(or)
Let your inner voice be heard by you.
2. Sea water is salty when tasted.
3. None should be hated (by you).
(or)
Let none be hated (by you).
4. His new novel is being printed.
5. Truth should always be spoken.
(or)
Let the truth be spoken always.
6. He was elected their Prime Minister (by the people).
7. By whom were you brought here ?
8. You should write an application.
9. You are ordered to go out now.
10. It ought to be won by you.

Exercise 14
Change the voice.

1. We saw it as a challenge.
2. He kept her in the dark.
3. Nurse the sick.
4. Why did he kick you?
5. I don’t make excuses.
6. He never lost his focus.
7. Why are you laughing at him?
8. I admire our Prime Minister.
9. People dare him to tell a lie.
10. Duty must be done.
Answer:
1. It was seen as a challenge by us.
2. She was kept in the dark (by him).
3. The sick should be nursed.
(or)
Let the sick be nursed.
4. Why were you kicked by him ?
5. Excuses are not made by me.
6. His focus was never lost (by him).
7. Why is he being laughed at by you ?
8. Our Prime Minister is admired by me.
9. He is dared by people to tell a lie.
1o. One must do one’s duty.

Exercise 15
Change the voice.

1. She knows her teacher well.
2. I love my India.
3. Why should you bear your insult ?
4. What is wanted by you ?
5. Save your soul.
6. Will you have done her work ?
7. He doesn’t complete the song.
8. We have won the competition.
9. How did you get the prize ?
10. You may write a letter.
Answer:
1. Her teacher is known well to her.
2. My India is loved by me.
3. Why should your insult be borne by you ?
4. What do you want ?
5. Your soul should be saved by you.
(or)
Let your soul be saved by you.
6. Will her work have been done by you ?
7. The song is not completed by him.
8. The competition has been won by us.
9. How was the prize got by you ?
10. A letter may be written by you.

Exercise 16
Change the voice.

1. I agreed to her proposal.
2. He was elected the speaker of the house.
3. Who did not write the poem?
4. We were surprised at his remark.
5. Crowds lined the roads.
6. He displeases me.
7. Be alert.
8. Don’t litter in the streets.
9. What is done by him ?
10. Nobody listened to his entreaties.
Answer:
1. Her proposal was agreed to by me.
2. The members elected him the speaker of the house.
3. By whom was the poem not written ?
4. His remarks surprised us.
5. The roads were lined with crowds.
6. I am displeased with him.
7. You are advised to be alert.
8. The streets should not be littered in by you.
9. What does he do ?
10. His entreaties were listened to by nobody.

Exercise 17
Change the voice.

1. Open the window, please.
2. I asked him to leave my office.
3. Let them perform freely.
4. You are asked to clear the dues.
5. The manager has been suspended.
6. It has to be finished today.
7. Duty must be done.
8. I taught them English.
9. Every parent knows his child.
10. I have met Amitabh Bachchan once.
Answer:
1. You are requested to open the window.
2. He was asked by me to leave my office.
3. They should be allowed to perform freely.
4. We ask you to clear the dues.
5. The company has suspended the manager.
6. You have to finish’ it today.
7. One must do one’s duty.
8. They were taught English by me.
(or) English was taught to them by me.
9. His / her child is known to every parent.
10. Amitabh Bachchan has been met by me once.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Exercise 18
Change the voice.

1. The king was wearing a big turban.
2. Post this card immediately.
3. This glass contains milk.
4. Coffee tastes sweet.
5. He gave away the prizes.
6. When will you return my money ?
7. What are you doing in the ground ?
8. She sought my forgiveness.
9. Sneha has won many awards this year.
10. I adore Narendra Modi.
Answer:
1. A big turban was being worn by the king.
2. This card must be posted immediately.
(or)
You are ordered to post this card immediately.
3. Milk is contained in this glass.
4. Coffee is sweet when tasted.
5. The prizes were given away by him.
6. When will my money be returned by you ?
7. What is being done by you in the ground ?
8. My forgiveness was sought by her.
9. Many awards have been won by Sneha this year.
10. Narendra Modi is adored by me.

Exercise 19
Change the voice.

1. Please share your experiences with us.
2. What is she asking for?
3. I helped him in his learning days.
4. None should shirk work.
5. Why are they shouting at you ?
6. Do it at once.
7. They admit their mistakes.
8. Do what pleases you.
9. Live your dreams.
10. Sudha was offered the job by Telco.
Answer:
1. You are requested to share your experiences with us.
2. What is being asked for by her ?
3. He was helped by me in his learning days.
4. Work should not be shirked by anyone.
5. Why are you being shouted at by them ?
6. You are ordered to do it at once.
7. Their mistakes are admitted by them.
8. Do what you are pleased with. (or) What pleases you may be done.
9. Your dreams should be lived (by you).
10. Telco offered the job to Sudha.

Exercise 20
Change the voice.

1. Discipline your life.
2. Grandmother recited the hymns daily.
3. Let them oppose me.
4. May I borrow your car?
5. The teacher taught us new concepts.
6. We must acknowledge the salute.
7. We could not accept your proposal.
8. Who is creating chaos in the streets?
9. Indians have proved their mettle in the IT sector.
10. Indian troops pushed the invaders out of our soil.
Answer:
1. You are advised to discipline your life. (or) Let your life be disciplined by you.
2. The hymns were recited by Grandmother daily.
3. I may be opposed by them. (or) Let me be opposed by them.
4. May your car be borrowed by me?
5. We were taught new concepts by the teacher. (or) New concepts were taught to us by the teacher.
6. The salute must be acknowledged (by us).
7. Your proposal could not be accepted by us.
8. By whom is chaos being created in the streets ?
9. Their mettle has been proved by Indians in the IT sector.
10. The invaders were pushed out of our soil by Indian troops.

PSEB 11th Class English Grammar Active and Passive Voice

Exercise 21
Change the voice.

1. Captain Vikram Batra made the supreme sacrifice for the motherland.
2. Flying Officer Nirmaljit Singh hit two enemy planes.
3. We need to remember this.
4. Malcolm was attacked by the grizzly bear.
5. Bhagat Singh is remembered for his selfless sacrifice.
6. Crafty men condemn study.
7. I gave them many storybooks.
8. We must do more for our society.
9. Our media must create more for public awareness on GST.
10. Demonetisation has harmed the interests of the corrupt.
Answer:
1. The supreme sacrifice for the motherland was made by Captain Vikram Batra.
2. Two enemy planes were hit by Flying Officer Nirmaljit Singh.
3. This needs to be remembered by us.
4. The grizzly bear attacked Malcolm.
5. We remember Bhagat Singh for his selfless sacrifice.
6. Study is condemned by crafty men.
7. Many storybooks were given to them by me. (or) They were given many storybooks by me.
8. More for our society should be done by us.
9. More (programmes) must be created by our media for pub on GST.
10. The interests of the corrupt have been harmed by demonetisation.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 English Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about the friendship of Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhari?
Answer:
Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhari were very good friends. They did not belong to the same religion, but they used to think alike. When one of them went out of the village with his family, he left his house in charge of the other. They trusted each other deeply.

जुम्मन शेख तथा अलगु चौधरी बहुत अच्छे मित्र थे। वे एक ही धर्म से संबंध नहीं रखते थे, लेकिन वे एक जैसा ही सोचा करते थे। जब उनमें से कोई एक अपने परिवार के साथ गांव से बाहर जाता, तो वह अपना घर दूसरे के हवाले कर जाता था। वे एक-दूसरे पर गहरे रूप से भरोसा करते थे।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Question 2.
What was the problem of Jumman Sheikh’s old aunt?
Answer:
Jumman Sheikh’s aunt had a small property. But she had no one to look after it. In fact, she had no close relative except Jumman.

जुम्मन शेख की चाची के पास थोड़ी-सी जायदाद थी। लेकिन इसकी देखभाल करने वाला कोई न था। वास्तव में, उसका जुम्मन के सिवाए और कोई करीबी रिश्तेदार न था।

Question 3.
Why did Jumman laugh at the threat of the old aunt to take the matter to the village panchayat ?
Answer:
Jumman knew that there was no one in the village who was not obliged to him. He had worked for them many times. So he was sure that he would win at the panchayat meeting. That was why Jumman laughed at the old aunt when she threatened him to go to the village panchayat.

जुम्मन जानता था कि गांव में ऐसा कोई न था जो कि उसका आभारी नहीं था। उसने बहुत बार उनका काम किया था। इसलिए उसे यकीन था कि पंचायत की बैठक में उसकी ही जीत होगी। इसलिए जुम्मन बूढी चाची की बात सुनकर हँस पड़ा जब उसने उसे गांव की पंचायत के पास जाने की धमकी दी।

Question 4.
How did the villagers react when Jumman’s old aunt contacted them about the meeting of the panchayat ?
Answer:
Some of the villagers tried to console her. Some villagers tried to put her off and others just cursed the times. There were very few people who were law-abiding and considerate and who listened to her sad story and offered her consolation.

गांव वालों में से कुछ ने उसे दिलासा देने का प्रयास किया। कुछ गांव वालों ने उसे टालने की कोशिश की तथा अन्यों ने समय को दोष दिया। ऐसे बहुत ही कम लोग थे जो कानून का सम्मान करने वाले थे तथा जो दूसरों के बारे में सोचते थे तथा जिन्होंने उसकी दुःख-भरी कहानी सुनी तथा उसे दिलासा दिया।

Question 5.
How did Algu Chowdhari react when the old aunt went to him to request him to come to the panchayat meeting ?
Answer:
Algu was in a fix when the old aunt requested him to come to the panchayat meeting. He said that he would come there, but he would not say anything during the panchayat. He said that Jumman was his dear friend and he didn’t want to spoil his friendship with him.

अलगु उलझन में पड़ गया जब बूढ़ी चाची ने उससे पंचायत की बैठक में आने के लिए विनती की। उसने कहा कि वह वहां आ तो जाएगा, किन्तु पंचायत के दौरान वह बोलेगा कुछ नहीं। उसने कहा कि जुम्मन उसका प्यारा मित्र था और वह उसके साथ अपनी मित्रता खराब नहीं करना चाहता था।

Question 6.
How did Jumman’s old aunt present her case ?
Answer:
She told the panchayat that she had transferred her property to the name of Jumman. And in return, Jumman had agreed to feed and clothe her. But Jumman had not kept his word. She was ill-treated at his house. She requested the panchayat to decide the matter.

उसने पंचायत को बताया कि उसने अपनी जायदाद जुम्मन के नाम कर दी थी। और बदले में जुम्मन ने उसे भोजन तथा कपड़े देने का वायदा किया था। लेकिन जुम्मन ने अपना वायदा नहीं निभाया। उसके घर में उसके साथ दुर्व्यवहार किया जाता था। उसने पंचायत से निवेदन किया वह उसके मामले का फैसला करे।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Question 7.
Whom did Jumman’s old aunt nominate as the head panch ?
Answer:
Jumman’s old aunt had transferred her property in Jumman’s name. But when she was ill-treated by Jumman and his wife, the old woman took her case to the Panchayat. She nominated Algu Chowdhari as the head panch.

जुम्मन की बूढ़ी चाची ने अपनी जायदाद जुम्मन के नाम कर दी थी। परंतु जब उसके साथ जुम्मन तथा उसकी पत्नी द्वारा दुर्व्यवहार किया गया तो बूढ़ी औरत मामले को पंचायत में ले गई। उसने अलगु चौधरी को प्रधान पंच के रूप में मनोनीत किया।

Question 8.
How did Jumman Sheikh become the enemy of his friend, Algu Chowdhari ?
Answer:
Jumman’s old aunt nominated Algu as the head panch. Being a panch, Algu stood by the truth and he gave his decision against Jumman. That was why Jumman became his enemy.
जुम्मन की बूढ़ी चाची ने प्रधान पंच के रूप में अलगु को मनोनीत किया। पंच होने के नाते उसने सच्चाई का साथ दिया और जुम्मन के विरुद्ध फैसला दिया। इसलिए जुम्मन उसका शत्रु बन गया।

Question 9.
What was the matter of dispute between Algu Chowdhari and Samjhu Sahu ? ।
Answer:
Algu had sold his ox to Samjhu. And Samjhu had promised to pay its price within one month. But Samjhu took so much work from the animal that it died. Now Samjhu refused to pay its price. He said that Algu had sold him a sick ox.

अलगु ने अपना बैल समझु को बेचा था। और समझु ने वायदा किया था कि वह इसकी कीमत एक महीने के अंदर दे देगा। लेकिन समझु ने जानवर से इतना ज़्यादा काम लिया कि वह मर गया। अब समझु ने उसकी कीमत अदा करने से मना कर दिया। उसने कहा कि अलगु ने उसे बीमार बैल बेचा था।

Question 10.
How did Algu Chowdhari and Jumman Sheikh become friends again ?
Answer:
Jumman was nominated as the head panch to solve the dispute between Algu and Samjhu. Then Jumman realized that a panch is nobody’s friend or foe. A panch cannot see anything except justice. So being a panch, he stood by truth and gave the decision in Algu’s favour. Thus they became friends again.

अलगु और समझ के बीच के झगड़े को सुलझाने के लिए जुम्मन को प्रधान पंच के रूप में मनोनीत किया गया था। तब जुम्मन को अहसास हुआ कि एक पंच किसी का मित्र या शत्रु नहीं होता। एक पंच सच्चाई के अलावा और कुछ नहीं देख सकता। इसलिए पंच होने के नाते उसने सच्चाई का साथ दिया और अलगु के पक्ष में फैसला दिया। इस प्रकार वे दोबारा मित्र बन गए।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Question 11.
What facts show Jumman in bad light?
Answer:
Jumman had made false promises to his aunt to look after all her needs. The aunt agreed to transfer her property in Jumman’s name. But Jumman and his wife started treating her cruelly once the paper work for the transfer was over.

जुमन ने अपनी चाची से झूठे वायदे किए थे कि वह उसकी सभी जरूरतों का ख्याल रखेगा। चाची अपनी सम्पति जुम्मन के नाम हस्तांतरित करने के लिए मान गई। लेकिन एक बार हस्तांतरण की कागजी कार्रवाई पूरी हो जाने के पश्चात् जुम्मन तथा उसकी पत्नी ने उसके साथ निर्दयतापूर्वक व्यवहार करना शुरू कर दिया।

Question 12.
Why was Jumman confident and what did he think about Algu?
Answer:
Jumman was confident of winning the case as there were many who supported Jumman for one reason or the other. Moreover, he thought that Algu, his fast friend, would give decision in his favour.

जुम्मन को विश्वास था कि वह मुकदमा जीत जाएगा, क्योंकि बहुत से ऐसे लोग थे जो किसी न किसी कारणवश उसका समर्थन करते थे। इसके अतिरिक्त, उसने सोचा कि अलगु, जोकि उसका पक्का मित्र था, उसके पक्ष में निर्णय देगा।

Question 13.
What did Jumman say in his defence ? What did he say about the monthly allowance to be paid to his aunt ?
Answer:
He said that he was never cruel or unsympathetic towards his aunt. He said that he gave respect to his aunt befitting a loyal son. He said that a small friction in the household was the sole reason behind the case.

He said that the aunt’s property was too small to make it possible for some monthly allowance to be given to her. Moreover, there was no mention of monthly allowance in the agreement.

उसने कहा कि वह अपनी चाची के प्रति कदापि निर्दय अथवा कठोर नहीं था। उसने कहा कि वह अपनी चाची को एक निष्ठावान पुत्र की तरह यथोचित सम्मान देता था। उसने कहा कि मुकदमे के पीछे मात्र एक छोटा घरेलू कलह था। उसने कहा कि चाची की सम्पत्ति तो इतनी कम थी कि यह संभव नहीं था कि उसे कोई मासिक भत्ता दिया जाए। इसके अलावा करारनामे में मासिक भत्ते का कोई जिक्र नहीं था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Question 14.
How had Jumman’s feelings towards Algu changed and why ? What did Jumman want now?
Answer:
When Algu, as head panch, gave the decision against Jumman, Jumman grew hostile towards him. Jumman not only nursed hostile feelings towards Algu, he also started thirsting for revenge. And Jumman was happy when he did not have to wait for long for the opportune moment.

जब अलगु ने प्रधान पंच के रूप में जुम्मन के विरुद्ध निर्णय दिया, तो जुम्मन उसके प्रति शत्रुतापूर्ण हो उठा। जुम्मन ने न सिर्फ अलगू के प्रति शत्रुतापूर्ण भावनाएं पाल लीं, बल्कि वह बदले के लिए प्यासा भी हो उठा। और जुम्मन को प्रसन्नता हुई जब उसे उस उपयुक्त क्षण के लिए लम्बी प्रतीक्षा नहीं करनी पड़ी।

Question 15.
What made Jumman happy and what did he say? What did Algu suspect when his ox died ?
Answer:
Jumman was very happy when Algu’s ox died. Jumman called it a punishment against treachery which was ordained by God. When the ox died, Jumman called it a punishment given to Algu by God. At this, Algu suspected that it was Jumman who, blinded by the thought of revenge, must have poisoned his fine ox.

जुम्मन बहुत प्रसन्न हुआ, जब अलगु का बैल मर गया। जुम्मन ने इसे विश्वासघात का दण्ड कहा जिसका निर्णय ईश्वर द्वारा किया गया था। जब बैल मर गया, तो जुम्मन ने इसे अलगु को ईश्वर द्वारा दिया गया दण्ड कहा। इस पर अलगु को संदेह हुआ कि अवश्य ही जुम्मन ने, बदले के ख्याल में अंधे होकर, उसके बढ़िया बैल को विष दे दिया था।

Question 16.
Who was Samjhu ? What did he think about Algu’s ox ?
Answer:
Samjhu was a village trader. He carried some items to the town and brought back items from there that he would sell to the villagers. When he saw Algu’s ox, he liked it much. He hoped to make a lot of money by going to town more frequently. He took the animal and tied it in his courtyard.

समझु गांव का एक व्यापारी था। वह कुछ सामान शहर ले जाता था, और कुछ सामान वहां से ले आता था, जिसे वह गांव के लोगों को बेचता था। जब उसने अलगु के बैल को देखा, तो वह उसे बहुत भा गया। उसे आशा हुई कि वह और अधिक बार शहर जाकर बहुत पैसा बना सकता है। वह पशु को ले गया और उसे अपने आंगन में बांध दिया।

Question 17.
What was the agreement between Samjhu and Algu?
Answer:
Samjhu took the animal to his home after some haggling. He promised to make the payment within a month. Algu, anxious to get rid of the animal, agreed at once.
थोड़ा मोलभाव करने के बाद समझ पशु को अपने घर ले गया। उसने एक महीने के अन्दर पैसों का भुगतान कर देने का वचन दिया। अलगु, जोकि पशु से छुटकारा पाने के लिए आतुर था, तुरंत राजी हो गया।

Long-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the theme of the story, ‘The Panch Parmeshwar’.
Answer:
The theme of the story is that a panch is neither anybody’s friend nor anybody’s enemy. He cannot see anything except justice. It is believed that God resides in the heart of a panch. Whatever comes from the lips of a panch is treated with the same respect as the words of God.

So the people accept the decision of the panches as the decision of God. A panch sits on the highest throne of justice and dharma. So he can’t stray from the truth. He cannot turn his back on justice for the sake of friendship.

No doubt, friendship is a divine bond. But it must be kept in a proper place in case of justice because man’s primary duty is to be just and true. This is what comes out in this story.

कहानी का विषय-वस्तु यह है कि एक पंच न तो किसी का मित्र होता है, और न ही किसी का शत्रु होता है। वह न्याय के अलावा और कुछ नहीं देख सकता। ऐसा विश्वास किया जाता है कि पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर का वास होता है। एक पंच के मुख से जो भी शब्द निकलता है, उसे वही सम्मान दिया जाता है जो कि परमेश्वर के शब्दों को दिया जाता है।

इसलिए लोग पंचों के फैसले को परमेश्वर का फैसला समझकर स्वीकार कर लेते हैं। एक पंच धर्म तथा न्याय के सबसे ऊंचे सिंहासन पर विराजमान होता है। इसलिए वह सच्चाई से भटक नहीं सकता। वह मित्रता की खातिर न्याय से अपना मुख नहीं मोड़ सकता।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

इसमें कोई शक नहीं है कि मित्रता एक ईश्वरीय बन्धन होती है। लेकिन न्याय के संबंध में इसे इसके उचित स्थान पर ही रखना चाहिए क्योंकि मानव का मूल कर्त्तव्य है, न्यायप्रिय एवम् सच्चा बन कर रहना। यही बात इस कहानी में सामने आती है।

Question 2.
Bring out the relevance of the story in the Panchayat Raj System of Indian democratic
Answer:
This story was written in 1916 when India was under the British rule. At that time, the village community had a set of administrative rules as an alternative to the colonial system of governance. People used to settle their disputes quite satisfactorily in their villages with the help of the panchayat.

They never went to the court to find solution to their problems. Today even when India has become a democratic country, the Panchayat Raj system still prevails in its rural areas. Rural people still avoid going to the courts. They believe in their panchayat and abide by its decisions. So this story is relevant in the Panchayat Raj system of Indian democratic set-up also.

There are two episodes in this story that prove it. One is the dispute between Jumman Sheikh and his old aunt. The old aunt wants a monthly allowance in return of the property that she had transferred to Jumman Sheikh. But Jumman refuses to do so. The old aunt goes to the panchayat and finds solution to her problem.

The second case is between Algu Chowdhari and Samjhu Sahu. Samjhu doesn’t pay the price of the ox that he has bought from Algu. The ox has died. And Samjhu says that Algu had given him a sick ox. So he refuses to pay its price. Their problem also is solved by the panchayat.

यह कहानी 1916 में लिखी गई थी जब भारत बर्तानवी शासन के अधीन था। उस समय ग्रामीण समुदाय के पास प्रशासन के उपनिवेशी नियमों के विकल्प के रूप में कुछ प्रशासनिक नियम थे। लोग अपने-अपने गाँवों में पंचायत की सहायता से अपने झगड़ों को संतोषजनक ढंग से निपटा लिया करते थे।

वे अपनी समस्याओं का हल ढूंढने के लिए कभी भी अदालत का दरवाज़ा नहीं खटखटाते थे। आज जबकि भारत एक लोकतान्त्रिक देश बन चुका है, पंचायत राज प्रणाली ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में अभी भी प्रचलित है। गाँवों के लोग अभी भी अदालतों में जाने से कतराते हैं। वे पंचायत में अपनी आस्था रखते हैं और इसके फैसलों का सम्मान करते हैं। इसलिए यह कहानी भारतीय लोकतान्त्रिक परिवेश की पंचायत राज प्रणाली में भी सार्थक है। इस कहानी में ऐसी दो घटनाएं हैं जो इस बात को साबित करती हैं।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

पहली घटना है जुम्मन शेख तथा उसकी बूढ़ी चाची के बीच का झगड़ा। बूढ़ी चाची उस जायदाद के बदले में मासिक भत्ता चाहती है जो कि उसने जुम्मन शेख के नाम कर दी थी। लेकिन जुम्मन ऐसा करने से इन्कार कर देता है। बूढ़ी चाची पंचायत के पास जाती है और उसे अपनी समस्या का हल मिल जाता है।

दूसरा मामला अलगु चौधरी तथा समझु साहू के बीच का है। समझु उस बैल की कीमत अदा नहीं करता जिसे उसने अलगु से खरीदा था। बैल मर गया है। और समझु कहता है कि अलगु ने उसे बीमार बैल बेचा था। इसलिए वह उसके पैसे देने से इन्कार कर देता है। उनकी समस्या को भी पंचायत के द्वारा सुलझा दिया जाता है।

Question 3.
Write a brief character-sketch of Jumman Sheikh.
Answer:
We see many shades of Jumman’s character in this story. On one side, he is a nice fellow. He is a true friend of Algu Chowdhari. He is very helpful. On the other side, he is a liar, a cheat and a greedy fellow. He wants to have his old aunt’s all property in his name.

For this, he makes many false promises with her. And when he succeeds in it, he becomes quite indifferent and cruel to her. Here he appears to be a hateful character. But in the end of the story, he turns out to be true and just when he is nominated as the head panch in a case against Algu.

He realizes that sitting on the throne of justice and dharma, he must not stray from the truth. Though he wants to have his revenge on Algu, he stands by the truth and decides in Algu’s favour.

हम इस कहानी में जुम्मन के चरित्र के बहुत से रंग देखते हैं। एक तरफ तो वह एक नेक इन्सान है। वह अलगु चौधरी का सच्चा मित्र है। वह बहुत सहायता करने वाला है। दूसरी तरफ वह एक झूठा, धोखेबाज तथा लालची व्यक्ति है। वह अपनी बूढ़ी चाची की सारी जायदाद अपने नाम करवाना चाहता है।

इसके लिए वह उससे बहुत सारे झूठे वायदे करता है। और जब वह इसमें सफल हो जाता है, तो उसके प्रति वह बिल्कुल लापरवाह तथा निर्दय हो जाता है। यहां वह एक घृणायोग्य पात्र प्रतीत होता है। लेकिन कहानी के अंत में वह एक सच्चा एवम् न्यायप्रिय व्यक्ति साबित होता है जब अलगु के विरुद्ध एक मामले में उसे प्रधान पंच मनोनीत किया जाता है।

उसे अहसास होता है कि न्याय एवम् धर्म के सिंहासन पर बैठकर उसे सच्चाई के मार्ग से भटकना नहीं चाहिए। यद्यपि वह अलगु से अपना बदला लेना चाहता है, फिर भी वह अलगु के पक्ष में अपना फैसला देता है।

Question 4.
Write a brief character-sketch of Algu Chowdhari.
Answer:
Algu Chowdhari is a good friend of Jumman Sheikh. He is very loving and caring towards his friend. He values his friendship very much. But when he is nominated as the head panch in a case against Jumman, he decides to stand by the truth only.

He maintains the honour of a panch and does not turn his back on justice for the sake of friendship. He keeps the friendship in its proper place at that time. He knows that as a human being, his primary duty is to be true and just. He considers the case of the old aunt very thoroughly and gives his decision against Jumman. He never leaves his moral values in any condition.

Algu is loving and caring not only towards his fellow-beings, but also towards the animals. At his house, his oxen are looked after very well. He takes care of the food and water for his animals. In short, Algu Chowdhari is a man with a noble soul.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

अलगु चौधरी जुम्मन शेख का एक अच्छा मित्र है। वह अपने मित्र के प्रति बहुत ही प्यार से भरा तथा ख्याल रखने वाला है। वह अपनी मित्रता की बहुत कदर करता है। लेकिन जब जुम्मन के विरुद्ध एक मामले में उसे प्रधान पंच मनोनीत किया जाता है, तो वह केवल सच्चाई का ही साथ देने का फैसला करता है।

वह पंच के सम्मान को कायम रखता है और मित्रता की खातिर न्याय से अपना मुख नहीं मोड़ता। उस समय वह मित्रता को उसके उचित स्थान पर रखता है। वह जानता है कि एक मनुष्य होने के नाते उसका मूल कर्त्तव्य है, सच्चा एवम् न्यायप्रिय बन कर रहना। वह बूढ़ी चाची के मामले पर गहराई से विचार करता है और अपना फैसला जुम्मन के विरुद्ध देता है। वह किसी भी हालत में अपने नैतिक मूल्य नहीं त्यागता है।

अलगु न सिर्फ अपने साथियों के लिए ही प्यार से भरा तथा उनका ख्याल रखने वाला है, अपितु वह जानवरों के प्रति भी ऐसा ही है। उसके घर पर उसके बैलों की बहुत अच्छी तरह देखभाल की जाती है। वह अपने जानवरों (पशुओं) के भोजन-पानी का ख्याल रखता है। संक्षेप में, अलगु चौधरी एक नेक आत्मा है।

Question 5.
Bring out the significance of the title of the story.
Answer:
The title of the story, ‘The Panch Parmeshwar’, reflects the main thought of the story. The main thought of the story is that rural people do believe that God resides in a panch’s heart and the panch speaks in God’s voice.

Like God, a panch is neither anybody’s friend nor anybody’s enemy. He cannot see anything except justice. He keeps his friendship also in its proper place in case of justice. Man’s primary duty is to be just and true. And a panch never forgets it.

In the eyes of the rural people, a panch is fair just like God. The characters in this story also have the same views about their panches. They consider the words of their panches as the words of God. And they accept their decisions and abide by them. No other title of the story can be more appropriate than this.

कहानी के शीर्षक, ‘दि पंच परमेश्वर, में कहानी का मुख्य विचार झलकता है। कहानी का मुख्य विचार यह है कि ग्रामीण लोग इस बात में विश्वास रखते हैं कि पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर निवास करता है और पंच परमेश्वर की आवाज़ में बोलता है। परमेश्वर की तरह ही एक पंच न तो किसी का मित्र होता है, और न ही किसी का, शत्रु। उसे न्याय के अतिरिक्त और कुछ दिखाई नहीं देता। न्याय के संबंध में वह अपनी मित्रता को भी उसके उचित स्थान पर रखता है।

मनुष्य का पहला कर्त्तव्य है, न्यायप्रिय एवम् सच्चा बनकर रहना और एक पंच यह कभी नहीं भूलता। ग्रामीण लोगों की नजरों में एक पंच परमेश्वर की तरह निष्पक्ष होता है। इस कहानी के पात्रों का भी अपने पंचों के बारे में यही विचार है। वे अपने पंचों के शब्दों को परमेश्वर के शब्द समझते हैं और वे उनके फैसलों को स्वीकार करते हैं तथा उनका सम्मान करते हैं। कहानी का कोई अन्य शीर्षक इससे ज्यादा उचित नहीं हो सकता।

Question 6.
Write in brief about Jumman Sheikh, Algu Chowdhari and Jumman’s aunt. What was the aunt’s plight in Jumman’s house ?
Answer:
Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhari were very good friends. They did not belong to the same religion, but they used to think alike. They trusted each other deeply. When Jumman went to Mecca, he left his house in charge of Algu. And whenever Algu went out of the village, Jumman took care of his house.

Jumman had an old aunt who had no close relative except Jumman. She had a small property. Jumman wanted to have that property in his name. And for that, he made many false promises with the old woman. He took great care of her. He gave her good food and fine clothing.

But after the old woman transferred her property in his name, Jumman became quite indifferent towards her. His wife ill-treated the poor old woman. She didn’t give her enough food. She would curse her day and night, “God knows how long the old woman will live !” The poor old woman had to listen to such harsh words daily. But for how long after all ?

जुम्मन शेख तथा अलगु चौधरी बहुत अच्छे मित्र थे। वे एक ही धर्म के नहीं थे, लेकिन वे एक जैसा सोचा करते थे। वे एक-दूसरे पर बहुत ज़्यादा भरोसा करते थे। जब जुम्मन मक्का जाता, तो वह अपना घर अलगु की देखरेख में छोड़ देता। और जब कभी भी अलगु गाँव से बाहर कहीं जाता, तो जुम्मन उसके घर की देखभाल करता।

जुम्मन की एक बूढ़ी चाची थी जिसका जुम्मन के सिवाए और कोई करीबी रिश्तेदार न था। उसकी छोटी-सी जायदाद थी। जुम्मन उस जायदाद को अपने नाम करवाना चाहता था। उसके लिए उसने बूढ़ी औरत से बहुत से झूठे वायदे किए। वह उसकी खूब देखभाल करता।

वह उसे अच्छा-अच्छा खाना तथा अच्छे-अच्छे कपड़े ला कर देता। लेकिन जब उस बूढ़ी औरत ने अपनी जायदाद उसके नाम लिख दी तो जुम्मन उसकी तरफ से बिल्कुल बेपरवाह हो गया। उसकी पत्नी उस बेचारी बूढ़ी औरत के साथ दुर्व्यवहार करती। वह उसे भरपेट भोजन नहीं देती थी। वह उसे दिन-रात कोसती रहती-“खुदा जाने यह बुढ़िया कब तक जीवित रहेगी !” बेचारी बूढ़ी औरत को प्रतिदिन ऐसे तीखे शब्द सुनने पड़ते थे। लेकिन आखिर कब तक ?

Question 7.
What decision did Algu give on behalf of the panchayat ? How did it affect his friendship with Jumman ?
Answer:
Algu, who used to visit the courts frequently, knew a great deal about the law. He began to cross-examine Jumman. Jumman was wondering what had happened to his friend, Algu. He was shocked when Algu announced the decision.

“Jumman Sheikh ! The panches have decided that the aunt should be paid a monthly allowance because there is enough income from her property. If you are unwilling to do so, the agreement should be cancelled,” said Algu.

Jumman could never imagine that his dear friend would go against him. However, Ramdhan Misra and other members of the panchayat openly praised Algu for the just decision. This decision broke the friendship between Algu and Jumman. Jumman all the time thought about Algu’s betrayal.’ He now lived only to take revenge. He started waiting for a favourable opportunity.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

अलगु, जो कि अक्सर कोर्ट-कचहरियों में आता-जाता रहता था, को कानून के बारे में अच्छी खासी जानकारी थी। उसने जुम्मन से जिरह करनी शुरू की। जुम्मन को हैरानी हुई कि उसके मित्र, अलगु, को आखिर क्या हो गया था। वह दंग रह गया, जब अलगु ने निर्णय दिया।

“जुम्मन शेख ! पंचों ने फैसला किया है कि चाची को मासिक भत्ता दिया जाए क्योंकि उसकी जायदाद से पर्याप्त आमदनी होती है। अगर तुम ऐसा करने के इच्छुक नहीं हो तो इकरारनामा रद्द कर दिया जाए,” अलगु ने कहा। जुम्मन कभी यह कल्पना भी नहीं कर सकता था कि उसका प्यारा मित्र उसके विरुद्ध हो जाएगा। लेकिन रामधन मिश्रा तथा पंचायत के अन्य सदस्यों ने इस न्यायपूर्ण फैसले के लिए खुल कर उसकी प्रशंसा की।

इस फैसले ने अलगु और जुम्मन के बीच की मित्रता का अन्त कर दिया। जुम्मन हर समय अलगु के द्वारा दिए गए ‘धोखे’ के बारे में सोचता रहता। अब वह केवल बदला लेने के लिए ही जी रहा था। वह उपयुक्त अवसर की प्रतीक्षा करने लगा।

Question 8.
How did Samjhu Sahu turn dishonest ? What did Algu do then ? What happened when Samjhu chose Jumman as his head panch ?
Answer:
Samjhu Sahu had bought an ox from Algu Chaudhari. He had promised to make the payment in one month. But due to the cruel treatment of Samjhu, the ox died before even one month was over. Samhju now turned dishonest.

Several months passed, but Samjhu didn’t give Algu the price of the ox. According to Samjhu, Algu had cheated him. He had given him a sick ox. So he wouldn’t pay any price for the ox. Algu went to the panchayat to decide the matter. The panchayat assembled. Ramdhan Misra asked Algu to nominate his own head panch.

But Algu said very politely, “Let Samjhu select the head panch.” Samjhu purposely proposed the name of Jumman Sheikh. On hearing this, Algu’s heart began to beat very fast. He feared that Jumman might take his revenge on him.

But as soon as Jumman was appointed Sarpanch, he felt a sense of responsibility. He thought that he was sitting on the throne of dharma. His words would be considered as the words of God. So he decided that he would not stray even an inch from the truth.

समझु साहू ने अलगु चौधरी से एक बैल खरीदा था। उसने बैल का दाम एक महीने में चुकाने का वादा किया था। लेकिन समझु के निर्दय व्यवहार के कारण बैल एक महीना पूरा होने के पहले ही मर गया। समझु अब बेईमान हो गया। कई महीने बीत गए, लेकिन समझु ने अलगु को उसके बैल के पैसे न दिए।

समझु के अनुसार अलगु ने उसे धोखा दिया था। उसने उसे एक बीमार बैल बेच दिया था। इसलिए उसने उसे कोई भी पैसा देने से इन्कार कर दिया। अलगु मामले का निपटारा करने के लिए पंचायत के पास गया। पंचायत बैठ गई। रामधन मिश्रा ने उसे अपने प्रधान पंच का नाम सुझाने के लिए कहा। लेकिन अलगु ने बड़ी विनम्रता से कहा, “समझु प्रधान पंच का चुनाव करेगा।” समझु ने जान-बूझ कर जुम्मन शेख का नाम सुझाया।

यह सुनकर अलगु का दिल धक-धक करने लगा। उसे भय था कि जुम्मन उससे अपना बदला लेगा। लेकिन जैसे ही जुम्मन को सरपंच नियुक्त किया गया, उसे ज़िम्मेदारी की भावना का एहसास हुआ। उसे महसूस हुआ कि वह धर्म के सिंहासन पर विराजमान था। उसके मुंह से निकले शब्द परमेश्वर के शब्द समझे जाएंगे। इसलिए उसने फैसला किया कि वह सच्चाई के मार्ग से एक इंच भी दूर नहीं हटेगा।

Question 9.
What happened in the panchayat when Algu took the dispute with Samjhu to the . panchayat ? How did Jumman behave as head panch ?
Answer:
Samjhu refused to make the payment for the ox Algu had sold to him. Algu took the matter to the panchayat. There Samjhu chose Jumman as the head panch. And he became sure to win the case. The panches questioned both the factions.

After a long discussion, Jumman announced the decision. He said that Samjhu Sahu would have to pay the full payment for the ox because the ox was in good health when he had bought it. “The ox died because it was made to work very hard and it was not fed and looked after properly,” said Jumman. Algu shouted with joy, “God bless the sarpanch.”

Everyone praised the decision saying, “God lives in the heart of a panch.” Then Jumman came to Algu and embraced him saying, “My brother ! Ever since you decided the case against me, I have been your deadly enemy.

But today, I learnt that a panch is neither anybody’s friend nor anybody’s foe. He can see only justice. Today I am convinced that God speaks through a panch’s lips.” And all the misunderstandings were washed away in their tears.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

समझ ने बैल का दाम चुकाने से इन्कार कर दिया जो अलगु ने उसे बेचा था। अलगु इस मामले को पंचायत में ले गया। वहां समझु ने जुम्मन को प्रधान पंच के रूप में चुन लिया। और उसे पक्का विश्वास हो गया कि वह मुकदमा जीत लेगा। पंचों ने दोनों धड़ों से प्रश्न पूछे।

लम्बे विचार-विमर्श के बाद जुम्मन ने फैसले की घोषणा की। उसने कहा, कि समझु साहू को बैल के पूरे पैसे देने पड़ेंगे क्योंकि बैल तन्दुरुस्त था जब उसने इसे खरीदा था। “बैल इसलिए मर गया क्योंकि उससे बहुत ज्यादा सख्त काम लिया गया और उसे अच्छी तरह भोजन नहीं दिया गया तथा उसकी उचित तरीके से देखभाल नहीं की गई,” जुम्मन ने कहा। अलगु खुशी के मारे चिल्ला उठा, “भगवान् सरपंच को सुखी रखे।”

हर किसी ने यह कहते हुए फैसले की प्रशंसा की, “एक पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर बसता है।” फिर जुम्मन अलगु के पास आया और उसके गले लग कर कहने लगा, “मेरे भाई ! जबसे तुमने मेरे विरुद्ध फैसला दिया था, मैं तुम्हारा शत्रु बन बैठा था। लेकिन आज मैंने जान लिया कि एक पंच न तो किसी का मित्र होता है, और न ही किसी का शत्रु । उसे केवल न्याय दिखाई देता है। आज मुझे यकीन हो गया कि एक पंच की जुबान से परमेश्वर बोलता है।” और उनके आंसुओं से सारी ग़लतफहमियां धुल गईं।

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Who wrote the story, ‘The Panch Parmeshwar’ ?
Answer:
Munshi Premchand.

Question 2.
What do you know about the friendship of Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhari ?
Answer:
They did not belong to the same religion, but they thought alike.

Question 3.
What was the problem of Jumman Sheikh’s old aunt ?
Answer:
She had no one of her own to look after her property.

Question 4.
What did Jumman want from his aunt ?
Answer:
He wanted to have her property in his name.

Question 5.
“God knows how long the old woman will live !” Who spoke these words ?
Answer:
Jumman Sheikh’s wife.

Question 6.
What did Jumman Sheikh agree to do in return of old aunt’s property ?
Answer:
That he would feed and clothe her.

Question 7.
Why did the old woman decide not to live with Jumman’s family ?
Answer:
Because they ill-treated her.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Question 8.
Why did the old woman go to the panchayat ?
Answer:
Because she wanted monthly allowance from Jumman to whom she had transferred her property.

Question 9.
Why was Jumman sure that he would win at the panchayat ?
Answer:
Because he knew that there was no one in the village who was not obliged to him.

Question 10.
Whose name did the old woman propose as the head panch?
Answer:
She proposed Algu’s name as the head panch.

Question 11.
Why didn’t Algu want to become the head panch ?
Answer:
Because he didn’t want to spoil his friendship with Jumman.

Question 12.
Who did Algu sell his ox ?
Answer:
He sold his ox to Samjhu Sahu, a trader in the village.

Question 13.
What did Samjhu sell to the villagers ?
Answer:
He sold them salt and oil.

Question 14.
Why didn’t Samjhu pay the price of the ox to Algu?
Answer:
The ox had died and Samjhu said that Algu had given him a sick ox.

Question 15.
Who did Samjhu Sahu choose as the head panch in his case against Algu?
Answer:
He chose Jumman Sheikh as the head panch.

The Panch Parmeshwar Summary in English

The Panch Parmeshwar Introduction in English:

This story introduces us to the natural agency of self-governance and justice in a rural community. It tells us about the Panchayati Raj System in which the Panch is considered the Parmeshwar (God). It is believed that God speaks through a panch’s lips.

And the people accept the decision of the panches as the decision of God. This story also tells us that friendship is a divine bond. But in case of justice, it must be kept in its proper place. Man’s primary duty is to be just and true. This fact is brought out in this story.

Algu Chowdhari and Jumman Sheikh were very good friends. They trusted each other deeply. But a misunderstanding arose between them when Algu, despite being Jumman’s friend, had to decide against Jumman in a case.

Being nominated as a panch, he was on the highest position of justice and dharma. And he had to stand by the truth. But Jumman couldn’t understand it. He realized it only when once he had to decide in favour of Algu.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

Though he wanted to take revenge on Algu, he realized that a panch is nobody’s friend or foe. A panch cannot see anything except justice. That day, Jumman was convinced that God speaks through a panch’s lips.

The Panch Parmeshwar Summary in English:

Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhari were very good friends. They did not belong to the same religion, but they used to think alike. They trusted each other deeply. When Jumman went to Mecca, he left his house in charge of Algu.

And whenever Algu went out of the village, Jumman took care of his house.Jumman had an old aunt who had no close relative except Jumman. She had a small property. Jumman wanted to have that property in his name. And for that, he made many false promises with the old woman. He took great care of her. He gave her good food and fine clothing.

But when after he old woman had transferred her property in his name, Jumman became quite indifferent towards her. His wife ill-treated the poor old woman. She didn’t give her enough food. She would curse her day and night, “God knows how long the old woman will live !” The poor old woman had to listen to such harsh words daily. But for how long after all ?

One day, she decided not to live with Jumman’s family any longer. She said to Jumman, “Just give me a few rupees and I’ll cook my own food.” Jumman grew angry at this. He refused to give her any money saying, “Does money grow here on trees ?” The old woman became very upset. She decided to solve the matter in a panchayat.

She took her stick and went from house to house in the village, telling the people about her sad story. In the end, she went to Algu and requested him to come to the panchayat meeting for her sake. Algu said that he would come there, but he would not say anything during the panchayat. He told the old woman that Jumman was his friend and he didn’t want to spoil his friendship.

The old woman asked Algu, “Would you turn your back on justice for fear of ruining your friendship ?” Then she went away, but her words kept ringing in Algu’s mind. In the evening when the panchayat sat down the old aunt appealed to them, “Members of the panchayat ! Three years ago, I transferred my property to the name of my nephew.

All of you know this. In return for this, Jumman had agreed to feed and clothe me.” She told the panchayat that Jumman had not kept his word. He and his wife ill-treated her. They did not give her enough food and adequate clothes. “I am a helpless widow. Except you all who else will listen to my grief?” She said to the panchayat members. She requested them to do the justice.

Ramdhan Misra, one of the panches, asked Jumman to settle with his aunt or name his own head panch. Jumman noticed that most of the people present in the panchayat were obliged to him in one way and the other. He was sure that he would win the case.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

So he said, “Let my aunt select the head panch.” The old woman proposed Algu’s name as the head panch. But Algu didn’t want to involve himself in their quarrel. He tried to back out. The old woman said to him, “No one will turn his back on justice for the sake of a friendship. God resides in the heart of a panch. He speaks in God’s voice.”

When Algu’s nomination was accepted, he said, “Jumman! You and I are old friends. But at this moment, you and your old aunt are both equal in my eyes.” Then he asked Jumman to make his statement in the panchayat.

Jumman thought that Algu was talking just for effect. So he spoke very peacefully. He said that three years ago, his aunt had transferred her property to him. In return, he had agreed to look after her needs. And he had not caused her any trouble since then.

He said, “Now my aunt wants a separate monthly allowance from me. There is not enough income from her property to pay her a monthly allowance. Moreover, there is no mention of any monthly allowance in our agreement.” He further said that he would accept whatever the panchayat would decide.

Algu, who used to visit the courts frequently, knew a great deal about the law. He began to cross-examine Jumman. Jumman was wondering what had happened to his friend, Algu. He was shocked when Algu announced the decision. “Jumman Sheikh ! The panches have decided that the aunt should be paid a monthly allowance because there is enough income from her property.

If you are unwilling to do so, the agreement should be cancelled,” said Algu. Jumman could never imagine that his dear friend would go against him. However, Ramdhan Misra and other members of the panchayat openly praised Algu for the just decision.

This decision broke the friendship between Algu and Jumman. Jumman all the time thought about Algu’s betrayal. He lived now only to take revenge. And he didn’t have to wait long for his revenge. The previous year, Algu had bought a pair of beautiful, long-horned oxen from Batesar.

Unfortunately, a month after the panchayat decision, one of the oxen died. Jumman was very happy when he heard about it. “This is the punishment for treachery,” he said to his friends. Since one ox is of no use to a farmer, Algu decided to sell the other ox.

He sold it to Samjhu Sahu who was a trader in the village. Samjhu bought the ox on the condition that he would pay the price of the ox after a month. Algu wanted to get rid of the ox. So he agreed to it. Samjhu used to make one trip to the market on his ox-cart. He took gur and ghee to the market and returned with salt and oil which he sold to the villagers.

With the new ox, he started making three to four trips to the market instead of one. Samjhu was very careless towards the animal. He would neither take care of food and water for him nor give him proper rest. At Algu’s house, the ox had been looked after very well.

But here the poor animal had to go through a life of torture. He had become so weak that its bones had stuck out. One day Samjhu, while making his fourth trip to the market, had overloaded the cart. The poor ox was very much tired after the long day. It could hardly lift its feet. Samjhu began to whip it and it began to run.

But after running for a few yards, its strength failed and it collapsed on the ground. Samjhu whipped the dead animal and said, “If you had to die, why didn’t you wait till you reached home ?” There were several tins of oil and bags of salt loaded on the cart.

Samjhu couldn’t leave them unguarded. So he decided to spend the night on the cart. When he woke up in the morning, he found his money gone along with many tins of oil. He beat his head with sorrow and wept. He cursed the ox for his loss.

Several months passed, but Samjhu didn’t give Algu the price of the ox. According to Samjhu, Algu had cheated him. He had given him a sick ox. So he wouldn’t pay any price for the ox. Algu went to the panchayat to decide the matter. The panchayat sat down. Ramdhan Misra asked Algu to nominate his own head panch.

But Algu said very politely, “Let Samjhu select the head panch.” Samjhu purposely proposed the name of Jumman Sheikh. On hearing this, Algu’s heart began to beat very fast. He feared that Jumman might take his revenge on him.

But as soon as Jumman was appointed Sarpanch, he felt a sense of responsibility. He thought that he was sitting on the throne of dharma. His words would be considered as the words of God. So he decided that he would not stray even an inch from the truth.

The panches questioned both the factions. After a long discussion, Jumman announced the decision. He said that Samjhu Sahu would have to pay the full payment for the ox because the ox was in good health when he had bought it.

“The ox died because it was made to work very hard and it was not fed and looked after properly,” said Jumman. Algu shouted with joy, “God bless the sarpanch.” Everyone praised the decision. “God lives in the heart of a panch.”

from her property. If you are unwilling to do so, the agreement should be cancelled,” said Algu. Jumman could never imagine that his dear friend would go against him. However, Ramdhan Misra and other members of the panchayat openly praised Algu for the just decision.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

This decision broke the friendship between Algu and Jumman. Jumman all the time thought about Algu’s betrayal. He lived now only to take revenge. And he didn’t have to wait long for his revenge. The previous year, Algu had bought a pair of beautiful, longhorned oxen from Batesar.

Unfortunately, a month after the panchayat decision, one of the oxen died. Jumman was very happy when he heard about it. “This is the punishment for treachery,” he said to his friends. Since one ox is of no use to a farmer, Algu decided to sell the other ox.

He sold it to Samjhu Sahu who was a trader in the village. Samjhu bought the ox on the condition that he would pay the price of the ox after a month. Algu wanted to get rid of the ox. So he agreed to it. Samjhu used to make one trip to the market on his ox-cart. He took gur and ghee to the market and returned with salt and oil which he sold to the villagers.

With the new ox, he started making three to four trips to the market instead of one. Samjhu was very careless towards the animal. He would neither take care of food and water for him nor give him proper rest. At Algu’s house, the ox had been looked after very well. But here the poor animal had to go through a life of torture.

He had become so weak that its bones had stuck out. One day Samjhu, while making his fourth trip to the market, had overloaded the cart. The poor ox was very much tired after the long day. It could hardly lift its feet. Samjhu began to whip it and it began to run. But after running for a few yards, its strength failed and it collapsed on the ground.

Samjhu whipped the dead animal and said, “If you had to die, why didn’t you wait till you reached home ?” There were several tins of oil and bags of salt loaded on the cart. Samjhu couldn’t leave them unguarded. So he decided to spend the night on the cart. When he woke up in the morning, he found his money gone along with many tins of oil. He beat his head with sorrow and wept. He cursed the ox for his loss.

Several months passed, but Samjhu didn’t give Algu the price of the ox. According to Samjhu, Algu had cheated him. He had given him a sick ox. So he wouldn’t pay any price for the ox. Algu went to the panchayat to decide the matter.

The panchayat sat down. Ramdhan Misra asked Algu to nominate his own head panch. But Algu said very politely, “Let Samjhu select the head panch.” Samjhu purposely proposed the name of Jumman Sheikh. On hearing this, Algu’s heart began to beat very fast. He feared that Jumman might take his revenge on him.

But as soon as Jumman was appointed Sarpanch, he felt a sense of responsibility. He thought that he was sitting on the throne of dharma. His words would be considered as the words of God. So he decided that he would not stray even an inch from the truth.

The panches questioned both the factions. After a long discussion, Jumman announced the decision. He said that Samjhu Sahu would have to pay the full payment for the ox because the ox was in good health when he had bought it.

“The ox died because it was made to work very hard and it was not fed and looked after properly,” said Jumman. Algu shouted with joy, “God bless the sarpanch.” Everyone praised the decision. “God lives in the heart of a panch.”

Then Jumman came to Algu and embraced him saying, “My brother ! Ever since you . decided the case against me, I have been your deadly enemy. But today I learnt that a panch is neither anybody’s friend nor anybody’s foe. He can see only justice. Today I am convinced that God speaks through a panch’s lips.” And all the misunderstandings were washed away in their tears.

The Panch Parmeshwar Summary in Hindi

The Panch Parmeshwar Introduction in Hindi:

यह कहानी ग्रामीण समाज में प्रचलित स्वशासन तथा न्याय के प्राकृतिक माध्यम से हमारा परिचय करवाती है। यह हमें पंचायती राज प्रणाली के बारे में बताती है जिसमें पंचों को परमेश्वर समझा जाता है। ऐसा माना जाता है कि एक पंच के मुख से परमेश्वर बोलता है।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

और लोग पंचों के निर्णय को ईश्वर का निर्णय समझ कर स्वीकार कर लेते हैं। यह कहानी हमें यह भी बताती है कि मित्रता एक अनोखा बंधन होता है। परन्तु न्याय के मामले में इसे इसके उचित स्थान पर ही रखा जाना चाहिए। मनुष्य का पहला कर्त्तव्य न्यायप्रिय तथा सच्चा होना होता है। इस कहानी में इसी तथ्य को प्रस्तुत किया गया है।

अलगु चौधरी तथा जुम्मन शेख बड़े अच्छे मित्र थे। वे एक-दूसरे पर गहरा विश्वास करते थे। परन्तु उनके बीच एक गलतफहमी पैदा हो गई, जब अलगु को जुम्मन का मित्र होने के बावजूद एक मामले में जुम्मन के खिलाफ फैसला देना पड़ा। एक पंच के तौर पर चुने जाने के कारण वह न्याय तथा धर्म की सबसे ऊंची पदवी पर था और उसे सच का साथ देना ही था। परन्तु जुम्मन इस बात को समझ नहीं पाया।

उसे इसका अहसास तब हुआ जब एक बार उसे अलगु के हक में फैसला करना पड़ा। हालांकि वह अलगु से बदला लेना चाहता था, उसे अहसास हुआ था कि एक पंच किसी का मित्र अथवा किसी का शत्रु नहीं होता। एक पंच को न्याय के अतिरिक्त कोई और चीज़ दिखाई नहीं देती। उस दिन जुम्मन को पूर्ण विश्वास हो गया कि एक पंच के मुख से ईश्वर बोलता है।

The Panch Parmeshwar Summary in Hindi:

जुम्मन शेख तथा अलगु चौधरी बहुत अच्छे मित्र थे। वे एक ही धर्म के नहीं थे, लेकिन वे एक जैसा सोचा करते थे। वे एक-दूसरे पर बहुत ज़्यादा भरोसा करते थे। जब जुम्मन मक्का जाता तो वह अपना घर अलगु की देखरेख में छोड़ देता। और जब कभी अलगु गाँव से बाहर कहीं जाता तो जुम्मन उसके घर की देखभाल करता।

जुम्मन की एक बूढ़ी चाची थी जिसका जुम्मन के सिवाए और कोई करीबी रिश्तेदार न था। उसकी छोटी सी जायदाद थी। जुम्मनं उस जायदाद को अपने नाम करवाना चाहता था। उसके लिए उसने बूढ़ी औरत से बहुत से झूठे वायदे किए। वह उसकी खूब देखभाल करता। वह उसे अच्छा-अच्छा खाना तथा अच्छे-अच्छे कपड़े लाकर देता। लेकिन जब उस बूढी औरत ने अपनी जायदाद उसके नाम लिख दी तो जुम्मन उसकी तरफ से बिल्कुल बेपरवाह हो गया।

उसकी पत्नी उस बेचारी बूढ़ी औरत के साथ दुर्व्यवहार करती। वह उसे भरपेट भोजन नहीं देती थी। वह उसे दिन-रात कोसती रहती-“खुदा जाने यह बुढ़िया कब तक जीवित रहेगी !” बेचारी बूढी औरत को प्रतिदिन ऐसे तीखे शब्द सुनने पड़ते थे। लेकिन आखिर कब तक ?

एक दिन उसने फैसला कर लिया कि वह जुम्मन के परिवार के साथ अब और नहीं रहेगी। उसने जुम्मन से कहा, “मुझे सिर्फ थोड़े से पैसे दे दो, और मैं अपना खाना खुद बनाऊंगी।” इस पर जुम्मन नाराज़ हो गया और कहने लगा, “क्या यहां पैसे पेड़ों पर लगते हैं?” बूढ़ी औरत बहुत दुःखी हो गई। उसने यह मामला पंचायत में सुलझाने का फैसला किया।

उसने अपनी छड़ी उठाई और गांव के घर-घर गई, लोगों को अपना दुखड़ा सुनाते हुए। अन्त में वह अलगु के पास गई और उससे विनती की कि वह उसकी खातिर पंचायत में अवश्य आए। अलगु ने कहा कि वह आएगा ज़रूर, लेकिन वह पंचायत के दौरान कुछ बोलेगा नहीं।

उसने बूढी औरत से कहा कि जुम्मन उसका मित्र था और वह अपनी मित्रता खराब नहीं करना चाहता था। बूढी औरत ने अलगु से पूछा, “क्या तुम मित्रता के खराब होने के डर से न्याय के प्रति अपना मुंह मोड़ लोगे?” फिर वह चली गई, लेकिन उसके शब्द अलगु – के मन में गूंजते रहे।

. सायंकाल को जब पंचायत शुरू हुई तो बूढ़ी चाची ने उन लोगों से अपील की, “पंचायत के सदस्यो!” तीन साल पहले मैंने अपनी जायदाद अपने भतीजे के नाम लिख दी थी। आप सब यह जानते ही हैं। इसके बदले में जुम्मन मुझे खानां तथा कपड़े देने के लिए सहमत हो गया था।”

उसने पंचायत को बताया कि जुम्मन ने अपना वायदा नहीं निभाया। उसने तथा उसकी पत्नी ने उसके साथ बुरा बर्ताव किया। वे उसे पेट-भर भोजन अथवा पर्याप्त कपड़े नहीं देते थे। “मैं एक असहाय विधवा हूँ। आप सबके सिवाए मेरा दुखड़ा और कौन सुनेगा?” वह पंचायत के सदस्यों से बोली। उसने उनसे निवेदन किया कि वे उसके साथ न्याय करें। .

रामधन मिश्रा, जो कि पंचों में से एक था, ने जुम्मन से कहा कि या तो वह अपनी चाची के साथ झगड़ा निपटा ले या फिर अपने प्रधान पंच का नाम सुझाए। जुम्मन ने देखा कि पंचायत में उपस्थित ज्यादातर लोग किसी न किसी तरीके से उसके एहसानमंद थे। उसने यकीन था कि इस मामले में उसकी ही जीत होगी। इसलिए उसने कहा, “मेरी चाची प्रधान पंच का चयन करेगी।” बूढ़ी औरत ने प्रधान पंच के लिए अलगु का नाम सुझाया।

परन्तु अलगु उनके झगड़े में नहीं पड़ना चाहता था। उसने पीछे हटने की कोशिश की। बूढी औरत ने उससे कहा, “कोई भी व्यक्ति मित्रता की खातिर न्याय के प्रति अपना मुंह नहीं मोड़ लेता। एक पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर बसता है। वह परमेश्वर की आवाज़ में बोलता है।”

जब अलगु का नामांकन स्वीकार कर लिया गया तो उसने कहा, “जुम्मन ! तुम और मैं पुराने यार हैं। लेकिन इस घड़ी तुम और तुम्हारी बूढ़ी चाची मेरी नज़रों में एक समान हैं।” फिर उसने जुम्मन से कहा कि वह

पंचायत के सामने अपनी बात रखे। जुम्मन ने सोचा कि अलगु केवल अपना प्रभाव छोड़ने के लिए ऐसा बोल रहा था। इसलिए वह बड़ी शांतिपूर्वक बोला। उसने कहा कि तीन साल पहले उसकी चाची ने अपनी जायदाद उसके नाम कर दी थी। इसके बदले में वह उसकी देखभाल करने के लिए सहमत हो गया था। और तब से उसने उसे कोई तकलीफ नहीं दी थी। उसने कहा, “अब मेरी चाची मुझसे अलग से मासिक भत्ता चाहती है।

उसकी जायदाद से इतनी आमदनी नहीं है कि उसे मासिक भत्ता दिया जा सके। इसके अलावा हमारे इकरारनामें में किसी मासिक भत्ते का जिक्र नहीं है।” उसने आगे कहा कि पंचायत जो भी फैसला देगी, वह उसे मंजूर होगा। ___ अलगु, जो कि अक्सर कोर्ट-कचहरियों में आता-जाता रहता था, को कानून के बारे में अच्छी-खासी जानकारी थी। उसने जुम्मन से जिरह करनी शुरू की।

जुम्मन को हैरानी हुई कि उसके मित्र अलगु को आखिर क्या हो गया था। वह दंग रह गया, जब अलगु ने निर्णय दिया। “जुम्मन शेख ! पंचों ने फैसला किया है कि चाची को मासिक भत्ता दिया जाए क्योंकि उसकी जायदाद से पर्याप्त आमदनी होती है। अगर तुम ऐसा करने के इच्छुक नहीं हो तो इकरारनामा रद्द कर दिया जाए,” अलगु ने कहा। जुम्मन कभी यह कल्पना भी नहीं कर सकता था कि उसका प्यारा मित्र उसके विरुद्ध हो जाएगा। लेकिन रामधन मिश्रा तथा पंचायत के अन्य सदस्यों ने इस न्यायपूर्ण फैसले के लिए उसकी खुलकर प्रशंसा की।

इस फैसले ने अलगु और जुम्मन के बीच की मित्रता का अन्त कर दिया। जुम्मन हर समय अलगु के द्वारा दिए गए धोखे के बारे में सोचता रहता। अब वह केवल बदला लेने के लिए ही जी रहा था। पिछले साल अलगु ने बटेसर से सुन्दर, लम्बे सींगों वाले बैलों की एक जोड़ी खरीदी थी। दुर्भाग्यवश, पंचायत के फैसले के एक महीने पश्चात् ही उनमें से एक बैल मर गया। जुम्मन बहुत प्रसन्न हो गया जब उसने इसके बारे में सुना।

“यह होता है गद्दारी का परिणाम,” उसने अपने मित्रों से कहा।  क्योंकि अकेला बैल एक किसान के किसी काम का नहीं होता, इसलिए अलगु ने दूसरा बैल बेचने का फैसला किया। उसने इसे समझु साहू को बेच दिया जो कि गांव में एक व्यापारी था। समझु ने बैल इस शर्त पर खरीदा कि वह बैल के पैसे एक महीने बाद देगा। अलगु बैल से छुटकारा पाना चाहता था। इसलिए वह इसके लिए राजी हो गया।

समझु अपने छकड़े पर बाज़ार का एक चक्कर लगाया करता था। वह गुड़ तथा घी बाज़ार ले जाता और नमक तथा तेल लेकर वापस आता जो कि वह गांव के लोगों को बेचा करता था। नए बैल के साथ अब वह एक की बजाए बाज़ार में तीन या चार चक्कर लगाने लगा। समझु जानवर के प्रति बहुत ही लापरवाह था। न ही वह उसके भोजन-पानी का ख्याल रखता था और न ही वह उसे उचित विश्राम देता था।

अलगु के घर पर बैल की बड़े अच्छे ढंग से देखभाल की जाती थी। लेकिन यहां बेजुबान जानवर को बड़ा अत्याचार भरा जीवन गुज़ारना पड़ रहा था। वह इतना कमज़ोर हो गया था कि उसकी हड्डियां दिखाई देने लगी थीं। एक दिन बाज़ार का चौथा चक्कर लगाते समय समझु ने छकड़े में ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा भार लाद दिया। बेचारा जानवर सारा दिन काम करने के बाद बहुत ज्यादा थका हुआ था। वह मुश्किल से ही पांव उठा पा रहा था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

समझु ने चाबुक से उसकी पिटाई कर दी और वह भागने लगा। लेकिन कुछ गज दूर तक जाने के बाद ही उसकी शक्ति जवाब दे गई और वह धड़ाम से ज़मीन पर गिर पड़ा। समझु ने मरे हुए जानवर को चाबुक मारते हुए कहा, “अगर तुझे मरना ही था तो तूने घर पहुंचने तक इंतजार क्यों न किया?” छकड़े में कई टीन घी तथा नमक के बोरे लदे हुए थे। समझु उन्हें ऐसे ही छोड़कर नहीं जा सकता था। इसलिए उसने छकड़े पर ही रात काटने का फैसला किया।

जब वह प्रातः जागा तो उसने देखा कि तेल के बहुत से टीनों के साथ-साथ उसका पैसा भी चला गया था। उसने दु:ख के मारे अपना सिर पीट लिया और रोने लगा। उसने अपने इस नुक्सान के लिए बैल को गालियां दीं। कई महीने बीत गए, लेकिन समझु ने अलगु को उसके बैल के पैसे न दिए। समझु के अनुसार अलगु ने उसे धोखा दिया था। उसने उसे एक बीमार बैल बेच दिया था। इसलिए उसने उसे कोई भी पैसा देने से इन्कार कर दिया।

अलगु मामले का निपटारा करने के लिए पंचायत के पास गया। पंचायत बैठ गई। रामधन मिश्रा ने उसे अपने प्रधान पंच का नाम सुलझाने के लिए कहा। लेकिन अलगु ने बड़ी विनम्रता से कहा, “समझु प्रधान पंच का चुनाव करेगा।” समझु ने जानबूझकर जुम्मन शेख का नाम सुझाया। यह सुनकर अलगु का दिल धक-धक करने लगा।

उसे भय था कि जुम्मन उससे अपना बदला लेगा। लेकिन जैसे ही जुम्मन को सरपंच नियुक्त किया गया। उसे जिम्मेवारी की भावना का एहसास हुआ। उसे महसूस हुआ कि वह धर्म के सिंहासन पर विराजमान था। उसके मुंह से निकले शब्द परमेश्वर के शब्द समझे जाएंगे। इसलिए उसने फैसला किया कि वह सच्चाई के मार्ग से एक इंच भी दूर नहीं हटेगा।

पंचों ने दोनों धड़ों से प्रश्न पूछे। लम्बे विचार-विमर्श के बाद जुम्मन ने फैसले की घोषणा की। उसने कहा, कि समझु साहू को बैल के पूरे पैसे देने पड़ेंगे क्योंकि बैल तन्दुरुस्त था जब उसने इसे खरीदा था। “बैल इसलिए मर गया क्योंकि उससे बहुत ज़्यादा सख्त काम लिया गया और उसे अच्छी तरह भोजन नहीं दिया गया और उसकी उचित तरीके से देखभाल नहीं की गई,” जुम्मन ने कहा। अलगु खुशी के मारे चिल्ला उठा, “भगवान् सरपंच को सुखी रखे।” हर किसी ने फैसले की प्रशंसा की, “एक पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर बसता है।”

फिर जुम्मन अलगु के पास आया और उसके गले लगकर कहने लगा, “मेरे भाई ! जबसे तमने मेरे विरुद्ध फैसला दिया था, मैं तुम्हारा शत्रु बन बैठा था।” लेकिन आज मैंने जान लिया कि एक पंच न तो किसी का मित्र होता है और न ही किसी का शत्रु। उसे केवल न्याय दिखाई देता है। आज मुझे यकीन हो गया कि एक पंच की जुबान से परमेश्वर बोलता है।” और उनके आंसुओं में सारी ग़लतफहमियां धुल गईं।

सरल हिन्दी में कहानी की विस्तृत व्याख्या

जुम्मन शेख और अलगु चौधरी में गहरी मित्रता थी। वे अपने खेत मिलकर जोतते थे। वे एक-दूसरे पर गहरे रूप से भरोसा करते थे। जब जुम्मन हज के लिए मक्का जाता, तो वह अपना घर अलगु की देख-रेख में छोड़ देता
और जब भी अलगु गांव से बाहर जाता तो वह अपना घर जुम्मन के भरोसे छोड़ देता। उनका धर्म एक न था, फिर भी वे एक जैसे सोचा करते थे। यह होता है, मित्रता का सच्चा अर्थ।

जुम्मन शेख की एक बूढ़ी चाची थी। उसके पास थोड़ी सी जायदाद थी, लेकिन उसका कोई नज़दीकी रिश्तेदार न था। बहुत से झूठे वायदे करने के बाद जुम्मन ने बूढी औरत को जायदाद उसके नाम लिखवाने के लिए मना लिया। जब तक दस्तावेज कचहरी में दर्ज न हो गए, उसने खातिरदारी की झडी-सी लगा दी। वह उसके लिए खाने-पीने की महंगी चीजें तथा मिठाइयां लेकर आता।

परंतु हस्तांतरण के कानूनी दस्तावेज़ पर अंतिम मोहर ने इस शानदार काल का अंत कर दिया। जुम्मन की बीवी, करीमन, की तीखी जुबान अब रोटी के साथ कढ़ी की तरह जुड़ गई। जुम्मन भी अब और ज्यादा निर्दय तथा उदासीन हो गया। बेचारी चाची को रोज ही ढेर सारी दुःखी कर देने वाली बातें सुननी पड़ती-‘खुदा जाने यह बुढ़िया कब तक जिंदा रहेगी। वह सोचती है कि हमें तीन बीघा जमीन देकर उसने हमें खरीद ही लिया है।

जब तक उसकी दाल में घी न हो यह रोटी नहीं खा सकती। जितना पैसा हमने इसे खिलाने में खर्च कर दिया, उतने पैसों में तो हम पूरा गांव खरीद सकते थे।’ चाची इस किस्म की बात को जब तक बर्दाश्त कर सकती थी उसने किया, फिर उसने जुम्मन से शिकायत कर दी। परन्तु जुम्मन को लगा कि ऐसा करना ‘ड्यूटी पर बैठे अधिकारी’ घर की मालकिन  के काम में दखलअंदाज़ी करना होगा।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

खैर, किसी तरह कुछ और दिनों तक ऐसे ही चलता रहा। आखिर एक दिन चाची ने जुम्मन से कह ही दिया, ‘मुझे नहीं लगता कि मैं तुम्हारे साथ अब और ज्यादा रह सकती हूं। मुझे कुछ रुपए दे दो और मैं अपना खाना खुद पकाऊंगी।’ जुम्मन ने रुखाई से उत्तर दिया, ‘पैसे क्या पेड़ों पर लगते हैं ?’ चाची ने विनम्रता से उसे बताया, “मेरी ज़रूरतें बहुत कम हैं, लेकिन फिर भी मुझे गुज़ारा तो करना ही है न।” जुम्मन ने बड़ी गंभीरता से उत्तर दिया, ‘मुझे इस बात का ज़रा-सा भी अंदाजा न था कि तुम हमेशा के लिए ही रहने के लिए आमादा थी।’

चाची बहुत दुःखी हो गई। उसने गांव की पंचायत में जाने की धमकी दी। जुम्मन एक उस शिकारी की भांति मन ही मन में हँसा, जब वह अपने शिकार को जाल में फंसाने के लिए आते देखता है। ‘हां-हां- जाओ पंचायत में। समस्या का निपटारा हो ही जाना चाहिए। मुझे भी यह रोज-रोज की बहसबाजियां पसंद नहीं।’

जुम्मन को इस बारे में कोई संदेह न था कि पंचायत की बैठक में किसकी जीत होनी थी। आखिर आस-पास के सभी गांवों में ऐसा कौन था जो किसी न किसी तरीके से उसका अहसानमंद न था ? बाद के दिनों में बूढ़ी चाची, हाथ में छड़ी पकड़े हुए एक गांव से दूसरे गांव घूमती रही। उसकी पीठ धनुष की तरह झुक गई थी। एक-एक कदम जो वह चलती, कष्टदायक था। लेकिन एक समस्या जो आ गई थी; इसे सुलझाना बहुत ज़रूरी था।

बूढ़ी औरत ने अपना रोना हरेक उस भलेमानस को कह सुनाया जो भी उसकी बात सुनने को तैयार था। कुछ ने उसे धीरज बंधाने की कोशिश की और उसे टाल दिया; अन्यों ने बुरे समय को कोसा। ऐसे बहुत ही कम लोग थे जो कि कानून का सम्मान करने वाले, दयालु तथा दूसरों का ख्याल करने वाले थे, जिन्होंने उसकी दुःखभरी कहानी को ध्यान से सुना और उसे सान्त्वना दी। अंत में वह अलगु चौधरी के पास पहुंची। उसने अपनी छड़ी नीचे रख दी, बैठ गई, और आराम करने लगी। ‘बेटा, तुम्हें भी पंचायत की बैठक में ज़रूर आना है, चाहे कुछ मिनटों के लिए ही।’

‘गांव से और भी बहत से अन्य लोग आएंगे जो कि पंचायत में हाजिर होंगे। तुम क्यों चाहती हो कि मैं चला आऊँ ?’ ‘मैंने अपनी दुःखभरी कहानी हर किसी को सुनाई है,’ उसने कहा, ‘अब उन पर निर्भर करता है कि वे आते हैं या नहीं।’ ‘मैं आऊँगा ज़रूर, लेकिन पंचायत के दौरान मैं अपना मुंह नहीं खोलूंगा।’ ‘लेकिन क्यों ?’ उसने पूछा। ‘मैं इसका क्या जवाब दे सकता हूं ? यह तो मेरी इच्छा है।

जुम्मन मेरा पुराना मित्र है और मैं उसके साथ अपने संबंधों को खराब करना बर्दाश्त नहीं कर सकता।’ ‘क्या तुम अपनी मित्रता खराब करने के डर से न्याय के प्रति अपना मुंह मोड़ लोगे ?’ हमारी एक प्रवृत्ति होती है – धार्मिक परंपराओं के बारे में परवाह न करने की; यहां तक कि हम उन्हें नष्ट भी हो जाने देंगे। लेकिन हम हमेशा आवेश में आ जाते हैं जब कभी भी हमारे मुंह पर चुनौती दी जाती है। अलगु के पास उसके प्रश्न का उत्तर न था, लेकिन उसके शब्द उसके मन में गूंजते रहे- क्या तुम अपनी मित्रता खराब होने के डर से न्याय के प्रति मुंह मोड़ लोगे ?’

पंचायत शाम को एक पेड़ के नीचे इकट्ठी हुई। शेख जुम्मन ने पहले ही मिट्टी के फर्श के ऊपर चादर बिछा दी थी। निश्चय ही, वह खुद भी अलगु चौधरी से कुछ दूरी पर बैठा था, और जब भी कोई पहुंचता, तो वह बड़ी गर्मजोशी से उसका स्वागत करता। जब सूरज डूब चुका और पंछी पेड़ों के ऊपर बैठ कर और शोर मचा-मचा कर अपनी बैठक करने लगे, तो पंचायत शुरू हुई।

बैठने की एक-एक इंच जगह पूरी भर गई, लेकिन ज्यादातर लोग तो केवल दर्शक ही थे। पंचायत नीचे बैठ गई। बूढ़ी चाची ने उनसे विनती की : ‘पंचायत के सदस्यो ! तीन साल पहले मैंने अपनी सारी जायदाद अपने भतीजे के नाम लिख दी थी। आप सब यह जानते हैं। इसके बदले में जुम्मन मुझे भोजन तथा कपड़े देने के लिए सहमत हो गया था। किसी तरह एक साल तक तो मैं सहती रही, लेकिन अब मैं उनका दुर्व्यवहार नहीं सह सकती।

न ही मुझे पर्याप्त भोजन मिला और न ही पर्याप्त कपड़े। मैं एक गरीब असहाय विधवा हूं, किसी कचहरी या दरबार में जाकर लड़ने के योग्य नहीं हूं। आप सबके सिवाए मेरे दु:खों को कौन सुनेगा ? आपका जो भी फैसला होगा, मैं मानने के लिए तैयार हूं। अगर आप लोग सोचते हैं कि मैं गलत हूं. तो आप मुझे दण्ड दे सकते हैं। अगर आपको जुम्मन दोषी लगे, तो आप लोग सारी बात उसे समझाइए। वह एक असहाय विधवा का श्राप क्यों लेना चाहता है ?

मैं आपके फैसले का खुशीखुशी पालन करूंगी।’रामधन मिश्रा, जिसके बहुत से मुवक्किलों को गांव में जुम्मन के द्वारा आसरा दिया गया था, ने कहा, ‘जुम्मन मियां, बेहतर होगा कि बूढ़ी औरत के साथ अपना मामला निपटा लो। वर्ना पंच लोग जो भी फैसला करेंगे, तुम्हें वह मानना पड़ेगा। अथवा अपने प्रधान पंच का नाम बताओ।’ जुम्मन ने देखा कि पंचायत के ज्यादातर सदस्य वे लोग थे जो किसी न किसी रूप से उसके अहसानमंद थे। वह बोला, ‘मैं पंचों के फैसले को परमेश्वर का फैसला समझकर मानूंगा। मेरी चाची प्रधान पंच का चयन करेगी।

मुझे कोई एतराज नहीं है।’ चाची चिल्लाकर बोली, ‘अरे खुदा के लोगो! आप लोग नाम क्यों नहीं सुझाते हो ताकि जरा मैं भी तो देखू ?’ जुम्मन ने गुस्से में जवाब दिया, ‘मुझे अपना मुंह खोलने के लिए मजबूर न करो। यह तुम्हारी समस्या है। तुम जिसे भी चाहती हो उसका नाम बता दो।’ चाची को लगा कि जुम्मन सारा दोष उसी के ऊपर लगाने की कोशिश कर रहा था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

उसने कहा, “बेटा, तुम्हें खुदा से डरना चाहिए। पंच किसी का मित्र या शत्रु नहीं होता। यह कैसी बात है ? अगर तुम किसी पर भरोसा नहीं कर सकते, तो जाने दो। मुझे विश्वास है कि तुम कम से कम अलगु चौधरी पर तो भरोसा करते ही हो। मैं प्रधान पंच के तौर पर उसका नाम सुझाती हूं।” जुम्मन शेख उल्लास से भर गया, लेकिन उसने अपनी भावनाएं छिपा लीं। शांत स्वर में उसने कहा, ‘तुम अलगु को चुनो या रामधन को, मुझे कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता।’

अलग इस झगडे में नहीं पड़ना चाहता था। उसने पीछे हटने की कोशिश की। ‘चाची,’ उसने कहा, ‘जुम्मन और मेरे बीच गहरी मित्रता है।’ चाची ने गंभीर आवाज़ में कहा, ‘कोई भी मित्रता की खातिर न्याय के प्रति मुंह नहीं मोड़ता। एक पंच के हृदय में खुदा बसता है। वह खुदा की आवाज़ में बोलता है।’ अलगु चौधरी के नामांकन को स्वीकार कर लिया गया। अलगु चौधरी ने कहा, ‘शेख जुम्मन ! तुम और मैं पुराने मित्र हैं।

जब कभी भी जरूरत पड़ी, हमने एक-दूसरे की सहायता की। परंतु इस घड़ी, तुम और तुम्हारी चाची दोनों ही मेरी नज़रों में एक समान हैं। अब तुम ‘पंचायत’ के सामने अपनी बात कह सकते हो।’ जुम्मन को विश्वास था कि वह बाजी जीत चुका था तथा यह कि अलगु तो अपना प्रभाव छोड़ने के लिए बोल रहा था। इसलिए उसने शांतिपूर्वक कहा, ‘प्रिय सदस्यो! तीन साल पहले मेरी चाची ने अपनी जायदाद मेरे नाम लिख दी थी।

बदले में मैं उसकी ज़रूरतों का ख्याल रखने के लिए सहमत हो गया था, और जैसे कि खुदा मेरा गवाह है, आज तक मैंने उसे कोई तकलीफ नहीं पहुंचाई है। मैं उसके साथ अपनी मां के जैसा व्यवहार करता हूं, क्योंकि उसकी देखभाल करना मेरा कर्त्तव्य है। लेकिन एक परिवार के अंदर औरतों के बीच हमेशा ही मनमुटाव तो रहता ही है। उसके लिए मुझे दोषी कैसे ठहराया जा सकता है ? मेरी चाची मुझसे अलग से मासिक भत्ता चाहती है।

आप सब तो जानते हैं कि जायदाद थी कितनी। इससे इतनी आमदनी नहीं होती कि उसे मासिक भत्ता दिया जाए। इसके अलावा हमारे समझौते में किसी मासिक भत्ते का जिक्र तो है ही नहीं, वरना मुझे यह बेकार की सिरदर्दी लेने की जरूरत ही नहीं थी। मुझे बस इतना ही कहना है। बाकी पंचायत जैसा चाहे, उसे वैसा करने की छूट है।’

अलगु चौधरी अक्सर कचहरियों में आता-जाता रहता था। इसलिए वह कानून के बारे में बहुत-कुछ जानता था। वह जुम्मन से सवाल-जवाब करने लगा। हरेक प्रश्न ने जुम्मन को ऐसे चोट पहुंचाई जैसे कि उसके दिल पर मुक्के पड़ रहे हों। जुम्मन को आश्चर्य हो रहा था कि अलगु को क्या हो गया। अभी थोड़ी देर पहले ही वह अलग तरीके से बात कर रहा था। क्या उनकी पुरानी मित्रता किसी काम नहीं आने वाली थी ? जुम्मन शेख इन्हीं विचारों में खोया हुआ था, जब अलगु ने फैसले की घोषणा की : ‘जुम्मन शेख !

पंचों ने मामले के बारे में विचार कर लिया है। उन्हें लगता है कि चाची को मासिक भत्ता दिया जाना चाहिए। हमारी सम्मति है कि उसकी जायदाद से इतनी आमदनी है कि उसे इस प्रकार का भत्ता दिया जा सके। यह हमारा निर्णय है। अगर जुम्मन उसे भत्ता देने के लिए तैयार नहीं है, तो समझौता रद्द हो जाना चाहिए।’

जुम्मन अवाक् रह गया। उसका अपना मित्र ! किसने सोचा था कि वह इस तरीके से दुश्मन के जैसा व्यवहार करेगा और उसकी पीठ में छुरा भोंक देगा ? ऐसी परिस्थितियां ही होती हैं जिनमें इन्सान को सच्चे मित्रों और झूठे मित्रों की पहचान होती है। क्या भाग्य की चाल थी! उसी व्यक्ति के द्वारा धोखा दिया गया जिस पर उसने सबसे ज्यादा भरोसा किया था। लेकिन रामधन और पंचायत के दूसरे सदस्य खुलकर इस न्यायसंगत फैसले की प्रशंसा कर रहे थे।

यह थी सच्ची पंचायत। मित्रता बहुत अच्छी चीज़ होती है, लेकिन इसे इसके उचित स्थान पर ही रखा जाना चाहिए। मनुष्य का प्रथम कर्त्तव्य है, न्यायसंगत तथा सच्चा होना। यह तो नेक लोग ही हैं जिन्होंने दुनिया को थाम रखा है। वरना यह तो बहुत पहले खत्म हो गई होती।

इस फैसले ने अलगु और जुम्मन के बीच की मित्रता की बुनियादें हिलाकर रख दीं। अब वे एक-दूसरे से बातें करते हुए नहीं देखे जाते थे। उनकी पुरानी मित्रता जो कि एक मजबूत पेड़ की भांति खड़ी थी, वह सच्चाई के पहले झोंके को सहन न कर सकी। अब जब भी वह मिलते, वे एक-दूसरे के साथ औपचारिक से रहते। वे एक-दूसरे का अभिवादन बड़े ठंडे तरीके से करते जैसे तलवार म्यान का अभिवादन करती है।

अलगु का धोखा हमेशा जुम्मन के मन में बजता रहता। अब वह बदला लेने के लिए ही जी रहा था। किसी अच्छे काम के नतीजे को सामने आने में बहुत लंबा समय लग जाता है, लेकिन किसी बुरे काम का नतीजा तुरंत सामने आ जाता है।

जुम्मन को अपना बदला लेने के लिए ज्यादा लम्बे समय तक प्रतीक्षा नहीं करनी पड़ी। पिछले साल अलगु चौधरी ने बटेसर से खूबसूरत, लम्बे सींगों वाले बैलों का एक जोड़ा खरीदा था। महीनों तक पड़ोस के गांवों से लोग उनकी प्रशंसा करने के लिए आते रहे। दुर्भाग्यवश, पंचायत के फैसले के एक महीने बाद ही उनमें से एक बैल मर गया। जुम्मन ने अपने मित्रों को कहा, ‘यह होता है गद्दारी का नतीजा।

मनुष्य जैसा चाहे, वैसा कर सकता है, लेकिन अल्लाह उसके कामों के पीछे छिपी अच्छाई तथा बुराई को देखता है।’ अलगु को संदेह होता था कि बैल को जुम्मन ने जहर दिया था। उसकी पत्नी ने भी इस दुर्घटना के लिए जुम्मन को दोष दिया। एक दिन उसके और जुम्मन की पत्नी के बीच इसके बारे में भयंकर बहसबाजी हो गई।

हर किस्म के घृणित, रूखे तथा तीखे शब्दों का आदान-प्रदान हुआ। जुम्मन ने किसी तरह लड़ रहे दोनों पक्षों को शांत किया। उसने अपनी पत्नी को डांटा तथा उसे रणक्षेत्र से बाहर आ जाने के लिए तैयार कर लिया। दूसरी तरफ अलगु ने भी सख्ती से अपनी पत्नी को शांत कर लिया।

एक अकेला बैल किसान के किसी काम का नहीं होता। अलगु ने उससे मिलते-जुलते बैल की तलाश की, लेकिन वह न ढूंढ पाया। अंततः उसने बैल को बेचने का फैसला कर लिया। गांव में व्यापारी समझु साहू बैलगाड़ी चलाता था। वह बाजार में गुड़ और घी ले जाता था तथा नमक और तेल लेकर वापस आ जाता था जो कि वह गांव वालों को बेचा करता था। उसे सोचा कि अगर वह बैल उसके हाथ लग जाए तो वह एक की बजाए बाजार के तीन चक्कर प्रतिदिन लगा सकता था।

उसने बैल का निरीक्षण किया, उसे परख-परीक्षा के लिए ले गया और फिर थोड़ी सौदेबाजी करने के पश्चात् उसे अपने घर ले गया और अपने आंगन में बांध लिया। उसने एक महीने के अंदर उसके पैसे देने का वायदा किया। अलगु बैल से छुटकारा पाने को इतना व्याकुल था कि उसने परवाह नहीं की अगर पैसा बाद में भी मिलता। नए बैल के साथ समझु रोज़ तीन चक्कर लगाने लगा, यहां तक कि चार चक्कर भी।

पशु को चारा तथा पानी वगैरह देने में वह लापरवाह था, न ही वह उसे उचित आराम देता था। बाजार में वह उसके आगे थोड़ी सी सूखी घास फेंक देता। बेचारे पशु ने अभी मुश्किल से ही थोड़ा आराम किया होता, कि उसे छकड़े में दोबारा जोत दिया जाता। अलगु के घर पर बैल की अच्छी देखभाल की जाती थी, पीने के लिए ताज़ा पानी दिया जाता था। चारे के अलावा उसे अनाज दिया जाता था और थोड़ा सा घी भी।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

सुबह और शाम को नहलाया-धुलाया जाता और उसकी मालिश की जाती। उसके आरामदायक अतीत की जगह अत्याचार भरे जीवन ने ले ली थी। वह अपने आधे आकार का ही रह गया और उसकी हड्डियां बाहर को निकल आईं।
एक दिन, जब वह चौथा चक्कर लगाने जा रहा था, समझु ने छकड़े में बहुत अधिक भार लाद लिया। सारा दिन बोझ ढो-ढो कर बेचारा जानवर थक गया था – वह मुश्किल से ही अपना पांव उठा सकता था।

समझु उसे चाबुक से मारने लगा और उसने भागना शुरू किया। कुछ गज़ तक चलने के बाद वह आराम करने के लिए रुक गया, किन्तु समझु बहुत जल्दी में था और वह जानवर को निर्दयतापूर्वक पीटने लगा। बेचारे बैल ने छकड़े को खींचने की दोबारा कोशिश की, लेकिन उसकी ताकत जवाब दे गई और वह धड़ाम से ज़मीन पर गिर पड़ा। इस बार वह उठ पाने में असमर्थ रहा।

समझु ने मरे हुए जानवर को कुछ बार और पीटा, यह शिकायत करते हुए, ‘अगर तुझे मरना ही था तो तूने घर पहुंचने तक इंतजार क्यों नहीं किया ? अब छकड़े को कौन खींचेगा ?’ छकड़े पर घी के काफी सारे टीन लाद दिये गए थे, जिनमें से कुछ बिक गए थे और बिक्री से मिले ढाई सौ रुपए उसके कमरबन्द में बंधे हुए थे। इसके अलावा नमक के बोरे भी लदे हुए थे जिन्हें किसी की निगरानी के बिना छोड़ा नहीं जा सकता था।

अन्त में उसने छकड़े में ही रात बिताने का फैसला कर लिया। जब वह सुबह जागा तो उसने देखा कि कई टीन तेल के साथ-साथ उसका पैसा भी चला गया था। उसने दुःख से अपना सिर पीट लिया और रोने लगा। वह सदमे की हालत में घर पहुंचा। जब उसकी पत्नी ने यह अशुभ समाचार सुना तो वह रोने लगी तथा अलगु चौधरी को गालियां देने लगी। वह कमीना आदमी! उसके अभागे बैल ने हमें बरबाद कर दिया! हमारी जिंदगी भर की बचत लुट गई।’

कई महीने गुज़र गए। जब कभी भी अलगु अपने बैल के पैसे मांगता तो समझु भद्दे तरीके से जवाब देता, ‘यहां हमारी जीवन-भर की बचत चली गई और तुम्हें बैल के पैसे चाहिएं। तुमने मुझे धोखा दिया है। तुमने मुझे एक बीमार बैल दे दिया। तुम मुझसे आशा करते हो कि मैं तुम्हें पैसे दूं ? क्या तुमने मुझे इतना मूर्ख समझ रखा है ? मैं एक कारोबारी परिवार से सम्बन्ध रखता हूं और मैं तुम्हें मुझे मूर्ख बनाने नहीं दूंगा।’

अन्ततः गांव के कुछ लोगों ने सुझाव दिया कि मामले का फैसला पंचायत में किया जाए, तथा समझु और अलगु राजी हो गए। पंचायत बैठ गई। रामधन मिश्रा ने पूछा, ‘अब किस बात की देरी हो रही है ? आइये हम सदस्यों का चुनाव कर लें। तो, चौधरी, तुम किसे नामांकित करते हो ?’ अलगु ने बड़ी विनम्रता से कहा, ‘समझु को ही उनका चुनाव करने दें।’ समझु खड़ा हो गया और बोला, ‘मैं जुम्मन शेख का नाम सुझाता हूं।’

यह सुनते ही अलगु का दिल जोर-जोर से धड़कने लगा, मानो उसे किसी ने चांटा मार दिया हो। रामधन अलगु का मित्र था। वह समझ गया। उसने कहा, ‘चौधरी, क्या तुम्हें कोई एतराज है ?’ चौधरी ने सब्र करते हुए कहा, ‘नहीं, मुझे कोई एतराज नहीं है।’ अपनी जिम्मेवारियों की समझ दूसरों के साथ हमारे संबंधों को सुधारने में सहायता करती है। जब कभी भी हम गलत तरीके से आचरण करते हैं, यही अन्दरूनी एहसास हमें सही मार्ग पर वापस लाने में सहायता करता है।

जैसे ही जुम्मन शेख को सरपंच नियुक्त किया गया, उसे अपनी उच्च पदवी के कारण जिम्मेवारी की भावना का एहसास हुआ। उसने सोचा, ‘मैं न्याय तथा धर्म के सर्वोच्च सिंहासन पर विराजमान हूं। मेरे होंठों से जो निकलेगा, उसे वही सम्मान दिया जाएगा जो कि अल्लाह के शब्दों को दिया जाता है। मुझे सच्चाई के मार्ग से एक इंच भी इधर-उधर नहीं होना चाहिए।

पंच लोग दोनों ही गुटों से प्रश्न पूछने लगे। काफी लम्बे समय तक दोनों गुटों तथा उनके समर्थकों के बीच बहस होती रही। सभी इस बात पर सहमत हो गए कि समझु को बैल की कीमत अदा कर देनी चाहिए। लेकिन उनमें से दो व्यक्ति इस विचार के पक्ष में थे कि समझु को भी उसके जानवर के नुक्सान के लिए मुआवजा मिलना चाहिए।

अन्य लोग इस बात पर अड़ गए कि समझु को दण्ड मिलना चाहिए ताकि दूसरे गांव वालों के लिए एक उदाहरण पेश किया जा सके कि वे अपने जानवरों / पशुओं के साथ इतनी निर्दयतापूर्वक व्यवहार न करें। अंतत: जुम्मन ने निर्णय की घोषणा कर दी।

‘अलग चौधरी और समझ साह, सदस्यों ने आपके मामले पर बड़े विस्तार से विचार किया है। यह बिल्कुल उचित वात है कि समझु को बैल के पूरे पैसे देने चाहिएं। जब उसने बैल खरीदा था, तो वह तन्दुरुस्त था। यदि उसने उस समय तुरंत नगद अदायगी कर दी होती तो वर्तमान स्थिति उत्पन्न ही न होती। बैल इसलिए मर गया क्योंकि उससे बहुत सख्त काम करवाया गया, और उसे अच्छी तरह भोजन नहीं दिया गया और उसकी अच्छे तरीके से देखभाल भी नहीं की गई।’

रामधन मिश्रा ने कहा, ‘समझु ने जान-बूझकर जानवर को मारा है, और उसे इसके लिए दण्ड मिलना चाहिए। जुम्मन ने कहा, ‘वह एक अलग मामला है। हमारा उससे कोई लेना-देना नहीं है।’ झगड़ साहू ने विनती की, ‘समझु के साथ इतनी कठोरता से पेश नहीं आना चाहिए।’

जुम्मन ने कहा, ‘यह अलगु चौधरी पर निर्भर करता है। अगर वह कोई रियायत बरतना चाहता है, तो यह उसकी अपनी दयालुता के कारण ही होगा।’ अलगु प्रसन्न हो गया। वह खड़ा हो गया और चिल्लाया, ‘भगवान् सरपंच को सुखी रखे।’ सारी भीड़ मिलकर बोली, ‘भगवान् सरपंच को सुखी रखे।’ हर किसी ने फैसले की प्रशंसा की। यह मनुष्य का काम नहीं है ; एक पंच के दिल में परमेश्वर निवास करता है। यह तो उसका आशीर्वाद था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar

पंच के सामने झूठ का सफाया हो जाएगा। कुछ देर बाद जुम्मन अलगु के पास आया और उसे गले लगा लिया। उसने कहा, ‘मेरे भाई! जब से तुम सरपंच बने और झगड़े का फैसला मेरे विरुद्ध दिया, तबसे मैं तुम्हारा कट्टर शत्रु बन गया था। लेकिन आज एक पंच के रूप में मैंने जाना कि मैं न तो किसी का मित्र होता हूं, न ही किसी का शत्रु होता हूं। एक पंच न्याय के सिवाए कुछ नहीं देख सकता। आज मुझे यकीन हो गया कि एक पंच के होंठों (मुख) से खुदा बोलता है।’
अलगु रोने लगा। उनके आंसुओं ने उन गलतफहमियों को धो डाला जो उनके दिलों में इकट्ठी हो गई थीं।

Word Meanings

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar 1
PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar 2
PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar 3
PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 The Panch Parmeshwar 4

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class English Book Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 English Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What qualities made Hughie Erskine popular with men and women ?
Answer:
Hughie was wonderfully good-looking. He was very good at heart. He never said any ill-natured thing. He never said any unkind word even. In fact, he had every quality except that of making money. All this made him very popular among men and women.

ह्यई अदभुत रूप से सुन्दर था। वह दिल का बहुत अच्छा था। वह कभी कोई दुष्टतापूर्ण बात नहीं करता था। वह कभी भी कोई क्रूरतापूर्ण शब्द तक नहीं बोलता था। वास्तव में उसमें धन कमाने के अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक अन्य गुण थे। इन सब बातों के कारण वह पुरुषों तथा स्त्रियों में बहुत प्रिय बन गया था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 2.
Hughie was unable to settle down in a profession because he was unwilling to work (Yes / No). If ‘no’, what was the reason ?
Answer:
It was not that Hughie was unwilling to work. In fact, he tried his hand at many professions, but always failed. In fact, he did not know the art of making money. That was why he was nowhere successful.

इसका कारण यह नहीं था कि ह्यूई कोई काम नहीं करना चाहता था। वास्तव में उसने बहुत-से कामों में अपना हाथ आजमाया, परन्तु वह सदा असफल रहा। वास्तव में वह धन कमाने की कला नहीं जानता था। यही कारण था कि वह किसी भी काम में सफल नहीं हुआ।

Question 3.
What condition did the Colonel lay down for letting Hughie be engaged to Laura ?
Answer:
The Colonel knew that his daughter, Laura, loved Hughie. He too was fond of Hughie. But he wanted Hughie to be self dependent. So he said that first Hughie must have ten thousand pounds of his own. Only then he would allow Hughie to be engaged to Laura.

कर्नल जानता था कि उसकी बेटी, लारा, ह्यूई से प्रेम करती है। वह स्वयं भी ह्यूई को बहुत पसंद करता था। परन्तु वह चाहता था कि ह्यूई आत्मनिर्भर बने। इसलिए उसने कहा कि ह्यूई के पास पहले अपने दस हजार पौंड होने चाहिए। केवल तभी वह ह्यूई की लॉरा के साथ सगाई की इजाजत देगा।

Question 4.
Why did Alan Trevor like Hughie so much as to let him visit his studio whenever he wanted ?
Answer:
Artists always love things of beauty. Trevor was an artist and Hughie was wonderfully good-looking. Hughie was also a carefree and joyful spirit. Trevor came to like Hughie very much. That was why he let him visit his studio whenever he liked.

कलाकार सदा सुन्दरता की चीज़ों से प्यार करते हैं। ट्रेवोर एक कलाकार था और ह्यूई अद्भुत रूप से सुन्दर था। ह्यूई एक चिन्ता-रहित और प्रसन्नचित्त व्यक्ति भी था। ट्रेवोर ह्यूई को बहुत ज्यादा पसन्द करने लगा था। इसलिए उसने उसे अपने स्टूडियो में, जब वह चाहे, आने की इजाजत दे रखी थी।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 5.
Why did Hughie think that Trevor’s model was an amazing one ?
Or
Question 6.
Did Trevor think highly of his model ? How do you know?
Answer:
Trevor’s model had a wrinkled face. His clothes were in rags. He looked every inch a beggar. He was the very picture of misery. That was why Hughie thought him an amazing model. Trevor’s model was not a beggar as he looked. He was Baron Hausberg, one of the richest men of Europe. Naturally, Trevor thought very highly of him.

ट्रेवोर के मॉडल का चेहरा झुर्रियों से भरा हुआ था। उसके वस्त्र चीथड़ों जैसे थे। वह हर तरह से एक भिखारी लगता था। वह दुःख की एक वास्तविक तस्वीर प्रतीत होता था। यही कारण था कि ह्यूई उसे एक अचम्भायुक्त मॉडल समझता था। ट्रेवोर का मॉडल एक भिखारी नहीं था जैसा कि वह दिखाई देता था। वह बेरन हॉसबर्ग था जो यूरोप के सबसे धनी व्यक्तियों में से एक था। स्वाभाविक रूप से, ट्रेवोर उसके सम्बन्ध में बहुत ऊंचे विचार रखता था।

Question 7.
‘He (Hughie) got a charming scolding for his extravagance.’ Who scolded Hughie ? What was Hughie’s extravagance ? Why was Hughie scolded ? Why is the scolding
described as charming ?
Answer:
(1) It was Laura who scolded Hughie for his extravagance.
(2) Hughie had only a pound and some coins in his pocket. He gave his pound as alms to an old beggar. Laura considered it an act of extravagance.
(3) Hughie was scolded for his extravagance.
(4) It was Hughie’s own sweetheart who scolded him. That is why the scolding has been described as charming.

(1) यह लारा थी जिसने ह्यई को उसकी फिजूलखर्ची के लिए डांटा था।
(2) ह्यूई के पास केवल एक पौंड तथा कुछ छोटे-छोटे सिक्के थे। उसने अपना पौंड भीख के रूप में किसी बूढ़े भिखारी को दे दिया था। लारा ने इसे एक फिजूलखर्ची का काम समझा।
(3) ह्यूई को उसकी फिजूलखर्ची के लिए डांटा गया था।
(4) यह ह्यूई की अपनी प्रेमिका थी जिसने उसे डांटा था। यही कारण है कि उस डांट को प्यारी-प्यारी कहा गया है।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 8.
Why did Trevor think that Hughie had made a deep impression on his old model’ ?
Answer:
The old model’ showed a deep interest in Hughie. He asked Trevor all about Hughie : who he was; where he lived; what his income was; and other such things. Thus Trevor thought that Hughie had made a deep impression on his ‘old modeľ.

‘बूढ़े मॉडल’ ने ह्यूई में गहरी दिलचस्पी दिखाई। उसने ट्रेवोर से ह्यूई के बारे में सब कुछ पूछा – वह कौन था; वह कहां रहता था; उसकी आय कितनी थी; तथा इस तरह की अन्य बातें। इस प्रकार ट्रेवोर ने सोचा कि ह्यूई ने उसके ‘बूढ़े मॉडल’ पर गहरा प्रभाव डाला था।

Question 9.
Did Trevor’s model behave differently from what Trevor had thought of him ? If differently, how ?
Answer:
Trevor had thought that Baron Hausberg would talk of Hughie’s foolish act to his friends and have a good laugh. But, on the other hand, the Baron sent Hughie ten thousand pounds to help him marry his beloved.

ट्रेवोर ने सोचा था कि बेरन हॉसबर्ग ह्यूई के मूर्खतापूर्ण व्यवहार की कहानी अपने मित्रों को सुनाएगा और खूब हंसेगा। परन्तु इसके विपरीत बेरन ने ह्यूई को दस हज़ार पौंड भेजे ताकि अपनी प्रेमिका के साथ विवाह करने में उसकी सहायता की जा सके।

Question 10.
How was Baron Hausberg both a millionaire model and a model millionaire ?
Answer:
Baron Hausberg was a millionaire who posed as a beggar for Trevor’s painting. Thus he was a millionaire model. But more important than that, he was a model millionaire. He had proved a model of compassion and charity.

नवाब हॉसबर्ग एक करोड़पति था जिसने ट्रेवोर के चित्र के लिए भिखारी का पोज़ बनाया था। इस प्रकार वह करोड़पति मॉडल था। किन्तु इससे भी ज्यादा महत्त्वपूर्ण बात यह थी कि वह एक मॉडल (आदर्श) करोड़पति था। वह दया और परोपकार का एक आदर्श नमूना साबित हुआ था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 11.
Why was Hughie unable to marry his beloved, Laura ? Who helped him to realise his dream ?
Answer:
Laura’s father said that first Hughie must have ten thousand pounds of his own. Only then he would allow Hughie to be engaged to Laura. But poor Hughie was penniless. It was Baron Hausberg’s kindness that helped Hughie to realise his dream.

लॉरा के पिता ने कहा कि ह्यूई के पास पहले अपने खुद के दस हज़ार पौंड होने चाहिएं। सिर्फ तब ही वह ह्युई को लॉरा के साथ सगाई की इजाजत देगा। परन्तु बेचारे ह्यूई के पास कोई पैसा नहीं था। यह बेरन हॉसबर्ग की दयालुता थी जिसने ह्यूई का सपना पूरा करने में उसकी मदद की।

Question 12.
Describe the appearance of Trevor’s model.
Answer:
Trevor’s model was an old beggar. His face was wrinkled. Over his shoulder was a brown cloak. It was all in rags. His thick boots had many patches. He had a rough stick in one hand. He was leaning over this stick. With his other hand, he was holding out his old hat for alms. The old beggar looked the very picture of misery.

ट्रेवोर का मॉडल एक बूढ़ा भिखारी था। उसके चेहरे पर झुर्रियां पड़ी हुई थीं। उसके कन्धे पर एक भूरे रंग का चोगा पड़ा हुआ था। यह बिल्कुल चीथड़े हुआ पड़ा था। उसके मोटे-मोटे भारी बूटों पर अनेक पैवद लगे हुए थे। उस ने अपने हाथ में खुरदरी लाठी पकड़ी हुई थी। अपने दूसरे हाथ से उसने अपना पुराना हैट भीख के लिए आगे को बढ़ाया हुआ था। बूढ़ा भिखारी पूरी तरह से दुःख की एक तस्वीर प्रतीत हो रहा था।

Question 13.
How and why did Hughie oblige the old beggar ?
Answer:
Hughie was deeply moved by the miserable looks of the old beggar. He had only one pound and some pennies in his pocket. He walked up to the beggar and slipped the pound into his hand.

ह्यूई उस बूढ़े भिखारी की दुःख-भरी शक्ल देख कर बहुत भावुक हो गया। उसकी जेब में सिर्फ एक पौंड तथा कुछ सिक्के थे। वह चल कर भिखारी के पास गया और उसके हाथ में पौंड खिसका दिया।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 14.
How can you say that Hughie was kind and large-hearted ?
Answer:
Hughie was deeply moved by the miserable looks of the old beggar. He had only a pound and some small coins in his pocket. He thought to himself, “He wants it more than I do.” And he slipped the pound into the beggar’s hand. It shows that Hughie had a kind heart.

ह्यूई बूढ़े भिखारी की दुःख-भरी शक्ल देख कर बहुत भावुक हो गया। उसकी जेब में सिर्फ एक पौंड तथा कुछ सिक्के थे। उसने अपने मन में सोचा, “उसे इसकी ज़रूरत मुझ से ज़्यादा है।” और उसने पौंड भिखारी के हाथ में रख दिया। इससे पता चलता है कि ह्यूई का दिल बहुत दयालु था।

Question 15.
What information did Trevor give about his model ? How did Hughie feel then ?
Answer:
Trevor said that his model was not a beggar. He was Baron Hausberg, one of the richest men of Europe. Hughie felt ashamed when he came to know of it. He had made a fool of himself by giving a pound as alms to the millionaire.

ट्रेवर ने कहा कि उसका मॉडल कोई भिखारी नहीं था। वह बेरन हॉसबर्ग था, यूरोप के सबसे ज़्यादा अमीर व्यक्तियों में से एक। ह्यूई को बहुत शर्मिन्दगी महसूस हुई जब उसे यह पता चला। एक करोड़पति को एक पौंड भीख में देकर उसने स्वयं ही खुद को बेवकूफ बना लिया था।

Question 16.
What was Hughie’s reaction when Trevor told him that the old beggar was, in fact, Baron Hausberg
Answer:
Hughie felt ashamed of what he had done. He had made a fool of himself by giving a pound as alms to the millionaire.

ह्यूई को अपने किए पर लज्जा महसूस हुई। उसने एक करोड़पति व्यक्ति को भीख के रूप में एक पौंड दे कर स्वयम् को मूर्ख बना लिया था।

Question 17.
Why did the millionaire send Hughie ten thousand pounds ?
Answer:
The millionaire was deeply impressed by Hughie’s noble nature. He came to know of his problem. So he sent him ten thousand pounds to help him marry his beloved.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

करोड़पति व्यक्ति ह्यूई के अच्छे स्वभाव से गहरा प्रभावित हुआ था। उसे उसकी समस्या का पता चल गया। इसलिए उसने उसे दस हज़ार पौंड भेजे ताकि अपनी प्रेमिका के साथ विवाह करने में उसकी सहायता की जा सके।

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give in your own words a pen-portrait of Baron Hausberg.
Answer:
Baron Hausberg is a millionaire. He is one of the richest men of Europe. He has a whim to have himself painted as a beggar. He proves a very successful model. He looks every inch a beggar. He leans over a coarse stick.

His clothes are in rags. He holds out an old hat for alms. He looks the very picture of misery. Hughie takes him for a real beggar. He slips a pound into his hand. We can say that Baron Hausberg is a millionaire model. But more important than that, he proves a model millionaire.

He comes to know of Hughie’s problem in love. He sends him a cheque for ten thousand pounds. Thus he enables Hughie to marry his beloved. The Baron proves a model of compassion and charity. He is, indeed, a model millionaire.

बेरन हॉसबर्ग एक करोड़पति है। वह यूरोप के सबसे धनी व्यक्तियों में से एक है। उसकी एक अजीब-सी इच्छा है कि वह एक भिखारी के रूप में अपना चित्र बनवाए। वह एक बहुत सफल मॉडल सिद्ध होता है। वह पूरी तरह से एक भिखारी दिखलाई देता था। वह एक खुरदरी लाठी पर झुका होता है।

उसके वस्त्र चीथड़े बने होते हैं। उसने भीख के लिए एक पुराना टोप आगे को बढ़ाया होता है। वह दुःख की एक तस्वीर प्रतीत होता है। ह्यूई उसे एक वास्तविक भिखारी समझ लेता है। वह उसके हाथ में एक पौंड सरका देता है। हम कह सकते हैं कि बेरन हॉसबर्ग एक करोड़पति मॉडल है। किन्तु इससे भी अधिक वह एक मॉडल (आदर्श) करोड़पति साबित होता है। उसे ह्यूई की प्यार-सम्बन्धी समस्या का पता चलता है।

वह उसे दस हजार पौंड का एक चैक भेज देता है। इस प्रकार वह ह्यूई को अपनी प्रेमिका से विवाह करने में समर्थ बना देता है। बेरन दया और परोपकार का एक आदर्श नमूना साबित होता है। वह वास्तव में ही एक मॉडल (आदर्श) करोड़पति है।

Question 2.
What impression do you form of Hughie’s character ?
Answer:
Hughie was wonderfully good looking. He was popular with men and women equally. He never said any unkind word. In fact, he had every quality except that of making money. He tried his hand at many professions, but always failed.

To make it worse, he was in love. He loved a Colonel’s daughter. But the Colonel would not let him marry his daughter. He said that first, Hughie must have ten thousand pounds of his own. At last, Hughie’s kind and noble nature got him the reward he desired.

Baron Hausberg was so impressed by him that he sent him a cheque for ten thousands pounds. Thus Hughie was able to fulfil the Colonel’s condition and marry his daughter.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

ह्यूई अद्भुत रूप से सुन्दर था। वह पुरुषों तथा स्त्रियों में समान रूप में प्रिय था। वह कभी भी कोई क्रूरतापूर्ण शब्द नहीं बोलता था। वास्तव में उसमें धन कमाने के अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक अन्य गुण था। उसने अनेक व्यवसायों में अपना हाथ आज़माया, किन्तु सदा असफल रहा। इससे भी बुरी बात यह थी कि उसे प्यार हो गया था।

वह एक कर्नल की लड़की से प्यार करता था। किन्तु कर्नल उसे अपनी लड़की के साथ विवाह करने की इजाजत देने को तैयार नहीं था। वह कहता था कि पहले ह्यूई के पास अपने दस हज़ार पौंड होने चाहिए। अन्ततः ह्यूई के दयालुतापूर्ण और अच्छे स्वभाव ने उसे वह ईनाम दिलवा दिया जिसकी उसे इच्छा थी।

बेरन हॉसबर्ग उससे इतना प्रभावित हो गया कि उसने उसे दस हज़ार पौंड का एक चैक भेज दिया। इस प्रकार ह्यूई कर्नल की शर्त को पूरा करने और उसकी पुत्री से विवाह करने में समर्थ हो गया।

Question 3.
How and why did Hughie oblige the old beggar ?
Answer:
One day, Hughie went to see his friend, Alan Trevor, who was a painter. He saw Trevor painting a wonderful picture of a beggar man. The beggar himself was standing in a corner of the studio. He was a wizened old man. His face was wrinkled.

He had a brown cloak over his shoulder. It was all in rages. His thick boots had many patches. He had a rough stick in one hand. He was leaning over this stick. With his other hand, he was holding out his old hat for alms.

The old beggar looked the very picture of misery. Hughie was deeply moved by the miserable looks of the old beggar. He could not help pitying him. He felt in his pockets, but could find only one pound in them. Then he walked up to the beggar and slipped the pound into his hand.

एक दिन ह्यूई अपने दोस्त, ऐलन ट्रेवोर, से मिलने के लिए गया जो एक चित्रकार था। उसने ट्रेवोर को एक भिखारी की अद्भुत तस्वीर बनाते देखा। भिखारी स्वयं स्टूडियों के एक कोने में खड़ा हुआ था। वह एक मुरझाया हुआ बहुत बूढ़ा व्यक्ति था। उसके चेहरे पर झुर्रियां पड़ी हुई थीं।

उसके कंधे पर एक भूरे रंग का चोगा पड़ा हुआ था। यह बिल्कुल चीथड़े-चीथड़े हुआ पड़ा था। उसके मोटे-मोटे भारी बूटों पर कई पैबन्द लगे हुए थे। उसने अपने एक हाथ में एक खुरदरी लाठी पकड़ी हुई थी। वह उस लाठी के सहारे आगे की ओर झुका हुआ था। अपने दूसरे हाथ से उसने अपना पुराना हैट भीख मांगने के लिए आगे को बढ़ाया हुआ था।

बूढ़ा भिखारी पूरी तरह से दु:ख की एक तस्वीर लग रहा था। ह्यूई बूढ़े भिखारी की दयनीय शक्ल देखकर गहरा द्रवित हो उठा। वह उस पर तरस खाए बगैर रह न सका। उसने अपनी जेबों को टोटला, परन्तु उसे उनमें सिर्फ एक पौंड ही मिला। फिर वह चल कर भिखारी तक गया और धीरे से अपना वह पौंड उसके हाथ पर रख दिया।

Question 4.
How could Hughie marry the girl he loved ?
Answer:
Hughie Erskine loved a girl named Laura. This girl’s father was a retired Colonel. He liked Hughie, but would not allow him to marry his daughter. He said that first, Hughie must have ten thousand pounds of his own. But Hughie was jobless.

He had no hope of earning that much money. One day, he saw an old beggar at the studio of his friend. He looked very miserable. Hughie was moved to pity. He gave him the only pound he had in his pocket. Now this old beggar was, in fact, Baron Hausberg. He was one of the richest men of Europe. He was sitting there merely as a beggar model.

He was impressed by Hughie’s noble nature. He came to know of his problem. He sent him a cheque of ten thousand pounds. Thus Hughie was able to marry his beloved.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

राई अर्सकाइन लॉरा नाम की एक लड़की से प्यार करता था। इस लड़की का पिता एक सेवा-निवृत्त कर्नल था। वह ह्यूई को पसंद करता था, किन्तु उसे अपनी लड़की के साथ विवाह करने की इजाजत नहीं देता था। वह कहता था कि इससे पहले ह्यूई के पास अपने दस हज़ार पौंड होने चाहिएं।

किन्तु ह्यूई बेरोज़गार था। उसे इतने ज्यादा पैसे कमा सकने की कोई आशा नहीं थी। एक बार उसने अपने मित्र के स्टूडियो में एक बूढ़ा भिखारी देखा। वह बहुत दुःखी प्रतीत हो रहा था। ह्यूई दया से भर गया। उसने उसे अपना एकमात्र पौंड जो उसकी जेब में था, दे दिया। अब यह बूढ़ा भिखारी वास्तव में नवाब हॉसबर्ग था।

वह योरुप के सबसे धनी व्यक्तियों में से एक था। वह वहां केवल एक भिखारी का मॉडल बना हुआ बैठा था। वह ह्यूई की दया-भावना से प्रभावित हो गया। उसे उसकी समस्या का पता चल गया। उसने उसे दस हज़ार पौंड का एक चैक भेज दिया। इस प्रकार ह्यूई अपनी प्रेमिका से विवाह करने में समर्थ हो गया।

Question 5.
How did Baron Hausberg react to the alms given by Hughie ?
Answer:
Baron Hausberg was having himself painted as a beggar in Trevor’s studio. Just then, Hughie reached there. He took the Baron for a real beggar. He was deeply moved by the miserable looks of the old beggar’.

He took out from his pocket the only pound he had. He slipped it into the beggar’s hand. The Baron smiled and said, “Thank you, sir. Thank you.” He was deeply impressed by Hughie’s noble nature. Later he enquired of Trevor all about Hughie.

He came to know of Hughie’s problem in love. He sent him a cheque for ten thousand pounds. Now Hughie could fulfil the Colonel’s condition and marry his daughter, Laura. Thus, the Baron was not only a millionaire model, but also a model millionarie.

नवाब हॉसबर्ग ट्रेवोर के स्टूडियो में एक भिखारी के वेश में अपना चित्र बनवा रहा था। उसी समय ह्यूई वहां आ गया। उसने नवाब को एक वास्तविक भिखारी समझ लिया। वह बूढ़े भिखारी का दुःख-भरा चेहरा देख कर गहरा द्रवित हो उठा। उसने अपनी जेब से वह एकमात्र पौंड निकाला जो उसके पास था।

उसने इसे भिखारी के हाथ में सरका दिया। नवाब मुस्करा दिया और बोला, “धन्यवाद, श्रीमान जी। धन्यवाद।” वह ह्यूई की दया-भावना से गहरा प्रभावित हुआ। बाद में उसने ट्रेवोर से ह्यूई के बारे में सब पूछ-ताछ की। उसे ह्यूई की प्यार-सम्बन्धी समस्या का पता चला। उसने उसे दस हज़ार पौंड़ का एक चैक भेज दिया।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

अब ह्यूई कर्नल की शर्त को पूरी कर सकता था और उसकी पुत्री, लॉरा, से विवाह कर सकता था। इस प्रकार नवाब न केवल एक करोड़पति मॉडल था, बल्कि एक मॉडल (आदर्श) करोडपति भी था।

Objective-Type Questions

Question 1.
Who wrote the story, ‘The Model Millionaire ?
Answer:
Oscar Wilde.

Question 2.
Who was Hughie Erskine ?
Answer:
A handsome young man.

Question 3.
Who was Hughie’s beloved ?
Answer:
Laura Merton.

Question 4.
What was Laura’s father ?
Answer:
A retired Colonel.

Question 5.
Why was Hughie unable to marry his beloved ?
Answer:
Because he was penniless.

Question 6.
Who helped Hughie to realize his dream ?
Answer:
Baron Hausberg.

Question 7.
Who was Alan Trevor ?
Answer:
He was an artist.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Question 8.
Why did Alan Trevor like Hughie so much as to let him visit his studio whenever he wanted ?
Answer:
Because Hughie was wonderfully good-looking and very good at heart.

Question 9.
Who was Trevor’s model ?
Answer:
Baron Hausberg in disguise of a beggar.

Question 10.
Who was Baron Hausberg ?
Answer:
One of the richest men of Europe.

Question 11.
What did Hughie give to the beggar who was sitting in Trevor’s studio ?
Answer:
A pound.

Question 12.
What information did Trevor give about his model ?
Answer:
His model was not a beggar.

Question 13.
Who scolded Hughie ?
Answer:
Laura Merton, his beloved.

Question 14.
Why was Hughie scolded ?
Answer:
For his extravagance.

Question 15.
Who was the model millionaire ?
Answer:
Baron Hausberg, a very rich man of Europe.

Question 16.
What did the millionaire send to Hughie ?
Answer:
A cheque for ten thousand pounds.

The Model Millionaire Summary in English

The Model Millionaire Introduction in English:

“The Model Millionaire’ is a humorous story which tells how a young man named Hughie was able to win the hand of his beloved, Laura, in marriage. Hughie loved Laura very intensely. But he was unemployed and had no money with him.

The girl’s father was a retired Colonel. He said that he would let Hughie marry his daughter only when he got ten thousand pounds of his own. Hughie could never hope to collect that much amount in his life. But luckily, a millionaire comes to know of Hughie’s predicament.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

He sends him a cheque for ten thousand pounds as a wedding present. Thus the way is cleared for the union of the lover and the beloved. Who that millionaire was and how he came to know of Hughie’s problem, is the chief source of suspense and humour in this story.

The Model Millionaire Summary in English:

Hughie Erskine was a handsome young man. He was wonderfully good-looking. He was popular with men and women equally. He never said any unkind word. In fact, he had every quality except that of making money. His father had left him no money. He lived on merely two hundred pounds a year that an old aunt allowed him.

Hughie tried his hand at many professions but always failed. It does not mean that he was unwilling to work. In fact, he did not know the art of making money. Hughie was in love with a girl named Laura Merton who was the daughter of a retired Colonel.

Hughie wanted to marry Laura. The Colonel knew all this and he was fond of Hughie also. But he would not let him marry his daughter. He said that first Hughie must have ten thousand pounds of his own. Hughie could never hope to collect that much amount in his life.

So poor Hughie was very unhappy in those days. Hughie had a friend named Alan Trevor who was a great painter. His pictures were eagerly sought after. At first, Trevor had been attracted by Hughie entirely on account of his personal charm. He used to say that for a painter, only beautiful people mattered most. However, after he got to know Hughie better, he liked him for his habits also.

He liked his generous and reckless nature. So he had given Hughie the permanent ‘entry’ to his studio. One day, Hughie went to Trevor’s studio. He saw Trevor putting the finishing touches to a picture. It was a wonderful life-size picture of a beggar-man.

The beggar himself was standing in a corner of the studio. Trevor was using him as a model for his painting. His face was wrinkled. Over his shoulder was a brown cloak. It was all in rags. His thick boots had many patches. He had a rough stick in one hand. He was leaning over this stick. With the other hand, he was holding out his old hat for alms.

He looked the very picture of misery. “What an amazing model,” said Hughie in a whisper. At this, Trevor shouted at the top of his voice, “Such beggars as he are not to be met with every day.” Then Trevor told Hughie that he would get 2000 guineas (2100 pounds) for that picture. But he was paying the model only a shilling an hour.

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

Hughie thought it too low a payment for the model. He said, “I think the model should have a percentage. They work quite as hard as you.” At this Trevor said, “It is no easy job to stand and work with the brush all day.” Then Trevor went out to speak to the frame-maker who had come to see him.

The old beggar sat down on a bench to rest for a moment. He looked very unhappy. Hughie couldn’t help pitying him. He felt in his pockets. He could find only one pound in them. He went to the beggar and slipped it into his hand. A faint smile appeared on the beggar’s withered face. Then Hughie went away.

That night, Hughie met Trevor in a club. He told Hughie the beggar-model was quite devoted to him (Hughie) and wanted to know all about his life. So he had to tell the beggar all about Hughie, Laura, the Colonel and the 10,000.

Hughie was wonder-struck when Trevor told him that the old beggar was, in fact, Baron Hausberg, the richest man of Europe. He had asked Trevor to paint him as a beggar. Now Hughie felt very small at what he had done. Trevor burst into laughter when Hughie said that he had given the old model a pound as charity.

Next morning, an old gentleman came to Hughie and gave him a letter. It was from Baron Hausberg. On it was written : “A wedding present to Hughie Erskine and Laura Merton, from an old beggar.” Hughie found inside it a cheque for 10,000.

When they were married, Trevor was the best man (principal groomsman at a wedding). The Baron made a speech at the party. Trevor remarked, “Millionaire models are rare enough; but by Jove, model millionaires are rarer still !”

The Model Millionaire Summary in Hindi

The Model Millionaire Introduction in Hindi:

‘The Model Millionaire’ एक हास्य से भरपूर कहानी है जो यह बताती है कि किस तरह ह्यूई नाम का एक नौजवान अपनी प्रेमिका, लॉरा, से विवाह करने में सफल हुआ। ह्यूई लॉरा से बहुत प्यार करता था। किन्तु वह बेकार था और उसके पास कोई पैसा नहीं था। लड़की का पिता एक सेवानिवृत्त कर्नल था।

वह कहता था कि वह ह्यूई को अपनी लड़की के साथ विवाह करने की इजाजत केवल तभी देगा जब उसके पास अपने खुद के कमाए दस हजार पौंड जमा हो जाएंगे। ह्यूई को इस बात की कोई आशा नहीं थी कि वह अपने जीवन में कभी दस हजार पौंड जमा कर पाएगा।

किन्तु खुशकिस्मती से एक करोड़पति व्यक्ति को ह्यूई की दुविधा का पता चल जाता है। वह दस हजार पौंड का एक चैक ह्यूई को उसके विवाह के उपहार के रूप में भेज देता है। इस प्रकार प्रेमी-प्रेमिका के विवाह का रास्ता साफ हो जाता है। वह करोड़पति व्यक्ति कौन था और उसे ह्यूई की समस्या का किस प्रकार पता चला, इस कहानी में जिज्ञासा और हास्य के मुख्य स्त्रोत हैं।

The Model Millionaire Summary in Hindi:

राई अर्सकाइन एक आकर्षक नौजवान था। वह अद्भुत रूप से सुन्दर था। वह पुरुषों तथा स्त्रियों में समान रूप से प्रिय था। वह कभी भी कोई क्रूरतापूर्ण शब्द नहीं बोलता था। वास्तव में उसमें धन कमाने के अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक अन्य गुण था। उसका पिता उसके लिए कोई धन छोड़कर नहीं गया था।

राई केवल 200 पौंड सालाना पर ही निर्वाह करता था जो उसे अपनी एक बूढ़ी मौसी से मिलते थे। उसने कई कामों में अपना हाथ आजमाया परन्तु, वह सदा असफल ही रहा। इसका अर्थ यह नहीं कि वह कोई काम नहीं करना चाहता था। वास्तव में वह धन कमाने की कला नहीं जानता था।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

ह्यूई लॉरा मर्टन नामक एक लड़की से प्यार करता था जो एक सेवानिवृत्त कर्नल की लड़की थी। ह्यूई लॉरा से विवाह करना चाहता था। कर्नल इस सब के बारे में जानता था और वह ह्यूई को बहुत पसन्द भी करता था। परन्तु वह उसे अपनी बेटी से शादी करने की इजाजत देने को तैयार नहीं था।

वह कहता था कि पहले ह्यूई के पास अपने स्वयं के दस हजार पौंड होने चाहिएं। ह्यूई को इस बात की कोई आस नहीं थी कि वह अपने जीवन में कभी दस हजार पौंड इकट्ठे कर पाएगा। इसलिए बेचारा ह्यूई उन दिनों बहुत उदास था।
ाई का एक मित्र था जिसका नाम एलन ट्रेवर था। वह एक बहुत बड़ा चित्रकार था।

उसकी तस्वीरों की बहुत मांग रहती थी। शुरू-शुरू में ट्रेवर ह्यूई की ओर केवल उसकी शारीरिक सुन्दरता की वजह से ही आकर्षित हुआ था। वह कहा करता था कि एक चित्रकार के लिए केवल सुन्दर व्यक्ति ही सबसे महत्त्वपूर्ण चीज़ हुआ करते हैं। परन्तु बाद में वह ह्यूई को उसकी आदतों के कारण भी पसन्द करने लगा। वह उसकी खुशमिज़ाजी, उसकी उदारता तथा उसके फक्कड़पन को बहुत पसंद करता था। इसीलिए उसने राई को अपने स्टूडियो में आने की खुली छूट दे रखी थी।

एक दिन हाई देवर के स्टूडियो में गया। उसने ट्रेवर को एक तस्वीर को अन्तिम रूप देते हुए देखा। यह एक भिखारी की पूरे आकार वाली अद्भुत तस्वीर थी। भिखारी स्वयं स्टूडियो के एक कोने में खड़ा हुआ था। ट्रेवर उसे अपनी पेन्टिंग के लिए एक मॉडल के रूप में इस्तेमाल कर रहा था। उसके चेहरे पर झुर्रियां पड़ी हुई थीं। उसके कन्धे पर एक भूरे रंग का चोगा रखा हुआ था। वह बिल्कुल चीथड़े हुआ पड़ा था।

उसके मोटे-मोटे भारी बूटों पर अनेक पैबंद लगे हुए थे। उसने हाथ में एक खुरदरी लाठी पकड़ी हुई थी। वह इस लाठी के सहारे आगे को झुका हुआ था। अपने दूसरे हाथ के साथ उसने अपना पुराना हैट भीख के लिए आगे को बढ़ाया हुआ था। वह दुःख की पूरी तस्वीर प्रतीत हो रहा था।

“कितना अद्भुत मॉडल है !” हाई ने धीमे स्वर में कहा। इस बात पर ट्रेवर ऊंचे स्वर में चिल्लाते हुए बोला, “इस तरह के भिखारी रोज नहीं मिल सकते हैं।” फिर ट्रेवर ने ह्यूई को बताया कि उस तस्वीर को बनाने के लिए उसे 2100 पौंड प्राप्त होने थे। लेकिन वह उस मॉडल को प्रति घण्टा की दर से केवल एक शिलिंग दे रहा था। ह्यूई को उस मॉडल को दिया जाने वाला यह भुगतान बहुत कम लगा।

उसने कहा, “मुझे लगता है कि मॉडल को प्रतिशत की दर से हिस्सा मिलना चाहिए। ये लोग उतनी ही मेहनत करते हैं जितनी तुम करते हो।” इस बात पर ट्रेवर बोला, “दिन भर खड़े हो कर ब्रश चलाना कोई आसान काम नहीं है।” फिर ट्रेवर फ्रेम बनाने वाले से बात करने के लिए बाहर चला गया जो उससे मिलने के लिए आया था।

बूढ़ा भिखारी थोड़ी देर आराम करने के लिए एक बैंच पर बैठ गया। वह बहुत उदास दिखाई दे रहा था। ह्यूई को उस पर दया आ गई। ह्यूई ने अपनी जेबों को टटोला। उसे उनमें सिर्फ एक ही पौंड मिला। वह भिखारी के पास गया और इसे उसके हाथ में दे दिया। भिखारी के मुरझाए हुए चेहरे पर एक हल्की सी मुस्कान आ गई। फिर ह्यूई वहां से निकल गया उस रात ह्यई देवर को एक क्लब में मिला।

उसने एई को बताया कि वह भिखारी मॉडल उसका (ाई का) बहुत भक्त बन गया था और वह उसके जीवन के बारे में सब कुछ जानना चाहता था। इसलिए उसे भिखारी को ह्यूई, लॉरा, कर्नल तथा 10,000 पौंड के बारे में सब कुछ बताना पड़ा। ह्यूई दंग रह गया जब ट्रेवर ने उसे बताया कि बूढ़ा भिखारी वास्तव में यूरोप का सबसे धनी व्यक्ति, बेरन हासबर्ग था। उसने ट्रेवर से कहा था कि वह भिखारी के रूप में उसकी एक तस्वीर बनाए।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

अब राई को अपने किए पर बहुत शर्मिन्दगी होने लगी। ट्रेवर जोर-जोर से हंसने लगा जब उसे पता चला कि ह्यूई ने उस करोड़पति को भीख के रूप में एक पौंड दिया था। अगली प्रातः एक बुजुर्ग व्यक्ति ह्यूई के पास आया और उसे एक पत्र दिया। यह पत्र बेरन हासबर्ग की ओर से लिखा गया था। इस पर लिखा था–“एक बूढ़े भिखारी की ओर से झुई अर्सकाइन और लॉरा मर्टन के लिए विवाह उपहार।”

ह्यूई ने जब इस लिफाफे को खोला तो वहां इसके अन्दर दस हज़ार पौंड का एक चैक था। जब ह्यूई और लॉरा का विवाह हुआ तो ट्रेवर दूल्हे का मित्र बना और बेरन ने विवाह-भोज के समय पर एक भाषण दिया। ट्रेवर ने अपने भाषण में कहा, “लखपति मॉडल बहुत कम होते हैं किन्तु, ईश्वर की कसम, मॉडल (अर्थात् आदर्श) लखपति उससे भी कम होते हैं!”

सरल हिन्दी में कहानी की विस्तृत व्याख्या

जब तक कोई आदमी धनी न हो, उसके सुन्दर होने का कोई लाभ नहीं होता। इश्क करना और कल्पना के संसार में घूमना अमीर लोगों के शौक होते हैं, न कि गरीबों के वश की बातें। गरीब व्यक्ति को व्यावहारिक होना चाहिए तथा साधारण रूप से सोचना और रहना चाहिए। किसी गरीब व्यक्ति के लिए सुन्दर होने की बजाय अपने पास पक्की आमदन का होना बेहतर होता है। आधुनिक जीवन का यह एक महान् सत्य है।

किन्तु ह्यूई अर्सकाइन (Hughie Erskine) नाम का युवक इन बातों को कभी समझ नहीं पाया। दिमागी तौर पर वह अधिक तेज़ नहीं था, किन्तु देखने में अति सुन्दर था। उसके बाल भूरे रंग के और घुघराले थे, आंखें सांवले रंग की थीं, चेहरा नक्काशा हुआ लगता था। वह औरतों में उतना ही प्रिय था, जितना पुरुषों में। धन कमा सकने के अतिरिक्त उसमें प्रत्येक अन्य बात का गुण था। उसका पिता उसके लिए कोई धन छोड़कर नहीं गया था।

ह्यई प्रति वर्ष केवल 200 पौंड पर ही निर्वाह करता था, जो उसे अपनी एक बूढ़ी मौसी से मिलते थे। उसने प्रत्येक प्रकार के काम में अपना भाग्य आजमा कर देखा था; उसने सट्टे का काम किया; कुछ समय उसने चाय का व्यापार किया; फिर उसने शराब बेचने का काम भी किया। किन्तु कहीं भी उसे सफलता न मिली।

अन्त में वह अपने जीवन में कुछ भी न बन सका। वह मात्र एक सुन्दर नौजवान था जिसके पास करने को कोई व्यवसाय नहीं था। इससे भी बुरी बात यह थी कि ह्यूई को इश्क हो गया था। जिस लड़की से वह प्यार करता था, उसका नाम लॉरा मर्टन (Laura Merton) था। वह लड़की भी ह्यूई से बहुत प्यार करती थी। वह एक सेवानिवृत्त कर्नल की लड़की थी। वह कर्नल एक बहुत गुस्सैल आदमी था।

उसे अपनी लड़की और ह्यई के बीच प्यार के बारे में सब पता था तथा वह ह्यूई को बहुत चाहता भी था। किन्तु वह उसके साथ अपनी लड़की की सगाई की कोई बात सुनने को तैयार नहीं था। वह राई से कहता कि ‘जब तुम्हारे पास अपने दस हज़ार पौंड जमा हो जाएंगे तो इस बात पर विचार किया जा सकेगा।’ इसलिए बेचारा ह्यई उन दिनों प्रायः बहुत उदास रहा करता था।

ह्यई का एक मित्र था जिसका नाम एलन ट्रेवर (Alan Trevor) था। ट्रेवर एक चित्रकार था। देखने में वह एक बहुत अजीब शक्ल वाला बेढंगा सा व्यक्ति लगता था। उसके चेहरे पर भूरे धब्बे पड़े हुए थे; उसकी दाढ़ी लाल रंग की थी तथा बिखरी रहती थी। किन्तु जब वह रंगों में अपना ब्रुश चलाता तो कमाल कर दिया करता था। वह एक बहुत ही अच्छा कलाकार था। उसकी तस्वीरों की बहुत मांग रहती थी।

आरम्भ में ट्रेवर ह्यई की ओर केवल उसकी शारीरिक सुन्दरता की वजह से ही आकर्षित हुआ था। वह कहा करता था कि एक चित्रकार के लिए सुन्दर व्यक्ति ही सबसे महत्त्वपूर्ण चीज़ होते हैं। किन्तु जब ट्रेवर ह्यई को अधिक अच्छी तरह से पहचान गया तो उसे उसकी आदतें भी पसन्द आने लगीं। वह उसकी खुश-मिज़ाजी, उसकी उदारता तथा उसके फक्कड़पन को बहुत ही पसन्द किया करता था। इसलिए उसने ह्यूई को अपने स्टूडियो में आने की खुली छूट दे रखी थी।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

एक प्रातः ह्यई लॉरा के घर जा रहा था। रास्ते में वह ट्रेवर से मिलने के लिए रुक गया। जब वह अन्दर आया तो ट्रेवर एक तस्वीर को अन्तिम रूप दे रहा था। यह एक भिखारी की पूरे आकार वाली अद्भुत तस्वीर थी। भिखारी स्वयं स्टूडियो के एक कोने में चौकी पर खड़ा था। वह एक मुरझाया हुआ बहुत बूढ़ा व्यक्ति था।

उसके चेहरे पर झुर्रियां पड़ी हुई थीं। देखने में वह बड़ा दु:खी लग रहा था। उसके कन्धे पर मोटे कपड़े का बना एक चोगा लटका हुआ था। यह बिल्कुल चीथड़े हुआ पड़ा था। उस भिखारी के बूट जगह-जगह से फटे हुए थे। उन पर टांके लगे हुए थे। अपने एक हाथ में पकड़ी हुई एक पुरानी सी लाठी के सहारे वह झुका हुआ था। अपने दूसरे हाथ से उसने अपना फटा हुआ टोप भीख मांगने के लिए आगे को बढ़ा रखा था।

राई ने अपने मित्र से हाथ मिलाते हुए धीमे स्वर में कहा, “कितना अद्भुत मॉडल (model) है !” किन्तु ट्रेवर ने ऊंचे स्वर में बोलते हुए उत्तर दिया कि उस तरह के भिखारी हर रोज़ नहीं मिल सकते थे। ह्यई को भिखारी का दुःख-भरा चेहरा देख कर दया महसूस हुई। उस पर ट्रेवर ने कहा कि क्या हंसते हुए भिखारी का चित्र देखने में अच्छा प्रतीत हो सकता था। ट्रेवर ने ह्यई को बतलाया कि उस तस्वीर को बनाने के बदले उसे 2100 पौंड प्राप्त

होने थे, किन्तु उसने मॉडल के रूप में बैठे उस व्यक्ति को केवल एक शिलिंग प्रति घण्टे की दर से भुगतान करना था। भिखारी की दशा को देखकर ह्यूई को अपने मन में उसके प्रति बहुत सहानुभूति महसूस हुई। उसने ट्रेवर से कहा कि मॉडल बनने के बदले उस भिखारी को किया जाने वाला भुगतान बहुत कम था।

ह्यई ने ट्रेवर से कहा, “मॉडल को प्रतिशत की दर से हिस्सा मिलना चाहिए। ये लोग उतनी ही मेहनत करते हैं जितनी तुम करते हो।” यह सुनकर ट्रेवर ने ऊंचे स्वर में कहा, “दिन भर खड़े होकर ब्रश चलाना कोई आसान काम नहीं है। तुम्हारे लिए बातें बनाना बहुत आसान है …. किन्तु तुम अपनी बकबक बन्द करो क्योंकि मुझे बहुत काम है। तुम वहां बैठकर सिगरेट पियो और चुप रहो।”

थोड़ी देर के बाद नौकर अन्दर आया। उसने ट्रेवर को बतलाया कि फ्रेम बनाने वाला (Frame-maker) उससे बात करना चाहता था। इसलिए ट्रेवर बाहर चला गया। बूढ़े भिखारी ने ट्रेवर की अनुपस्थिति का लाभ उठाया। वह आराम करने के लिए एक लकड़ी के बैंच पर बैठ गया। वह बहुत दुःखी लग रहा था। ह्यई को उस पर दया आ गई। उसनेअपनी जेबों को टटोला। उसे उनमें केवल एक ही पौंड मिल सका।

फिर वह उठकर भिखारी के पास गया और वह पौंड उसके हाथ में दे दिया। बूढ़ा आदमी चौंक उठा। उसके मुरझाए हुए चेहरे पर हल्की-सी मुस्कान आ गई। उसने इस भीख के लिए ह्यूई का धन्यवाद किया। जब ट्रेवर वापस आया तो ह्यई ने उससे विदा ली और वहां से चला गया। शेष दिन उसने अपनी प्रेमिका, लॉरा, के साथ बिताया। उसने लॉरा को बूढ़े भिखारी वाली सारी कहानी सुना दी। लॉरा ने उसकी लुटाऊ आदतों के लिए उसे झिड़क दिया। बेचारे ह्यई को पैदल चलकर घर वापस आना पड़ा।

उस रात ह्यई एक क्लब (club) में गया। वहां उसे टूवर मिल गया। उसने ट्रेवर से उस भिखारी मॉडल वाली तस्वीर के बारे में पूछा। ट्रेवर ने ह्यई को बतलाया कि वह बूढ़ा मॉडल उसका (ह्यूई का) बहुत भक्त बन गया था। वह ह्यई के बारे में सब कुछ जाननी चाहता था। ट्रेवर ने कहा कि उसने बूढ़े मॉडल को ह्यूई के बारे में, लॉरा के बारे में, कर्नेल और उसकी 10,000 पौंड की शर्त वाली बात के बारे में सब कुछ बतला दिया था। राई ने ट्रेवर से नाराजगी प्रकट की क्योंकि उसने एक साधारण से बूढ़े भिखारी को उसके निजी जीवन के बारे में सब कुछ बता दिया था।

किन्तु ह्यई चकित रह गया जब ट्रेवर ने उसे बताया कि वह बूढ़ा मॉडल कोई भिखारी नहीं था, अपितु वह यूरोप का सबसे धनी व्यक्ति, बेरन हासबर्ग (Baron Hausberg), था। उसे एक भिखारी के रूप में अपनी तस्वीर बनवाने का शौक था और इसीलिए वह ट्रेवर के पास आया था।

अब ह्यूई ने उस करोड़पति बूढे मॉडल को एक भिखारी समझ कर उसके हाथ में एक पौंड भीख के रूप में रख दिया था। घई ने ट्रेवर से प्रार्थना की कि वह इस घटना के बारे में किसी को न बतलाए अन्यथा लोग उसका मज़ाक उड़ाएंगे। ट्रेवर हंसता ही चला गया, किन्तु बेचारा ह्यई बहुत दुःखी होने लगा। वह वहां से उठा और वापस घर चला गया।

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire

अगली प्रातः जब ह्यई नाश्ता कर रहा था तो एक बुजुर्ग व्यक्ति अन्दर आया। उसने ह्यई को एक पत्र दिया। वह पत्र बेरन हासबर्ग की ओर से लिखा गया था। वह एक बन्द लिफाफे में था जिस पर लिखा था-“एक बूढ़े भिखारी की ओर से ह्यई अर्सकाइन और लॉरा मर्टन के लिए विवाह उपहार।”

ह्यई ने जब इस लिफाफे को खोला तो वहां उसके अन्दर देस हज़ार पौंड का एक चैक था। जब ह्यई और लॉरा का विवाह हुआ तो ट्रेवर दूल्हे का मित्र बना और बेरन ने विवाह-भोज के समय पर एक भाषण दियो। ट्रेवर ने अपने भाषण में कहा, “लखपति मॉडल बहुत कम होते हैं, किन्तु, ईश्वर की कसम, मॉडल (अर्थात् आदर्श) लखपति उससे भी कम होते हैं!”

Word Meanings

PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire 1
PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire 2
PSEB 11th Class English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Model Millionaire 3