PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Welcome Life Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Welcome Life Guide for Class 10 PSEB Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Textbook Questions and Answers

Choose True/False

1. Repeated practice sharpens the skills.
Answer:
True

2. Singing can be refined with practice.
Answer:
True

3. Skills are given to lucky people by birth. He who has not got his boon cannot do anything.
Answer:
False

4. Talent should also be trained to be carved.
Answer:
True.

Think and Tell

Question 1.
Upon which thing, a good choice of career depends?
Answer:
The choice of a good career depends on one’s own inclination that in which field he is most inclined. If a person chooses a career that he does not like, then that career will not be good for him. It also depends on the circumstances of the person’s home and the need of the hour which career he chooses.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 2.
How many types of counseling did the career counselor suggest?
Answer:
The career counselor suggested three types of counseling

  • Personal Counselling. When a counselor councils an individual personally, it is called personal counseling.
  • Group counseling. When some students or individuals interact with a counselor, it is called group counseling.
  • Class counseling. When the counselor talks to the whole class together and tells them about their career choices, it is called class counseling.

Question 3.
About which thing Navdeep was happy?
Answer:
Navdeep was happy that the school is now doing well as the students are being made career conscious.

Question 4.
Nowadays, why is it become good to move with a lot of career options?
Answer:
Nowadays, it is becoming good to move with a lot of career options because :

  • Maybe the person may lose interest in that occupation in the near future.
  • It is possible that in the future, the importance of a particular career in society will be lost.
  • Maybe in another job, a person starts to get self-satisfaction and more money.

Question 5.
What good things do you notice in your school?
Answer:

  • Our school focuses on the multifaceted development of students.
  • Students are introduced to a range of future career choices.
  • Students are told to think not just about one career but about at least three career options.
  • The school teachers have a good relationship with the children and counsel them from time to time.

Question 6.
Which quality do you find in Manisha?
Answer:
In Manisha, we saw the quality of knowing. She wanted to know why the kids were asked to fill three choices in the form. This quality should be in every child that why should he do any work. The advantage of this is that the child develops the quality of rational thinking.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Guide Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Important Questions and Answer

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Skill conies with ………….. in person.
(a) Practice
(b) Study
(c) Wandering
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) Practice

2. How can we improve one’s singing skills?
(a) By learning songs
(b) By practice
(c) By listening to songs
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) By practice

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

3. How to find someone’s skills?
(a) With hard work
(b) With a concentration
(c) With practice
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

4. Human nature is …………..
(a) changeable
(b) same
(c) static
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) changeable

5. An individual with narrow mindedness :
(a) Spreads negativity
(b) Never becomes happy
(c) Never accepts criticism
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

6. An individual’s thinking :
(a) should be open
(b) should be closed
(c) should be same
(d) should be unsatisfied
Answer:
(a) should be open.

7. Which of these is a feature of a good personality?
(a) Sociable
(b) Accept the challenge
(c) Ready to learn
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

8. Everyone must keep ………………… career options.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five
Answer:
(b) Three

9. Which of these is a type of counseling?
(a) Individual
(b) Class
(c) Group
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

10. One must choose a career according to his
(a) Ability
(b) Interest
(c) Needs
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Fill in the Blanks:

1. Varinder Kumar was a teacher and a ………………. as well.
Answer:
Counselor

2. One must keep …………… career options.
Answer:
three

3. An individual’s ……………… nature becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress.
Answer:
rigid

4. ………………. has given great progress to society;
Answer:
Technology

5. …………………. is the law of nature.
Answer:
Change

True / False:

1. A narrow-minded person always makes progress.
Answer:
False

2. Not every child is skilled.
Answer:
False

3. Practice enhances one’s skills.
Answer:
True

4. An individual should openly accept his own criticism.
Answer:
True

5. Individuals should choose a career according to their interests.
Answer:
True

Match the Column:

Column A Column B
(a) Talent (i) Trend
(b) Foreigner (ii) Quality
(c) Point of view (iii) British
(d) Personality (iv) Outlook
(e) Interest (v) Individual’s outlook

Answer:

Column A Column B
(a) Talent (ii) Quality
(b) Foreigner (iii) British
(c) Point of view (iv) Outlook
(d) Personality (v) Individual’s outlook
(e) Interest (i) Trend

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What makes a Person Special?
Answer:
The skills presented in a person make him a person special from the ordinary.

Question 2.
How do a person’s skills shine?
Answer:
A person’s skills shine only with practice.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 3.
How can we improve one’s singing skills?
Answer:
The singing skills of an individual can be improved only with continuous practice.

Question 4.
What is needed to improve a person’s talent?
Answer:
Continuos practice, hard work, and concentration can improve one’s talent.

Question 5.
What kind of human nature should it be?
Answer:
Human nature must be changeable.

Question 6.
Give one demerit of narrow-mindedness.
Answer:
A narrow-minded person always spreads negativity.

Question 7.
What is the advantage of open-mindedness?
Answer:
An open-minded person always remains happy and keeps others happy.

Question 8.
Can a narrow-minded person maintain a relationship?
Answer:
No, he cannot maintain a relationship.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 9.
What is meant by openness?
Answer:
Openness is the quality of one’s nature that helps, us to think openly.

Question 10.
Give one quality of an open-minded person.
Answer:
An open-minded person is always sociable.

Question 11.
Give one flaw in a narrow-minded person.
Answer:
He is critical of everything.

Question 12.
How can the stubborn nature of a person is detrimental to him?
Answer:
Because stubborn nature becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress.

Question 13.
What kind of stubbornness should the person have?
Answer:
The stubbornness of doing work with honesty, hard work, not to take a bribe, etc.

Question 14.
How can we become responsible citizens of society?
Answer:
By following social rules and removing wrong things from society, we can become responsible citizens.

Question 15.
How many career options a person should have?
Answer:
He must have a minimum of three career options.

Question 16.
What should a person keep in mind while choosing a career?
Answer:
His interest and need of the hour.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
How can we master a task? Explain with an example.
Answer:
Every person has some other skill and there is a need to polish that skill. To polish one’s skill, there is a need to do the practice. One cannot be a master of a skill if he is short of practice. For example, the writing of a first-class student can never be good but can be after writing continually. As children, we did not know how to ride a bicycle but with practice, we learned to ride a bicycle. In this way, practice is a must to masterwork.

Question 2.
What should a person keep his mind open?
Answer:
A person must keep his mind and perspective open. As the saying goes, running water looks good but stagnant water becomes dirty. In the same way, a narrow-minded person cannot make progress in life. He neither makes himself happy nor allows others to be happy. He can’t even handle relationships properly. He never accepts his criticism which actually he should do. One should keep his thinking open and must accept criticism positively.

Question 3.
What are the benefits of being open-minded?
Answer:

  • An open-minded person always accepts a change.
  • He accepts his criticism positively and brings changes in himself.
  • He contributes to social progress and does his own progress as well.
  • He keeps himself happy and keeps others happy too.
  • Does he maintain relationships in a better way?

Question 4.
What is the role of technology in our lives?
Answer:
Nowadays new technology is coming before us and we own it in a positive manner. Life is constantly progressing with technology. The older generation is not as fast as today’s youth in adopting modem technology. That’s why today’s generation is progressing so fast with this technology, we can do all our work easily. For example., clothes used to be washed by hand but now the machine washes them easily. In this way, we can say that technology plays a very important role in our lives and makes our work quite easy.

Question 5.
“The person should be stubborn or flexible”, Give a reason in favor of your answer.
Answer:
The person should not be stubborn but flexible in nature. His stubbornness becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress such as not accepting boys and girls as equals. People start to discriminate and pay a heavy price for it. Such stubbornness should be changed. One can contribute to the family’s progress, society’s progress, and national progress by changing according to changed circumstances.

Question 6.
What are the duties of a responsible citizen?
Answer:

  • He must change himself according to changed circumstances.
  • He must not accept Social evils. Instead, he must try to eliminate them.
  • He must remain within social boundaries.
  • He must motivate others to follow social rules.
  • He must try to bring social change and change himself as well.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Give merits and demerits of an individual’s personality.
Answer:
Merits.

  • First of all, he must be ready to learn something new so that he could change himself according to changed circumstances.
  • He must be sociable and keep healthy relationships with others.
  • He must accept every challenge because if he will not, he will become static and will not be able to do individual progress.
  • He must follow all the social rules and must motivate others to do the same.

Demerits.

  • A stubborn person never takes anyone’s advice. He always does his own thing which is to his detriment.
  • A stubborn person always runs away from his responsibilities which can be harmful to his life.
  • He gets angry suddenly which can be dangerous.
  • He loses his temper very quickly.
  • Many times, he never follows the rules. Instead, he breaks the social norms.

Question 2.
Observe the following pictures and answer the given questions.
PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Img 1

  1. What is shown in picture 1?
  2. What do you observe in picture 2?
  3. What do we come to know from both the pictures?

Answer:
1. Picture 1 tells us about a person with narrow-mindedness. He always remains unhappy. He not only hurts himself but also hurts those around him. He cannot maintain his relationships as well.

2. Person in the second picture is of open thinking and nature who always accepts a change. He himself remains happy and keeps others happy as well. He maintains his relationships well.

3. After looking at both the pictures, we can say that an individual must not be stubborn but be of open mind and perspective. It makes his life happy. On contrary, the stubborn person remains sad every time which is not correct. So, we must take a vow that We must accept challenges and will remain happy.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Self-Awareness and Self Discipline PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Notes

  • Every individual is having some talent and this talent can be of any type.
  • There is definitely a need to polish the talent which an individual possesses and it can be polished through repeated practice.
    • To become a master of any work, repeated practice is a must. Without practice, no one can do any work in a proper way. That’s why practice is one of the means to polish someone’s talent.
  • Humans and their nature, both are changeable. The way in which change comes in nature, in the same way, the nature of an individual also changes with time.
  • An individual must be of flexible attitude and must welcome every change. A person with a rigid attitude cannot remain happy and make others unhappy as well.
  • A person with a rigid attitude cannot handle his relationships well. He cannot hear his criticism. An individual must develop quality within himself of listening to his criticism and must change that aspect of his life for which he is being criticized.
  • An open-minded individual accepts every change with an open heart and does progresses in life. Open-minded person adapts himself according to the changed situation and does progress. If we have adopted modem technology, it is because of our open-mindedness.
  • An individual must not be of rigid attitude. Instead, he must be of flexible nature. If something is going wrong around us, we must try to improve it so that our future generations do not have that problem.
  • Everyone must work to become responsible citizenship and must accept everything that comes in his way.
  • The most important thing is for the person to see his tendency. A person should work in the same field in which he is inclined otherwise he will not be able to do any work properly. After seeing the trends, he should work hard in that field. In this way, he will become aware of the career to come.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Book Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Light

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Light Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Question 1.
Suppose you are in a dark room. Can you see objects in the room ? Can you see objects outside the room ? Explain.
Answer:
No, we cannot see anything in dark. As no light is falling on the objects in the room and they are not emitting any light on their own. So, nothing is visible inside the dark room.
Objects outside the room can be seen, if either there is light outside the room or objects are emitting their own light.

Question 2.
Differentiate between regular and diffused reflection. Does diffused reflection mean the failure of the laws of reflection ?
Answer:
Differences between regular reflection and diffused reflection:

Regular reflection Diffused reflection
1. It occurs on a smooth, plane surface. 1. It occurs on a rough, irregular surface.
2. Reflected rays are parallel to one another. 2. Reflected rays are unparallel to each other.

Diffused reflection is not failure of laws of reflection. It is only due to irregularities on the reflecting surface.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 3.
Mention against each of the following whether regular or diffused reflection will take place when a beam of light strikes. Justify your answer in each case.
[a] Polished wooden table
[b] Chalk powder
[c] Cardboard surface
[d] Marble floor with water spread over it.
[e] Mirror
[f] Piece of paper.
Answer:
(a) Polished wooden table. Regular reflection, as wooden table has smooth polished surface.
(b) Chalk powder. Diffused reflection due to rough surface of chalk powder.
(c) Cardboard surface. Diffused reflection because cardboard has small irregularities on its surface.
(d) Marble floor with water spread over it. Regular reflection as water gives a smooth surface.
(e) Mirror. Regular reflection due to smooth surface.
(f) Piece of paper. Regular reflection if paper is fine and diffused reflection if paper is coarse.

Question 4.
State the laws of reflection.
Answer:
Laws of reflection.

  1. Angle of incidence (∠i) = Angle of reflection ( ∠r).
  2. Incident ray, reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

Question 5.
Describe an activity to show that the incident ray, the reflected ray, normal, the point of incidence lie in the same plane.
Experiment.
Take a white sheet, spread it on a table. Draw a line MM on it. Place a plane mirror vertically on this line. Now throw light on a comb in this ways that a parallel light rays fall on the mirror. Adjust it in such a way that a beautiful pattern of incident and reflected rays is formed. Now mark points A, B, C on incident ray and points D, E, F on its corresponding reflected ray. Switch off the torch and remove the mirror. Join the points and extend line to mirror. ABC will meet MM at O and DEF will all also be meeting at O. OA is incident ray and OF is reflected ray. Draw ON ⊥ MM .
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 1
Measure the angle of incidence ∠AON and the angle of reflection ∠FON which would found to be equal. Incident ray, reflected ray and normal, all lie in one plane of paper.

Question 6.
Fill in the blanks in the following.
(a) A person 1 m in front of a mirror seems to be ……………….. m away from his image.
(b) If you touch your ………………….. ear with right hand in front of a plane mirror it will be seen that your right ear is touched with ……………… .
(c) The size of pupil becomes …………………. when you in dim light.
(d) Night birds have ………………. cones than rods in their eyes.
Answer:
(a) 2m
(b) Right, Left
(c) large
(d) more.

Choose the correct option in the Questions 7-8.

Question 7.
Angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection
(a) Always
(b) Sometimes
(c) Under special conditions
(d) Never.
Answer:
(a) Always.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 8.
Image formed by a plane mirror is
(a) virtual, behind the mirror and enlarged.
(b) virtual, behind the mirror and of same size as the object.
(c) real at the surface of mirror and enlarged.
(d) real, behind the mirror and of same size as the object.
Answer:
(b) Virtual, behind the mirror and of same size as the object.

Question 9.
Describe the construction of a Kaleiodeoscope.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 2
Construction of a Kaleiodeoscope. It is a toy to form many images by multiple reflections. A Kaleiodeoscope is made up of three strips of plane mirrors inclined at angles of 60° enclosed in a tube. One end of tube has a ground glass plate with a clear glass plate on its inner side. A metallic ring separates the two plates and the space is filled with coloured pieces of glass or broken bangles. A cardboard with a hole in the centre is fixed on the other end of the tube.

Question 10.
Draw a labelled sketch of the human eye.
Answer:
Labelled diagram to show different parts of human eye.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 3

Question 11.
Gurmit wanted to perform activity 16.8 using a laser torch. Her teacher advised her not do so. Can you explain the basis of the teacher’s advice ?
Answer:
Laser torch has very sharp beams of light which can destroy the pupil or retina of the eye.

Question 12.
Explain how can you take care of your eyes.
Answer:
Care of eyes.
Eyes are the most precious gifts of nature. So we should take full care of our eyes by taking atleast following precautions.

  1. We should wash our eyes daily with clean water.
  2. We should not read or work in very bright or dim light.
  3. We should not read in a running vehicle.
  4. We should not rub our eyes.
  5. We should use sunglasses on hot summer day.
  6. We should not look directly at the sun. Also we should not look at the sun during solar eclipse.
  7. We should eat vitamin A rich food for healthy, clear eyes.

Question 13.
What is the angle of incidence of a ray if the reflected ray is at an angle of 90° to the incident ray ?
Solution:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 4
If ∠i = angle of incidence
∠r = angle of reflection
∠i + ∠r = 90 (given)
But ∠i = ∠r
(According to laws of reflection)
∴ ∠i + ∠i = 90°
2 ∠i = 90
∠r = ∠i – 45°

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 14.
How many images of a candle will be formed if it placed between two parallel mirrors separated by 40 cm ?
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 5
When mirrors are separated by 40 cm and are parallel to each other so that the angle between the mirrors is 0° which is not sulj-multiple of 360°. Then theoretically, the number of images formed would be infinite, but as a considerable amount of light is lost due to reflections so only a limited number of images are seen which is shown in figure.

Question 15.
Two mirrors meet at right angles. A ray of light is incident on one at an angle of 30° as shown is figure. Draw the reflected ray from the second mirror.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 6
Solution:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 7

Question 16.
Bhoojo stands at A just on the side of a plane mirror as shown in figure. Can he see himself in the mirror ? Also can he see image of objects situated at P, Q and R ?
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 8
Solution:
Bhoojo cannot see his image in the mirror as he is standing outside the edge of mirror. He can see the images of P and Q easily but not the image of R.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 9

Question 17.
(a) Find out the position of image of an object situated at A in plane mirror.
(b) Can Paheli at B see this image ?
(c) Can Bhoojo at C see this image ?
(d) When Paheli moves from B to C where does the image of A move ?
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 10
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 11
(a) The image of A in the mirror will be as far behind as the object in front of the mirror.
(b) Yes, Paheli can see the image.
(c) Yes, Bhoojo can see this image.
(d) When Paheli moved from B to C, the image of A will not move forward.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Light Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The plane and polished surface that returns light falling on it in the same direction or any other direction is called:
(a) Lens
(b) Prisom
(c) Mirror
(d) Kaleidoscope.
Answer:
(c) Mirror.

Question 2.
How many colours are present in white sunlight ?
(a) 2
(b) 5
(c) 7
(d) 3.
Answer:
(c) 7.

Question 3.
What is the most convenient distance for reading by a normal eye ?
(a) 10 cm
(b) 25 cm
(c) 15 cm
(d) 20 cm.
Answer:
(b) 25 cm.

Question 4.
When you see in dim light the size of your pupil becomes:
(a) Small
(b) Large
(c) Neither small nor large
(b) Very small.
Answer:
(b) Large.

Question 5.
The Phenomena of splitting of light into its constituent colours is called:
(a) Reflection
(b) Refraction
(c) Dispersion
(b) Combination.
Answer:
(c) Dispersion.

Question 6.
The eye lenses focuses:
(a) On Cornea
(b) On Retina
(c) On Iris
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) On Retina.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Can any one see in the dark ?
Answer:
No.

Question 2.
It is what that helps us to see objects ?
Answer:
Light.

Question 3.
Name any two Luminous bodies.
Answer:

  1. Sun
  2. Electric bulb.

Question 4.
Is moon a luminous or a non-luminous body ?
Answer:
Non-luminous.

Question 5.
Where is a reflection seen ?
Answer:
In mirror.

Question 6.
Which surface can act as a mirror ?
Answer:
Any polished and smooth surface.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 7.
If you are standing in front of a mirror and observing your own image what is the relation between the distance of the object and the image from the mirror ?
Answer:
Distance of object from the mirror = Distance of image from the mirror.

Question 8.
What is the angle of reflection, when a ray of light is incident normally on a plane mirror ?
Answer:
Zero.

Question 9.
Name two objects which split white light into many colours.
Answer:
Water bubbles, surface of CD, prism.

Question 10.
Name the seven colours of light.
Answer:
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.

Question 11.
Give one example of dispersion of light in nature.
Answer:
A rainbow.

Question 12.
Is focal length of eye lens fixed ? If not, why ?
Answer:
No. Eye lens has variable focal length. Focal length of Eye lens varies due to action of ciliary muscles.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 13.
What is the function of sclerotic in human eye ?
Answer:
Sclerotic provides a solid shape to the eye and protects it from external injuries.

Question 14.
What is the function of ciliary muscles in human eye ?
Answer:
Eye lens is held in its position by ciliary muscles. Ciliary muscles help the eye lens to change its focal length by adjusting its curvature.

Question 15.
What is the function of rods on the retina ?
Answer:
Rods are sensitive to intensity of light. The more the intensity of light, more are they excited.

Question 16.
What are cones ?
Answer:
Cones on retina are sensitive to different colours. If cones are absent or insufficient, the person is colour blind.

Question 17.
What is basic cause of colour blindness ?
Answer:
It is due to absence or insufficient number of cones on the retina. Seeing sun or towards it during solar eclipse may cause colour blindness.

Question 18.
Why cats and bats are able to see at night ?
Answer:
They have very large number of rods on retina. Hence, they are able to see even a small quantity of light.

Question 19.
At what rate the images pass one after the other on a cinema screen ?
Answer:
25 or more per second.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 20.
What type of photosensitive cells are present on the retina of the eye ?
Answer:
Cones and rods.

Question 21.
Name one device that can be used by short statured person to see over the head of a crowd.
Answer:
Periscope.

Question 22.
Find out the letters of English alphabet or any another language known to you in which the image formed in a plane mirror appears exactly like the letter itself.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 12

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are luminous and non-luminous bodies ? Give examples.
Answer:
Luminous Bodies.
Those objects which emit their own light, are called luminous bodies e.g. sun, stars, burning fire, radium etc.

Non-luminous Bodies.
Those objects which do not emit light of their own but shine due to other luminous bodies, are called Non-Luminous bodies. They are visible only, when light falls on them.
e.g. Moon, earth and other planets, things in a room.

Question 2.
How do we see objects ?
Answer:
When light from a light source falls on any object, it is scattered by it. The scattered light enters our eyes to form the image of the object and the object is, thus, seen.

Question 3.
Give the conditions necessary for seeing an object.
Answer:
Conditions for Seeing Objects. To see an object, the following three conditions are required to be satisfied:

  1. Source of light to make object visible
  2. The object
  3. Eye sight.

Question 4.
What is a virtual image ? Give one situation where a virtual image is formed.
Answer:
Virtual image.
An image, which cannot be obtained on a screen, is called a virtual image. Virtual image is formed when reflected rays do not actually meet at a point.
Image formed in a plane mirror is always virtual.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 5.
What do you understand by lateral inversion ?
Answer:
Lateral Inversion.
In a plane mirror, the right side of the object becomes left side of the image and the left side of the object becomes right side of the image. That is the image is sideways inverted. This phenomenon, is called lateral inversion.

Question 6.
State the laws of reflection of light.
Answer:
Laws of reflection.
The reflection at the smooth surface is found to obey the following two laws, called the laws of reflection.

  1. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
    i.e., ∠i – ∠r.
  2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane.

Question 7.
What is diffused reflection and regular reflection ?
Answer:
Diffused Reflection.
It takes place when the surface is not smooth or polished e.g., wall, paper. The rays reflected from an uneven surface are not parallel but scattered in all directions and such reflection is called diffused reflection.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 13
Regular Reflection.
It takes place when a beam of light falls on a smooth and polished surface, e.g., a mirror. The reflected rays from an even surface form a clear image.

Question 8.
What do you understand by reflection of light ?
Answer:
Reflection of light.
When a ray of light falls on a mirror, or polished surface, it is sent back in a particular direction obeying certain laws of reflection. This phenomenon is known as reflection of light.

Question 9.
Define the following:
1. Reflected Ray
2. Angle of reflection.
Answer:
1. Reflected Ray. A streak of light, starting from the mirror, is called reflected ray.

2. Angle of reflection. The angle made by the reflected ray with the normal at the point of incidence is called angle of reflection. It is represented by r.

Question 10.
If incident ray strikes the mirror at 90°, what will be the angle of reflection ?
Answer:
If incident ray strikes the mirror normally, then after reflection, the ray will come back along the same path. As the angle of incidence is zero, so angle of reflection will also be zero.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Question 11.
Define the term ‘Dispersion of light.’
Answer:
Dispersion of Light.
When a beam of light passes through a prism, the white light splits into seven colours. This phenomenon of splitting of white light into its constituent colours by a prism is known as dispersion of light.

Question 12.
While passing through a prism, why does the white light split into seven colours.
Answer:
The rays of different colours pass smoothly through air but when passing through a prism they have to change the speed according to the angle of prism. Different colours have different wave lengths and thus, they choose different paths. So, the spectrum is seen.

Question 13.
What is myopia ?
Answer:
Myopia.
The focal length of the eyes of some people is very small. Therefore, the image of distant object is not formed on their retina but it is formed at a point in front of the retina. In other words, they cannot see distant objects. This defect of vision is called Myopia or short sightedness.

Question 14.
What is hypermetropia ?
Answer:
Hypermetropia.
When people grow old, the muscles of the eyes lose their strength to control the curvature of the lens. As a result, the image of nearby objects is not formed at the retina, but it is formed behind the retina. So these people cannot see nearby objects clearly. This defect of vision is called Hypermetropia or Farsightedness.

Question 15.
Explain in short perception of colour.
Answer:
Perception of colour.
Human eye contains large number of rods and cones which are sensitive to light. Rods respond to the intensity of light and cones respond to the colour of the light. If cone cells are absent in the eye then such a person is colour blind. With the help of cones cells one can perceive colour. This is called perception of colour.

Question 16.
The following picture shows the reflection of light:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light 14
(A) Name the ray AO
(B) Name the ray OB
(C) Find the value of angle x
Answer:
(A) Name of ray AO = Incident7 ray
(B) Name the ray OB = Reflected ray
(C) Value of angle x = 30° because angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate between a real image and a virtual image.
Answer:
Differences between a real image and a virtual image.

Real Image Virtual Image
1. The real image is formed when the rays of light actually meet after reflection. 1. The image formed is virtual when the rays of light don’t meet after reflection.
2. Real image can be obtained on the screen. 2. Virtual image cannot be obtained on the screen.
3. Real image is always inverted. 3. Virtual image is always erect.

Question 2.
State the characteristics of image formed by a plane mirror.
Answer:
Characteristics of image formed in a plane mirror.

  1. The image is as far behind the plane mirror, as the object is in front of it.
  2. The image is laterally (sideways) inverted.
  3. The image is of the same size as that of the object.
  4. The image formed in a plane mirror is virtual, erect and of the same size as the object.
  5. The image formed in a plane mirror cannot be obtained on the screen.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

Light PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Light is a form of energy.
  • Light travels in a straight line.
  • Light enables us to see the objects around us.
  • Light reflected from the objects falls into our eyes and thus, we can see the objects.
  • Those objects, which emit their own light, are called luminous objects.
  • The objects, which do not emit light of their own, but they reflect light falling on them, are called non-luminous objects.
  • Polished or shiny surfaces reflect light.
  • A mirror changes the direction of light, that falls on it.
  • Angle of incidence (∠i) is always equal to angle of reflection (∠r).
  • Incident ray, normal at the point of incidence and reflected ray all lie in the same plane.
  • Number of reflections can be achieved with the mirrors arranged at an angle.
  • When the light passes through a prism, it undergoes dispersion and white light splits up into seven colours.
  • The spectrum of sunlight consists of seven colours – Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. These seven colours can be remembered by term VIBGYOR. Rainbow is a natural phenomenon of dispersion.
  • Human eye is a sensitive organ, which enables us to see the objects around us.
  • A human eye has a convex lens, whose focal length is adjusted by ciliary muscles. Reflections can be parallel or regular and diffused.
  • Cones and rods are two types of nerve ending found in blind spot of the eye.
  • Two types of resources for visually challenged persons are : Non-optical aids and optical aids.
  • Braille system is one of the most important and popular resource , for visually challenged persons.
  • Reflection of Light: The change in direction of light by a shiny surface is called reflection of light.
  • Screen: The white sheet or surface on which, the image is obtained.
  • Regular Reflection: Reflection taking place from a polished and regular surface.
  • Scattering of Light: Diffusing of light in all directions.
  • Diffused Reflection: The light rays reflected from non-polished or irregular surface.
  • Incident Ray: A ray of light from a source of light falling on a given surface.
  • Kaleideoscope: An instrument based on multiple reflection used to create new designs.
  • Mirror: A smooth and shiny surface.
  • Normal: The perpendicular to the polished surface (mirror) at the point of incidence.
  • Source of Light: An object which emits light.
  • Real Image: The image formed, when incident rays after reflection actually meet at a point.
  • Virtual Image: The image formed, when incident rays after reflection do not actually meet, but appear to meet at a point.
  • Angle of Incidence: The angle between the incident ray and the normal.
  • Angle of Reflection: The angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
  • Power of Accommodation is the ability of the eye to focus the distant objects as well as the nearby objects, at the retina by changing the focal length or converging power of its lens.
  • Least Distance of Distinct Vision is the minimum distance at which object must be placed so that a normal eye may see the object clearly without any strain on the eye. It is about 25 cm for normal eye.
  • Myopia or Short-Sightedness means a person can see only nearby objects clearly, but cannot see distant objects. This defect is removed by using spectacles with concave lens.
  • Hypermetropia or Long-sightedness: A person suffering from this defect can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects. The defect is removed by using spectacles fitted with convex lens.
  • Persistence of Vision: Impression of an image on the retina lasts for 0.1 sec after the removal of the object. This effect is known as persistence of vision.
  • Dispersion of Light is the splitting of white or some other light into its constituents.
  • Perception of Colour: Human eye contains a large number of cell rods and cones which are sensitive to light. Rods respond to the intensity of light and cones respond to the colour of the light. If cone cells are absent in the eye, then such a person is colour blind.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 16 Light Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Computer Science Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Physical Education Guide for Class 12 PSEB Physical Fitness Textbook Questions and Answers

One Mark Question-Answers

Question 1.
How many types of strength are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are two types of strength:

  • Dynamic strength
  • Static strength.

Question 2.
How many components of Physical fitness are there? Name them.
Answer:

  • Strength
  • Endurance
  • Speed
  • Flexibility
  • Agibity
  • Coordinaiton ability

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 3.
Name short term races.
Answer:
100mt., 200 mt., 400 mt., 4 x 100 m Relay, 4 x 200 mt. Relay, 110 mt hurdle, 100 mt hurdle.

Question 4.
Which type of flexibility is more Active flexibility or Passive flexibility?
Answer:
Passive flexibility is more than active flexibility.

Two Marks Question-Answers

Question 5.
What is medium term endurance?
Answer:
It can be required for such activities which lasts from 2 to 10 min. Middle term endurance depends on muscle endurance and speed endurance Middle distance races are the example of the middle term endurance (800 mt., 1500 m) etc.

Question 6.
What do you know about long term endurance?
Answer:
It depends upon the aerobic energy system. Long term endurance can be developed for such an event which lasts for 10 min or more. Marathon, 5000 m and 10,000 m races are the examples of the long term endurance.

Question 7.
What do you know about passive flexibility?
Answer:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with wider range and some external helps. For example, stretching exercise with the help of a partner. This flexibility is more than active flexibility.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Three Marks Question-Answers

Question 8.
What are the different types of Endurance? Explain each of them in detail.
Answer:
As per the requirements following are the categories of endurance
1. As per the Nature of the Activity:
(a) Basic Endurance:
Basic endurance mainly depends upon aerobic endurance. It is done in slow pace where all the muscle groups of the body are involved in a particular movement. Running, jogging, walking and swimming are the examples of basic endurance.

(b) General Endurance:
It depends upon both aerobic and anaerobic activities. It, is done in both slow and fast pace activities. This enables sportsperson to work for longer duration without any tiredness.

(c) Specific Endurance:
Specific endurance can be differ from sports to sports. Every sport has their own intensity. For example, marathon runners have to run long hours beside boxers have to complete their bout in 3 minute round.

2. As per the Duration of the Activity:
(a) Short Term Duration:
Exercises for short distance can be fixed with the rest interval of short duration. It lasts upto 2 minutes and also called anaerobic activities. Short term endurance is required to resist fatigue in sports activities such as sprints and middle distance races.

(b) Middle Term Endurance:
It can be required for such activities which lasts from 2 to 10 min. Middle term endurance depends on muscle endurance and speed endurance Middle distance races are the example of the middle term endurance (800 mt., 1500 m) etc.

(c) Long Term Endurance:
It depends upon the aerobic energy system. Long term endurance can be developed for such an event which lasts for 10 min or more. Marathon, 5000 m and 10,000 m races are the examples of the long term endurance.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 9.
Write a note on each of the following:
(i) speed
(ii) flexibility
(iii) co-ordinative ability.
Answer:
(i) Speed:
Speed is maximum rate at which a person is able to move his body over a specific distance. We can say that speed is the ability to move from one place to another in the shortest possible time. This ability is mainly hereditary in nature. That is why we can improve speed after rigorous training upto 20% only. It is also said that sprinters are bom not made.

Types of Speed:
1. Reaction Speed: It is the ability to give a quick reaction on a signal. The sportsperson respond against the situation demand.

2. Acceleration Speed:
It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from stationary position. We can see it in sprints. Indirectly .this ability depends on the other factors like explosive strength, technique and flexibility.

3. Movement Speed:
It is the ability to do maximum movement in minimum time. These can be seen in team games, combative sports, racket sports, throws and gymnastics etc.

4. Locomotor Ability:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events such as short distance races, i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

5. Speed Endurance:
It is the ability to maintain near maximal speed for a longer duration.

(ii) Flexibility:
Flexibility is the range of movement possible around a joint. In general terms, flexibility has been defined as the range of motion around a joint and its surrounding muscles during passive movements.

Types of Flexibility:
1. Static Flexibility:
It is the ability to extend various joints in a stationary position.
(a) Passive Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with wider range and some external helps. For example, stretching exercise with the ‘ help of a partner. This flexibility is more than active flexibility.

(b) Active Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform flexibility or extension movements with larger amplitude without any external help or a partner. For example, swinging of legs.

2. Dynamic Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with greater amplitude when the body is in motion. Dynamic flexibility is more specific to sports to sports movements. For example, running and somersault in gymanastics or diving in swimming etc.

(iii) Coordination Ability:
Coordination Ability is the ability to perform smooth and accurate motor task, often involving the use of the sense organs and series of correlated muscular contraction that affect a range of joint and therefore relative limb and body position. It depends on the neuro-muscular coordination of the body.

Types of Coordination Ability:
There are mainly seven types of coordinative abilities considered in sports. These are as follows:
1. Orientation Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to analyze and change his body position and its parts in time and space in relation to performance required. For example, gymnast changes his body position as per the requirements of sports performance and basket ball player changes his position from offense to defence as the ball possession goes to opponent.

2. Coupling Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to systematically and meaningfully combine the movement of different body parts for successful performance of sports movement. For example, during spiking in volleyball, the player jumps and hits the ball.

3. Differentiation Ability:
It is the ability which enables the sportsman to separate the different body position and its parts during execution of motor action with high accuracy and movement economy. For example, in volley ball when player jumps for spiking, but drops ball according to the situation.

4. Reaction Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to respond quickly to a given signal and perform the movement in well directed manner. For example, in 100 m sprint when an athlete gets the signal he reacts quickly and performs the movement in desired direction.

5. Balance Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to maintain the dynamic condition. For example, in 400 m race, runner should run in his own lane.

6. Rhythm Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to understand the rhythm of movement and to execute the movement with required rhythm. For example, taking lay-up shot in basketball.

7. Adaptation Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to bring about an effective change in the movement according to anticipated change in the situation. For example, adaptation of scoop to the hitting a ball in hockey.

Five Marks Question-Answers

Question 10.
What do you know about the importance of Physical fitness? Explain in detail.
Answer:
People who are physically fit are able to enjoy their life to the fullest. In today’s scenario of technological development people hardly spend time for their physical fitness. Now, question arises why it is important to be physically fit. The answer lies in the following points:

1. Improves Overall Health:
Physically fit persons possess numerous health advantages such as respiratory, cardiovascular health and overall functioning of the body remain in active state. This helps, in reducing the chances of type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, reduces risk of some cancer and lastly helps in maintaining good health and wellness.

2. Weight Management:
As we all know that the person with over weight or obese people are more prone to health related problems such as high BP, Ghotestrol level, diabetes etc. So, people who are living active lifestyle and physically fit are less likely to face these problems as they are able to control and manage their optimum weight with the help of regular exercise and stay fit.

3. Importance as a stress management:
Through the physical fitness and wellness programme, an individual become capable of managing stress, releiving stress and easily distracted from the daily stresses. Hence, this help in staying active and balanced in any stage of life. So, in order to maintain relaxed state of mind, a person should be physically fit.

4. Reduced risk of injuries:
Physical fitness prevents the chances of injuries in later stage. The reason for the same could be the increased muscle strength, bone density, flexibility and stability. It reduces the chances of injuries especially, as a person get older e.g. strong bones mean less likely to suffer bone injuries as later age.

5. Increases life expectancy:
Regular exercise and physical acitivity reduces the chances of health related diseases, which increases life expectancy and reduce the risk of premature mortality. It has been observed that people who are more active tend to be healtheir and tend to live longer.

6. Proper growth and development:
Through fitness and wellness programme children tend to grow and develop better. They are able to attain good shape, height, structure and optimum weight with the help of their physical fitness programme. So, physically fit person are in well balanced state of their physical structure as well.

7. Improves work efficiency:
The person who are physically fit are tend to perform well in every sphere of life such as work place, family peer group etc. Due to their active and balance state of body and mind their output at work place is more and they tend to enjoy social group with more zeal and excitement. Hence, helps in enjoying their life to the fullest.

Hence, it can be concluded that physical fitness is important for the ‘‘Sound mind in a sound body”. To enjoy at every stage of life.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 11.
Write the meaning and definition of Physical fitness.
Answer:
Physical fitness is one of the basic requirements of life. It is the ability to carry out our daily tasks without undue fatigue. It is also refer to balanced state of psychological, physiological or anatomical aspects of the person. The concept of physical fitness, in the field of physical education and sports, means the capability of an individual to meet the varied physical and physiological demands made by a sporting activity, without reducing the person to an excessively fatigued state. Such a state would be one in which individual can no longer perform the skills of the activity accurately and successfully.

It is necessary for every individual to be physically fit to perform their daily work with ease or without undue fatigue and to take part in various activities effectively. Everyone should be fit enough through participation in physical activities to develop the different components related to physical fitness.

1. According to Clarke:
“Physical fitness is the ability to carry out daily task with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue and ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies.”

2. According to Bucher and Prentice:
“Physical fitness is organic development, muscular strength and stamina. Physical fitness implies efficient performance in exercises.”

3. According to Thomas: “Physical fitness is the total fundamental capacity of an individual to perform a given task”.

4. According to Mathews: “Physical fitness is the capacity of an individual to perform given physical tasks involving muscular effort”.

5. According to William: “Physical fitness is the capacity of an individual to perform physical work”.

6. According to Hubert Dhanaraj: “Physical fitness refers to the ability of the body to tolerate stress in all its kinds and maintain manifestations”.

7. According David R. Lamb: “Physical fitness is the capacity to meet the present and potential physical challenges of life with success.”

8. According to Web Encyclopaedia: ‘‘It is the ability of a person to do daily routine work without fatigue; moreover to participate in playful activity and still reserves enough capacity to meet any emergency.”

Hence, it is important for everyone to stay fit and healthy to perform his daily routine work effectively, to enjoy his life to fullest.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 12.
Explain the factors affecting Physical fitness in detail.
Answer:
There are enormous factors which affects physical fitness in certain ways. Due to inactivity, both short term and long term physical fitness get affected in number of ways. These factors which affect physical fitness are as below:
1. Anatomical Structure:
Anatomical/body structure of every individual is different or they have different shape and sizes. Inappropriate shape and size always hinder in physical performance. Sometimes, genetic impaired organ limits the physical performance of an individual, e.g. a person with smaller lower limbs have more balance as compare to vice-versa.

2. Physiological Structure:
Our all internal system like respiratory system, circulatory system, muscular system and other body systems must work efficiently. Any malfunctioning in systems can affect the physical performance of an individual Example would be problem in breathing or heart diseases etc. may affect the endurance capacity of a person. Hence, for the optimal physical fitness an individual must be physiologically fit also.

3. Psychological Factor:
There are so many psychological disorders which has affect on physical performance e.g. stress, tension, anxiety etc. which are big barriers in performance. Mentally strong and stress free individual can be fit for sports. Stress and tension always limits the physical fitness of a person and hence, affects the performance.

4. Heredity and Environment:
Both, heredity and environment affects physical fitness of an individual. Heredity and environment interacts to produce their effects. This means that the way genes act depends on the environment in which they act. e.g. if any person is a good sportsman, the child tend to have some traits of physical domain. Similarly, environmental variables also effects an individual e.g. difference of height in Japanese and AmericAnswer:

5. Good Posture:
Postural deformities always creates hinderance in physical fitness, for example muscle imbalance, pain, nutrition deficiency, lordosis, scoliosis, round shoulder, knock knees etc. can affect physical fitness of a person, e.g. A person with flat feet would not be able to perform better in events demanding speed.

6. Diet:
Diet plays a major role in physical performance and it is required to maintain physical fitness level. Right amount of calories and nutrition will help athlete to perform their best. Without adequate carbohydrate and fluid, an athlete gets tired very easily and quickly. Protein is needed to rebuild muscles. Without carbohydrates, protein, vitamins athlete will not perform well and it also decreases physical fitness.

7. Life Style:
A person who follow good life style are more fit and perform better in physical performance. Life style does not mean luxuries living; it means living with good habits. An individual who is habitual of smoking, liquor, drug etc. cannot perform well on these components of physical fitness. It affects physical fitness and overall health of a person.

8. Climate:
Different climatic conditions always affects the physical fitness of a person. There are different climatic conditions like winter, summer, humid etc. which influence physical fitness. For better physical performance one must trained themselves in different climate conditions. For example if an individual belongs to the hot and humid area and they have to compete in cold area then, it affects their physical performance. To avoid these barriers one must practice in different climates.

9. Inactivity:
Lack of physical activity leads individual towards sedentary life style which also creates malfunctioning in body system. Physical activity is the term used to describe any kind of everyday activity where body’s movement bums calories. Example would be walking, running, cycling, swimming, sweeping or other household work. Due to inactivity body system gets weaken and other health issues arises.

10. Injury:
Injuries are part of sports. Lack of injury management can decrease performance as well as it affects psychologically on athletes’ mind. Severe or long term injuries often affecting more mentally then physically. Long term injuries leads to inactivity which ultimately affects the physical fitness of a person.

11. Age:
Age differences always affects physical fitness of an individual. As we cannot compare the physical efficiency of an adult with younger ones. In the same way when we grow older, our muscle mass decreases and body fat increases which really affects physical fitness.

12. Gender:
Gender plays a major role in physical performance. Both male and female have huge structural differences. For example female bodies are less muscular, but their joints are more flexible, which gives them greater range of motion and they have an advantage in sports such as gymnastics. Men have larger skeletal muscles as well as larger heart, which generate more power, strength, speed and endurance.

13. Healthy environment:
A healthy environment at school, home or at playfield is helpful in better physical health and fitness. It also encourages athlete to get best physical performance. A healthy environment and good participation is essential for proper rowth and development which plays a key role in physical fitness.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Guide Physical Fitness Important Questions and Answers

One Mark Question-Answers

Question 1.
Enlist any two types of speed.
Answer:
Reaction Speed, Acceleration Speed.

Question 2.
In how many types endurance can be divided?
Answer:
Two types.

Question 3.
Give various types of strength.
Answer:
(i) Dynamic Strength
(ii) Static Strength.

Question 4.
At what age weight training programme should be started?
Answer:
At the age of 18 years.

Question 5.
Enlist any two importance of physical fitness.
Answer:
(i) Improves overall health.
(ii) Weight management.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 6.
Give various components of physical fitness.
Answer:
Strength, Speed, Flexibility, Agility, Balance and Coordination ability.

Question 7.
What is the other name for dynamic strength?
Answer:
Isotonic Strength.

Question 8.
Give substitute name for static strength.
Answer:
Isometric Strength.

Question 9.
What is balance?
Answer:
The ability to control the body position, either stationary or in movement is termed as balance.

Question 10.
Name various types of flexibility.
Answer:
(i) Static flexibility.
(ii) Dynamic flexibility.

Question 11.
Enlist any two coordination abilities.
Answer:
(i) Orientation ability
(ii) Coupling Ability

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 12.
Give any two methods for developing agility.
Answer:

  • Shuttle Run
  • Speed Ladder Agility Drill.

Question 13.
How does William express his views about physical fitness?
Answer:
According to William, “Physical fitness is the capacity of an individual to perform physical work”.

Question 14.
What is strength?
Answer:
The extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance is known to be strength. In simple words its an ability to work against resistance.

Question 15.
Define strength in the words of Muller.
Answer:
According to Muller,” Strength may be defined as “The force, a muscle can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort”. It is measured in units of pounds or kilograms.”

Question 16.
How does Mathews define strength?
Answer:
According to Mathews,” Muscular Strength is the force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in one maximum effort.”

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 17.
What is static strength?
Answer:
It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance without changing or shortening the length, e.g. Pushing against wall in which muscles develops tension without changing its length.

Question 18.
Tell about explosive strength.
Answer:
It is the combination of speed and strength. It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. Explosive strength can be seen in sprint races, weight lifting, hammer throw, long jump and high jump etc.

Question 19.
Explain about strength endurance.
Answer:
It is the combination of strength and endurance. It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer duration. Long distance races, swimming and cycling are the examples of strength endurance.

Question 20.
Whether the muscle changes its length in static strength?
Answer:
No.

Question 21.
What is basic endurance?
Answer:
Basic endurance mainly depends upon aerobic endurance. It is done in slow pace where all the muscle groups of the body are involved in a particular movement. Running, jogging, walking and swimming are the examples of basic endurance.

Question 22.
What is general endurance?
Answer:
It depends upon both aerobic and anaerobic activities. It is done in both slow and fast pace activities. This enables sportsperson to work for longer duration without any tiredness.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 23.
General endurance is part of which type of endurance.
Answer:
Nature of the activity.

Question 24.
If a boxer has to complete for three minutes boxing round, then which type of endurance is required?
Answer:
Specific endurance.

Question 25.
What is the meaning of aerobic?
Answer:
Aerobic means when the oxygen demand is meet during exercise and practice.

Question 26.
Explain middle term endurance in your own words.
Answer:
It can be required for such activities which lasts from 2 to 10 min. Middle term endurance depends on muscle endurance and speed endurance Middle distance races are the example of the middle term endurance (800 m, 1500 m) etc.

Question 27.
In which type of races short term endurance is required?
Answer:
100 mt., 200 mt., 400 mt. etc.

Question 28.
The activities which that end from 2 minutes 10 minutes, what type of endurance is required for these activities.
Answer:
Middle term endurance.

Question 29.
Which type of endurance is required in 5000 and 10000 metre races?
Answer:
Long term endurance.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 30.
Middle term of endurance is part of which types of endurance?
Answer:
Endurance on the basis of duration of activity.

Question 31.
What percentage of speed can be improved after stermous training?
Answer:
Upto 20%.

Question 32.
What do you mean by locomoter ability?
Answer:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events such as short distance races, i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

Question 33.
What is speed endurance?
Answer:
It is the ability to maintain near maximal speed for a longer duration.

Question 34.
Which component of physical fitness is improved with shuttle run, polymetric jump and tuck jumps.
Answer:
Agility.

Question 35.
What is adaptation ability?
Answer:
It is the ability of an individual to bring about an effective change in the movement according to anticipated change in the situation. For example, adaptation of scoop to the hitting a ball in hockey.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Two Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
Define physical fitness.
Answer:
According to Bucher and Prentice, “Physical fitness is organic development, muscular strength and stamina. Physical fitness implies efficient performance in exercises.”

Question 2.
Give any two importance of physical fitness.
Answer:
1. Improves Overall Health:
Physically fit persons possess numerous health advantages such as respiratory, cardiovascular health and overall functioning of the body remain in active state. This helps in reducing the chances of type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, reduces risk of some cancer and lastly helps in maintaining good health and wellness.

2. Weight Management:
As we all know that the person with over weight or obese people are more prone to health related problems such as high BP, Chotestrol level, diabetes etc. So, people who are living active lifestyle and physically fit are less likely to face these problems as they are able to control and manage their optimum weight with the help of regular exercise and stay fit.

Question 3.
Define Endurance.
Answer:
According to Barrow and McGee, “Endurance is the result of a physiological capacity of the individual to sustain movement over a period of time”.

Question 4.
What do you mean by explosive strength?
Answer:
It is the combination of speed and strength. It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. Explosive strength can be seen in sprint races, weight lifting, hammer throw, long jump and high jump etc.

Question 5.
Enlist various factors affecting physical fitness.
Answer:

  • Anatomical Structure
  • Physiological Structure
  • Psychological Factor
  • Heredity and Environment

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 6.
Define Speed.
Answer:
According to Johnson and Nelson, “speed is the rate at which a person can propel his body or parts of his body through space”.

Question 7.
What do you mean by strength endurance?
Answer:
It is the combination of strength and endurance. It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer duration. Long distance races, swimming and cycling are the examples of strength endurance.

Question 8.
Enlist two factors affecting physical fitness.
Answer:
Psychological Factor:
There are so many psychological disorders which has affect on physical performance e.g. stress, tension, anxiety etc. which are big barriers in performance. Mentally strong and stress free individual can be fit for sports. Stress and tension always limits the physical fitness of a person and hence, affects the performance.

Diet:
Diet plays a major role in physical performance and it is required to maintain physical fitness level. Right amount of calories and nutrition will help athlete to perform their best. Without adequate carbohydrate and fluid, an athlete gets tired very easily and quickly. Protein is needed to rebuild muscles. Without carbohydrates, protein, vitamins athlete will not perform well and it also decreases physical fitness.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 9.
What points should be taken into consideration while perparing fitness programme?
Answer:
Age:
Age differences always affects physical fitness of an individual. As we cannot compare the physical efficiency of an adult with younger ones. In the same way when we grow older, our muscle mass decreases and body fat increases which really affects physical fitness.

Gender:
Gender plays a major role in physical performance. Both male and female have huge structural differences. For example female bodies are less muscular, but their joints are more flexible, which gives them greater range of motion and they have an advantage in sports such as gymnastics. Men have larger skeletal muscles as well as larger heart, which generate more power, strength, speed and endurance.

Question 10.
What is the meaning of strength endurance?
Answer:
It is the combination of strength and endurance. It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer duration. Long distance races, swimming and cycling are the examples of strength endurance.

Question 11.
What do you understand by speed and strength?
Answer:
Speed: Speed is maximum rate at which a person is able to move his body over a specific distance.
Strength. It is defined as the force exerted by muscles during a single maximal muscular contraction.

Question 12.
What are the factors affecting physical fitness?
Answer:
1. Anatomical Structure:
Anatomical/body structure of every individual is different or they have different shape and sizes. Inappropriate shape and size always hinder in physical performance. Sometimes, genetic impaired organ limits the physical performance of an individual, e.g. a person with smaller lower limbs have more balance as compare to vice-versa.

2. Psychological Factor:
There are so many psychological disorders which has affect on physical performance e.g. stress, tension, anxiety etc. which are big barriers in performance. Mentally strong and stress free individual can be fit for sports. Stress and tension always limits the physical fitness of a person and hence, affects the performance.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 13.
Define reaction speed.
Answer:
It is the ability to give a quick reaction on a signal. The sportsperson respond against the situation demand.

Question 14.
What is agility?
Answer:
The ability to perform a series of explosive movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (zig-zag running shuttle run or cutting movement). In other words, it can be termed as how quickly a person respond to a given stimulus.

Question 15.
Give any one definition of physical fitness.
Answer:
According David R. Lamb, “Physical fitness is the capacity to meet the present and potential physical challenges of life with success.”

Question 16.
Enlist any two elements of physical fitness.
Answer:
Strength:
The extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance is known to be strength. In simple words its and ability to work against resistance.

Agility: It is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.

Question 17.
Elaborate the term anatomical structure.
Answer:
Anatomical/body structure of every individual is different or they have different shape and sizes. Inappropriate shape and size always hinder in physical performance. Sometimes, genetic impaired organ limits the physical performance of an individual, e.g. a person with smaller lower limbs have more balance as compare to vice-versa.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 18.
Does injuries affects physical fitness and why?
Answer:
Yes, because injuries are part of sports. Lack of injury management can decrease performance as well as it affects psychologically on athletes’ mind. Severe or long term injuries often affecting more mentally then physically. Long term injuries leads to inactivity which ultimately affects the physical fitness of a person.

Question 19.
How does healthy environment affects the physical fitness of a person?
Answer:
A healthy environment at school, home or at playfield is helpful in better physical health and fitness. It also encourages athlete to get best physical performance. A healthy environment and good participation is essential for proper growth and development which plays a key role in physical fitness.

Question 20.
Explain about general endurance and middle term endurance.
Answer:
General Endurance:
It depends upon both aerobic and anaerobic activities. It is done in both slow and fast pace activities. This enables sportsperson to work for longer duration without any tiredness.

Middle Term Endurance:
It can be required for such activities which lasts from 2 to 10 min. Middle term endurance depends on muscle endurance and speed endurance Middle distance races are the example of the middle term endurance (800 m, 1500 m) etc.

Question 21.
What is the difference between reaction speed and movement speed?
Answer:
Reaction Speed:
It is the ability to give a quick reaction on a signal. The sportsperson respond against the situation demand.

Movement Speed:
It is the ability to do maximum movement in minimum time. These can be seen in team games, combative sports, racket sports, throws and gymnastics etc.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 22.
Write in your own words about locomotor speed and accleration speed.
Answer:
Locomotor speed:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events such as short distance races, i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

Acceleration Speed:
It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from stationary position. We can see it in sprints. Indirectly ,this ability depends on the other factors like explosive strength, technique and flexibility.

Three Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
Differentiate between Isotonic and Isometric strength.
Answer:
Dynamic Strength or Isotonic Strength:
When the contraction results in the change of muscles length and the pressure remains same throughout the contraction, it can be called dynamic strength. For example, involving movement at more than one joint i.e. push ups, pull-ups, barbell press, squats, lunges and dead lifts etc. Dynamic strength can also be divided in three parts:

Static strength or Isometric strength:
It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance without changing or shortening the length, e.g. Pushing against wall in which muscles develops tension without changing its length.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 2.
How would you classify endurance on the basis of nature of activity?
Answer:
1. Basic Endurance:
Basic endurance mainly depends upon aerobic endurance. It is done in slow pace where all the muscle groups of the body are involved in a particular movement. Running, jogging, walking and swimming are the examples of basic endurance.

2. General Endurance:
It depends upon both aerobic and anaerobic activities. It is done in both slow and fast pace activities. This enables sportsperson to work for longer duration without any tiredness.

3. Specific Endurance:
Specific endurance can be differ from sports to sports. Every sport has their own intensity. For example, marathon runners have to run long hours beside boxers have to complete their bout in 3 minute round.

Question 3.
Elucidate the term short term endurance and middle term endurance.
Answer:
1. Short Term Endurance:
Exercises for short distance can be fixed with the rest interval of short duration. It lasts upto 2 minutes and also called anaerobic activities. Short term endurance is required to resist fatigue in sports activities such as sprints and middle distance races.

2. Middle Term Endurance:
It can be required for such activities which lasts from 2 to 10 min. Middle term endurance depends on muscle endurance and speed endurance Middle distance races are the example of the middle term endurance (800 m, 1500 m) etc.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 4.
What do you know about coordination ability?
Answer:
Coordination ability is the ability to perform smooth and accurate motor task, often involving the use of the sense organs and series of correlated muscular contraction that affect a range of joint and therefore relative limb and body position. It depends on the neuro¬muscular coordination of the body. The various elements of coordinative abilities are orientation ability, coupling, ability differentiation ability, reaction ability, balance ability, rhythm, ability and adaptation ability.

Question 5.
Differentiate between agility and speed.
Answer:
Speed is maximum rate at which a person is able to move his body over a specific distance. We can say that speed is the ability to move from one place to another in the shortest possible time.

Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control. It requires quick reflexes, coordination, balance, speed, and correct response to the changing situation.

Question 6.
Briefly explain about the types of strength.
Answer:
As per the requirements in different sports settings the following classifications of the strength can be given:
1. Dynamic strength or isotonic strength
2. Static strength or isometric strength

1. Dynamic Strength or Isotonic Strength:
When the contraction results in the change of muscles length and the pressure remains same throughout the contraction, it can be called dynamic strength. For example, involving movement at more than one joint i.e. push ups, pull- ups, barbell press, squats, lunges and dead lifts etc. Dynamic strength can also be divided in three parts:

(a) Maximum Strength:
It is the greatest strength that can be achieved voluntarily against a resistance. We can also define maximum strength as the amount of muscuo skeletal force a person can generate with all-out efforts..

(b) Explosive Strength:
It is the combination of speed and strength. It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. Explosive strength can be seen in sprint races, weight lifting, hammer throw, long jump and high jump etc.

(c) Strength endurance:
It is the combination of strength and endurance. It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer duration. Long distance races, swimming and cycling are the examples of strength endurance.

2. Static strength or Isometric strength:
It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance without changing or shortening the length, e.g. Pushing against wall in which muscles develops tension without changing its length.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 7.
What do you know about flexibility? Give its types also.
Answer:
Flexibility is the range of movement possible around a joint. In general terms, flexibility has been defined as the range of motion around a joint and its surrounding muscles during passive movements.

Types of Flexibility
1. Static Flexibility: It is the ability to extend various joints in a stationary position.
(a) Passive Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with wider range and some external helps. For example, stretching exercise with the help of a partner.

(b) Active Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform flexibility or extension movements with larger amplitude without any external help or a partner. For example, swinging of legs.

2. Dynamic Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with greater amplitude when the body is in motion. Dynamic flexibility is more specific to sports to sports movements. For example, running and somersault in gymanastics or diving in swimming etc.

Question 8.
Enlist various types of speed.
Answer:
1. Reaction Speed: It is the ability to give a quick reaction on a signal. The sportsperson respond against the situation demand.

2. Acceleration Speed:
It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from stationary position. We can see it in sprints. Indirectly ,this ability depends on the other factors like explosive strength, technique and flexibility.

3. Movement Speed:
It is the ability to do maximum movement in minimum time. These can be seen in team games, combative sports, racket sports, throws and gymnastics etc.

4. Locomotor Ability:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events only i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

5. Speed Endurance: It is the ability to maintain near maximal speed for a longer duration.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 9.
Highlight any three factors affecting physical fitness.
Answer:
1. Life Style:
A person who follow good life style are more fit and perform better in physical performance. Life style does not mean luxuries living; it means living with good habits. An individual who is habitual of smoking, liquor, drug etc. cannot perform well on these components of physical fitness. It affects physical fitness and overall health of a person.

2. Good Posture:
Postural deformities always creates hindrance in physical fitness, for example muscle imbalance, pain, nutrition deficiency, lordosis, scoliosis, round shoulder, knock knees etc. can affect physical fitness of a person, e.g. A person with flat feet would not be able to perform better in events demanding speed.

3. Diet:
Diet plays a major role in physical performance and it is required to maintain physical fitness level. Right amount of calories and nutrition will help athlete to perform their best. Without adequate carbohydrate and fluid, an athlete gets tired very easily and quickly. Protein is needed to rebuild muscles. Without carbohydrates, protein, vitamins athlete will not perform well and it also decreases physical fitness.

Question 10.
Differentiate between locomotor ability and reaction ability?
Answer:
Reaction Ability.
It is the ability of an individual to respond quickly to a given signal and perform the movement in well directed maimer. For example, in 100 m sprint when an athlete gets the signal he reacts quickly and performs the movement in desired direction.

Locomotor Ability:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events such as short distance races, i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Five Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
Write the basic components of physical fitness strength and speed.
Answer:
Strength is defined as the force exerted by muscles groups during a single maximal muscle contraction. Strength can be developed with the right kind and amount of training.
PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness 1

Types of Strength
As per the requirements in different sports settings the following classifications of the strength can be given:
1. Dynamic strength or isotonic strength
2. Static strength or isometric strength

1. Dynamic Strength or Isotonic Strength:
When the contraction results in the change of muscles length and the pressure remains same throughout the contraction, it can be called dynamic strength. For example, involving movement at more than one joint i.e. push ups, pull- ups, barbell press, squats, lunges and dead lifts etc. Dynamic strength can also be divided in three parts:

(a) Maximum Strength:
It is the greatest strength that can be achieved voluntarily against a resistance. We can also define maximum strength as the amount of muscuo skeletal force a person can generate with all-out efforts.

(b) Explosive Strength:
It is the combination of speed and strength. It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. Explosive strength can be seen in sprint races, weight lifting, hammer throw, long jump and high jump etc.

(c) Strength endurance:
It is the combination of strength and endurance. It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer duration. Long distance races, swimming and cycling are the examples of strength endurance.

2. Static strength or Isometric strength:
It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance without changing or shortening the length, e.g. Pushing against wall in which muscles develops tension without changing its length.

Speed:
Speed is maximum rate at which a person is able to move his body over a specific distance. We can say that speed is the ability to move from one place to another in the shortest possible time.
PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness 2According to Barrow and McGee, “speed is the capacity of an individual to perform successive movement of the same pattern at a fast rate”. According to Johnson and Nelson, “speed is the rate at which a person can propel his body or parts of his body through space”.
Speed comprises quick response, acceleration, maximum speed and speed endurance.

Types of Speed
1. Reaction Speed: It is the ability to give a quick reaction on a signal. The sportsperson respond against the situation demand.

2. Acceleration Speed:
It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from stationary position. We can see it in sprints. Indirectly ,this ability depends on the other factors like explosive strength, technique and flexibility.

3. Movement Speed:
It is the ability to do maximum movement in minimum time. These can be seen in team games, combative sports, racket sports, throws and gymnastics etc.

4. Locomotor Ability:
This is the ability to maintain the speed after accelerated maximally. This can be seen in few events only i.e. 100 m, 200 m and 400 m etc.

5. Speed Endurance: It is thejability to maintain near maximal speed for longer duration.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 2.
Explain the importance of physical fitness.
Answer:
People who are physically fit are able to enjoy their life to the fullest. In today’s scenario of technological development people hardly spend time for their physical fitness. Now, question arises why it is important to be physically fit. The answer lies in the following points:

1. Improves Overall Health:
Physically fit persons possess numerous health advantages such as respiratory, cardiovascular health and overall functioning of the body remain in active state. This helps in reducing the chances of type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, reduces risk of some cancer and lastly helps in maintaining good health and wellness.

2. Weight Management:
As we all know that the person with over weight or obese people are more prone to health related problems such as high BP, Chotestrol level, diabetes etc. So, people who are living active lifestyle and physically fit are less likely to face these problems as they are able to control and manage their optimum weight with the help of regular exercise and stay fit.

3. Importance as a stress management:
Through the physical fitness and wellness programme, an individual become capable of managing stress, releiving stress and easily distracted from the daily stresses. Hence, this help in staying active and balanced in any stage of life. So, in order to maintain relaxed state of mind, a person should be physically fit.

4. Reduced risk of Injuries:
Physical fitness prevents the chances of injuries in later stage. The reason for the same could be the increased muscle strength, bone density, flexibility and stability. It reduces the chances of injuries especially, as a person get older e.g. strong bones mean less likely to suffer bone injuries as later age.

5. Increases life expectancy:
Regular exercise and physical acitivity reduces the chances of health related diseases, which increases life expectancy and reduce the risk of premature mortality. It has been observed that people who are more active tend to be healtheir and tend to live longer.

6. Proper growth and development:
Through fitness and wellness programme children tend to grow and develop better. They are able to attain good shape, height, structure and optimun weight with the help of their physical fitness programme. So, physically fit person are in well balanced state of their physical structure as well.

7. Improves work efficiency:
The person who are physically fit are tend to perform well in every sphere of life such as work place, family peer group etc. Due to their active and balance state of body and mind their output at work place is more and they tend to enjoy social group with more zeal and excitement. Hence, helps in enjoying their life to the fullest.

Hence, it can be concluded that physical fitness is important for the “Sound mind in a sound body”. To enjoy at every stage of life.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 3.
Briefly explain the factors affecting physical fitness.
Answer:
There are enormous factors which affects physical fitness in certain ways. Due to inactivity, both short term and long term physical fitness affected in number of ways. These factors which affect physical fitness are as ahead:

1. Anatomical Structure:
Anatomical/body structure of every individual is different or they have different shape and sizes. Inappropriate shape and size always hinder in physical performance. Sometimes, genetic impaired organ limits the physical performance of an individual, e.g. a person with smaller lower limbs have more balance as compare to vice-versa.

2. Physiological Structure:
Our all body system like respiratory system, circulatory system, muscular system and other body systems must work efficiently. Any malfunctioning in systems can affect the physical performance. Example would be problem in breathing or heart diseases etc. Hence, for the optimal physical fitness an individual must be physiological fit also.

3. Psychological Factor:
There are so many psychological disorders which has affect on physical performance e.g. stress, tension, anxiety etc. which are big barriers in performance. Mentally strong and stress free individual can be fit for sports. Stress and tension always limits the physical fitness of a person and hence, affects the performance.

4. Heredity and Environment:
Both, heredity and environment affects physical fitness of an individual. Heredity and environment interacts to produce their effects. This means that the way genes act depends on the environment in which they act. e.g. if any person is a good sportsman, the child tend to have some traits of physical domain. Similarly, environmental variables also effects an individual e.i., heighted Japanese and Americans.

5. Good Posture:
Postural deformities always creates hinderance in physical fitness, for example muscle imbalance, pain, nutrition deficiency, lordosis, scoliosis, round shoulder, knock knees etc. can affect physical fitness of a person, e.g. A person with flat feet would not be able to perform better in events demanding speed.

6. Diet:
Diet plays a major role in physical performance and it is required to maintain physical fitness level. Right amount of calories and nutrition will help athlete to perform their best. Without adequate carbohydrate and fluid, an athlete gets tired very easily and quickly. Protein is needed to rebuild muscles. Without carbohydrates, protein, vitamins athlete will not perform well and it also decreases physical fitness.

7. Life Style:
A person who follow good life style are more fit and perform better in physical performance. Life style does not mean luxuries living; it means living with good habits. An individual who is habitual of smoking, liquor, drug etc. cannot perform well on these components of physical fitness. It affects physical fitness and overall health of a person.

8. Climate:
Different climatic conditions always affects the physical fitness of a person. There are different climatic conditions like winter, summer, humid etc. which influence physical fitness. For better physical performance one must trained themselves in different climate conditions. For example if an individual belongs to the hot and humid area and they have to compete in cold area then, it affects their physical performance. To avoid these barriers one must practice in different climates.

9. Inactivity:
Lack of physical activity leads individual towards sedentary life style which also creates malfunctioning in body system. Physical activity is the term used to describe any kind of everyday activity where body’s movement bums calories. Example would be walking, running, cycling, swimming, sweeping or other household work. Due to inactivity body system gets weaken and other health issues arises.

10. Injury:
Injuries are part of sports. Lack of injury management can decrease performance as well as it affects psychologically on athletes mind. Severe or long term injuries often affecting more mentally then physically. Long term injuries leads to inactivity which ultimately affects the physical fitness of a person.

11. Age:
Age differences always affects physical fitness of an individual. As we cannot compare the physical efficiency of an adult with younger ones. In the same way when we grow older, our muscle mass decreases and body fat increases which really affects physical fitness.

12. Gender:
Gender plays a major role in physical performance. Both male and female have huge structural differences. For example female bodies are less muscular, but their joints are more flexible, which gives them greater range of motion and they have an advantage in sports such as gymnastics. Men have larger skeletal muscles as well as larger heart, which generate more power, strength, speed and endurance.

13. Healthy environment:
A healthy environment at school, home or at playfield is helpful in better physical health and fitness. It also encourages athlete to get best physical performance. A healthy environment and good participation is essential for proper growth and development which plays a key role in physical fitness.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 4.
Explain flexibility alongwith its various types?
Answer:
Flexibility:
Flexibility is the range of movement possible around a joint. In general terms, flexibility has been defined as the range of motion around a joint and its surrounding muscles.

Types of Flexibility:
1. Static Flexibility:
It is the ability to extend various joints in a stationary position.

(а) Passive Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with wider range and some external helps. For example, stretching exercise with the help of a partner. This flexibility is more then active flexibility,

(b) Active Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform flexibility or extension movements with larger amplitude without any external help or a partner. For example, swinging of legs.

2. Dynamic Flexibility:
It is the ability to perform extension movements around joints with greater amplitude when the body is in motion. Dynamic flexibility is more specific to sports to sports movements. For example, running and somersault in gymanastics or diving in swimming etc.
PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness 3

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness

Question 5.
What do you know about coordination ability? Also explain various types of coordination ability.
Answer:
Coordinative ability is the ability to perform smooth and accurate motor task, often involving the use of the sense organs and series of correlated muscular contraction that affect a range of joint and therefore relative limb and body position. It depends on the neuromuscular coordination of the body.

Types of Coordinative Ability:
There are mainly seven types of coordinative abilities considered in sports. These are as follows:

1. Orientation Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to analyze and change his body position and its parts in time and space in relation to performance required. For example, gymnast changes his body position as per the requirements of sports performance and basket ball player changes his position from offense to defence as the ball possession goes to opponent.

2. Coupling Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to systematically and meaningfully combine the movement of different body parts for successful performance of sports movement. For example, during spiking in volleyball, the player jumps and hits the ball.

3. Differentiation Ability:
It is the ability which enables the sportsman to separate the different body position and its parts during execution of motor action with high accuracy and movement economy. For example, in volley ball when player jumps for spiking, but drops ball according to the situation.

4. Reaction Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to respond quickly to a given signal and perform the movement in well directed manner. For example, in 100 m sprint when an athlete gets the signal he reacts quickly and performs the movement in desired direction.

5. Balance Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to maintain the dynamic condition. For example, in 400 m race,, runner should run in his own lane.

6. Rhythm Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to understand the rhythm of movement and to execute the movement with required rhythm. For example, taking lay-up shot in basketball.

7. Adaptation Ability:
It is the ability of an individual to bring about an effective change in the movement according to anticipated change in the situation. For example, adaptation of scoop to the hitting a ball in hockey.

Physical Fitness PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Notes

The term Physical fitness has different notions for different segment of people. It not only refers to being physically fit but also refers to as balanced state of mind. A person can only be considered fit if he is able to function well without any undue fatigue or tiredness. A person who is fit both on physical and mental aspect stays strong in every sphere of life. Now, lets discuss the definition of physical fitness. It is the ability of an individual to work effectively and efficiently with joy and pleasure.

According to David R. Lamb, “Physical fitness is the capacity to meet the present and potential physical challenges of fife with success.” In order to achieve the optimum level of physical fitness one must possess basic components such as strength, speed, endurance, agility, flexibility and coordinative abilities. If a person is having these components, then he will be considered to be physically fit. But, there are various factors which may influence physical fitness of an individual such as anatomical structure, physiological and psychological make up, posture, diet, life style, inactivity, injury, age and gender etc. So, these factors are responsible to have major influence on the physical fitness of an individual.

Hence, physical fitness plays a vital role to live healthy, prosperous and conducive life in the present scenario of technological advancement. It helps in the proper growth and development with efficient functioning of physiological system in the body. These developments ultimately induce the feeling of balance state of mental health and physical health of a person

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Fitness Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Some Natural Phenomena Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Select the correct option in Question 1 and 2.

Question 1.
Which of following cannot be charged easily by friction ?
(a) A plastic scale
(b) A copper rod
(c) An inflated balloon
(d) A woollen cloth.
Answer:
(b) A copper rod.

Question 2.
When a glass rod is rubbed with a piece of silk cloth the rod
(а) and cloth both acquire positive charge.
(b) becomes positively charged while the cloth has a negative charge.
(c) and the cloth both acquire negative charge.
(d) becomes negatively charged while the cloth is positive charged.
Answer:
(b) becomes positively charged while the cloth has a negative charge.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 3.
Write T against true and F against false in the following statements.
[а] like charges attract each other.
Answer:
False

[b] A charged glass rod attracts a charged plastic straw.
Answer:
True

[c] Lightning conductor cannot protect a building from lightning.
Answer:
False

[d] Earthquakes can be predicted in advance.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Sometimes, a crackling sound is heard while taking off sweater during winters. Explain.
Answer:
Woollen clothes get electrically charged when they get rubbed. Due to rubbing attraction or repulsion occurs between their loose particles which results in crackling sound.

Question 5.
Explain why a charged body loses its charge if we touch it with our hand.
Answer:
Human body is a conductor of electricity. When a body is touched with hand, the electric current of body passes to the earth through human body and body loses its charges.

Question 6.
Name the scale on which the destructive energy of an earthquakes is measured. An earthquake measures 3 on this scale. Would it be recorded by a seismograph ? Is it likely to cause much damage ?
Answer:
Scale used to measure earthquake is Richter scale.
Earthquake with measure 3 can be recorded on seismograph but this earthquake is very feeble in its intensity and very less destructive.

Question 7.
Suggest three measures to protect ourselves from Lightning.
Or
Suggest any two safety measures that we should take to prevent damage caused by linghtning.
Answer:
Measures of Protection:

  1. On hearing thunder, go inside closed areas such as houses, buildings etc.
  2. In bus, close all the doors and windows.
  3. In open, sit on floor with your head in knees and arms.

Question 8.
Explain why a charged balloon is repelled by an other charged balloon whereas an uncharged balloon is attracted by another charged balloon ?
Answer:
Same materials get same charges on rubbing and same charges repel each other.
Therefore, balloon on rubbing are similarly charged and thus repel each other while a charged and an uncharged balloon attract each other.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 9.
Describe with the help of a diagram an instrument which can be used to detect a charged body.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena 1
Electroscope is used to detect electric charges or kind of charge on a body.
To make an electroscope, take a glass jar. Cover it with a wooden or cardboard disc fixed with an aluminium foil on a paper clip in the vertical position.

Question 10.
List three states in India where earthquake are more likely to strike.
Answer:
States of India, highly susceptible to earthquake:

  1. Rann of Kutch
  2. Rajasthan
  3. Highlands of Sind-Ganga
  4. Kashmir.

Question 11.
Suppose you are outside your home and an earthquake strikes. What precaution would you take to protect yourself ?
Answer:
Protection against earthquake outside the house.

  1. Lie down in open far from buildings, trees and electric wires.
  2. Do not step out from car or bus.
  3. Take car or bus towards open areas.

Question 12.
The weather department has predicted that a thunderstorm is likely to occur on a certain day. Suppose you have to go out on that day. Would you carry an umbrella ? Explain.
Answer:
To go out during thunderstorm is not safe and with umbrella it is fatal because high buildings, electric wires, black materials etc. all attract thunderstorm. So, it is advisable to stay away from them.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Some Natural Phenomena Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
How many kinds of electric charge are there ?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 6.
Answer:
(a) 2.

Question 2.
The device used for testing electric charge is called:
(a) Electroscope
(b) Microscope
(c) Periscope
(d) Electroplating.
Answer:
(a) Electroscope.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 3.
What is the measure of earthquake on Rictor scale that can cause devastation ?
(a) Less than 5
(b) Between 5 and 7
(c) Between 1 and 5
(d) More than 7.
Answer:
(d) More than 7.

Question 4.
Opposite charges ………………. each other.
(а) Attract
(b) Repel
(c) Sometime attract sometime repel
(d) Neither attract nor repel.
Answer:
(a) Attract.

Question 5.
The central region of earth is called:
(a) Inner core
(b) Outer core
(c) Mantle
(d) Earth crust.
Answer:
(a) Inner core.

Question 6.
Which is the safest place to take shelter during lightning and thunderstorm ?
(a) Building
(b) Open area
(c) Under the tree
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(a) Building.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is amber ?
Answer:
It is a type of resin.

Question 2.
What happens when amber is rubbed for longer time ?
Answer:
A spark is produced.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 3.
Who established that spark and lightning were same thing ?
Answer:
Benjamin Franklin, an American Scientist.

Question 4.
What happens when a plastic scale rubbed with dry hair is brought near pieces of paper ?
Answer:
Scale attracts pieces of paper.

Question 5.
Give few examples of charged objects.
Answer:

  1. Plastic scale rubbed with hair.
  2. Plastic refill rubbed with polythene.
  3. Balloon rubbed with woollen cloth.

Question 6.
What happens when two balloons rubbed with woolen cloth are brought together.
Answer:
They repel each other.

Question 7.
Which type of charges attract each other ?
Answer:
Unlike or opposite charges attract each other.

Question 8.
How many types of charges are there ?
Answer:
Two types of charges-

  1. negative and
  2. positive.

Question 9.
Why does a plastic comb rubbed in hair attract small bits of paper ?
Answer:
Because it gets charged.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 10.
What will happen when two clouds with unlike charges approach each other ?
Answer:
Lightning strikes.

Question 11.
Is human body a conductor or an insulator ?
Answer:
A conductor.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is a balloon filled with air rubbed against hair, sticks to the wall when pressed against it ?
Answer:
Air filled balloon when rubbed against hair gets, charged. The charged balloon then sticks to the wall, when pressed against it. It is because the charged balloon attracts the wall and holds on to it.

Question 2.
Why does the paper strip open up when touched with a charged rod ?
Answer:
When we touch one side of the paper strip with a charged rod, the paper strip opens up. The reason for this is that the two sides of the strip get same type of charge from the charged rod and thus repel each other. With the result, the paper strip opens up (diverges).

Question 3.
Why are we advised not to be under a tree, if we are in the open during a thunderstorm ?
Answer:
A highly charged cloud when comes near the tree can induce a powerful opposite charge on the top of tree. This can cause lightning between the cloud and the earth through the tree. It can damage tree and can cause fire.

Question 4.
Why are tall buildings provided with metallic rods, running from the top of building to the ground ?
Answer:
A highly charged cloud can induce an opposite charge on the pointed ends of the metallic rod. When it passes by the tall building, the similar charge passes to the earth through the metallic rod. The lightning passes to the earth safely, without causing any damage to the building.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 5.
What do you mean when we say that a body is electrically charged or electrified ?
Answer:
A body like plastic comb, pen, etc. when rubbed with another body gets the property of attracting small pieces of paper or a pith ball. Then, such a body is a called electrically charged or electrified.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Tsunami.
Answer:
Tsunami. Tsunami are long and high waves, which rise under sea due to earthquakes. It is usually a high speed wave, which rise in sea. It is also known as harbour wave.

Examples.

  1. In 1819 on Hawain islands.
  2. In 2004.

Effects of Tsunami.

  1. Loss of Lives.
  2. Loss of Aquatic life.
  3. Physical damage of human life and property.
  4. Uprooting of plants on the banks of sea or in coastal regions.

Question 7.
Write down the uses of electroscope.
Answer:
Uses of electroscope:

  1. Electroscope is used to detect the presence of charge.
  2. It is used to find the type of charge.
  3. It is used to compare the charges.

Question 8.
What is electric discharging (lightning) ?
Answer:
Electric discharging (Lighting).
The phenomenon of lightning is caused due to discharge through air. It occurs when the charge accumulated in the clouds exceeds a certain limit. When unlike charged clouds come closer to each other, the charges in air between them move with a great velocity. Due to this, an intense spark of lightning is seen moving in the air. This is known as electric discharging or lightning.

Question 9.
Write two examples of electric discharge which are used to ignite the fuel.
Answer:
Examples of Electric discharges:

  1. By sparkplug in scooter and car.
  2. By electric gas lighter used to ignite the gas stove in kitchens.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 10.
What are natural phenomena ?
Answer:
Natural Phenomena.
The phenomena which occur suddenly in nature are called natural phenomena. They cause severe damage to life and property to related areas and environment is also affected with human life.
Examples : Earthquake, landslides, food, drought, cyclones, eruption of volcanoes, tsunami, etc.

Question 11.
What are cyclones ? Write effects and reasons caused by it.
Answer:
Cyclone.
Cyclone is a terrible storm which has a speed more than 119 km per hour.

Reasons.
When sea water evaporates in summer season, it rises up and condenses to form cloud. To get the space of upward moving air, air rushes speedily under it. There forms a cyclic motion nearby a centre or due to difference in temperature and pressure present above the hot sea water, cyclones are produced.

Effects.
Cyclones affect crops, health, ships, etc. Landslides and foods cause severe damage to mankind.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give an experiment to show that when two bodies are rubbed together, they get oppositely charged.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena 2
Experiment.
Take a plastic scale. Wrap flannel at its one end. Rub this side with another plastic scale. Bring these two scales separately near bits of tissue paper. We observe that both scales show attraction toward the bits of tissue paper. This proves that both the scales get charged on rubbing.

Now suspend one scale from a stand and bring the other close to it. They get attracted. It shows that they have opposite charges. It is because opposite charges attract each other. Thus, we may conclude that when two bodies are rubbed together, they get oppositely charged.

Question 2.
What is lightning ?
Answer:
Lightning.
The phenomenon of lightning is caused due to electric discharge through air. It occurs when the charge accumulated in the clouds exceeds a certain limit. In these conditions, the small region of positive charges in the lower part induces a negative charge on the ground below it. The large force of attraction between the opposite charges becomes sufficient to break down the insulation of air.

Once this happens, the entire positive charge in the lower parts of the clouds passes to the earth through a narrow gap in the air. The huge negative charge gets accumulated in the lower parts of the cloud then passes through this conducting path in a very short time. The air in this narrow gap gets heated by the electrical energy to such a high temperature that it appears as a flash of light, which we see as lightning.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Question 3.
What safety measures should we take to prevent damage caused by lightning ?
Answer:
Precautions to be taken to provide protection against lightning.
The following precautions should be taken to protect ourselves against lightning:

  1. We should not stand under trees, when lightning occurs and even during rain, when there are chances of lightning to strike.
  2. We should put up lightning conductor on our buildings to protect our lives and property from damage.
  3. We should switch off TV sets during lightning for TV antennas are more prone to lightning strikes.

Question 4.
Discuss the construction and working of a lightning conductor.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena 3
Lightning Conductor.
It is a pointed long metal rod fixed along side of a building. The lower end of this rod is hurried deep under the earth.

Working of a Lightning Conductor.
A lightning conductor protects the building from the destructive effect of the lightning in two ways:
1. During a thunderstorm, a charged cloud passes above the point of the lightning conductor.
If’the cloud is positively charged, it induces a negative charge on its upper end.

This end being pointed cannot retain this charge and sends into the atmosphere a wind on negatively charged particles which cancel some of the positive charge on the clouds. This reduces the potential of the cloud below the spark potential and as such no lightning discharge takes place between the building and the cloud.

2. If a discharge actually takes place, the lightning conductor provides an easy passage to the charge from the cloud to the earth. The building is thus, saved from the destructive effects of the lightning.

Question 5.
What are causes and impacts of earthquake ? Write precautions against earthquake.
Answer:
Earthquake.
Quakes are vibrations created in the earth’s crust. These may arise suddenly.

Reason of earthquake.
Geographically our earth is made up of seven long tactonic plates. These plates move very slowly. But whenever these plates acquire high speeds, there is a disturbance on earth’s surface. These movements of earth’s surface cause buildings to fall, bridges, roads etc. get broken.

Impacts of earthquake.
Tsunami.

  1. It is cause of Tsunami (a seismic sea wave)
  2. Many buildings fall down.
  3. Supply of basic amenities is disturbed.
  4. It causes health hazard.

Precautions against earthquakes:

  1. In highly seismic areas timber must be used in constructions of buildings instead of heavy materials like mud, stone, brick etc.
  2. It is better if the cupboards and shelves are fixed to the walls, so that they do not fall easily.
  3. Be careful where you hang wall clocks, photo-frames, water heaters etc., so that they donot fall in the event of an earthquake.
  4. Since some buildings may catch fire due to an earthquake , hence fire fighting equipments should be installed in these buildings.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena

Some Natural Phenomena PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Sparks, in the sky, were believed to be the wrath of God.
  • In 1752, Benjamin Franklin established that lightning and spark of amber, were the same thing.
  • Electricity is reponsible for sparks or lightning in the sky.
  • Rubbing produces electric charges in some materials.
  • Similar materials acquire same charges on them, when rubbed with same materials.
  • Like charges repel each other.
  • Different materials acquire different charges, when rubbed with same materials or different materials.
  • Unlike charges attract each other.
  • Two kinds of charges are positive and negative.
  • The electric charge generated by rubbing is called static electricity.
  • Static charges are stationary i.e. they donot move.
  • Moving charge constitutes an electric current.
  • Earthing is process of transfer of charges from a charged object to the earth. Lightning is nothing but an electric discharge.
  • Electric discharge occurs when (i) two clouds come together (ii) clouds come near earth surface (iii) clouds and human body come closer.
  • Clouds carry – ve charges on them and on coming in contact with +ve charge produce huge amount of energy in form of bright light and sound.
  • A house or a building and even a closed vehicle is the safest place during a thunderstorm.
  • Lightning conductor is a device to secure tall buildings from the effect of lightning.
  • Electric cell emits electric discharge, which can be up to 650 volts.
  • Thunderstorms, cyclones, lightning are natural phenomenon which cause large scale destruction of human life and property.
  • Earthquake is also a natural phenomenon.
  • Predictions about thunderstorms, cyclones and lightning can be done, but earthquakes can not be predicted.
  • An earthquake is sudden shaking or trembling of the earth.
  • Floods, Landslides, Tsunami are caused by earthquakes.
  • Seismograph is an instrument meant to record seismic waves produced on surface of earth by tremors.
  • The intensity of an earthquake is measured in terms of magnitudes on a scale called Richter Scale.
  • Symmetrical and mud/timber buildings are to be constructed in seismic prone areas.
  • Static Electricity: The electrical charge excited by rubbing is said to be static electricity.
  • Earthing: The process of transfer of charges from a charged body to the earth is called earthing.
  • Electric Discharge: The process of producing light and sound by clouds is called electric discharge.
  • Thunderstorm: A loud noise produced across sky during a rainy day is called thunder storm.
  • Lightning: A bright light produced across sky, due to rubbing of two clouds or clouds and earth, is lightning.
  • Earthquake: The disturbance deep inside the earth’s crust which cause trembling and shaking of the earth, is called an earthquake.
  • Lightning Rod: It is device to secure tall buildings from effect of lightning.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Chemical Effects of Electric Current Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks.
(a) Most liquids that conduct electricity are solutions of ……………….. , ………………. and ………………. .
(b) The passage of an electric current through a solution causes ……………….. effects.
(c) If you pass current through copper sulphate solution copper gets deposited on the plate connected to the ………………… terminal of the battery.
(d) The process of depositing a layer of any desired metal on another material, by means of electricity is called ……………………… .
Answer:
(a) acid, bases, salts.
(b) chemical
(c) negative (- ve)
(d) electroplating.

Question 2.
When the free ends of a tester are dipped in a solution, the magnetic compass needle shows deflection. Can you explain the reason ?
Answer:
Deflection of compass needle is due to conduction of electricity through the solution because the solution is good conductor.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 3.
Name three liquids, which when tested in a manner shown in fig. may causes the magnetic needle to deflect.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 1
Answer:

  1. Acid
  2. Base
  3. Acidulated water.

Question 4.
The bulb does not glow in the setup shown in fig. List the possible reasons. Explain you answer.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 2
Answer:
The set up shows no glowing of the bulb but it does not mean that liquid is not conducting electricity. Liquid may be so weak electrolyte that it can not make the bulb glow. So, to test it for surity, LED can be used, which glows for very minute currents.

Question 5.
A tester is used to check the conduction of electricity through two liquids labelled A and B. It is found that the bulb of the tester glows very brightly for liquid A while it glows dimly for liquid B. You would conclude that.
(i) liquid A is better conductor than liquid B.
(ii) liquid B is better conductor than liquid A.
(iii) both liquids are equally conducting.
(iv) conducting properties of liquids cannot be compared in this manner.
Answer:
(i) Liquid A is better conductor than liquid B.

Question 6.
Does pure water conduct electricity ? If not, what can we do to make it conducting ?
Answer:
Pure water does not conduct electricity but it can be made good conductor by adding few drops of dil. sulphuric acid. The water so obtained is called acidulated water.

Question 7.
In case of a fire, before the firemen use the water hoses, they shut off the main electrical supply for the area. Explain why they do this.
Answer:
Pure water is an insulator but tap water is a good conductor of electricity. To avoid electrocuting, firemen manually shut off the supply before using water hoses.

Question 8.
A child staying in the coastal regions tests the drinking water and also the sea water with his tester. He finds that the compass needle deflects more in case of sea water. Can you explain the reason ?
Answer:
Since sea water is rich in salt concentration. So, compass needle is more deflected in sea water as compared to the drinking water available in coastal areas.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 9.
Is it safe for electrician to carry out electrical repairs outdoor during heavy downpour ? Explain.
Answer:
No, it is not safe for a wireman to carry out electrical repairs during heavy down pour because water (Impure) is a conductor of electricity. So, wireman can get electric shock.

Question 10.
Paheli had heard that rain water is as good as distilled water. So she collected some rainwater in a clean glass tumbler and tested it using a tester. To her surprise she found that compass needle showed deflection. What could be the reasons ?
Answer:
No doubt, rain water is pure like distilled water. But then environment is contaminated with many impurities. These impurities get dissolved in rain water, making it a conductor of electric current.

Question 11.
Prepare a list of objects around you that are electroplated.
Answer:
Electroplated objects.

  1. Handle bar of cycle.
  2. Wheel rims.
  3. Artificial ornaments.
  4. Bath taps.
  5. Kitchen gas burners.

Question 12.
The process that you saw in Activity 14.7 is used for purification of copper. A thin plate of pure copper and a thick rod of impure copper are used as electrodes. Copper from impure rod is sought to be transferred to the thin copper plate. Which electrode should be attached to positive terminal of the battery and why ?
Answer:
Thick rod of impure copper is to be attached to positive terminal of battery as pure copper moves to electrode connected to negative terminal of the battery.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chemical Effects of Electric Current Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In order to keep the flow of electricity continue in circuit, which of the following items should be used in place of iron nail in the given circuit.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 3
(a) Graphite
(b) Plastic
(c) Wood
(d) Rubber.
Answer:
(a) Graphite.

Question 2.
Pankaj knows that pure water is bad conductor of electricity. If you dissolve salt in water then what will happen ?
(а) Water will become good conductor of electricity.
(b) Water will remain bad conductor of electricity.
(c) Water will neither be a good conductor nor a bad conductor of electricity.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) Water will become good conductor of electricity.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 3.
Which out of the following is insulator of electricity ?
(a) Acid
(b) Bases
(c) Pure water
(d) Solutions of salt
Answer:
(c) Pure water

Question 4.
Which out of the following is not an insulator ?
(a) Rubber
(b) Plastic
(c) Wood
(d) Copper
Answer:
(d) Copper

Question 5.
What is the effect of passing electric current through the solution of electrolytes ?
(a) Magnetic effect
(b) Heat effect
(c) Chemical effect
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Chemical effect.

Question 6.
Which effect of electric current is used in electroplating ?
(a) Magnetic effect
(b) Chemical effect
(c) Heat effect
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Chemical effect

Question 7.
The availability of some amount of impurities make water:
(a) conductor
(b) insulator
(c) pure
(d) none of these.
Answer:
(a) conductor.

Question 8.
A tester is used to check the conduction of electricity through two liquids labelled A and B. It is found that the bulb of the tester glows very brightly for liquid A while it glows dimly for liquid B, you would conclude that:
(а) Liquid A is better conductor than liquid B
(b) Liquid B is better conductor than liquid A
(c) Both liquids are equally conducting
(d) Conducting properties of liquids cannot be compared in this manner.
Answer:
(a) liquid A is better conductor-than liquid B.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Is human body a conductor or an insulator ?
Answer:
Conductor.

Question 2.
What are conductors ?
Answer:
Conductors.
Materials like silver, copper, aluminium, iron and human body etc. which allow electric current to pass through them, are called conductors.

Question 3.
What are insulators ? Give two examples.
Answer:
Insulators.
Materials like wood, rubber, silk, plastic etc. which do not allow electric current to pass through them, are called insulators.

Question 4.
Do all liquids allow electric current to pass through them ?
Answer:
No.

Question 5.
What is LED ? ,
Answer:
LED-Light Emitting Diode.

Question 6.
Name the phenomenon of breaking up of a chemical compound under the action of electric current.
Answer:
Electrolysis.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 7.
What do we get on electrolysis of acidulated water ?
Answer:
Hydrogen gas and Oxygen gas.

Question 8.
Which effect of current is used in electroplating ?
Answer:
Chemical effect.

Question 9.
Which effect of current makes a bulb glow ?
Answer:
Heating effect.

Question 10.
How can small current be tested ?
Answer:
By using LEDs.

Question 11.
Name different effects of electric current.
Answer:

  1. Heating effect,
  2. lighting effect,
  3. chemical effect and
  4. magnetic effect.

Question 12.
Is air an insulator ?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 13.
Name few liquids which can conduct electricity.
Answer:
Lime water, lemon juice, vinegar, tap water.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 14.
Can conductors be classified as insulators or vice versa under special conditions ?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 15.
Which commonly used liquids can conduct electricity ?
Answer:
Solution of acids, bases and salts.

Question 16.
What are electrodes ?
Answer:
Electrodes.
Metallic rods or plates immersed in electrolytes to make contact with battery, are called electrodes.

Question 17.
By which phenomenon cheap articles are coated with gold or expensive metals ?
Answer:
Electroplating.

Question 18.
Is electroplating useful process ?
Answer:
Yes.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Air is a bad conductor of electricity. Show with an experiment.
Answer:
Air-a bad conductor of electricity.
Take a battery bulb and connect it to a cell and a switch. When the switch is fixed with a safety pin then the current flows and bulb glows, but when safety pin is removed then there is only air between the gap of switch and current does not flow. It shows that air is bad conductor of electricity.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Question 2.
What is electrolysis ?
Answer:
Electrolysis.
Breaking up of chemical compounds under the action of electric current, is called electrolysis. When we pass electric current through water (acidulated), it breaks up into its constituents : hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is liberated at the cathode whereas oxygen is liberated at the anode.

Question 3.
What is electroplating ?
Answer:
Electroplating.
Process of electrolysis is used to deposit thin layers of valuable metals (like zinc, silver or gold) on cheaper metals by the passage of electricity through electrolyte to save them from rusting whereas to give them a decorative look. This process is called electroplating.

Question 4.
Give a brief account of LED.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 4
LED.
It is light emitting diode. It glows even when the current is .very small. It consists a bulb with two legs called leads. One leg is longer and other leg is shorter.
Longer leg is attached to +ve terminal of battery and shorter leg is attached to -ve terminal.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Is water a good conductor ? What happens when common salt is added to water ?
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 5
Pure or distilled water is an insulator.
Experiment.
Dip two carbon rods in distilled water and connect it to a bulb, 6 V battery and a key. The bulb will not light up showing that distilled water is a bad conductor of electricity.

Now replace distilled water by water mixed with common salt. The bulb will at once light up, when key is introduced. This shows that distilled water is perfectly insulator, impure water specially one containing common salt is highly conducting.

Question 2.
What is electroplating ? Give its uses.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 6
Electroplating.
It is the process by which a costlier metal is deposited on base or cheap metal by passing current through its salt solution. When an electric current is passed through an electrolyte (the compound) breaks up into its constituent ions.

Positive ions are attracted towards cathode (negative electrode) and negative ions are attracted towards anode (positive electrode). This process of electrolysis is used in plating materials with a thin coat of metals is called electroplating.

Uses of Electroplating:

  1. Iron is electroplated with nickel or chromium to prevent it from rusting.
  2. Artificial jewellery, made from cheap metals is electroplated with expensive metals like gold and silver to give it an attractive look.
  3. Handle bars of cycle, wheel rims, car parts etc. are coated with chromium to give a shiny look.
  4. Tin cans are made by electroplating a layer of tin on the iron.

Question 3.
How can a spoon be copper plated ?
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current 7
Experiment.
Take a spoon which is to be electroplated with copper. Take a copper plate and make it anode by connecting it to positive terminal of the battery. Spoon is connected to the negative terminal of battery. A rheostat (Variable resistance); key and ammeter is also connected in series as shown. CuSO4 solution is put in glass vessel. Rheostat is adjusted till a proper current flows through electrolyte [For best electroplating 1A of current should be passed for every 100 cm2 of the surface to be electroplated say if the area of spoon on both sides is 60 cm2, a current of 0.6 A should be passed.] Pass the current for 5-10 minutes, till a layer of shinning copper is seen deposited on spoon.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Chemical Effects of Electric Current PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Some materials allow current to pass through them are called conductors and some do not allow the current to pass through them are called insulators.
  • Some liquids allow electric current to pass through them, are called electrolytes.
  • An electric bulb glows, when electric current passes through it.
  • LEDs are used, when the electric current is very small.
  • Pure air is an insulator.
  • Tap water, salt water, sea or pond water all conduct electricity as they contain impurities and salts in them.
  • Pure distilled water is a non-electrolyte.
  • Solutions of acids, bases and salts are good electrolytes.
    The passage of an electric current through a conducting solution causes chemical reactions.
  • Evolution of gas, change of colour of solution and deposits of metal on electrodes are few examples of chemical effects of electric current.
  • Fruits and vegetables can also conduct electricity.
  • Passing electric current through acidulated water produces bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen on +ve and -ve terminals respectively.
  • Electroplating is an important application of chemical effect of electric current.
  • Electroplating is process of depositing a layer of any desired (superior) metal on another metallic object (of base metal) by means of electricity.
  • Electroplating is very useful to obtain shiny and rust proof articles by covering cheap metals with desired coatings of costlier metals.
  • Conductors: Materials which allow current to pass through them, are called conductors.
    Insulators: Materials which do not allow current to pass through them, are called insulators.
    Electrolysis: It is the process by which a substance (electrolyte) is decomposed into its basic components by passing electric current through it.
  • Anode: The electrode, which is connected to the positive end of the battery is called the anode.
  • Cathode: The electrode, which is connected to the negative end of the battery is called cathode.
  • Electrolyte: A salt solution which conducts electricity through it.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 13 Sound

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Sound Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer.
Sound can travel through
(a) gases only
(b) solids only
(c) liquids only
(d) solids, liquids and gases.
Answer:
(d) solids, liquids and gases.

Question 2.
Voice of which of the following is likely to have minimum frequency ?
(a) Baby girl
(b) Baby boy
(c) A man
(d) A woman.
Answer:
(c) A man.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 3.
In the following statements, tick T against those which are true, and F against those which are false:
(a) Sound cannot travel in vacuum.
Answer:
True

(b) The number of oscillations per second of a vibrating object is called its time period.
Answer:
False

(c) If the amplitude of vibration is large, sound is feeble.
Answer:
False

(d) For human ears, the audible range is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
Answer:
True

(e) The lower the frequency of vibration, the higher is the pitch.
Answer:
False

(f) Unwanted or unpleasant sound is termed as music.
Answer:
False

(g) Noise pollution may cause partial hearing impairment.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
(a) Time taken by an object to complete one oscillation is called ………………….
(b) Loudness is determined by the ………………. of vibration.
(c) The unit of frequency is ……………… .
(d) Unwanted sound is called ………………… .
(e) Shrillness of a sound is determined by the …………………. of the vibration.
Answer:
(a) Time period,
(b) amplitude,
(c) Hertz (Hz),
(d) noise,
(e) frequency.

Question 5.
A pendulum oscillates 40 times in 4 seconds. Find its time period and frequency.
Number of oscillations
Solution:
Frequency = PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound 1
= \(\frac{40}{4}\)
= 10 Hz.
Time period = \(\frac{1}{\text { Frequency }}\)
= \(\frac{1}{10}\)
= 0.1 s.

Question 6.
The sound from a mosquito is produced when it vibrates its wings at an average rate of 500 vibrations per second. What is the time period of the vibration ?
Solution:
Frequency 500 vibrations = 500 Hz
Time period = ?
We know, time period = \(\frac{1}{\text { Frequency }}\)
= \(\frac{1}{500}\)
= \(\frac{2 \times 1}{2 \times 500}\)
= \(\frac{2}{1000}\)
= 2 × 10-3 s

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 7.
Identify the part which vibrates to produce sound in the following instruments ?
(a) Dholak
(b) Sitar
(c) Flute.
Answer:

Instrument Vibrating part
(а) Dholak Stretched membrane
(b) Sitar String
(c) Flute Air column.

Question 8.
What is difference between noise and music ? Can music become noise sometime ?
Answer:
Differences between noise and music:

Noise Music
1. It is an unpleasant sound. 1. It is a pleasant sound.
2. It causes discomfort. 2. It has a soothing effect.
3. It can lead to health problems. 3. No health problems are associated with it.

Yes, music can become noise when music is too loud, then it becomes a noise.

Question 9.
List sources of noise pollution in your surroundings.
Answer:
Sources of noise pollution:

  1. Sounds of vehicles.
  2. Loudspeakers.
  3. Working Machines.
  4. Bursting of crackers.
  5. Desert coolers.
  6. Radios and televisions at high volumes.
  7. Kitchen appliances.
  8. Hawkers.

Question 10.
Explain in what ways noise pollution is harmful to humans.
Answer:
Harmful effects of noise pollution:

  1. Lack of sleep.
  2. Hypertension.
  3. Anxiety.
  4. Partial deafness.

Question 11.
Your parents are going to buy a house. They have been offered one on the roadside and another three lanes away from the roadside. Which house would you suggest your parents should buy ? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Parents should buy a house three lanes away from the roadside because roadside house has many disadvantages such as:

  1. Lot of noise due to passing vehicles.
  2. Smoke and dust produced by running vehicles.
  3. Sound of loud horns of vehicles at the time of traffic jams.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 12.
Sketch larynx and explain its function in your own words.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound 2
Function of Larynx.
When air passes through the vocal cords, they produce sound. Vocal cords may become loose/thick or tight/thin on vibration, thus causing different types of voices.

Question 13.
Lightning and thunder take place in the sky at the same time and at the same distance from us. Lightning is seen earlier and thunder is heard later. Can you explain why ?
Answer:
The speed of light is 3 × 108 m/s while that of sound is only 340 m/s. So, lightning and thunder although taking place simultaneously in the sky at the same distance will be seen and heard at different intervals of time.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Sound Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The unit of frequency is:
(a) dB
(6) Hz
(c) dB and Hz
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Hz.

Question 2.
The intensity of disagreeable sound for human ear is
(a) 60 dB
(b) 10 dB
(c) 90 dB
(d) 30 dB.
Answer:
(c) 90 dB.

Question 3.
Ultrasonic sound is:
(a) Sound of frequency less than 20 Hz
(b) Sound of frequency more than 20 KHz
(c) Sound of frequency 20 Hz to 20000 Hz
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Sound of frequency more than 20 KHz.

Question 4.
Speed of sound at 20°C is approximately:
(a) 430 m/s
(b) 304 m/s
(c) 340 m/s
(d) 3400 m/s
Answer:
(c) 340 m/s

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 5.
The intensity of sound at ordinary inhale is:
(a) 10 dB
(b) 20 dB
(c) 60 dB
(d) 70 dB.
Answer:
(a) 10 dB.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is sound ?
Answer:
Sound. It is a form of energy which produces in us the sensation of hearing.

Question 2.
How is sound produced ?
Answer:
Sound is produced by vibrations of a body.

Question 3.
Will sound travel in vacuum ?
Answer:
No, it will require some medium.

Question 4.
Does sound travel in gases ?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 5.
Does sound travel in liquids ?
Answer:
Yes.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 6.
Does sound travels in solids ?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 7.
On what factor does loudness of sound depend ?
Answer:
Loudness of sound depends upon the amplitude of vibrating body.

Question 8.
If an object makes 10 oscillations in a second, then what is its frequency ?
Answer:
10 Hertz.

Question 9.
Will the sound travel faster, in wood or water ?
Answer:
In solids, the sound travels faster than liquids. So sound will travel faster in wood than in water.

Question 10.
Sound is produced when objects …………………. .
Answer:
Sound is produced when objects vibrate.

Question 11.
The number of oscillations per second is called …………………… .
Answer:
The number of oscillations per second is called frequency.

Question 12.
We can respond to the frequency of sound more than ……………….. hertz and less than ……………… hertz.
Answer:
We can respond to the frequency of sound more than 20 hertz and less than 20,000 hertz.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 13.
Name the section of throat in which the human voice is produced.
Answer:
Larynx.

Question 14.
Name the characteristics of sound which help us to distinguish different sounds.
Answer:
The characteristics of sound which distinguish different sounds. The pitch or loudness of the sound.

Question 15.
What is the audible range of human ear ?
Answer:
Audible Range. The human ear responds to sounds having frequencies 20 hertz to 20,000 hertz.

Question 16.
Define the term pitch.
Answer:
Pitch. A sensation depending upon the frequency is known as the pitch.

Question 17.
Which sound has higher frequency ? Sound produced by a buzzing mosquito or sound produced by roaring lion.
Answer:
The frequency of sound produced by a buzzing mosquito will be more than the frequency of sound produced by a roaring lion.

Question 18.
Write the following frequencies in their increasing order:
(i) Voice of a child
(ii) Voice of man
(iii) Voice of a woman.
Answer:
Voice in increasing order of their frequencies:
Voice of a man < Voice of a child < Voice of a woman.

Question 19.
How do we hear sound ?
Answer:
When sound waves travelling through air strike our ears, diaphragm of ear starts vibrating. These vibrations reach the ear nerves by small bones and send the messages to our brain and which we hear.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 20.
What is length of vocal cords in man ?
Answer:
About 20 mm.

Question 21.
Unpleasant sounds are called ………………. .
Answer:
Noise.

Question 22.
Which sound is produced by musical instruments ?
Answer:
Musical sound.

Question 23.
What is unit of loudness of sound ?
Answer:
Decibel (dB).

Question 24.
Name an instrument with pleasant sound.
Answer:
Harmonium/Guitar/Piano.

Question 25.
What is hearing impairment ?
Answer:
The disability to hear sounds is hearing impairment.

Question 26.
What are causes of hearing impairment ?
Answer:
Ear disease, injury, age and loud noise.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 27.
Give an example of loud noise.
Answer:

  1. Sound produced by machinery in a factory.
  2. Loudspeakers at full volume.

Question 28.
At which unit, sound becomes harmful ?
Answer:
More than 80 dB (Average factory range).

Question 29.
Which is the major cause of noise pollution ?
Answer:
Vehicles.

Question 30.
Which natural organism is important to reduce noise pollution ?
Answer:
Plants and trees.

Question 31.
What is noise pollution ?
Answer:
Noise Pollution. Presence of excessive or unpleasant sound in the atmosphere is called, noise pollution.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define the term time period, frequency and amplitude.
Answer:
Time Period.
It is the time taken by a vibrating particle to complete one vibration.

Frequency.
The number of oscillations per second is called the frequency of the oscillation. Frequency is measured in hertz [Hz].

Amplitude.
The maximum distance through which a vibrating body is displaced from its central resting position, is called amplitude of oscillations.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 2.
One astronaut speaks with another astronaut on Moon. Can the other astronaut listen to the first astronaut ?
Answer:
There is no atmosphere on the moon, thus, the astronauts cannot listen to each other. Therefore, a material medium is required for the propagation of sound.

Question 3.
Sound produced by a mosquito is quite different from the roar of a lion. Explain.
Answer:
The loudness of sound depends upon the amplitude of the wave. A mosquito produces sound by the vibration of its wings, in open air while the lion roars by the vibration of its vocal chords. The amplitude of the sound produced by mosquito will be less than the sound produced by a lion. The pitch and quality of the two sounds is quite different, which makes the two sounds different and distinguishable.

Question 4.
Explain with simple experiment to show that sound propagates through solid substance.
Answer:
Experiment.
Connect two empty match boxes by tying them with the two ends (15 to 20 m long). Request your friend to keep one match box close to his ear. By stretching the string speak into one match box. Sound will be heard very clearly by your friend. This shows that sound can propagate through solids.

Question 5.
How is the human voice produced ?
Answer:
Production of Human voice.
The human voice is the result of vibrations. It is produced in the larynx, a section of the throat. Muscles in the larynx tighten the vocal cords. Air from the lungs rushes past the tight stretched cords and causes the vocal cords to vibrate. The vibrations produced in the vocal cords produce the sound or the voice.

Question 6.
What are ultrasounds ?
Answer:
Ultrasound.
Our ear does not respond to sounds of frequencies less than 20 hertz or greater than 20,000 hertz. Sound of frequency greater than 20,000 hertz is called ultrasonic. The instrument used for producing ultrasonic sound is ultrasonic CT.

Question 7.
What are the uses of ultrasonic sound ?
Answer:
Uses of ultrasonic sound:

  1. Dogs can listen ultrasonic sounds. So to call their dogs people use ultrasonic sounds.
  2. In medical science, ultrasonics are used for forming the images of internal organs of human body.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Question 8.
A boy claps his hands in front of stair-case and hears a musical sound. Explain.
Answer:
The distance of each step of stair case increases from the boy. When a boy claps, sound will not strike all the steps simultaneously but it will strike in short and regular intervals. The reflected sound from them will be received by the ear in the form of a number of waves at regular intervals. Thus a periodic disturbance produces a musical sound.

Question 9.
Give an activity to prove that sound travels faster in water than in air.
Answer:
Sound travels faster in water (liquids) than in air, we can prove this fact by the following activity.
Activity. Take a longer balloon and fill it with water. Hold it close to your ear and scratch it gently with index finger on the farther side of the balloon. A sound will be heard. Repeat this experiment with air-filled balloon. On comparing the two sounds, it is proved that sound travels faster in water than in air.

Question 10.
What is noise ? What is its unit ?
Answer:
Noise.
The unpleasant sounds which are not soft and sweet are known as noise such as sound of machines, automobiles, crackers, etc.
The unit of voice is Decibel (dB).
Noise level is 0-120 dB.

Question 11.
State one difference between noise and a musical sound.
Answer:
Noise is a sound, which produces disagreeable (jarring) effect on the ear. On the other hand, musical sound produces pleasing effect on the ear of the listener.

Question 12.
How do children with impaired hearing communicate ?
Answer:
Children with impaired hearing communicate using sign language and with technically developed devices.

Question 13.
Identify the part which vibrates to produce sound in the following instruments ?

Sr. No. Musical Instrument Sound producing part
1. Flute
2. Dholak

Answer:

Sr. No. Musical Instrument Sound producing part
1. Flute Air column
2. Dholak Stretched membrane

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give an activity to show that sound needs medium to be heard.
Answer:
Sound needs medium.
Sound produced by a vibrating object reaches our ears due to vibrations of the molecules of the medium (air) in succession. If there is no air between the vibrating object and our ear, we would not hear any sound at all. We can study this by the following activity.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound 3
Activity.
Take a wooden stick and hold one end close to your ear. Ask your friend to scratch the other end gently, you will hear the sound.

This activity shows that sound can travel through wood. Sound can travel through liquids as well. You can check this by filling a balloon with water. Hold a water filled balloon close to you ear and scratch the opposite surface of the balloons with your finger.You will again hear sound. Now do the same experiment with an air-filled balloon. This time the sound heard is very feeble in comparison.
Thus, we conclude that sound requires a medium to be heard.

Question 2.
What is noise pollution ? What are its causes and its effects ?
Answer:
Noise pollution.
The unwanted sound which is not soft and is disagreeable to the ear, is called noise. The presence of loud sound in atmosphere is only noise pollution.

Causes of noise pollution.

  1. The loud sounds produced by machines in factories.
  2. Loud speakers.
  3. Generators.
  4. Railway stations.
  5. Air ports.
  6. Music programmes.
  7. Crackers.

Effects of noise pollution:

  1. The worst effect of noise pollution is deafness.
  2. It raises the heart beat.
  3. It also effects the pupil of eyes, thus causing night blindness or colour blindness.

Question 3.
What is music ? Name the various types of vibrating objects used in
different kinds of musical instruments.
Answer:
Music.
Music is the arrangement of sound of different frequencies called notes or swara in a way that it produces pleasing effect on the ear.
In musical instruments, we use vibrating objects such as strings, membranes, and column of air. There are, thus, three families of musical instruments:

  1. Stringed instruments (tantu vadya) e.g. violin, sitar, etc.
  2. Wind instruments or reed instruments (sushir vadya) e.g. the flutes or the shahnai.
  3. Membranous instruments (avanaddha vadya). Many of these are percussions or rhythm instruments e.g. tabla or mridangam.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Sound

Sound PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Sound is produced by a vibrating object.
  • The maximum distance to which a vibrating body moves on either side from its mean position, is called the amplitude of vibration.
  • The time taken to complete one oscillation, is called the time period.
  • The number of oscillations per second, is called the frequency of oscillation.
  • Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz).
  • Larger the amplitude of vibration, louder is the sound produced.
  • Higher the frequency of vibration, the higher is the pitch.
  • For human ears, the audible range of frequency is 20 Hz to 20000 Hz.
  • Sound needs a medium for its propagation. It cannot travel in vacuum.
  • Light travels much faster than sound.
  • Sound may get reflected by an obstacle. Echo is produced due to reflected sound.
  • Some surfaces reflect sound better than the others.
  • Pleasant effect of sound on the ear is called music while unpleasant sound is called noise.
  • In human beings, voice is produced by the vibration of their vocal cords.
  • Amplitude: The maximum distance through which a vibrating body is displaced from its mean position.
  • Echo: The reflection of sound from an obstacle such as a building or a mountain.
  • Frequency: The number of vibrations made by a vibrating body in 1 second.
  • Hertz (Hz): The unit of frequency.
  • Larynx: Organ of voice in human-beings.
  • Loudness: The property of sound which depends upon the amplitude and intensity of the vibrating body.
  • Musical Sound: Sound which produces pleasing effect on the ear.
  • Noise: Sound which produces disagreeable effect on the ear.
  • Ultrasonic: Vibrations having frequency above 20,000 Hz.
  • Vibrating Body: An object, moving to and fro about the mean position.
  • Vibrations: To and fro motion of an object.
  • Vocal Cords: Two pairs of membranous cords or folds in the larynx.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 13 Sound Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 7 E-Governance

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB E-Governance Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. G2C stands for ……………
(a) Government to cooperation
(b) Grievances to cooperation
(c) Government to citizen
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Government to citizen

2. G2G stands for …………………
(a) Government to Government
(b) Get to Go
(c) Gather to Go
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Government to Government

3. G2E stands for ……………..
(a) Grievance to employee
(b) Government to an employee
(c) Government to environment
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Government to an employee

4. G2B stands for ……………..
(a) Government to Banks
(b) Government to Businessmen
(c) Government to Business
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Government to Businessmen

5. IRCTC stands for ………………..
(a) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Cooperation ltd.
(b) Indian Runway Catering and tourism Cooperation ltd.
(c) Indian Railway Catering and travelling Cooperation ltd.
(d) Indian Railway Cargo and tourism Cooperation ltd
Answer:
(a) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Cooperation ltd.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is E-governance?
Answer:
Governance is a framework that is developed with a combination of man and machine. The implementation of any e-governance services requires advanced technology infrastructure like web-based applications that require a dedicated server and user-friendly web interface.

Question 2.
What are the two main objectives of e-governance?
Answer:
1. To satisfactorily fulfil the public’s needs and expectations by simplifying their interaction with various online services.
2. To facilitate a speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and effective process for performing government administration activities.

Question 3.
Write the area of E-governance in urban.
Answer:
The area of E-Governance in urban are in transportation, railway, Information and public relation key services, roads and traffic management etc.

Question 4.
Write the area of E-governance in rural.
Answer:
E-Governance in rural areas are in the field of Agriculture, Local information, Disaster management, Land record management and Panchayat etc.

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the main characteristics of Good Governance.
Answer:
1. Good governance is transparent which means that people are able to clearly see how and why a decision was made.
2. Good governance follows the rule of law.
3. Good governance is responsive which means that government always tries to serve the needs of the entire community timely and appropriately.

Question 2.
Explain the four pillars of E-Governance.
Answer:
Fundamentally, e-Government projects would stand on four key pillars – People, Process, Technology and Resource (PPTR), Figure below. Each of the components needs to be addressed carefully and in a holistic manner, to achieve the desired results of the project, figure below :
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance Img 1

1. PEOPLE: As e-government projects are rolled out across the country people within and outside the government will play an increasingly important role in ensuring the success of these projects. The scale of transformation is huge and enormous resources not only in terms of money but also the expertise, skills and commitment of the people will be required.

2. PROCESS: E-Government is not just about the automation of manual records and existing processes, with all their inefficiencies. Rather, it is about transforming government processes and creating new relationships between the government and its citizens and businesses. Hence, a fresh set of process parameters and related workflow should be created, without creating unmanageable and chaotic changes, to maintain the consistency and sustainability of the process.

3. TECHNOLOGY: The Technology Challenges relate to lack of overall architecture and a road map for e-Government, lack of standards, poor IT Infrastructure, especially the poor communication networks, and, above all, adoption of the hardware approach rather than service-approach in the design and implementation of e-Gov projects. These challenges, if not addressed adequately and in time, result in an ad-hoc approach to e-Gov implementation. A few projects get implemented in isolation with big questions on their sustainability and scalability.

4. RESOURCES: New technologies demand new types of implementation models. Adopting conventional procurement methods would not take us far on the path of e-government. In the conventional approach, the project ownership lies with the public sector itself along with the responsibility for funding it and bearing the entire risk.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 3.
Explain the four models of e-governance.
Answer:
The followings are the four models of e-governance :

1. Government to citizens (G2C)
This model of e-governance refers to the government services which are shared by citizens. In this model, citizens visit the links of services that they want to use. This model strengthens the bond between the government and its citizen. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Payment of online bills such as electricity, water, telephone bills, etc.
  2. Online registration of applications.
  3. Copies of land record.
  4. Online filling of complaints.
  5. Availability of any kind of online information.

2. Government to government (G2G)
This model refers to the services which are shared between the governments. There is lots of information that need to be shared between various government agencies, department and organizations. These types of services or information areas :

  1. Sharing of information between police departments of various states.
  2. Government document exchange which includes preparation, approval, distribution, and storage of all governmental documents, is also done through e-governance.
  3. Most of the finance and budget works are also done through e-governance.

3. Government to businessmen (G2B)
Through this model, the bond between the private sector and the government is strengthened. It is used by businessmen to communicate to the government. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Rejection and approval of patent are done by this model.
  2. Payment of all kinds of bills and penalties.
  3. Sharing of all kinds of information, rules, and data.
  4. Complaints or any kind of dissatisfaction can be shown by this.

4. Government to employees (G2E)
This model increases the transparency between the government and its employee. Here, employees can keep a check on the functioning and working of the government and the government can keep track of its employees. Information that can be shared by this model:

  1. All kinds of data submission (attendance record, employee record, etc.) from various government offices is done by this model.
  2. An employee can file all kinds of complaints and dissatisfaction with this model.
  3. All kinds of rules- regulations,s, and information for employees can be shared by this.

Question 4.
Write about E-GOVERNANCE IN HEALTH and EDUCATION.
Answer:
E-Governance provides many services in the health sector also. With the help of EGovemance, people can online check the availability of medicines, health camps, and other facilities. The following are the projects under the health area are Hospital OPD Appointment: It is the system of welfare measures started by the Chandigarh Government to make the life of citizens simpler and comfortable. HEALING: This project is started by the Kerala Government for Medical Health and Family Welfare Department,

E-Governance in the education sector is helpful in providing basic education and education facilities to children. Its aim is to provide computer education to children and online results for various classes. The following are the projects under the education field are Online Scholarship Management System: Its purpose is the distribution of scholarships and fees among brilliant and needy students. AISES (All India School Education Survey): The aim of this project is to survey the number of schools in the district which helps in the Census. This project was started by Assam Government.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 5.
Describe the history and development of E-governance.
Answer:
Among developing countries, India has been an early adopter of e-governance. The first wave can be considered to have evolved bottom-up. Some social entrepreneurs convinced district-level officials of the wonders of new ICTs, especially in providing convergent services to remote areas and improving transparency and oversight in this regard. The Gyandoot project in Dhar district, which begun in 2000, is considered the forerunner of what was to be a rash. of projects that built a front-end in many village communities which were supposed to be serviced by a back-end mostly in the district collectorate. The idea and the effort were to create pressure from the community front-end for the digitization of back-end departmental processes.

The latter was largely a localized effort, mostly dependent on the initiative and energy of the concerned district collector, often with some very spirited support of the district National Informatics Centre (NIC) staff. Perhaps the most organized and successful effort in this first phase of e-governance in India, roughly between 2000-05, was Rural e-Seva in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. As for community-level front-end development two initiatives, N-Logue and Drishti stand out, each of which at one time claimed to be running thousands of community telecentres across the country that could deliver e-governance services.

There is a general tendency to classify these early efforts as failures. Indeed, around 2005-06, N-Logue closed down and Drishti moved out of e-governance services. Rural e-Seva also was never scaled up. However, what is noteworthy is that in a relatively short time, these early projects created a lasting impression of new ICTs as a possible means to bring governance close to the people, and perhaps, also make it more transparent and accountable. To that extent, they had a very significant impact,

even if these initiatives themselves could not survive, due to a variety of reasons which we cannot discuss in greater detail, here. (However, if we compare this situation with the burst of the dot-com bubble in the early part of the last decade, one can see some common factors.) They created the context for the very ambitious National E-Governance Plan (NeGP), especially its flagship project, the Common Service Centres, which was inaugurated by the Government of India in 2006.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide E-Governance Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks

1. ………………… means the government to employees.
(a) G2L
(b) G2G
(c) G2E
(d) G2B
Answer:
(c) G2E

2. E-governance has ………………… main objectives.
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(a) 2

3. ………………….. do work of e-governance in urban areas.
(a) Transportation
(b) Municipal Corporation
(c) Road Safety
(d) All of above
Answer:
(b) Municipal Corporation

4. ………………….. do work of e-governance in a rural areas.
(a) Health
(b) Panchayat
(c) Agriculture
(d) Municipal Corporation
Answer:
(b) Panchayat

True or False

1. E-governance do not work in education.
Answer:
False

2. E-governance has four models.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is e-Government?
Answer:
The term e-Government is understood differently across the world. E- Govemment or Electronic Government is the delivery of more convenient, customer-oriented, and cost-effective public services and sharing of information through electronic media. Specifically, e-Government harnesses information and communication technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

Question 2.
What is the difference between e-Government and e-Governance?
Answer:
E-Govemment is the transformation of internal and external public sector relationships, through Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in order to optimize government service delivery and citizen participation. Digital society is a society or community that is well advanced in the adoption and integration of digital technology into daily life at home, work and play. E-Governance is the development, deployment, and enforcement of the policies, laws, and regulations necessary to support the functioning of a Knowledge Society as well as of e-Government.

Question 3.
What are the objectives of e-Governance?
Answer:
The strategic objective of e-Governance is to support and simplify governance for government, citizens, and businesses. The use of ICT can connect all three parties and support processes and activities. Other objectives are to make government administration more transparent, speedy and accountable while addressing the society’s needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between the people, businesses and government.

Question 4.
what are the benefits of e-Governance?
Answer:
E-Governance offers many benefits and advantages for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves the performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
List the various services of E-governance for urban.
Ans. The followings are the various services of e-governances for urban :

1. Transportation: There are many services which are provided by e-governance in transportation like provision of booking facility of interstate transport, plans for regional transportation, time table of buses and transportation improvement program etc. The following are the projects under e-governance in transportation such as:OSRTC- The Orissa State Road Transport Corporation project was started to provide online facilities in the transportation department.HRTC- The Himachal Road Transport Corporation project provides many facilities like online booking, availability and cancellation of seats and buses etc.

2. Online payment of bills and taxes: E-Governance also provides online transactions,payment of bills, EMIs and taxes etc. The project under e-governance in online payment is FRIENDS which is started by Kerala Government to make onlinepayments of fees, water and electricity bills etc.

3. Municipal services: The services provided by municipal sector are house taxes, issuethe death certificates, maintain records of property and approval for site plans etc.The following are the projects under municipal services are:SDO Suite: This project was started by Assam Government. It provides manyfacilities by issuing certificates like permission for land sale, birth and death reportetc.

4. Rural Digital Services: It gives many social security services such as old agepension, widow and freedom fighter pension.

5. Roads and. traffic management: The services provided by road and trafficmanagement are construction and maintenance of roads, traffic management andpollution control schemes. The project under e-govemance in road and trafficmanagement is CFST (Citizen Friendly Services of Transport) which is started by Andhra Pradesh Government. It checks the pollution control level, road safety andsafety of people. ’

Question 2.
List the various services of E-governance for rural.
Answer:
The followings are the various services of e-governances for rural:

1. Agriculture: The farmers rely on the information provided by the govemmentthrough e-governance. Governments are working on many projects used in agriculture like MARKET which is approved by the Department of Marketing and inspection (DMI), Ministry of Agriculture and Government of India. ‘

2. Local information: Government provides many local information such as prices of seeds, loan rates etc. The project under e-governance in local information is EJanSamparkwhich is started by Chandigarh Government to help people access the local information in their locality to fulfil their needs.

3. Land record management: With the help of this management, huge number of land records can be maintained in a very small time. The following are the projects under land record management are : Bhooftii: It was started by Karnataka Government and known as the first E-Governanceland records management projects.Land Records Management System State Government of Punjab.

4. Panchayat: Panchayat provides many services such as issuing the birth and death certificates, various schemes for poor people and water supply and sanitation etc.

Question 3.
List the various E-Governance Services from Government To Government.
Answer:
E-Governance Services from Government to Government (G2G): It is also known as E-Administration. In this model, services are being shared between many governments. Information are shared among various government agencies, organizations and departments. The following arethe services discussed in the G2G model:

E-Secretariat: E-Secretariat provides huge, valuable and functional information of the state. In E-Secretariat,multiple departments are linked together on internet and exchange the information of various components. Italso links all the governmental departments with their headquarters and state capitals. .

E-Police: E-Police helps everyone to feel safe and secure. For this purpose, E- Police maintain two databases.First database is of police personnel which provide records (current and previous posting etc.) of persons working in police. This database helps people to find the specialization of policemen according to geographical regions and skills. Second database is of criminal records. This database provides full detail of any criminal byjust typing the name of criminal. This database also provide the past activities and area of operation of anycriminal.

E-Court: E-Court will bring a revolution in the Indian pending court cases. In India, there are a number of pending cases that produce frustration in people and will bring the system to a halt. Both consumers and the system need the change. If the system w3ill work in the same manner in future, than one day it will collapse. In E- Court, IT transforms the system into databases of cases having zero level dependency. In such systems, Judges can consider the appeals from intranet, give their decisions online by considering recorded facts of case and reduce the backlog of cases.
The success of G2G model is based on some important aspects like expenditure, the establishment of the network, planning, monitoring and controlling the performance of process resources like human and financial.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 4.
What are the various stages of E-governance?
Answer:
Stages of e-Governance :
It is apparent in various research studies that e-Governance is fundamentally linked with the development of computer technology, networking of computers and communication systems. In developing nations, such technologies and systems became available with an observable time lag as compared to developed nations. When appraising the e-governance model in India, it is established that with the liberalization of the economy from the early 1990s onwards, there has been a convergence in the availability of progressive technologies and opportunities in this field. The inception of e-Governance proceeded through four stages in India.

1. Computerization: In the first stage, with the availability of personal computers, the majority of Government offices are well equipped with computers. The use of computers begem with word processing, quickly followed by data processing.

2. Networking: In this stage, some units of a few government organizations are connected through a hub leading to sharing of information and flow of data between different government entities.

3. On-line presence: In the third stage, with increasing internet connectivity, a need was felt for maintaining a presence on the web. This resulted in the maintenance of websites by government departments and other entities. Generally, these web pages/websites contained information about the organizational structure, contact details, reports and publications, objectives and vision statements of the respective government entities.

4. On-line interactivity: A natural significance of online presence was opening up of communication channels between government entities and the citizens, civil society organizations etc. The main objective of this stage was to lessen the scope of personal interface with government entities by providing downloadable Forms, Instructions, Acts, and Rules.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Computer Science Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Computer Guide for Class 10 PSEB Microsoft Publishers-II Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Multiple choice questions

Question 1.
Now day’s brochures are also available in electronic format and are called:
(a) e-brochures
(b) m-brochures
(c) t-brochures
(d) k-brochures
Answer:
(a) e-brochures

Question 2.
A small card printed with one’s name, occupation, business address, etc. is called:
(a) Brochures
(b) Newsletters
(c) Business cards
(d) Menus
Answer:
(c) Business cards

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 3.
What is the most common document requested of applicants in job applications?
(a) Banner
(b) Resume
(c) Calendar
(d) Flyer
Answer:
(b) Resume

Question 4.
What are longer than resumes-at least two or three pages?
(a) Curriculum vita (CV)
(b) Banner
(c) Invitation
(d) Catalogue
Answer:
(a) Curriculum vita (CV)

2. Fill in the Blanks

1. Advertising means how a company encourages people to buy their …………… or ideas.
Answer:
Products and services

2. MS-Publisher offers templates and other tools to help us create a variety of publications, including brochures, newsletters, …………… and …………….
Answer:
Business Cards and Menus

3. Business cards are cards bearing business information about a ……………. or ……………….
Answer:
Company and Individual

4. A resume provides a summary of our ………….., credentials, …………… and other accomplishments and skills.
Answer:
Education and Work history.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

3. True or False

1. A compliment card is a piece of card or high quality paper expressing friendship or any other sentiment.
Answer:
True

2. Certificates of achievement, merit, and honor can be powerful tools.
Answer:
True

3. Brochures are prop national documents, primarily never used to introduce a company, organization.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

4. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a piece of paper, cloth, wood or any other material which is painted with pictures or words and which gives some information about a particular place, product, or event.
Answer:
Sign

Question 2.
What is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material?
Answer:
Envelop

Question 3.
What is something given to a person, a group of people, or an organization recognition of their excellence in a certain field?
Answer:
Award

Question 4.
What is a form of paper advertisement used for wide distribution, posted or distributed in a public place, handed out to individuals or sent through the mail?
Answer:
Flyer

Question 5.
What is a printed report containing news or information of the activities of a business or an organization more.
Answer:
Newsletter

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

5. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain Signs?
Answer:
A sign is a piece of paper, clothe, wood or any other material which is painted with pictures or words and which gives some information about a particular place, product, or event.

Question 2.
Explain Resumes?
Answer:
A resume provides a summary of our education, work history, credentials, and other accomplishments and skills. There are also optional sections, including a resume objective and career summary statement.

Question 3.
What is Banner?
Answer:
A long strip of cloth bearing a slogan or design carried in a demonstration, procession or hung in a public place. Depending on how it is used, a banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other marketing message. An online banner is either a graph mage that announces the name or identity of a site.

Question 4.
Explain Newsletters?
Answer:
A newsletter is a printed report containing news or information of the activities of a business or an organization that is send by mail regularly to all its members, customers, employees or people, who are interested in. Newsletters generally contain one topic of interest to its recipients. A newsletter may be considered grey literature.

Question 5.
What are Menus?
Answer:
A menu may be a list from which guests use to choose options available. Basically Menu is the main way to give or take order from guest.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

6. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are Advertisements? Explain various print media used for advertisements?
Answer:
An advertisement or ‘ad” for short is anything that draws good attention towards these things. Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Advertising means how a company encourages people to buy their products, services or ideas. It is usually designed by an advertising agency. Ads appear on television, as well as radio, newspapers, magazines etc. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services.

Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including old media such as newspapers, magazines, Television, Radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as search results, blogs, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a media is referred to as an advertisement or “ad”. Non-commercial advertisers include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies.
MS – Publisher offers templates and other tools to help us create a variety of advertisements like:

  • Banners
  • Brochures
  • Catalogs
  • Flyers
  • Newsletters

Question 2.
What are Business Cards? Write steps for creating Business Card in Publisher?
Answer:
A small card printed with one’s name, occupation, business address, etc. is called a business card. Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. They are shared during formal introductions. A usiness card typically includes the givers name, company or business affiliation id contact information such as street addresses, telephone number (s), fax number, mail addresses and website.

Steps to Create Business Cards:
1. Click on File Tab, then New, and then Business Card-
Select any one according to choice. On right side of window, you can customize this selected Business Card with the help of color scheme, font scheme, business information, page size options and logo.

2. After changing of color, fonts scheme, business information and page size, click on Create button.

3. The Business Card is designed successfully. Now you can change Business Name or Individual name also, Address, Contacts etc.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 3.
What is Label? Where labels can be used for?
Answer:
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or product. Information printed directly on a container or item can also be considered labeling. Labels have many uses, including providing information on a product’s origin, manufacturer, use, shelf- life and disposal etc. Many hazardous products such as poisons or flammable liquids must have a warning label.
Uses of Labels:

1. Products:
Permanent product labels need to remain secure throughout the life of the product. For example, a food label must be secure until the food has been used.

2. Packaging:
Packaging may have labeling attached to or integral with the package. These may carry pricing, bar codes, UPC (Universal Product Code) identification, usage guidance, addresses, advertising, recipes, and so on.

3. Assets:
In industrial or military environments, asset labeling is used to clearly identify assets for maintenance and operational purposes. Such labels . are frequently made of engraved Trifoliate or a similar material.

4.Textiles:
Garments normally carry separate care/treatment labels which typically indicate how the item should be washed for e.g. machine washed or dry cleaned. Textile labels may be woven into the garment or attached, and may be heat resistant, colorfast, washable. Printed labels are an alternative to woven labels.

5. Mailing: Mailing labels identify the addressee, the sender and any other information which may be useful in transit.

6. Security Labels:
They are used for authentication, theft reduction, and protection against counterfeit and are commonly used on ID cards, credit cards, packaging, and products from CDs to electronics to clothing.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 4.
What is Letterhead? How to create Letterhead in Publisher?
Answer:
A newsletter is a printed report containing news or information of the activities of a business or an organization that is sent by mail regularly to all it members, customers, employees or people, who are interested in. Newsletter generally contain one main topic of interest to its recipients. A newsletter may b( considered grey literature.E-newsletters delivered electronically via e-mail anc can be viewed as spamming if sent unsolicited.

Steps to Create Newsletters using MS-Publisher:

  • Click on File Tab, then New, and then Newsletters.
  • Select newsletter design from available Templates as per requirement and click on Create.
  • Modify the newsletter and add your own content.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Guide Microsoft Publishers-II Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which thing is like a long strip?
(a) Newsletter
(b) Banner
(c) Label
(d) Business card
Answer:
(b) Banner

Question 2
What is called list of things?
(a) Banner
(b) Label
(c) Envelope
(d) Catalogue
Answer:
(d) Catalogue

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 3
What is used for Day planning?
(a) Banner
(b) Label
(c) Calendar
(d) Catalogue
Answer:
(c) Calendar

Question 4
What the Stationary printed with heading is called?
(a) Label
(b) Banner
(c) Letterhead
(d) Catalogue
Answer:
(c) Letterhead

Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………….. menu is used to change the font colour and text bar colour of text.
Answer:
Format

2. Title of newsletter is typed in ………………..
Answer:
Text Box

3. Date of newsletter is typed in …………….
Answer:
Data Text box

4. Post card has ……………… number of sides.
Answer:
two

5. If you do not want to include the logo, then click …………………
Answer:
None.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

True/False

1. You should type note or message in text box.
Answer:
True

2. Different designs are shown in the preview gallery.
Answer:
True

3. Envelopes are used to write letters.
Answer:
True

4. In news letter every page has same layout.
Answer:
False

5. By default, in news letter, there are three columns and three stories.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What is resume?
Answer:
Like resume, a curriculum vitae (CV) provides a summary of ones experience and skills. Typically, CVs are longer than resumes-at least two or three pages.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a Banners?
Answer:
Banner an image, usually displayed at the top of each page in a Web site, containing text and design elements. You can create banners for any event and to capture the attention of the public.

Question 2.
Define Newsletter.
Answer:
Newsletter is a letter that consist of schedule of events, information about the chief guest and other distinguished people who will attend that event.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 3.
Write a short note on Postcard.
Answer:
Postcard is a card that contains the some information regarding some particular events, celebration, greating etc. In View Publication task pane, Under News form a design, click publications for Print Post cards. Choose the suitable option from the list. Various post card designs are .displayed in preview gallery, select the post card design. Type the note or message in the text box. In post card options task pane, under side 2 information, click the details, which should appear on the reverse side of the post card. In the last specify the number of post cards, under copies per sheet and save the publication.

Question 4.
How will you open new letterhead?
Answer:
The following are the steps two open new letter head :

  • In New Publication task pane, Under New from a Design, click Publication for print letterhead.
  • Klick any one option from two i.e. Plain paper or special paper.
  • Click the any suitable design from the preview gallery.
  • By default logo is included in the letter head, if you do not want to inclued the logo, then click none, under logo.
  • After making all necessary changes, Save the publication as letter head.

Question 5.
Write the usage of envelope.
Answer:
The following are the usage of envelopes :

  • To send invitating card.
  • To send letters.

Question 6.
What is Banner?
Answer:
Banner an image, usually displayed at the top of each page in a Web site, containing text and design elements. You can create banners for any event and to capture the attention of the public.

Question 7.
What is Newsletter?
Answer:
News Letter is a letter that consist of schedule of events, information about the chief guest and other distinguished people who will attend that event.

Question 8.
What is Postcard?
Answer:
Post Card is a card that contains the some information regarding some particular events, celebration, greating etc.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 9.
State the difference between letterhead and postcard.
Answer:
Post Card is a card that contains the some information regarding some particular events, celebration, greeting etc. Post card has two sides. Letter head is a stationery which is used to write letter.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the steps to create Newsletter.
Answer:
Newsletters are a great way to share information with family, friends and customers. Microsoft Publisher’s newsletter function provides complete design and layout flexibility. Use the program to select a design layout and color scheme, format text and insert images quickly and easily to create a custom newsletter.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II 1
Following are steps that are used to create a newsletter in Microsoft Publisher:
1. Choose a newsletter design. On the main menu click “File” and then “New” to open the Catalog Window. Click the “Newsletters” option on the Wizards menu, select the desired design from the options and then click “Start Wizard.” Enter your contact information in the window prompt. Delete the sample text in the field to leave a field blank. Click “Include color scheme in this set” and select the desired colors. Click “Update” when finished. Complete the steps in the Wizard or click “Finish” to exit the Newsletter wizard.

2. Enter the text. Place the mouse inside the desired text box and click once. Type the text or cut and paste from a Word document. Format the font style, size and appearance by using the main menu at the top of the screen. Place the mouse over the border until the word “Resize” appears. Click and drag the border to the desired size.

3. Insert images by clicking “Insert” and then “Picture.” Select from clip art or photos stored on your computer. Resize the image. Click and drag the mouse diagonally towards the center of the photo until the photo reaches the desired size.

4. Edit the text box-and image layouts as needed. Create a new text box by , clicking the text frame tool (“A”). Place the mouse in the desired location, then click and drag to create the desired box size. Place the mouse over the item until the word “Move” appears. Click and hold down the mouse and drag to the desired location. Place the mouse inside the box and click once, on the main menu click “Edit” and then “Delete Object” if you need to delete a text box.

5. Change the number of pages in the newsletter as needed. Click “Insert” and then “Page” and follow the instructions in the pop up window. Click the desired page number at the page display on the bottom of the screen and click “Edit” and then “Delete Page” to remove pages.

6. Finalize the newsletter. Proofread and spell check. Print the document on paper and place the pages in order to ensure the page numbers line up properly before copying. This is helpful if you plan to copy two-sided or convert to 11 x 17 inch paper.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Question 2.
Write the steps to create Envelope.
Answer:
Special occasion cards get piled away with the rest of the mail when they are in plain envelopes with no special decal or design to separate them from others. Design a special envelope using Microsoft Publisher for a single use birthday card envelope or to use on all your mailings, so that people will see your envelopes and know that they are from you. Relatives and close friends will also appreciate the time you took to make their envelope special.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II 2
Following are steps that are used to create an envelope in Microsoft Publisher :
1. Launch Microsoft Publisher and click “Publications for Print.” A list of options will appear underneath this section. You can choose from several pre-made envelopes. These envelope designs are for several different types of businesses.

2. Delete any option or area of the envelope you do not need for your purpose. Select the area by left clicking on the area once and it will bring up a border around the box. Right click on the selection and choose “Delete.”

3. Move any of the pre-selected fields by dragging it to where you would prefer it. Select the area; move the mouse pointer till it becomes a four arrowed figure. Left click and hold the mouse button and drag the box to where you want it.

4. Fill in the address fields by highlighting and entering in the correct information.

5. Insert pictures and designs to the envelope to make it more personal. Click “Insert” and “Clipart”, “Object” or “Textbox.” Recipients of your letters will love having designs on the envelopes that display your personality.

6. Choose to make your own envelope from scratch by selecting “Blank Print Publication” from under the New section on the left hand side of the Microsoft Publisher screen. Select “File”, “Page Setup” and a new window will appear. Hit “Envelope” from under the Publication Type and adjust any height and width dimensions you may need. This is easy, just measure your envelope.

7. Insert and edit till your message is clear from the design on your envelope. Try printing in gray scale and on regular paper before printing on any envelopes. This will save money and trees.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Friction

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Friction Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks.
[a] Friction opposes the ………………… between the surfaces in contact with each other.
[b] Friction depends on ……………….. of surfaces.
[c] Friction produces ……………….
[d] Sprinkling of powder on the carrom board ……………….. friction.
[e] Sliding friction is ………………. than the static friction.
Answer:
(a) relative motion
(b) nature
(c) heat
(d) decreases
(e) less.

Question 2.
Four children were asked to arrange forces due to rolling, static and sliding frictions in decreasing order. Their arrangements are given below. Choose the correct arrangement.
[а] rolling, static, sliding
[b] rolling, sliding, static
[c] static, sliding, rolling
[d] sliding, static, rolling.
Answer:
(c) Static, sliding, rolling.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Question 3.
Alida runs her car on the dry marble floor, wet marble floor, newspaper and towel spread on the floor. The force of friction acting on the car on different surfaces in increasing order will be
(i) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel.
(ii) newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet marble floor.
(iii) towel, newspaper, dry marble floor, wet marble floor.
(iv) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, towel, newspaper.
Answer:
(ii) Newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet-marble floor.

Question 4.
Supose your writing desk is tilted a little. A book kept on it starts sliding down. Show the direction of frictional force acting on it.
Answer:
Upward direction.

Question 5.
You spill a bucket of soapy water on a marble floor accidently. Would it make it easier or more difficult for you to walk on the floor ? Why ?
Answer:
Soapy water will make the walking more difficult.
Soapy floor acts as a smooth surface as it has no irregularities in it and soap is also very slippery in nature. So, when we walk on soapy floor, we do not have opposing force with the result we slip.

Question 6.
Explain why sportsmen use shoes with spikes.
Answer:
Sportsmen use shoes with spikes to get a better grip on the floor.

Question 7.
Iqbal has to push a lighter box and Seema has to push a similar heavier box on the same floor. Who will have to apply a larger force and why ?
Answer:
Seema will experience a more frictional force since heavier box applies greater pressure on the floor as compared to lighter box due to its weight.

Question 8.
Explain why sliding friction is less than static friction.
Answer:
When a body is at rest, then the force active between the two surfaces in contact is more due to irregularities on two surfaces locked into one another.

But when a body is moving or sliding, the contact points do not get enough time to lock into one another. So sliding friction is always less than’ static friction.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Question 9.
Give examples to show that friction is both a friend and a foe.
Answer:
Friction as a friend.

  1. We can write with a pen or pencil.
  2. Teacher is able to write with chalk on the blackboard.
  3. We walk on the floor.
  4. Fix a nail on the wall.

Friction as a foe.

  1. It weakens the materials.
  2. It produces heat in machines which damages the various parts.
  3. Stones on rubbing, produces fire.

Question 10.
Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.
Answer:
When objects move through fluids, they have to overcome friction acting on them. In this process, they lose energy. Efforts are made to minimize friction by giving special shapes to the moving objects.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Friction Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
While pushing a heavy box from one place to another in his house, Naresh noticed that it was difficult to take a stationary box from its resting position to moving position but it was easy to move that box with that speed. Why was it so ?
(a) Sliding friction is less than static friction
(b) Static friction is less than sliding friction
(c) The weight of the box decreases
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) Sliding friction is less than static friction.

Question 2.
The moving ball on the floor stops after some time because ……………….. acts on it.
(a) magnetic force
(b) electrostatic force
(c) frictional force
(d) both electrostatic force and frictional force.
Answer:
(c) frictional force.

Question 3.
It is difficult to walk on wet floor because:
(a) frictional force increases
(b) frictional force decreases
(c) sometimes frictional force increases
(d) it is impossible to apply more muscular force
Answer:
(b) frictional force decreases.

Question 4.
You move a stone of glass on the cemented floor, marble floor, water, towel and on ice. The force of friction acting on the different surfaces in increasing order will be:
(a) cemented floor, water, towel, marble floor, ice
(b) marble floor, cemented floor, water, ice, towel
(c) ice, water, marble, towel, cemented floor
(d) water, ice, marble, cemented floor, towel
Answer:
(d) water, ice, marble, cemented floor, towel

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Question 5.
Static friction works when:
(a) an attempt is made to bring an object from motion to rest form
(b) an attempt is made to bring an object from rest form to motion
(c) we do not want to bring any change in the situation of an object
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) an attempt is made to bring an object from rest form to motion .

Question 6.
Rolling friction is:
(a) more than static friction
(b) equal to static friction
(c) less than static friction
(d) sometimes more than static friction and sometimes less than static friction.
Answer:
(c) less than static friction.

Question 7.
Four children were asked to arrange rolling, static and sliding frictions in decreasing order. Their arrangements are given below. Choose the correct arrangement.
(a) rolling, static, sliding
(b) rolling, sliding, static
(c) static, sliding, rolling
(d) sliding, static, rolling.
Answer:
(c) static, sliding, rolling

Question 8.
Alya runs her car on the dry marble floor, wet marble floor, newspaper and towel spread on the floor. The force of friction acting on the car on different surfaces in increasing order will be:
(a) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel
(b) newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet marble floor
(c) towel, newspaper, dry marble floor, wet marble floor
(d) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, towel, newspaper.
Answer:
(a) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which direction the force of friction acts ?
Answer:
It acts in a direction opposite to the direction in which the force is applied.

Question 2.
It is difficult to move a cycle along a road with its brakes on. Why ?
Answer:
Sliding friction is more than rolling friction.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Question 3.
Why a rolling ball stops after some time ?
Answer:
Due to opposing force of air and friction between the ball and the ground.

Question 4.
What is friction ?
Answer:
Friction.
It is the resistance offered to the movement of one material object against another when the two are in contact with each other.

Question 5.
Why are tyres made circular ?
Answer:
Rolling friction is less than sliding friction.

Question 6.
Friction is a self-adjusting force. Is it correct ?
Answer:
Till the body moves, forces of friction adjusts itself in such a way that it is equal and opposite to the applied force.

Question 7.
Which is more smooth : wet muddy or cemented floor ?
Answer:
Wet muddy floor.

Question 8.
What is a spring balance ?
Answer:
Spring balance. It is a device used to measure force dcting on an object.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why a horse has to apply more force to start a tonga than to keep it moving ?
Answer:
In the first few steps the horse has to do work against the force of friction as well as has to give acceleration (has to increase kinetic energy) to the tonga. After when it begins to move it has to work only against friction.

Question 2.
Give some examples of force of friction.
Answer:
The following are the examples of force of friction in our daily life.:

  1. A ball rolled inside a hall with smooth floor moves a longer distance than one on a rough ground, when both are rolled with the same initial velocity.
  2. A person walking inside a room, with polished tiles is afraid of slipping, especially when the tiles are wet.
  3. If talcum powder is spread on a carrom board the coins move easily and cover a longer distance.
  4. If a driver applies brakes, the moving vehicle stops.

Question 3.
Friction produces heat. How ?
Answer:
Friction produces heat. It can be shown by following examples-

  1. Rubbing hands together for few minutes makes our hand hot.
  2. Striking match stick produces fire by friction.
  3. Jar of a mixer becomes hot after when it is run for few minutes.

Question 4.
Out of the given two situations, which one will be easy to push the object and why ?
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction 1
Answer:
In situation 1 it is easy to push the object because rolling friction is less than sliding friction.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define friction. What is the cause of friction ? Give factors affecting friction. Explain that friction is necessary evil.
Answer:
Friction.
It is the opposing force or retarding force; which is called into play when a body actually moves or tends to move over the surface of another body.

When an object is pushed with a small amount of force, it does not move at all. It means that the other surface on which object is lying exerts some force on the object which is in a direction opposite to our push. The opposing force is called friction.

Cause of friction.
Every surface, howsoever, consists of irregularities in the form of mounds and grooves. When one surface tends to move over the other surface, these irregularities get interlocked with one another and hence motion is opposed. This gives rise to frictional force. Thus, force of friction is due to roughness of the surface.

Factors affecting friction.

  1. Nature of two surfaces in contact.
  2. Area of contact.
  3. The normal force with which the two surfaces are pressed.
    Friction is a necessary evil because it has both advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of friction.
Friction plays a very important role in our daily life.
1. We can walk, run, climb up the mountains and the trees only due to friction. Steps of the stairs are made rough to increase friction and hence avoid slipping.

2. The moving vehicles can only be stopped by applying brakes. Due to lack of friction, it is very difficult to drive a vehicle out of mud. Tyres of the vehicles have special projections and depressions, so as to avoid slipping.

3. Belts and pulleys are capable of driving machine only because of friction.

4. If friction were absent, a knot could not be tied; a nail could not be fixed in the wood, the buildings would have tumbled down, the eatables could not be held in fingers and not chewed by the teeth. The clothes could not be stitched and the writing with pen was not possible.

Disadvantages of friction:

  1. It causes wear and tear.
  2. Efficiency of machines decreases due to loss of energy due to friction.
  3. Heat produced due to friction damages the machines.
    This shows that friction is a necessary evil.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

Question 2.
What is force of limiting friction and sliding friction ?
Answer:
When no force is applied on a body, there is no force of friction acting on it and the body remains at rest. As you go on increasing applied force, force of friction increases by an equal amount upto a certain limit L. From O to L, the body remains at rest and force of friction is called force of static friction. If the force is slightly increased beyond L, the body starts sliding over the other body. This maximum force of friction which comes in to play is called force of limiting friction. Beyond L, the force of friction decreases a bit and the body starts sliding. This force of friction is called sliding, kinetic or dynamic friction.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction 2

Friction PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Force opposing the motion of body is called force of friction.
  • Force of friction acts between any two surfaces in contact with each other.
  • Friction depends upon the nature and smoothness of the surface.
  • Friction is due to irregularities on the two surfaces in contact.
  • Friction increases with pressure.
  • Sliding friction is less than static friction.
  • Friction is both a friend and a foe.
  • Friction is a necessary evil.
  • Friction can be increased or decreased as per requirement.
  • Wheels reduce friction.
  • Lubricants are substances which can reduce friction.
  • The frictional force exerted by fluids is also known as drag.
  • Frictional force in fluids depend upon speed, nature of object and shape of the I object.
  • Streamlined objects offer less friction in fluids.
  • Friction: A force which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces in contact is called friction.
  • Static Friction: A force which counterbalances the applied force on body is static friction.
  • Sliding Friction: A force which exists between any two sliding surfaces is sliding friction.
  • Rolling Friction: A friction which comes into play between two rolling materials is called rolling friction.
  • Fluid Friction: A force exerted by fluid on the object immersed in it, is called fluid friction.
  • Streamline: A particular shape which offers little resistance in air or water.
  • Fluids: The name given to air and liquids together.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 12 Friction Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Internet Applications Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ‘Gmail’ is a free email service provided by …………………
(a) Yahoo
(b) Google
(c) Rediffmail
(d) Hotmail
Answer:
(b) Google

2. Every machine on the Internet has a unique number assigned to it, called an ……………
(a) Address
(b) E-mail
(c) ID
(d) Unique IP Address
Answer:
(d) Unique IP Address

3. A …………… is a type of test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
(a) CAPTCHA
(b) DERTSA
(c) HEPTCHA
(d) NEPHCA
Answer:
(a) CAPTCHA

4. ………………. is a type of malware designed to provide unauthorized, remote access to a user’s computer.
(a) Spyware
(b) Trojan
(c) Malware
(d) Horse
Answer:
(c) Malware

5. TV and radio on the Internet are examples of …………….. media.
(a) Streaming
(b) Limited
(c) Online
(d) Offline
Answer:
(a) Streaming

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

2. True/False

1. Spyware is an e-mail fraud method in which the wrongdoer sends out legitimate-looking emails in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from recipients.
Answer:
True

2. Google Drive does not allow us to store and share files online.
Answer:
False

3. The best way to deal with the threat of a computer virus is to use antivirus software.
Answer:
True

4. In BCC we type the addresses of people we want to send a copy of the mail to, without the other recipients knowing.
Answer:
True

5. Digital signatures are created and verified by means of biography.
Answer:
False

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a CAPTCHA code?
Answer:
Short for completely automated public hiring test to tell computers and humans apart, a technique used by a computer to tell if it is interacting with a human or another computer. Because computing is becoming pervasive, and computerized tasks and services are commonplace, the need for increased levels of security has led to the development of this way for computers to ensure that they are dealing with humans in situations where human interaction is essential to security. Activities such as online commerce transactions, search engine submissions, Web polls, Web registrations, free e-mail service registration, and other automated services are subject to software programs, or bots, that mimic the behavior of humans in order to skew the results of the automated task or perform malicious activities, such as gathering e-mail addresses for spamming or ordering hundreds of tickets to a concert.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Google Apps?
Answer:
Google Apps is a package of cloud-based services that can provide your company or school with a whole new way to work together online—not just using email and chat, but over video conferences, social media, real-time document collaborations, and more. .

Question 3.
What is Digital Signature?
Answer:
Digital signatures are the public-key primitives of message authentication. In the physical world, it is common to use handwritten signatures on handwritten or typed messages.

Question 4.
Write the process of sending an e-mail.
Answer:
Different steps to send and receive mail are :

  1. Open your Gmail account by clicking on the Gmail link on the Google search page.
  2. Click the button labeled ‘Compose’.
  3. Go to the To: box. In the To: box type in the email address of the person you would like to send an email to. If there are multiple people you want to send it to, click on the Add Cc and Add Bcc buttons.
  4. Type the email subject. The subject lets people know what the email is going to be about.
  5. Type your message in the big box below the subject box.
  6. Click the Send button below the message box.
  7. Wait until the person you sent the email replies.

Question 5.
Write the basic steps of downloading.
Answer:
Follow these steps for downloading software, games, or any other files from the Internet if you use a PC running Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7.

  1. If you don’t already have one, create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer, highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive), then selecting File/New/Folder. When the folder appears, name it Temp files.
  2. Once you locate the software you want to download, click on the link to begin the download process.
  3. First, you will be asked if you want to save the file. Click the Save button, then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. Next, click the Save button.
  4. You can watch the file as it downloads.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 6.
What is cloud printing?
Answer:
cloud printing. Printing from a computer or mobile device to a remote printer via the Internet (the cloud). For example, users can snap photos on a smartphone and send them to a printer at their home or office. Cloud printing apps are available for smartphones and tablets that work with almost any printer. Printing to the cloud. It refers to scanning a photo or document on an Internet-connected multifunction printer and sending it directly from the device to a photo or document sharing service on the Internet.

Question 7.
Name four anti-virus software.
Answer:
Four anti-viruses are:
a. AVG
b. McAfee
c. Norton
d. Kaspersky

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is IP Address? Explain.
Answer:
Unique IP Address
A Unique IP is an IP address that is specific to your domain. When you add hosting to a domain/subdomain, it’s assigned an IP on the Apache server which is shared with other sites. This shared IP address is most often the only IP you’ll need. However, certain applications may require you to add a Unique IP to your site. You can add a Unique IP to any Fully Hosted domain/subdomain hosted at DreamHost on the page.

Need of a Unique IP
Unique IPs are most commonly used with domains that have secure hosting enabled. While it is possible to use secure hosting without a Unique IP, some older browsers which do not support Server Name Indication display a certificate warning when viewing your site. While not a comprehensive list, this includes :

  • Windows XP versions of Internet Explorer.
  • The default browser in Android 2.4 is “Gingerbread” and earlier. (4.0 “Ice Cream Sandwich” and later will work correctly.)
  • Various older mobile browsers, including BlackBerry, Symbian OS, and older versions of Opera Mobile.

If you expect a significant number of the visitors to your secure site to be using these browsers, you will need a Unique IP.

Benefits of a Unique IP Address :
There are a lot of reasons why it is recommended to use a Dedicated IP address for a website, hosted on a Shared server, but we shall look through the main ones here:

  • It provides higher stability
  • It grants access to your website anytime you need
  • It is beneficial for the email sender’s reputation
  • It is good for a business identity
  • It is required for particular third-party applications/ scripts

Question 2.
Explain any three Google Apps.
Answer:
Google Docs
Google Docs is an online word processor that lets you create and format text documents and collaborate with other people in real-time. Here’s what you can do with Google Docs:

  • Upload a Word document and convert it to a Google document
  • Add flair and formatting to your documents by adjusting margins, spacing, fonts, and colors — all that fun stuff
  • Invite other people to collaborate on a document with you, giving them edit, comment, or view access
  • Collaborate online in real-time and chat with other collaborators — right from inside the document „
  • View your document’s revision history and roll back to any previous version
  • Download a Google document to your desktop as a Word, Open Office, RTF, PDF, HTML, or zip file
  • Translate a document to a different language ‘
  • Email your documents to other people as attachments

Google Sheets
Google Sheets is an online spreadsheet app that lets you create and format spreadsheets and simultaneously work with other people. Here’s what you can do with Google Sheets :

  • Import and convert Excel, .csv, .txt, and .ods formatted data to a Google spreadsheet
  • Export Excel, .csv, .txt and .ods formatted data, as well as PDF and HTML files
  • Use formula editing to perform calculations on your data, and use formatting to make it look the way you’d like
  • Chat in real-time with others who are editing your spreadsheet
  • Create charts with your data
  • Embed a spreadsheet — or individual sheets of your spreadsheet — on your blog or website

Google Slides
Google Slides is an online presentations app that allows you to show off your work in a visual way. Here’s what you can do with Google Slides:

  • Create and edit presentations
  • Edit a presentation with friends or coworkers, and share it with others effortlessly
  • Import .pptx and .pps files and convert them to Google presentations
  • Download your presentations as a .pdf, .ppt, .svg, .jpg, or .txt file
  • Insert images and videos into your presentation
  • Publish and embed your presentations on a website

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 3.
Explain the process of creating an e-mail account in Gmail.
Answer:
Follow these step-by-step instructions to create a Gmail account

Step 1: Open up your internet browser and go to the Google home page.

Step 2: Click on Gmail at the top right comer of the page.

Step 3: You’ll now be in the ‘Sign in’ section. As you don’t have a Google account yet, you need to create one. Click Create an account.

Step 4: To set up your new account, Google needs some information about you – first, your first, and last names. The ‘choose your username’ is the unique email address that you wish to use, which will be placed before ‘@gmail.com’. Because it needs to be unique, Google may have to check the vail ability of any name that you decide on to make sure that no one already has it. Type an email name into the ‘choose your username’ box and then fill out the rest of your information. You will need to ensure that the ‘I agree to the Google terms of service and Privacy Policy’ is ticked. Then click next step.

Question 4.
What are the benefits of google drive?
Answer:
Google Drive is one of the most popular cloud storage services available today, offering 15 gigabytes (15GB) of free storage space. If you’ve never used a cloud-based storage service like Google Drive before, take a moment to consider the advantages of keeping your files online. Because files can be accessed from any computer with an Internet connection, Drive eliminates the need to email or save a file to a USB drive. And because Drive allows you to share files, working with others becomes much easier.

There are no. benefits for creating and sharing different files on Google Drive which are:

  • Documents: For composing letters, flyers, essays, and other text-based files (similar to Microsoft Word documents)
  • Spreadsheets: For storing and organizing information (similar to Microsoft Excel Workbooks) .
  • presentations: For creating slideshows (similar to Microsoft PowerPoint presentations)
  • Forms: For collecting and organizing data
  • Drawings: For creating simple vector graphics or diagrams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Internet Applications Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks

1. Gmail, yahoo mail, Hotmail, etc. are …………………….
(a) google
(b) Microsoft
(c) e-mail
(d) Skymail
Answer:
(c) e-mail

2. play store is a product of ……………….
(a) Microsoft
(b) Play store
(c) Play
(d) Google
Answer:
(d) Google

3. Files can be shared with ………………
(a) Hotmail
(b) Play store
(c) Google Drive
(d) Virus
Answer:
(c) Google Drive

4. …………………. cures ………………….
(a) Antivirus, virus
(b) Google, Yahoo
(c) E-mail, virus
(d) Antivirus, server.
Answer:
(a) Antivirus, virus

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

True or False

1. Gmail is a product of Microsoft.
Answer:
False

2. We can share files on the internet.
Answer:
True

3. Data is not destroyed on Google Drive.
Answer:
True

4. Cloud means Air clouds in computer terminology.
Answer:
False

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is E-mail?
Answer:
E-mail stands for electronic mail. Most networks support some form of an email. The most popular, of course, is Internet email. E-mail allows you to send a text (such as a letter) to another person on another computer. In order to send an email, you have to know the email address of the recipient.

Question 2.
How often is the imagery in Google Earth updated?
Answer:
Google Earth displays the best available imagery, most of which is one to three years old. The information in Google Earth is collected over time and is not in real-time. It is not possible to see live changes in images. We add data to our Primary Database on a regular basis.

Question 3.
Why do I see blurry imagery in Google Earth?
Answer:
Google Earth combines data of different resolutions to offer a seamless viewing experience, so some locations look a bit blurry. We offer high-resolution imagery (greater than 1-meter) for thousands of cities and more are on the way.

Question 4.
What is an IP address?
Answer:
An IP address is a network layer protocol address for a host in a TCP/IP network.

Question 5.
What is the use of an IP address?
Answer:
The IP address is used to uniquely identify each host in a network. The IP address is needed in order to communicate with other hosts in the network using the TCP/IP suite of protocols.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 6.
Which version of IP is covered by this document?
Answer:
This document covers IP version 4.

Question 7.
How does a host determine its IP address?
Answer:
A host determines its IP address during the boot-up process either from a configuration file stored in the local hard disk of the system or using a network protocol like RARP, DHCP, BOOTP from the servers in the network.

Question 8.
Is there any relation between the MAC address and the IP address of a host?
Answer:
No. There is no relation between the MAC address and the IP address of a host.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on email.
Answer:
Short for electronic mail, e-mail or email is information stored on a computer that is exchanged between two users over telecommunications. More plainly, e-mail is a message that may contain text, files, images, or other attachments sent through a network to a specified individual or group of individuals. The first e-mail was sent by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. By 1996, more electronic mail was being sent than postal mail.

Question 2.
Write the various steps for writing an email.
Answer:
Writing an e-mail
When writing an e-mail message, it should look something like the example window below. As you can see, several fields are required when sending an e-mail:

  • The To field is where you type the e-mail address of the person who is the recipient of your message.
  • The From field should contain your e-mail address.
  • If you are replying to a message, the To and From fields are automatically filled out; if it’s a new message, you’ll need to enter them manually.
  • The CC or Carbon Copy field allows you to send a copy of the message to another e-mail address but is not mandatory.
  • The Subject Line, although not required, should consist of a few words describing the e-mail’s contents.
  • Finally, the Message Body is the location you type your main message. It often contains your signature at the bottom; similar to a hand-written letter.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.