PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words:

Question 1.
Who was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He was not a worthy son of his father. He was a pleasure-loving ruler.

Question 2.
Why were the Sikhs defeated in the battle of Mudki?
Answer:
The Sikhs lost the battle of Mudki because of the following reasons :

  • Lai Singh escaped from the battle-field when the Sikh army was about to win.
  • As compared to the English, the Sikhs had very small military resources.

Question 3.
When was the battle of Sabhraon fought and what was its result?
Or
When was the battle of Sabhraon fought?
Answer:
The battle of Sabhraon was fought on February 10, 1846. Because of the treachery of Teja Singh and Lai Singh, the Sikhs lost the battle. As a result, the English army crossed the Sutlej river without any hurdle.

Question 4.
What was the matter of Suchet Singh’s treasury?
Answer:
Dogra Sardar Suchet Singh was in the service of Lahore Darbar. At the time of his death, he was at Ferozepur. He left behind fifteen lakh rupees there. Because he had no issue, the Lahore Darbar claimed its right on this amount. But the English Government wanted to take this matter to the court.

Question 5.
Write about the ‘Cow Row1’.
Answer:
On April 21, 1846 a herd of cows blocked the way of a European gunner at Lahore. The gunner attempted to kill the cows. Hearing this news, the Hindus and the Sikhs rose against the English. .

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 6.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire? Who was the Governor-General of India at that time?
Answer:
The Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.

Question 7.
What steps were taken by Chattar Singh against the Britishers?
Answer:
The British charged Chattar Singh, the governor of Hazara that he was the head of the conspiracy for the expulsion of the British from the Punjab. The British officer Canora refused to obey the orders of Chattar Singh unless backed by Captain Abbot. Canora not only refused to obey Chattar Singh’s order, but also ordered his Havaldars to fire upon Sikh soldiers and shot dead two of them. In retaliation, the Sikh infantry shot dead Canora. Captain Abbot accused Chattar Singh of murder of Canora. This convinced Chattar Singh that Abbot might go to the extent of ruining him. Chattar Singh decided to resign. He had no choice but to rise in revolt against the British.

It was thus mainly due to the intrigues of Captain Abbot that Chattar Singh was forced to rise in revolt against the British on 11th September, 1848. He and his son went over to the side of Dewan Mul Raj against the British. Sher Singh also won the support of the major portion of the Sikh troops.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Discuss the causes of the Bhairowal Treaty.
Answer:
According to the Treaty of Lahore, a contingent of British forces was kept at Lahore for the protection of the Maharaja and the citizens of Lahore. But with the passage of time, Lord Hardinge planned to keep the English troops at Lahore. Maharani Jindan agreed to it. So a meeting of the Sardars and the Ministers of the Lahore Darbar was called, In it, only those terms of the Governor-General were announced on the basis of which the ministers of the Darbar agreed to keep the English troops at Lahore even after 1846 A.D. Thus the British entered into another treaty with the Sikhs on December 12, 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the Treaty of Bhairowal.

Question 2.
Write any four terms of the Bhairowal Treaty.
Answer:
Following were the four main provisions of the Treaty of Bhairowal :

  1. The administration of Lahore was entrusted to a body of eight Sikh Sardars who were the supporters of the English. They were to carry on this duty till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh.
  2. The Governor-General appointed a British Resident at Lahore.
  3. The Council of Regency was to work according to the advice of the British Resident.
  4. Rani Jindan was ousted from the Punjab. She was given a pension of one lakh rupees annually.

Question 3.
Write about the importance of the Bhairowal Treaty.
Answer:
The Treaty of Bhairowal has great importance in the history of the Punjab and India.

  1. By this treaty, the British became the real masters of Punjab. The British Resident was given unlimited powers. Henry Lawrence was appointed as the first British Resident at Lahore.
  2. According to this treaty, Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was first interned at Sheikhupura and then sent to Benaras.

Question 4.
After the First Anglo-Sikh war, why did the British not annex Punjab to their empire? White any three causes.
Answer:
The English did not occupy the Punjab after the First Anglo-Sikh War for the following reasons.

  1. The Sikh forces lost the battles of Mudki, Ferozeshah and Sabraon but Lahore, Amritsar and Peshawar were still under them. Had the English occupied the Punjab, they would have to face the Sikh forces there.
  2. Had the British occupied the Punjab, they would have to spend much money for the establishment of peace and order in the Punjab,
  3. Lord Hardinge did not annex the Punjab because he was of the new that the state would prove a good buffer state between Afghanistan and British India.
  4. According to Lord Hardinge, Punjab was not economically profitable state at that stage. Hence the Treaty of Bhairowal was then entered into with the Sikhs.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 5.
After the Treaty of Bhairowal how did the British treat Queen Jindan?
Answer:
The Treaty of Bhairowal deprived Rani Jindan of her political rights. She was ousted from the Lahore Darbar. She was arrested and sent to Sheikhupura. She was first given a pension of 1,50,000 rupees annually. It was reduced from 1,50,000 to 48,000 rupees annually. Thereafter, she was exiled to Benaras. Thus she was badly treated by the English. As a result, the Sikhs were annoyed and rose against the English.

Question 6.
What do you know about Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Answer:
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Lahore State. At the time of the First Anglo-Sikh War, he was a minor. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal of 1846, a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration of the Lahore Darbar. It was to run the administration till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh. But the Sikh forces lost the Second Anglo-Sikh War. As a result of it, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and given a pension of 50,000 pounds annually and sent to England. Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words:

Question 1.
Discuss the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1845-46. Following were its causes :
1. The British policy of Encirclement of the Lahore Kingdom. Ever since the time of Ranjit Singh, the British were making schemes for the conquest of the Punjab. They had built cantonments around the Sikh kindgom. Politically and diplomatically, they had half encircled the Sikh kingdom. They had already occupied Ferozepur and established a military cantonment there. They had brought Sindh and Shikarpur under their sphere of influence. After Ranjit. Singh’s death, their dream of conquering Punjab acquired more clear and definite shape. Naturally, such designs of the British alarmed the Sikh army in particular and the people of the Punjab in general.

2. Anarchy in the Punjab. Soon after the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839 A.D., there prevailed anarchy in the Punjab and within a span of about four years, many of his sons and relatives were put to sword. Now the Khalsa army was all powerful and it became a problem for the Lahore Durbar to keep it under control. With the army being all in all, nobody’s life was safe. All the important chiefs and courtiers were afraid of the Khalsa army. It was in their best interest to engage the army in some war so as to weaken its power.

3. Defeat of the British in the First Afghan War. In the First Afghan War, the English fought with Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842 A.D. The English suffered a defeat. This encouraged the Sikhs to wage a war against the British. They had begun to think that the English were not invincible. If the Afghans could teach them a lesson, why not the Sikhs who had humiliated the Afghans in the times of Ranjit Singh.

4. Annexation of Sindh to the British Empire. The British annexed Sindh to their Empire in 1843 A.D. This incident brought the imperialistic designs of the English in the limelight. It was clear that the English would now try to annex the Punjab. It was difficult for the English to maintain their control over Sindh unless they annexed the Punjab too.

The annexation of Sindh brought their aggressive designs to the forefront and the Sikhs naturally became suspicious of the English.

5. Ellenborough’s plan to capture Punjab. The British, in fact, had been planning to occupy the Punjab much before their war with the Sikhs actually began. After the annexation of Sindh to the British Empire, Lord Ellenborough planned to capture the Punjab. To materialise this plan, the English began to make elaborate military preparations. When the Sikhs came to know about the intentions of the British, the Sikhs also began to make preparations for War.

6. Military Activities of the British. The prevailing anarchy in the Punjab encouraged the English to start making elaborate military preparations. They began to station their army men in large numbers near the Sutlej.

It is said that on the boundaries of the Sutlej in 1836 A.D., there were only 2500 British soldiers. Their number rose to 14,000 in 1843. Besides this, the English had stationed a large number of their troops at Ferozepur, Ludhiana and Ambala. Not only that, the English had begun to collect boats to cross the Sutlej. All these activities of the English made the Sikhs more suspicious and they began to feel that the English wanted to grab the Punjab.

7. The dispute over the treasure of Suchet Singh. Dogra Sardar Suchet Singh was in the service of Lahore Darbar. At the time of his death, he was at Ferozepur. He left behind fifteen lakh rupees there. Because he had no issue, the Lahore Darbar claimed its right on this amount. But the English Government wanted to bring this matter to the court. At this the Sikhs rose in revolt against the English.

8. Dispute over Mauran Village. Dhanna Singh, a native of the village Mauran situated in the Nabha State, was in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh; who being pleased with him, wrote to Jaswant Singh the Raja of Nabha to grant him the village Mauran as Jagir. In return, the Maharaja granted him a number of villages for life to Jaswant Singh’s sister. After the death of Dhanna Singh, his son Hukam Singh succeeded him. But Devinder Singh, the new ruler of Nabha, sent his troops to the village and seized Hukam Singh’s property worth about two lakh rupees and occupied the village. The Lahore Darbar demanded the restoration of the village. But the English Government rejected the claim of the Lahore Darbar and said that Jaswant Singh’s grant to Dhanna Singh had been illegal.

9. Provocation of Major Broadfoot. The appointment of Major Broadfoot as the British Resident at Ludhiana in place of Mr. Clark added fuel to the fire. He was hard-headed and hot-tempered. Immediately after taking charge of his post, he declared that Maharaja Dalip Singh’s territories South of the Sutlej would be considered under British rule. This declaration aroused the anger of the Sikh chiefs beyond limit and they began to feel that a war with the British was unavoidable.

10. Plans of Lai Singh and Rani Jindan. Lai Singh and Rani Jindan planned to incite the Sikh army against the British. They made the Sikh army to think that the British were determined to capture Punjab after occupying Sindh.

11. Immediate Cause: Crossing of the Sutlej by the Sikhs. The excited Sikh forces made up their mind to settle their scores with the British. Thus, between December 11 and 14 in 1846 A.D., the Sikh soldiers in large numbers began to cross the Sutlej river. The English were already waiting for the Sikhs to first begin the war. As soon as the Governor-General Lord Hardinge got the information that the Sikh forces had crossed the Sutlej, he also declared a regular war against the Sikhs on December 18, 1845 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 2.
Write about the events related to the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The First Anglo-Sikh war began on December 18,1845 A.D. and ended on February 10, 1846 A.D. Following were the main events of this war:
1. The Battle of Mudki: Immediately after crossing the Sutlej, the Sikh army advanced towards Ferozepur.
It was led by Lai Singh. On the other side, the English forces under Sir Hugh Gough left Ludhiana to defend Ferozepur. On December 18, 1845, both the armies came into collusion with each other at Mudki, a place about twenty miles from Ferozepur.

The Khalsa army had 40,000 soldiers and 150 guns. The English army had 10,000 soldiers and 48 guns. When the victory of the Sikhs was in sight, Lai Singh, the commander of the Sikh army, deserted them and withdrew from the scene leaving the army all alone. Consequently, a victory was changed into a defeat and the Sikhs had to retreat from the battle-field. Although the English came out victorious in this battle, yet the war proved very costly to them also. About 215 of their soldiers were killed and about 657 were wounded. The Sikhs also suffered a heavy loss of life and 17 guns.

2. Battle of Ferozeshah. After the battle of Mudki, the English army advanced towards a place called Ferozeshah which was about 12 miles away from the Sutlej.

At this place the forces of Sir Hugh Gough were joined by another English contingent under Sir Johan Little. A fierce battle was fought between the two sides on December 21,1845 A.D. The Sikhs fought so bravely that the English forces became nervous. But here also the Sikh Commanders like Teja Singh proved traitors and left the Sikh army without a leader, with the result that the English forces advanced forward and occupied the Sikh positions on December 22. Thus because of the treachery on the part of the Sikh military commanders, another victory was converted into a defeat. About 8000 Sikh soldiers were killed in this battle and they lost about 73 guns. The English also suffered a heavy loss. Their 694 men were killed and about 1721 were wounded.

3. Battle of Baddowal. On January 21,1846, the Sikhs under the command of Ranjodh Singh Majithia crossed the river Sutlej and set the English military camp at Ludhiana on fire. In a fierce battle at Baddowal near Ludhiana, the Sikhs under the leadership of S. Ranjodh Singh defeated the British who were under the command of Sir Henry Smith.

4. Battle of Aliwal. Soon after the battle of Badowal, reinforcements reached the English. Ranjodh Singh tried to block the way of the English by attacking Jagraon and Ghungrana. But the English advanced and defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal on January 28, 1846 A.D.

5. Battle of Sabraon. The last and most decisive battle between the Sikhs and the English was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. at Sabraon. The Sikhs fought the battle bravely and put the English army in trouble for sometime. The Sikh soldiers, unlike their treacherous commander Teja Singh, were prepared to conquer or die for the glory of the Khalsa. But while the soldiers did everything, the Sikh commanders with the honourable exception of Sham Singh Attariwala, remained inactive or proved traitors. In fact, the army commanders were not as much afraid of the Sikh defeat as of their victory. That is why, perhaps, they were hatching conspiracies after conspiracies.

Under such conditions, the Sikh soldiers suffered a great loss and about 8 to 10 thousand of them were killed. Sham Singh Attariwala also met a hero’s death in this battle. The English loss was 320 dead and 2,083 wounded.
The battle of Sabraon was decisive. After this victory, the British army crossed the Sutlej and occupied Lahore on February 20, 1846 A.D.

Question 3.
Discuss the terms of the First Treaty of Lahore.
Answer:
On 9th March, 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British and the Lahore Durbar. Its main terms were as under:

  1. All the Sikh territories lying south of the river Sutlej were handed over to the British.
  2. The -Jullundur (Jalandhar) Doab was likewise annexed by the British to their own dominions.
  3. An indemnity of one and a half crore rupees was imposed upon the Lahore Darbar, which it was not able to pay. So it had to hand over to the British in lieu of it all the hill areas between the rivers Sutlej and Beas, and also Kashmir and Hazara.
  4. The Darbar would disband the rebellious forces, keeping only 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry. Thirty four guns which the British had lost to the Sikhs, were restored to them.
  5. The British troops would be allowed a free passage through the Punjab when necessary.
  6. Dalip Singh was recognised as minor king of Lahore, Maharani Jindan was to be his Regent and Lai Singh the Prime Minister of the Lahore kingdom.
  7. An adequate British force would be stationed at Lahore for the protection of the Maharaja. The force would be recalled in December 1846.
  8. The British Government would respect the bonafide rights of the Jagirdars in Lahore Darbar territories.
  9. The British would be at liberty to retain any part of the state property in the forts situated in the ceded territories by paying for it a fair compensation.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 4.
Explain the Treaty of Bhairowal.
Answer:
According to the Treaty of Lahore, the English army was to withdraw from the Punjab after December, 1846 A.D., but in view of the troubled conditions of the Punjab and being afraid of the Sikh army, many Sikhs and people of other classes did not want that the English should withdraw from the Punjab. So, another treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs on December 16, 1846 A.D. which is called the Treaty of Bhairowal. This treaty was signed with the English by Maharani Jindan and the ruler of the Lahore Darbar.

Following were its main terms :

  1. The administration of Lahore was entrusted to a council of eight Sikh Sardars who supported the English. They were to carry on this duty till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a minor.
  2. The Governor-General appointed a British Resident as the head of this Council.
  3. The Council of Regency was to work on the advice of the British Resident.
  4. Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was given a pension of 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) lakh rupees annually.
  5. For the protection of the Maharaja, and the establishment of law and order, the British forces would stay in Lahore.
  6. The Lahore Darbar would pay Rs. 22 Lakhs a year to meet the expenses of the British forces which would continue staying in Lahore.
  7. Besides at Lahore, the British troops could be stationed in Sikh fortresses, the occupation of which the Governor-General might feel necessary for the protection of the Maharaja’s interests.
  8. The terms of this treaty would be considered valid till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a minor.

Importance: The Treaty of Bhairowal has great importance in the history of the Punjab and India

  • With this treaty, the English became the real masters of the Punjab. The British Resident was given unlimited powers. Henry Lawrence was appointed as the first British Resident at Lahore.
  • According to this treaty, Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was first interned at Sheikhupura and then sent to Benaras.

Question 5.
Write the causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1848-49. The English came out victorious in it. As a result, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Following were the main causes of this war:
1. Restlessness of the Sikh Soldiers. The Sikh soldiers had to suffer a defeat in the
First Anglo-Sikh War. But they knew it well that their defeat was not because they were in any way weaker than the English soldiers but it was due to the treachery of their commanders. Now they wanted to wipe off that disgrace by fighting another war with the English.

2. British Policy of Speedy Reforms. In order to increase their influence in the Punjab, the English, especially Henry Lawrence, the English Resident at Lahore, tried to bring about some social reforms. Laws were framed one after other to end the practice of Sati, to ban the killing of female children and to effect changes in the Zamindari system. Although these reforms were desirable, yet they were brought about in such a haste that the people took them as an undue interference in their religious and social life.

3. Harsh Treatment with Lai Singh and Rani Jindan. The harsh treatment which the English meted out to Rani Jindan enraged the Sikhs. Their anger further increased when the Queen Mother, Rani Jindan was dubbed as a conspirator. She was first sent to Sheikhupura and then exiled to Benaras. The pension of Rani Jindan was reduced from Rs. 1^ lakhs to 48,000 rupees in the first instance and then to? 12,000 annually. Besides, the English also meted out a harsh treatment to the Prime Minister Lai Singh. Such a treatment with Rani Jindan and Lai Singh was too much for the Sikhs to tolerate. So once again, they were forced to take up arms against the English to safeguard their rights.

4. Appointment of British Officers on High Posts. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal, the real powers of the Lahore Kingdom had come in the hands of the English. So they began to appoint English officers on high posts. The Sikh chiefs took this policy of the English as an insult to them. They wanted to free the Punjab from the English yoke.

5. Reduction in the number of Sikh Soldiers. The number of men in the Sikh army ran into lakhs but according to the Treaty of Lahore, their number was reduced to 20 thousand infantry and 12 thousand horsemen. Thus, thousands of soldiers who were disbanded became opponents of the English. Not only this, those soldiers who were kept in service were to be paid lesser salaries. Thus the entire fchalsa army turned against the British. It was filled with anger and began to prepare for another showdown.

6. Revolt of Diwan Mulraj of Multan. After the death of his father, Mulraj became the Governor of Multan in 1844 A.D. He used to pay a tribute of Rs. 12 lakhs a year to the Lahore Darbar in lieu of this post. But, after the Treaty of Bhairowal in December 1846 A.D., the English took over the administration of Lahore. They increased this tribute to Rs. 18 lakhs and also asked him to surrender l/3rd of his territory. Mulraj could not tolerate all this injustice. So he expressed his desire to resign. The English quickly appointed Sardar Kahan Singh as the Governor of Multan. Diwan Mulraj handed over the charge of Multan to the new Governor. The soldiers of Diwan’Mulraj rose in revolt against the English and Diwan Mulraj recaptured Multan. This event led to the revolt against the English in the whole of the Punjab.

7. Revolt of Bhai Maharaj Singh. Bhai Maharaj Singh was the follower of Sant Bhai Bir Singh of Naurangabad. He rose in revoltragainst the English to protect the Sarkar-e-Khalsa. So Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, ordered to put him behind the bars. But he could not be arrested. At the request of Mulraj, he alongwith his 400 horsemen marched towards Multan. But he left Mulraj and joined hands with Chattar Singh Attariwala and his son Sher Singh.

8. Revolt of Chattar Singh of Hazara. Chattar Singh was the Governor of Hazara under the Lahore Government. The English also forced him to rise in revolt. An English officer, Captain Abott, instigated the Afghans of Hazara to revolt against the Sikh State. This British policy of hatching conspiracies led Chattar Singh to take up arms against them in August, 1848 A.D. and join hands with Mulraj.

9. Revolt of Sher Singh. Sher Singh, the son of Chattar Singh who had been sent by the Lahore Government to suppress the revolt of Multan also joined the forces of his father and Mulraj in September 1848 A.D. Thus the revolt against the English spread all over the Punjab. Sher Singh appealed to all the Sikhs to join the rebels to oust the English from the Punjab.

10. Invasion of Punjab by the English. Lord Dalhousie wanted to wage a war against the Sikhs on one pretext or the other and annex the Punjab to the British Empire. Under this policy, he allowed small upsurges by Mulraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh to take the form of a big rebellion so that the English could find an excuse to grab the Punjab. The English forces under the command of Lord Hugh Gough crossed the river Sutlej on November 9, 1848 and reached Lahore on 13 November. These forces were engaged in suppressing the rebellion. Thus the Second Anglo-Sikh War began.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 6.
Explain the events of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The Second Anglo-Sikh War began in November 1848 after the English forces had crossed the river Sutlej. Following were the main events of this war :
1. The Battle of Ram Nagar. The first battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought at Ram Nagar. The Commander of the English forces, Lord Hugh Gough crossed the Ravi with his army on November 16, 1848 A.D. and reached the banks of the Chenab on November 22 and stood face to face with Sardar Sher Singh. A battle followed between the two forces at Ram Nagar but without a decision.

2. The Battle of Chillianwala. The English forces under the command of General Gough reached Chillianwala on January 13, 1849 A.D., where the Sikhs had entrenched themselves strongly. A fierce battle was fought at this place in which both the sides had to suffer heavy losses, yet without any outcome. Many brave Sikh warriors laid down their lives in this battle and they had to lose 12 guns also. But the English losses in this battle were even greater than those of the Sikhs. Their tally was 602 dead and 1,651 wounded.

3. The Battle of Multan. Multan had come under the control of Diwan Mulraj since April 1848 A.D. But in December, 1848 an English General, Whish laid a siege to Multan. Diwan Mulraj gave a tough fight to the English for some time but one day suddenly a shell hit his ammunition store and set it on fire. Because of this terrible loss, Diwan Mulraj could not fight any longer. He surrendered on January 22, 1849 A.D. The victory of Multan wiped out to a great extent the disgrace the English had suffered at Chillianwala.

4. The Battle of Gujrat, February 21, 1849 A.D. (Imp.). After the Battle of Chillianwala, the transfer of Lord Gough and the appointment of Sir Charles Napier had been ordered. But before Napier reached“the place of action, Lord Gough had already attacked the Sikhs. After the victory of Multan, the forces of General Whish joined those of General Gough which raised the strength of the English forces to 25,000 and the number of their guns rose to 100. On the other hand, the Sikh army was 61,500 strong and they had 61 guns with them.

A battle between both the forces took place on February 21,1849 A.D. at Gujrat on the banks of the Chenab. This battle was very fierce. Akram Khan, son of Dost Mohammed, the ruler of Afghanistan also joined hands with the Sikhs. Because both the sides made extensive use of guns in this battle, so many historians call it as the “battle of guns”. Shelling continued for three hours but the Sikhs had to leave their positions. At last, on March 13, 1849 AD. the Sikh chiefs surrendered. Thus the Second Anglo-Sikh War came to an end.

Question 7.
Write the results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The Second Anglo-Sikh War proved destructive for the Sikhs.

Following were its mains results :
1. Annexation of Punjab into the British Empire. The Sikhs were completely defeated in this war. By a proclamation, Lord Dalhousie declared that the Punjab was annexed into the British Empire. Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and the Punjab became a part of the British Empire.

2. Punishment to Mulraj and Maharaj Singh. Mulraj was held responsible for the murder of the two English officers, Agnew and Anderson. Mulraj was exiled to Andaman Islands (Kala Pani). On December 29, 1849. Maharaj Singh was arrested. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Singapore prison.

3. Disbanding of the Khalsa Army. The Khalsa Army was disbanded and the lands of many Sikh Chiefs were confiscated. The soldiers of the disbanded army were allowed to join the British army.

4. Appointment of the British officers in the Punjab. After the Second Anglo- Sikh War, the English officials were appointed on high posts in place of the Hindus, the Sikhs and the Muslims. They were given handsome salaries and allowances.

5. Establishment of a Frontier Force. Henry Lawrence, with the help of Edwards and Nicholson, constituted a Board for the administration of the frontier territories. A frontier force was also raised which consisted of infantry, horsemen, artillery and elephants. The English pulled down the old and outdated forts and constructed new ones and cantonments in their place.

6. Establishment of a Board of Administration. Lord Dalhousie constituted a Board of Administrators to administer the Punjab. Henry Lawrence was the Chairman of this Board. This Board consisted of three members. They were collectively responsible for running the administration of the Punjab. The members of the Board were given extensive powers in administrative and judicial matters. Many reforms were introduced by this Board. Roads and canals were constructed and a new postal system was introduced.

7. Cordial relations with the Sikh Chiefs. The rulers of Patiala, Nabha, Jirid, Kapurthala and Faridkot had helped the English in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The English gave them big rewards for their services. The English also resolved not to annex their states into the British Empire.

Question 8.
How did the Britisher’s annex Punjab?
Answer:
Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839 A.D. After him, there was no capable leader of the Sikhs who could lead them. The Sikh army captured power in its hands. Taking advantage of such circumstances, the English fought two wars with the Sikhs. The Sikh forces fought bravely in these wars. But because of the treachery of their commanders, they lost the battles. In 1849, after the Second Anglo-Sikh war, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

The following two wars were fought between the Sikhs and the English.
1. First Anglo-Sikh War. The English had been anxious to annex the Punjab to their empire. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the English found an opportunity to fulfil their desire. They started collecting their army on the other side of the river Sutlej. The Sikh leaders were enraged to see the preparations for war being made by the English. The Sikh forces crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and came near Ferozepur. Thus the First Anglo-Sikh War started. Teja Singh, the Commander of the Sikh Army and Wazir Lai Singh joined hands with the English. Because of their treachery, the Sikh forces lost the battles at Mudki and Ferozeshah.

The Sikh forces took courage and crossed the river Sutlej and reached Ludhiana. They attacked the English. Here the English faced a defeat. But because of the treachery of Gulab Singh, the Sikhs had to face defeat at Aliwal and Sabraon. In March, 1846 A.D., a treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs. According to this Treaty of Lahore, the Sikhs had to pay 1 j crore rupees as war indemnity to the British. A British army was stationed at Lahore to maintain law and order in the Punjab during the minority of Maharaja Dalip Singh.

2. Second Anglo-Sikh War and annexation of Punjab into the British Empire. In 1848, the Second Anglo-Sikh War broke out. The immediate cause of the war was the revolt of the governor of Multan Dewan Mulraj. On 19th April, 1848 Mulraj handed over the administration of Multan to two British officials. The people of Multan got excited to see the British officials. So they revolted and murdered the British officials. The whole of Punjab revolted against the British rule. At last, the British declared war against the Lahore kingdom on November 16, 1848. The most important battles of this war were the Battle of Ram Nagar (22 November 1848), Battle of Multan (December 1848), Battle of Chillianwala (January 13, 1849), Battle of Gujrat (February 1849). The Battle of Ram Nagar was not a decisive battle. The Sikhs had to face defeat at Multan, Chillianwala and Gujarat. In 1849, the Sikhs accepted their defeat. After this Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Activity:

Question 1.
1. Show the towns of Mudki, Ferozeshah, Baddowal, Aliwal and Sabraon on the map of Punjab.
2. Show the battlefield of the First Anglo-Sikh war on the map of Punjab.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab 1

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
What was the main cause of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Answer:
Rani Jindan and Lai Singh, being afraid of the Sikh army, wanted to engage it in a war against the British.

Question 2.
Where were the four main battles of the First Anglo-Sikh fought?
Answer:
Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal and Sabraon.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 3.
Mention any one clause of the Treaty of Lahore (9 March, 1846 A.D.).
Answer:
The British annexed the plains and the mountain region of Punjab between the Sutlej and the Beas.

Question 4.
Give any one cause of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The Treaty of Lahore and Treaty of Bhairowal had given a severe blow to the Sikh prestige.

Question 5.
What were the four main battles of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Answer:

  1. Battle of Ram Nagar,
  2. Battle of Multan,
  3. Battle of Chillianwala and
  4. Battle of Gujrat.

Question 6.
Mention any one consequence of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
Punjab was annexed to the British Indian Empire on 29 March, 1849 A.D.

Question 7.
Give any one reason responsible for the downfall of the Sikh power.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh’s successors were unworthy.

Question 8.
Give any one reason for the annexation of the Punjab by the English.
Answer:
They realised that the Punjab could serve as a very good consumer market for British goods.

Question 9.
How did Lord Dalhousie justify the annexation of the Punjab”? Give any one argument.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie charged the Sikhs of violating the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal.

Question 10.
Give any one argument against the annexation of the Punjab.
Answer:
The murder of just four British officers in Punjab was given undue importance by Lord Dalhousie.

Question 11.
What treatment was meted out to Maharaja Dalip Singh after the annexation of Punjab by the British?
Answer:
Dalip Singh was given a pension of 50,000 pounds and sent to England.

Question 12.
What arrangement was made for the administration of Punjab after its annexation in 1849?
Answer:
A Board of Administration of three members was established to govern Punjab.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 13.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
Answer:
On 25 March, 1849.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The last and most decisive battle between the British and the Sikhs was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. at __________
Answer:
Gujrat

Question 2.
By the Treaty of Bhairowal 16 December 1846, the administration of Lahore was entrusted to a ________ they were to carry on this duty till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a ________.
Answer:
Council of 8 Sardars, minor

Question 3.
The Battle of Gujrat, February 1849 has been called as the ________.
Answer:
“Battle of Guns”

Question 4.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War came to an end on ________.
Answer:
13 March, 1849

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 5.
Lord Dalhousie constructed a Board of ________ to administer the Punjab after the annexation of the Punjab.
Answer:
Administration.

True or False :

Question 1.
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Because of the treachery of Teja Singh and Lai Singh the Sikhs lost the Battle of Sabraon.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The British did not annex any territory of Punjab by the First Treaty of Lahore (March 1846).
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Henry Lawrence was appointed the Chairman of the Board of Administration.
Answer:
True.

Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Chattar Singh (a) Last Sikh ruler of Lahore State
2. Dalip Singh (b) Prime Minister
3. Bhairowal (c) Treaty
4. Kashmir (d) Gulab Singh
5. Lai Singh (e) Governor of Hazara.

Answer:
1. (e)
2. (a)
3. (c)
4. (d)
5. (b).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The English had been anxious to annex the Punjab to their empire. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the English found an opportunity to fulfil their desire. They stationed their army on the other side of the river Sutlej. The Sikh leaders were enraged to see the preparations for war being made by the English. The Sikh army crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and reached near Ferozepur. Thus the First Anglo-Sikh War started. Teja Singh, the Commander of the Sikh army and Wazir Lai Singh joined hands with the English. Because of their treachery, the Sikh forces lost the battles at Mudki and Ferozeshah, The Sikh forces took courage and crossed the river Sutlej and reached Ludhiana. They attacked the English. Here the English faced a defeat.

But because of the treachery of their commanders, the Sikh army had to face defeat at Aliwal and Sabraon. In March, 1846 A.D., a treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs. According to the Treaty of Lahore, the Sikhs had to pay 1, crore rupees as indemnity to the British. A British army was kept in Lahore to maintain law and order in the Punjab during the minority of Maharaja Dalip Singh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 2.
Write a short note on the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Answer:
The Second Anglo-Sikh War broke out in 1848 A.D. The immediate cause of the war was the revolt of the governor of Multan, Dewan Mulraj . On 19th April, 1848 A.D. Mulraj handed over the administration of Multan to two British officials. The people of Multan were excited to see the British officials and they rose in revolt and murdered the British officials. The whole of Punjab revolted against the British rule. At last, the British decided to declare a war against the Lahore Kingdom. The most important battles of this war were Battle of Ram Nagar (22 November, 1848), Battle of Multan (December 1848), Battle of Chillianwala (January 13, 1849), Battle of Gujrat (February, 1849). The Battle of Ram Nagar was not a decisive battle. The Sikhs had to face defeat in the battles of Multan, Chillianwala and Gujrat. In 1849, the Sikhs surrendered completely. After this, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the annexation of the Punjab.
Answer:
Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839. After this, there was no capable leader who could lead the Sikhs. All the ruling powers came in the hands of the Sikh army. The English took advantage of this opportunity. They conspired with some Sikh military officials. They began to strengthen their fortifications. They also increased the number of their soldiers. Thus they were preparing for the war. They fought two wars with the Sikhs. The Sikhs fought bravely in both the wars but were defeated because of the treachery of their military commanders and the officials. After the first Anglo-Sikh war, the English occupied the territory of Jalandhar Doab of Punjab and stationed their own army in place of the Sikh arm;/. But in 1849, after the second war, Lord Dalhousie annexed the whole of Sikh Kingdom of Punjab to the English empire.

Question 4.
What were the four causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Answer:

  1. The main cause of 1st Anglo-Sikh war was that Lai Singh and Rani Jindan had instigated the Sikh army against the British.
  2. Lai Singh and Rani Jindan convinced the Sikh army that the British were determined to occupy the Punjab after capturing Sindh.
  3. The British had gathered more than 35,000 soldiers at Ludhiana.
  4. The British increased their army in Sindh and made a bridge of boats across the river Sutlej to cross it. All these events made the Sikhs to believe that the British wanted to capture Punjab. Under these circumstances, the Sikh army crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and the 1st Anglo-Sikh war began.

Question 5.
What were the results of the First Anglo-Sikh war?
Answer:

  1. The British secured the territory of Jalandhar Doab.
  2. Dalip Singh was appointed as Maharaja and a Council of Regency comprising of eight members was established to run the administration.
  3. Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the Resident at Lahore.
  4. The Sikhs had to pay 1~ crore rupees as the war indemnity to the British. The Lahore Darbar had only Rs. 50 lakhs in its treasury. So it sold away the province of Jammu and Kashmir to Raja Gulab Singh.
  5. It was decided to keep the British army in Lahore. The Khalsa Darbar was required to pay Rs. 22 lakhs rupees annually for its maintenance.
  6. The strength of the Sikh army was reduced to only 20,000 foot-soldiers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Question 6.
Describe any four reasons responsible for the downfall of the Sikh kingdom in Punjab.
Answer:

  1. Ranjit Singh was an arbitrary ruler. All the powers of the state were concentrated in his hands. After his death, his unworthy successors could not control the vast kingdom efficiently.
  2. Ranjit Singh followed a weak policy towards the British. The British took advantage of it and were ultimately successful in annexing the Punjab.
  3. The administration of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was based on strong army. After Ranjit Singh’s death, the Sikh army took all powers in its hands. The Sikh chiefs tried to weaken the Sikh army and incited it to wage war against the British.
  4. In some battles, during the First and the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikh forces were about to win the war. But because of the treachery of their commanders, their victory was converted into a defeat.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What were the causes and results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?
Answer;

  1. The treaty of Lahore and that of Bhairowal had crippled the Lahore Kingdom. Now there was nothing to feel proud of. So they w’ere in search of an opportunity to take revenge.
  2. The Sikh soldiers who were disbanded from the army were in search of an opportunity to take revenge.
  3. The immediate cause of the war was the revolt of the governor of Multan, Diwan Mulraj. A minor incident resulted in a great revolt. The British demanded ten years’ accounts from Diwan Mulraj which was impossible for him to submit because he had been its governor for about four years only. So he resigned. The British Resident sent Sardar Kalian Singh to take over the control of administration from Diwan Mulraj. Two British officials, Agnew and Anderson went along with him. On 19th April 1848, Diwan Mulraj handed over the administration of Multan to them.

The people of Multan got excited to see the British officials and they rose in revolt on April 20, 1848 and murdered the British officials. The British took no step at that time to suppress the rebellion. As a result, the revolt against the British spread in the whole of Punjab. At last, the British declared war against the Lahore kingdom on November 16, 1848.

The Results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War:

  • The Punjab was annexed to the British Empire on March 25, 1849, and a Board of Administration of three members was established for the administration of the Punjab.
  • Maharaja Dalip Singh was given a pension of 50,000 pounds annually and sent to England.
  • Diwan Mulraj was tried for his offence. He was declared to be guilty and then exiled.

The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Successors of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Kharak Singh, Naunihal Singh, Sher Singh and Dalip Singh were the successors of Ranjit Singh. They were weak and incapable rulers.
  • Anglo-Sikh Wars. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Sikh State (Lahore Darbar), the English defeated the Sikhs in two wars. -As a result, the Punjab was annexed by the British to their Empire.
  • First Anglo-Sikh War. This war was fought in 1845-46 A.D. The Sikhs lost it. The British occupied the Doaba-Bist-Jalandhar. They sold the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Raja Gulab Singh.
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War. The Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1848-49 A.D. The Sikhs lost the war and the Punjab was annexed to the British Indian Empire on March 25, 1849 by Lord Dalhousie.
  • Maharaja Dalip Singh, Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Lahore Kingdom. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War, he was dethroned.
  • Maharani Jindan. Maharani Jindan was the guardian of Maharaja Dalip Singh. According to the Treaty of Bhirowal, she was deprived of all her political rights. She was ousted from the Punjab and later deported to Benaras. It was a great insult to the Lahore kingdom.
  • Lai Singh and Teja Singh. Lai Singh was the Prime Minister of Lahore kingdom. Teja Singh was the commander of the Sikh forces. Because of their treachery, the Sikh forces lost the two Anglo-Sikh wars.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words:

Question 1.
What were the orders given by Guru Ji to the Sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnama?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji instructed the Sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnama to consider Banda Bahadur as their leader in their struggle against the Mughals.

Question 2.
Why did Banda Bahadur come to Punjab from the South?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji had appointed Banda Bahadur as the leader of the Sikhs in Punjab. Hence, he came to Punjab from Deccan to undertake military action against the tyrannical Mughals.

Question 3.
Why did Banda Bahadur attack Samana?
Answer:
Sayyid Jalaludin, the executioner of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, lived in Samana. The other two executioners of two young Sahibzadas, namely, Jalad Shasal Beg and Jalad Bhagal Beg were also inhabitants of Samana. Due to this reason, Banda Bahadur attacked Samana.

Question 4.
What was the reason for attacking Bhuna village by Banda Bahadur?
Answer:
A contingent of Mughal soldiers guarding a Mughal treasury was camping at village Bhuna. Banda Bahadur needed money for his military campaigns. Hence, he attacked the village Bhuna.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 5.
Why did Banda Bahadur attack Sadhaura?
Answer:
Banda Bahadur attacked Sadhaura to punish its ruler Usman Khan. Usman Khan was notorious for commiting atrocities on the Hindus. Usman Khan had also killed Buddhu Shah for having supported Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the battle of Bhangani.

Question 6.
Why did Banda Bahadur attack Chapparchiri and Sirhind?
Or
What was the reason for attacking Sirhind by Banda Bahadur?
Answer:
The Subedar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan had troubled Guru Gobind Singh Ji throughout his stay in the Punjab. He had also bricked alive the two young Sahibzadas in a wall at Sirhind. That was why Banda Bahadur attacked Sirhind and Chapparchiri.

Question 7.
What was the cause of the battle of Rahon?
Answer:
The Sikhs of Jalandhar Doab had risen in arms against Faujdar Shamas Khan. The Sikhs had removed the Mughal officers by force and replaced them by Sikh officers. As a result, the battle of Rahon was fought between the Sikhs and the Mughals.

Question 8.
Wazir Khan was the Subedar of which place? Where did he fight against Banda Bahadur?
Answer:
Wazir Khan was appointed as the Subedar of Sirhind by the Mughals. He fought a battle with Banda Bahadur at Chapparchirri.

Question 9.
Write about the martyrdom of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur was arrested along with about one thousand Sikh soldiers in 1715 and taken to Delhi. There, the Mughal tormentors plucked out his flesh with hot iron rods. In this manner, Banda Bahadur was martyred.

Question 10.
When and between whom third battle of Panipat fought?
Answer:
Third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between Ahmad Shah Abdali and Marathas. ,

Question 11.
How was the Karorsinghia Misl named?
Answer:
The founder of Karorsinghia Misl was Karor Singh. His Misl was named as Karorsinghia Misl after his name.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 12.
Who was Sada Kaur?
Answer:
Sada Kaur was the mother-in-law of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. She belonged to the Kanhaiya Misl. She was a woman of extraordinary courage and ability.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Describe the meeting of Banda Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
The original name of Banda Bahadur was Madho Dass. His childhood name was Lakshman Dass. He was a Bairagi. In 1708, Guru Gobind Singh Ji visited South India. There, Madho Dass happened to meet’Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He was so much impressed by the graceful personality of Guru Sahib that he immediately adopted Guru Sahib as his Guru. Guru Sahib baptized him a Sikh and renamed him Gurbaksh Singh. Guru Sahib sent him to the Punjab* to lead the Sikhs. He became popular as Banda Bahadur in Punjab.

Question 2.
Write a note on the conquest of Samana by Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur attacked Samana on October 26, 1709. The cause of the attack on Samana was that the executioner who had martyred Guru Teg Bahadur Ji and bricked the two young Sahibzadas in a wall at Sirhind belonged to Samana. The fight continued in the streets of Samana for many hours. It is said that the Sikhs killed nearly ten thousand Muslims. They also razed to the ground numerous buildings. The families of the executioners were completely liquidated. Banda Bahadur looted a large amount of money from Samana.

Question 3.
Write about the battle of Chapparchiri (Sirhind).
Answer:
The Subedar of Sirhind Wazir Khan had troubled Guru Gobind Singh Ji throughout his stay in Punjab. Secondly, the two young Sahibzadas were bricked alive in a wall on his orders. Banda Bahadur determined to avenge the heinous crimes committed by Wazir Khan. When Banda Bahadur marched towards Sirhind, many people rallied under his flag. A nephew of Sucha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhind administration, also joined the invading Sikh army along with his thousand soldiers. However, later he deserted the Sikh army. On the other side, Wazir Khan had twenty thousand soldiers at his disposal. On May 22, 1710, a fierce battle took place at Chapparchirri, a place 16 kilometres away from Sirhind. Wazir Khan was slain in the battle. The enemy army became the victim of the swords of Sikhs in large numbers. The dead body of Wazir Khan was hanged from a tree. The nose of Sucha Nand was pierced and he was paraded in the town.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 4.
Describe the battle of Gurdas Nangal.
Answer:
The Mughals were highly infuriated by the continuous victories of Banda Bahadur. Finally, in 1715, a large Mughal army attacked Banda’s army. Abdus Samad Khan was in command of that army. The Sikhs fought the Mughal army doggedly. However, they were forced to move to Haveli of Duni Chand at Gurdas Nangal, a place 6 kilometres west of Gurdaspur City. They again entrenched themselves in the mansion (haveli) of Bhai Duni Chand. In order to strengthen the defence of the Haveli, they dug out a moat around the building and filled it with water. In April 1715, the Mughal army landed near the haveli of Duni Chand and besieged it. The Sikhs put up a stiff resistance. The siege continued for eight months during which all the food supplies within the haveli were finished. Thus, compelled by the circumstances, the Sikhs accepted the defeat. Banda Bahadur and his about 1000 soldiers were arrested and taken to Lahore.

Question 5.
Which was the First Misl? Describe it.
Answer:
The Faizalpuria Misl was the first Misl which came into existence. The founder of this Misl was Nawab Kapur Singh. He had first occupied a village Faizalpur near Amritsar and named it Singhpur. It was, therefore, also called the Singpuria Misl.

In 1753, Nawab Kapur Singh died and his nephew Khushal Singh became the chief of the Faizalpuria Misl. By that time, the influence and dominance of the Sikhs had increased and Faizalpuria Misl extended its sway over a wide area. In 1796, Buddh Singh, son of Khushal Singh, became the chief of the Faizalpuria Misl. He was a brave and capable chief just like his father. In 1819, Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexecFFaizalpuria Misl to his kingdom.

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

Question 1.
Describe the early conquests of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur was a great military commander of his times. The strongest weapons of Banda Bahadur were his intrepidity and the blessings of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He had come to Delhi on the instructions of Guru Sahib. He sent the Hukamnama of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to the Sikhs of Malwa, Doaba and Majha. Soon after, thousands of Sikhs rallied under his flag. After organising the army with the help of those Sikhs, Banda Bahadur marched towards Punjab to take military action against the tyranny and oppression of the Mughals.

1. Attack on Sonipat. After leaving Delhi for Punjab, he first attacked Sonipat. At that time, only 500 Sikhs had joined him. However, the Faujdar of Sonipat had no courage to face the Sikh army on learning about the stories of their valour. He ran away from the town along with his soldiers.

2. Looting of Royal treasury at Bhuna (Kaithal). After Sonepat, Banda Bahadur reached Kaithal. He received a report that some soldiers were camping at a nearby village Bhuna with the land revenue collections. Banda Bahadur, who was in need of money for his military campaigns, attacked village Bhuna. The Faujdar of Kaithal came forward to fight a battle with him but was badly defeated. Banda Bahadur acquired all the money.

3. Victory of Samana. After Bhuna, Banda Bahadur marched towards Samana. Sayyid Jalaludin, the executioner of Guru Teg Bahadur, lived there. The executioners of two young Sahibzadas, (Sahibzadas Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh) namely, Jalad Shasal Beg and Baghal Beg were also inhabitants of Samana. Banda Bahadur attacked Samana on November 26, 1709 and punished them. The fight continued for many hours in the streets of Samana. The Sikh soldiers razed to the ground the imposing buildings of Samana and put nearly ten thousand Muslims to sword. The families of Sayyid Jalaludin, Shasal Beg and Baghal Beg were killed. Banda Bahadur acquired a large booty during the attack. He appointed Bhai Fateh Singh as the administrator of Samana.

4. Victory of Ghurram. One week after the victory of Samana, Banda Bahadur attacked Ghurram. The Pathans of Ghurram offered resistance to the Sikh army. However, they saved their lives by running away. The Sikh army looted a lot of money from Ghurram.

5. Attack on Kapuri. From Ghurram, Banda Bahadur reached Kapuri. The ruler of Kapuri, Qutbudirt was notorious for inflicting atrocities on the Hindus. Banda Bahadur defeated him and put him to death! Banda Bahadur burned down his haveli.

6. Victory of Sadhaura (Qatalgarhi). The ruler of Sadhaura, Usman Khan, was notorious for committing atrocities on the Hindus. He had killed Buddhu Shah for having supported Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the victory of Bhangani. Banda Bahadur attacked Sadhora. After defeating Usman Khan, the Sikhs ravaged Sadhora,, town. Some of the Muslims took shelter in the haveli of Buddhu Shah. The Sikh army chopped off their heads. As a result, the place came to be ’known as Quatalgarhi.

7. Victory of Mukhalispur. After Sadhora, Banda Bahadur invaded Mukhalispur and easily occupied it. He changed the name of the fort to Lohgarh. Later, Banda Bahadur made Lohgarh as his capital.

8. Victory of Chapparchirri and Sirhind: The main target of the military expedition of Banda Bahadur was Sirhind where Subedar Wazir Khan lived, who had troubled Guru Gobind Singh Ji throughout his stay in the Punjab and afterwards also. He was also responsible for the martyrdom of two young Sahibzadas. That was why Banda Bahadur wanted to take revenge upon him. When Banda Bahadur approached Sirhind, thousands of Sikhs rallied under his flag. A nephew of Sucha Nand, an employee of Sirhind administration, also joined the invading Sikh army with his one thousand soldiers. Wazir Khan also came forward with his 2000 soldiers. A fierce battle was fought at Chapparchirri (near Sirhind) on 22 May, 1710 A.D. between the two armies. However, some of the Sikhs indulged in looting only and deserted the army during the course of the battle. The nephew of Sucha Nand also ran away from the field. At such a crucial juncture, Banda Bahadur charged forward and encouraged the loyal Sikhs. Finally, he killed Wazir Khan. A large number of Mughal soldiers were slain by the Sikhs. The dead body of Wazir Khan was hanged from a tree. The nose of Sucha Nand was pierced and he was paraded in the town.

9. Attack on Saharanpur and Jalalabad: In the meantime, Banda Bahadur got report that Jalal Khan, the governor of Jalalabad, was committing atrocities on his Hindu subjects. Therefore, he invaded Jalalabad. On his way, he occupied Saharanpur also. However, Banda Bahadur returned without conquering Jalalabad because of heavy rains and he had received an urgent message from the Sikhs of Jalandhar Doab to come to their help.

10. Control over Jalandhar Doab: The continuous victories of Banda Bahadur had infused a new spirit of courage among the Sikhs of Jalandhar Doab. The Sikhs of Jalandhar Doab had risen in revolt against the Faujdar Shams Khan. Shams Khan sent a huge army against the Sikhs after declaring Jihad. Banda Bahadur arrived at the right time to assist the Sikhs in their revolt. A fierce battle took place between the Sikhs and Muslims at Rahon. The Sikhs emerged victorious. In this way, the regions of Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur came under the control of the Sikhs.

11. Control over Amritsar, Batala, Kalanaur and Pathankot: Encouraged by the victories of Bapda Bahadur, nearly 8000 Sikhs revolted against their Muslim rulers. Soon they took in their possession the region of Amritsar, Batala, Kalanaur and Pathankot.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 2.
Describe the battles between Bahadur Shah and Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur spread awe and fear amoag the Mughal rulers of Punjab. When the Mughal Emperor received the report about actual condition in the Punjab, he got infuriated. The emperor, therefore, directed all his attention towards Punjab. On June 27, 1710, he left Ajmer for Punjab.

The emperor also directed the Subedars of Delhi, Avadh, and Nizams and Faujdars of Muradabad and Allahabad to come along with their armies to Punjab.
1. Battle of Eminabad: Bahadur Shah, Feroze Khan Mewati and Mahabat Khan in command of a large army marched against Banda Bahadur and his Sikh army. Bhai Binod Singh and Ram Singh engaged the Mughal army in a battle on October 26, 1710 at Eminabad, a place between Banesar and Tarawari. At one time, the Sikh army pushed back Mahabat Khan. But as the number of Mughal soldiers was quite large, the Sikhs were defeated. The Sikhs were highly insulted. The dead bodies of the Sikhs were hanged on the trees on the roadsides. Bahadur Shah appointed Feroze Khan Mewati as the Faujdar of Sirhind.

2. Battle of Sadhaura: When Banda Bahadur learnt about the defeat of Sikh army, he immediately marched against the enemy. At that time, the Mughal army was camping at Sadhaura. The Mughal army was trying to seek some better place for camping. On December 4, 1710 a Mughal contingent left Sadhaura. Banda Bahadur exploited the opportunity to attack the remaining army at Sadhaura. He inflicted heavy losses on the Mughals. However, by the evening, the search party of the Mughal army returned. As a result, the Sikh army was forced to discontinue the attack and move back to the fort of Lohgarh.

3. Battle of Lohgarh: By this time, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah himself took over the command to act against Banda Bahadur. He directed his commander Munim Khan to move towards the fort of Lohgarh with an order to gauge the actual strength of the Sikh army. Munim Khan overstepped the instructions of the Emperor and attacked Lohgarh on December 10, 1710 A.D. The other Mughal commanders were forced to join him in this expedition. The Sikhs gave them a tough fight. However, the Sikhs faced hardships because of the scarcity of the provisions. They were not fully prepared to fight a battle. In such a situation, one of the Sikhs, namely Gulab Singh wore the dress of Banda Bahadur and took over the command of the fort in place of Banda Bahadur. It helped Banda Bahadur to leave Lohgarh safely and he reached Nahan along with his Sikhs on December 11, 1710. Munim Khan stormed the fort of Lohgarh and captured it. Gulab Singh was killed. However, Bahadur Shah felt frustrated when he found that he was not able to capture Banda Bahadur. Hence, the Emperor sent his army under Hamid Khan after Banda Bahadur towards Nahan. The Emperor himself marched through Sadhaura, Badowal, Ropar, Hoshiarpur, Kalanaur, etc. and reached Lahpre.

4. The activities of Banda Bahadur in the Hilly Regions: Banda Bahadur sent a message to the Sikhs living in the hilly regions to join him. Very soon, a large number of Sikhs gathered at Kiratpur.

  1. First of all, Banda Bahadur issued a directive ^o the old enemy of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, named Bhim Chand of Bilaspur to accept his suzerainty. When Bhim Chand refused to follow his command, Banda Bahadur attacked Bilaspur. A fierce battle took place. Bhim Chand and his 1300 soldiers were killed in the battle. It was one of the glorious victories of the Sikhs.
  2. The rest of the hilly chiefs were terrified by the victory of Banda Bahadur. Some of them even presented gifts and recognised his suzerainty. Raja Siddha Sen of Mandi even openly announced that he was a follower of the Sikh Gurus.
  3. From Mandi, Banda Bahadur marched towards Kullu. The ruler of Kullu, Raja Man Singh was able to trap Banda Bahadur by a trick. However, Banda Bahadur soon set himself free.
  4. From Kullu, Banda Bahadur marched towards the kingdom of Chamba. The Raja of Chamba, Raja Udai Singh welcomed him and even married a girl from his family to Banda Bahadur. A son was born to Banda Bahadur in 1711, who was named Ajay Singh.
  5. Battle of Baihrampur: Next, Banda Bahadur marched from the hills of Raipur and Baihrampur and came down to the plains. There, he was again attacked by Faujdar of Jammu, Baizd Khan Khaishgi. A battle was fought on June 4, 1711, near Baihrampur. Bhai Bhag Singh and Bhai Fateh Singh displayed their skills with great courage and won the battle for the Sikhs.

After the victory of Baihrampur, Banda Bahadur attacked Raipur, Kalanaur, and Batala and occupied those towns. But, he soon lost those territories. Banda Bahadur again took shelter in the mountains. But Bahadur Shah and his army failed to destroy Banda Bahadur’s power and the Sikh army.

Question 3.
Describe the battles fought by Banda Bahadur in the Ganga-Yamuna region.
Answer:
A wave of enthusiasm spread among the common people because of continuous victories won by Banda Bahadur. The people became hopeful that Banda Bahadur would free them from the tyranny of the Mughals. So many Hindus and Muslims started embracing Sikh religion. The inhabitants of Muslim villages like Unarasa were converted to Sikh religion.

The Faujdar of Jalalabad did not tolerate it. He imprisoned many Sikhs of that village. Banda Bahadur, on getting this report, set out towards Unarasa to get the Sikhs released.
1. Attack on Saharanpur: The Sikhs attacked Saharanpur after crossing the river Yamuna. The Faujdar of Saharanpur ran away to Delhi on the arrival of Sikhs. His subordinates tried to resist the attacks of the Sikhs but were badly defeated. The Sikh army occupied a major portion of Saharanpur. They changed the name of Saharanpur to Bhagnagar.

2. Battle of Bihat: After Saharanpur, Banda Bahadur marched towards Bihat. The Pirzadas of Bihat were commiting atrocities on the Hindus. They used to slaughter cows at public places. Banda Bahadur put many Pirzadas to sword. It is said that only one Pirzada escaped the sword of Banda Bahadur because at that time he was away to Bulandshahr.

3. Attack on Ambeta: After Bihat, Banda Bahadur attacked Ambeta. The Afghans (Pathans) of Ambeta were very rich. They did not oppose the Sikh army. The Sikh army acquired a lot of money from them.

4. Attack on Nanota: The Sikhs attacked Nanota on July 21,1710. The Sheikhzadas of Nanota were experts in archery. They gave a tough fight to the Sikh army. The fight spread over to the streets and market of the town. Finally, the Sikh army won the victory and three hundred Sheikhzadas were killed.

5. Attack on Unarasa: After the victory of Nanota, Banda Bahadur turned to Jalalabad and Unarasa, which were his main targets. Banda Bahadur sent the message through his representative to Jalal Khan to ask him to immediately release the imprisoned Sikhs and quietly accept the suzerainty of Banda Bahadur. Jalal Khan refused to accept the orders of Banda Bahadur. He even insulted the representative of Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur now stormed Unarasa. A fierce battle took place and the Sikhs won it. Jalal Khan and his nephews Jamal Khan and Pir Khan were killed.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Activity:

Question 1.
Show the places of battles fought by Bandu BaIiadurIhempofPunjab.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals 1

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word:

Question 1.
What did Madho Dass call himself after conifng under the influence of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Madho Dass called himself a Dass (a humble servent) or Banda (a reliable follower of Guru Sahib).

Question 2.
Write one important victory won by the Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Victory of Sirhind.

Question 3.
Why did the Sikhs lose the battle of Gurdas Nangal?
Answer:
The Sikhs ran short of food supplies during the long siege of haveli of Bhai Duni Chand.

Question 4.
Write one important feature of the victories of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
The victories of Banda Bahadur united the Sikhs in the bond of unity and showed them the path of independence.

Question 5.
Write any one cause of the failure of Banda Bahadur in establishing a more permanent rule of the Sikhs in Punjab.
Answer:
(1) Banda Bahadur had become unpopular among the Sikhs.

Question 6.
In which two groups (Dais) did Nawab Kapur Singh divide the Khalsa soldiers in 1734?
Answer:
In 1734, Nawab Kapur Singh divided the Sikh soldiers into two groups, Buddha Dal and Tarun Dal.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 7.
What is the meaning of the word Misl?
Or
How did the word Misl originate?
Answer:
The Misl is an Arabic word, which means all are equals.

Question 8.
How many Sikh Misls were there?
Answer:
There were twelve Sikh Misls in the Punjab.

Question 9.
Write the name of the founder of the Ahluwalia Misl.
Answer:
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.

Question 10.
Which Misl was founded by Sardar Charhat Singh?
Answer:
Sukherchakia.

Question 11.
Who was the founder of Karorsinghia Misl?
Answer:
Karor Singh.

Question 12.
When and where Banda was executed by the Mughal ruler?
Answer:
In June 1716 at Delhi.

Question 13.
Who was Wazir Khan?
Answer:
Governor of Sirhind.

Question 14.
What was the name of Banda Bahadur’s son?
Answer:
Ajay Singh.

Question 15.
Who was the founder of the Phulkian Misl?
Answer:
Chaudhri Phul Singh, a Sandhu Jat.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 16.
Who was the most powerful ruler of the Phulkian Misl?
Answer:
Baba Ala Singh.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji sent Banda Bahadur to the _________ to lead the Sikhs in their struggle against the ___________
Answer:
Punjab, Mughals

Question 2.
The third Battle of Panipat was fought in between the _________ and_________
Answer:
1761, Marathas and Ahmed Shah Abdali

Question 3.
Jasa Singh Ahluwalia was the founder of the ________ Misl.
Answer:
Ahluwalia

Question 4.
Banda Bahadur attacked Sirhind and Chapparchiri to punish the Subedar of
Answer:
Wazir Khan, Sirhind

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 5.
The Phulkian Misl was founded by Chaudhri
Answer:
Phul Singh.

True or False:

Question 1.
Banda was defeated in his battle with Wazir Khan, Subedar of Sirhind.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Banda was executed at Lahore.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
There were twelve Sikh Misls in the Punjab.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
The original name of Banda Bahadur was Madho Das.
Answer:
True

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 5.
The Sukherchakya Misl was founded by Sardar Charat Singh.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
A long dark period in the Sikh history followed the martyrdom of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
True

Match the following:

Question 1.

(A)

(B)

1. Nawab Kapoor Singh (a) Bhangi Misi
2. Banda Bahadur (b) Ramgarhiya Misi
(c) Chapparchiri
(d) Faizalpuria Misi

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (c).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write about any four main military achievements of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
The brief description of the main military achievements of Banda Bahadur is as follows:
1. Looting of Samana and Kapuri. Banda Bahadur made his first attack on Samana and looted it badly. Then, he stormed Kapuri. He also ravaged the town of Kapuri.

2. Attack on Sadhaura. The ruler of Sadhaura was ill-treating the Hindu inhabitants of Sadhaura. Banda Bahadur attacked Sadhaura to punish its ruler Usman Khan. He massacred the Muslims in such a large number that the place came to be known as Qatalgarhi.

3. Victory over Sirhind. The two young Sahibzadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji were bricked alive in a wall at Sirhind. Banda Bahadur massacred the Muslims of Sirhind to avenge the heinous crime. The Subedar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, was also killed in the battle.

4. Conquest of Jalandhar Doab. The’icontinuous victories of Banda Bahadur encouraged the Sikhs of Jalandhar Doab to rise against the Mughal subedar. They revolted against its Faujdar Shamas Khan and sought the help of Banda Bahadur. A fierce battle took place between the Sikhs and the Muslims at Rahon. The Sikhs won the battle of Rahon and occupied the region bf Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on the martyrdom of Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur and his Sikh soldiers were made prisoners at Gurdas Nangal. They were taken first to Lahore and then to Delhi. Banda Bahadur was paraded in the market places of Delhi and publicly insulted. Finally on June 9, 1716, the Mughal government passed the orders for the execution of Banda Bahadur. He was badly tortured before his execution. His son was cut into pieces before his eyes. His flesh was plucked out with red-iron rods. In this manner, Banda Bahadur was martyred. About 740 of his followers were also executed at Delhi.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Question 3.
Give four reasons because of which Banda Bahadur was not able to establish a permanent Sikh kingdom.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur was not able to establish a permanent Sikh kingdom in Punjab due to the following causes:

  1. Kingly Life Style of Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur had adopted the kingly life style and abandoned the ways of saints. It reduced the respect of Banda Bahadur among the Sikhs.
  2. Merciless and Brutal Massacres. According to Lala Daulat Ram, Banda Bahadur indulged in very brutal general massacres without sparing any Hindu or Muslim while on his Punjab expeditions. He lost the support of the Sikhs and Hindus due to large scale mindless killings.
  3. Powerful Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire had yet not lost its vitality. Therefore, Banda Bahadur and his few thousand Sikhs could not fight against the Mughal Empire for long.
  4. Limited Resources of Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur was not able to establish a permanent kingdom due to his limited resources. The Sikhs did not have enough resources to finish the power of the Mughal Empire.

Question 4.
Who was the founder of the Ahluwralia Misl? How did he expand the power of the Ahluwalia Misl?
Answer:
The founder of Ahluwalia Misl was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.

  1. Jassa Singh successfully opposed the oppression of Mir Mannu (the Subedar of Lahore) from 1748 to 1753.
  2. In 1761, Jassa Singh attacked Lahore and defeated its Subedar Khwaja Obed. The Sikhs occupied Lahore.
  3. In 1762, Ahmed Shah Abdali attacked Punjab. Jassa Singh was defeated at Kup. However, Jassa Singh re-established himself. In 1763, the Sikhs under the leadership of Jassa Singh looted Kasur and Sirhind.
  4. In 1764, Jassa Singh invaded Delhi and looted it.

Question 5.
What was the position of Marathas on the eve of the rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Ahmed Shah Abdali had defeated Marathas in the third battle of Panipat in 1761 and thrown them out of Punjab. However, by the end of the 18th century, they had again extended their sway in the,North India.

Daulat Rao Sindhia, the Maratha chief had established his control over Delhi. He started attacking the region of Satluj and Yamuna Doab. However, his advance was checked by the British, a new power on the political scene of India.

Question 6.
Describe the position of the East India Company on the eve of the rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Warren Hastings was the Governor-General of the British Empire under the East India Company from 1772 to 1785. He checked the Marathas from extending their sway over Punjab by involving them in military engagements. However, the succeeding Governors-General, especially Cornwallis (1786 to 1793) and John Shore (1793 to 1798) an acting Governor-General) did not try to extend the territories of the British Empire under East India Company. In 1798, Lord Wellesley became the Governor-General. He was a soldier by training. He entered into subsidiary alliances with Hyderabad, Mysore, Carnatic, Tanjore, Awadh, etc. He also fought against the Marathas. The, Marathas were therefore not able to give attention to the Punjab. In 1803, the East India Company occupied Delhi after defeating Daulat Rao Scindia and brought it under the control of the British Empire.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Write a brief note on the following Misls:
1. Phulkian,
2. Dalewalia,
3. Nishanwalia,
4. Karorsinghia, and
5. Shahid Misl.
Answer:
A brief description of the history of the above Misls is as follows:
1. Phulkian Misl:
A Sandhu Jat Chaudhari Phul Singh laid the foundation of the Phulkian Misl. The most powerful ruler of this Misl, however, was Baba Ala Singh. Baba Ala Singh had conquered the territories around Barnala in the beginning. In 1762. Ahmed Shah Abdali appointed him Nawab of Malwa region. In 1764, Baba Ala Singh defeated the Subedar of Sirhind Zain Khan. Abdali honoured Baba Ala Singh by awarding him with a kettledrum (Nagra) and Flag in 1765. Baba Ala Singh died in 1765. After the death of Baba Ala Singh, Amar Singh took over the reins of Phulkian Misl. He annexed the area of Bhatinda, Rohtak, and Hansi to the territories of his Misl. Ahmed Shah Abdali awarded him the title Raja-i-Rajanan. After the death of Amar Singh, his son Sahib Singh became the chief of the Phulkian Misl. He was a weak ruler. Finally, by a treaty in 1809, the East India Company made Phulkian Misl a protectorate of the British Empire.

2. Dalewalia Misl:
Gulab Singh established the Dalewalia Misl. He was an inhabitant of a village Dalewal which was situated on the banks of river Ravi. Thus, the Misl was called Dalewal Misl. The most popular and powerful chief of this Misl was Tara Singh Gheba. He kept an army of 7500 soldiers. He was a very wealthy chief. As long as he was alive,
Maharaja Ranjit Singh maintained friendly relations with him. The day, Tara Singh died, Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed this Misl into his Empire. The wife of Tara Singh protested strongly against his action but was not able to achieve anything.

3. Nishanwalia Misl:
Sangat Singh and Mohar Singh founded the Nishanwalia Misl. They used to carry the banner of Khalsa (Nishan) during their eariler years. Therefore, this Misl was called Nishanwalia Misl. The territory of this Misl was Ambala and Shahabad. It was not politically much important Misl.

4. Karorsinghia Misl:
Karor Singh founded this Misl. The most popular chief of this Misl was Baghel Singh. Baghel Singh had conquered the territories of Banga, Nawanshahar, etc. The main centre of the activities of this Misl was 20 miles away from Karnal, the place where the Misl shifted its activities. Baghel Singh had an army of 12000 soldiers. After the death of Subedar Zain Khan of Sirhind, Baghel Singh had tried to extend the territories of his Misl towards the north of Satluj. Jodh Singh succeeded Baghel Singh. Jodh Singh had conquered some territory in the Malwa region and annexed it to his Misl. Finally, a major portion of the territory of this Misl became the part of Kalsia kingdom and Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the rest of its territory.

5. Shahid or Nihang Misl:
Sudha Singh, a Granthi of Damdama Sahib, laid the foundation of this Misl. Sudha Singh died while fighting the Muslim rulers. Hence, this Misl was called Shahid Misl. After him, the Misl was headed by Baba Deep Singh, Karam Singh, Gurbaksh Singh etc. successively. Most of the members of this Misl were Akalis or Nihangs. Therefore, this Misl was also called Nihang Misl. About 2000 soldiers of this Misl were Nihangs. This Misl had been helping the other Misls during their times of need and crisis.

Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Meeting of Banda Bahadur with Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1708. A bairagi named Madho Dass came in contact with Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Nander in Maharashtra. He was so much impressed by the personality of Guru Sahib that he immediately became his follower. Guru Sahib sent him to the Punjab to lead the Sikhs in their struggle against the Mughals. He became popular as Banda Bahadur in the Punjab.
  • Banda Bahadur in the Punjab. Banda Bahadur reached the Punjab on the instructions of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He organised the Sikhs in the Punjab and started his military expeditions.
  • Success of Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur punished the executioners of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji and two Sahibzadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He also killed the Faujdar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan. He defeated the hill chief Raja Bhim Chand who had strongly opposed Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
  • Important Victories: The important victories of Banda Bahadur were of Sadhora, Sirhind, Jalalabad and Lohgarh.
  • Battle of Gurdas Nangal: In 1715, the Mughal army besieged Banda Bahadur and Sikh soldiers in the mansion (Haveli) of Bhai Duni Chand at Gurdas Nangal. The siege continued for eight months during which the food supplies of the Sikhs were exhausted. Under such circumstances, Banda Bahadur and his Sikh soldiers were arrested by the Mughals.
  • The Martyrdom of Banda Bahadur: Banda Bahadur and his Sikh soldiers were first taken to Lahore. From Lahore they were taken to Delhi in 1716. In June 1716, Banda Bahadur and the Sikhs were mercilessly executed at Delhi.
  • Misls: A long dark period in the Sikh history followed the martyrdom of Banda Bahadur. But after some years, the Sikhs again became active in their struggle against the Mughal governors of the Punjab. Some of the important Sikh chiefs were able to establish their small kingdoms called the Misls. There were 12 such Sikh Misls. The chief of a Misl was called Misldar.
  • Rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Maharaja Ranjit Singh belonged to Shukarchakia Misl. The Sukarchakia Misl was founded by Sardar Charat Singh, the grandfather of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. On the death of his father Mahan Singh in 1792, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ascended the throne. He was able to establish a vast empire in the Punjab within a few years.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 6 Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words:

Question 1.
When and where Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born? Write the names of his parents.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 22, 1666 at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujri Ji.

Question 2.
Which games were played by Guru Ji in his childhood at Patna?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji played the game of mock battles. Guru Sahib also played the game of justice in a mock court along with his playmates. Guru Sahib also organised the wrestling bouts and-races during his childhood at Patna.

Question 3.
Name the teachers from whom Guru Gobind Singh Ji received his education.
Answer:
Qazi Pir Muhammad, Pandit Harjas, Rajput Bajar Singh, Bhai Sahib Chand and Bhai Mati Das were eminent teachers who taught Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 4.
What was the problem of Kashmiri Pandits? How did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji solve it?
Answer:
Aurangzeb was forcibly converting Kashmiri Brahmins to Islam. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji saved the Kashmiri Brahmins from that grave injustice by sacrificing his life.

Question 5.
Name the forts constructed by Guru Gobind Singh Ji after his victory of Bhangani.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji constructed the forts at Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh and Fatehgarh after the battle of Bhangani (1690) at Anandpur Sahib.

Question 6.
Write names of the Panj Piaras.
Answer:
The names of the Panj Piaras were Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, Mokham Singh, Sahib Singh and Himmat Singh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 7.
How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji attain martyrdom?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji toured South India in 1708. Guru Sahib stayed at Nanded (in Maharashtra) for some time. There a Pathan attacked Guru Sahib and inflicted a severe injury on his stomach with a dagger. Guru Sahib made the final union with Divine Power some time after that incident on October 7, 1708.

Question 8.
Which Banis are recited while preparing Khande Ka Pahul?
Answer:
The hymns of Japji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Jap Sahib, Swayas, Chaupais etc. are recited while preparing Khande Ka Pahul.

Question 9.
When and where was the Khalsa created?
Answer:
The work of the creation of the Khalsa was undertaken in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib on the day of Baisakhi.

Question 10.
What was the impact of the Khalsa on Bhim Chand, the king of Bilaspur?
Answer:
The Raja of Bilaspur, Bhim Chand was horrified due to the creation of the Khalsa. He made alliances with other Hill Chiefs against the Khalsa.

Question 11.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar? Why was it named so?
Answer:
The earlier name of Muktsar was Khidrana. A group of 40 Sikhs had deserted Guru Gobind Singh Ji during the second battle of Anandpur Sahib (1704 A.D.). However, they again came back to Guru Sahib after realising their mistake. They fought in the battle of Khidrana against the Mughals and achieved martyrdom. Those 40 martyrs were called 40 Muktas, (The word Mukta is derived from the word Mukti which means salvation). The place Khidrana was named Muktsar in the memory of those forty Sikh soldiers who had earlier deserted Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib pardoned them after they had repented at Khidrana.

Question 12.
To whom did Guru Ji write a letter named ‘Zafarnama’?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote Zafarnama to Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Question 13.
Write the names of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s four famous compositions.
Answer:
The four most popular literary works of Guru Gobind Singh Ji are Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Akal Ustat and Shastra Nam Mala.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji spend his childhood at Patna?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji spent the first five years of his childhood at Patna Sahib. His maternal uncle Shri Kirpal Chand was his guardian. It is said that a Muslim saint named Bhikhan Shah from Ghuram (Patiala district^ visited Patna Sahib to have the divine glimpse of the child Gobind. The moment the Muslim saint looked at the child for the first time, he forecasted that the child would become a great man and lead the people on the right path. The forecast of the Muslim saint came out true. The signs of his greatness were visible even in his childhood. The child Gobind Das used to divide his friends into groups and organise mock battles. The child Gobind Das used to pay them even salaries in the form of sweets and cowries (small shells). The child Gobind Das used to play the role of a judge and settled disputes of his playmates. The child Gobind Das used to deliver judgements with great ability.

Question 2.
Write about the royal emblems of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji had also adopted the royal symbols like his grandfather Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib sat on a raised seat and also adorned his headgear with a crest. Guru Sahib also started calling meetings of the Sikhs under highly decorated and costly canopies. Guru Sahib also kept elephants and horses of the best breeds. Guru Sahib regularly went on hunting expeditions. Guru Sahib had also built Ranjit Nagara (the victory drum).

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 3.
Describe the principles of the Khalsa.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in 1699. Guru Sahib made the following rules for the Khalsa:

  • Every Sikh would add Singh (lion) after his name. Every Sikh woman would add word Kaur after her name.
  • Every person would join the Khalsa Panth after getting sprinklings and five palmfuls of Amrit (Sacred Water of Immortality) of Khande Ka Pahaul (Baptism of the Sword). Then only the baptized Sikh may call himself a Khalsa.
  • Every Sikh, must wear five Ks. which are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kanga (comb), Karra (the iron bangle), Kirpan (sword) and Kachchera ( a pair of shorts).
  • Every Sikh shall recite the five prayers after taking bath every morning, which are recited when the Khande Ka Pahaul is prepared.

Question 4.
What were the causes of the battle of Bhangani?
Or
Write any three reasons of the battle of Bhangani.
Answer:
The battle of Bhangani was fought between the Hill Chiefs and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The causes of the battle were the following:

  1. The Hill Chiefs considered the military activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji as dangerous to them.
  2. Guru Sahib was strongly against idol worship whereas the Hill Chiefs were highly devoted to idol worship.
  3. Guru Sahib had recruited 500 Pathans, in his army who had been disbanded from the Mughal army. The Hill Chiefs were the vassals of the Mughal government. They supported the enemies of Guru Sahib.
  4. The Mughal Faujdar had provoked the Hill Chiefs to take action against Guru Sahib.
  5. Guru Sahib had strained relations with Bhim Chand of Bilaspur. The Sikhs had not allowed the marriage party of the son of Raja Bhim Chand to pass through Poanta Sahib while proceeding to Kharwal. As a result, the Hill Chiefs decided to fight a battle against Guru Sahib.

Question 5.
Describe briefly the second battle of Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
The second battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in 1704. Earlier, in the first battle of Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji had given a crushing defeat t© the hill chiefs. In spite of signing a peace accord with Guru Sahib, the hill chiefs had again started military preparations. They were also joined by the Gujjars. The Mughal Emperor had also accepted their request for military help. As a result, the governor of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, had sent a big contingent against the Sikhs.

The army of all the allied forces besieged Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib effectively resisted the attack of the Mughals. However, the Sikhs had an acute shortage of provisions. The Mughal generals cut off all the means of communication and the Sikhs experienced great hardships. The Sikh army started facing starvation. A group of forty Sikhs signed a disclaimer (Badhawa) and thus deserted Guru Sahib. Finally on December 21, 1704, on the advice of Mata Gujari Ji, Guru Sahib, and the Sikhs vacated Anandpur Sahib.

Question 6.
Write a note on the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Chamkaur Sahib from Anandpur Sahib after crossing the river Sirsa. Guru Sahib took position in a mud fort at Chamkaur where the armies of the Mughals and the Hill Chiefs besieged the fort. Guru Sahib gave them a tough fight. The two Sahibzadas of Guru Sahib, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh achieved martyrdom. Apart from that, thirty-five Sikhs also achieved martyrdom. The circumstances were not favourable for Guru Sahib. Hence the Sikhs pleaded with Guru Sahib to leave the place and Guru Sahib left for the jungles of Machchiwara along with his five Sikh devotees.

Question 7.
Describe the battle of Khidrana.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Khidrana after the battle of Chamkaur Sahib. The last battle of Guru Sahib with the Mughals was fought at Khidrana. Those forty Sikhs who had deserted Guru Sahib in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib came back to Guru Sahib after repentance and fought for Guru Sahib in the battle of Khidrana. They gave a proof of their devotion and achieved martyrdom after defeating the Mughals. Their devotion and sacrifice impressed Guru Sahib so much that he forgave them for their, previous faults and granted them salvation or Mukti. Hence, the forty martyrs are remembered in the history as forty Muktas. Mai Bhago had also fought in the battle of Khidrana and was badly wounded. Guru Sahib won the battle and the Mughal army ran away for their life after suffering a crushing defeat.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 8.
Describe the personality of Guru Gobind Singh Ji as a general.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great religious leader. Guru Sahib was also a successful military commander and a brave soldier. Guru Sahib fought battles forced upon him by the hill chiefs and the Mughals. But Guru Sahib fought every battle courageously and established himself as a successful General. Guru Sahib had complete mastery over swordplay, archery and horse riding. Guru Sahib had all the qualities of a commander of a high calibre. Guru Sahib had made the Mughals and hill chiefs to lick dust even with his lesspr number of soldiers and limited resources. During the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib had hardly forty Sikhs in his army. But under his command, they displayed such a spectacular fighting power that the Mughal army of thousands failed to defeat them.

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

Question 1.
What do you know about the life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave the final shape to the Sikh religion. After creating the Khalsa in 1699, Guru Sahib created the spirit of unity, courage and heroism among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave a strong reply to the oppression of the Mughals with his limited resources. Guru Sahib is remembered as a great spiritual leader, an organizer par excellence, a successful commander, a literary genius and a great social reformer. A brief description of his life history is as follows:

Birth and Parentage. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 22, 1666, at Patna. The name of the mother of Guru Sahib was Mata Gujari Ji. Guru Sahib was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib was originally (by birth) named Gobind Das. According to some scholars, Guru Sahib was later named as Gobind Rai.

Childhood Period at Patna. Guru Sahib spent the first five years of his childhood at Patna. Guru Sahib used to play such games which had revealed beforehand that one day the child Gobind Rai would become a great religious leader. Guru Sahib used to organise wrestling bouts and races of his playmates. Guru Sahib himself took part in the games. Guru Sahib used to divide his playmates into two groups and played mock battles. Guru Sahib used to hold his own court in his childhood to settle the disputes among his childhood friends. A Muslim saint, Sayyed Bhikan Shah, when he visited him from Ghuram had predicted that the child would become a great prophet one day.

Education. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji started living with his family at Chak Nanki (Anadpur Sahib) from 1672. The arrangements for the education of the child Gobind Rai were made here by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib studied Persian from Qazi Pir Muhammad and Sanskrit from Pandit Harjas. The Rajput Bajar Singh gave him training in horse riding and use of armaments. Guru Sahib learnt Gurumukhi from Bhai Sahib Chand and Bhai Mati Das.

Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and Accession of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Gaddi. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji achieved martyrdom. In 1675 in order to save Kashmiri Pandits from the oppression of the Mughals. The child Gobind had himself enjoined upon his father to achieve martyrdom. After the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, Guru Gobind Dass took over the responsibility of Guru Gaddi, which was granted to him by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji himself and he guided the destiny of the Sikh community for the next thirty-three years.

Marriage. According to Sikh traditions, Gobind Das married three women-Bibi Jito, Bibi Sundari, and Bibi Sahib Devan. According to some historians, these are the names of one woman only. Guru Sahib was blessed with four sons. Their names were Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh.

Organization of Army. Guru Sahib had rightly realized the need of raising an army for the protection of Sikh religion. Hence, Guru Sahib ordained that a Sikh, who had four sons, should recruit his two sons in his army. Guru S&hib further advised them to make gifts of arms and horses in place of any other thing. As a result, soon Guru Sahib was able to collect enough military weapons to raise an army. Guru Sahib also employed 500 Pathan soldiers of Pir Buddhu Shah of Sadhana.

Magnificent Court and Royal Insignias of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib had adopted royal insignias following the footsteps of his grandfather Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib occupied a raised throne and adorned his headgear with a crest (Kalghi). Guru Sahib held his court under magnificent canopies. Guru Sahib had also kept numerous elephants and horses of the best breeds. Guru Sahib regularly went on hunting expeditions in the jungles of Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib also constructed the Ranjit Nagara or the victory drum.

Guru Sahib in Poanta Sahib. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur did not like the activities of Guru Sahib at Anandpur Sahib and became jealous of him. He feared the rising power of Guru Sahib. The Raja was trying to find an opportunity to pick up a quarrel with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib knew it but he did not want to waste his military power in useless fights. Guru Sahib accepted the invitation of Raja Medni Parakash of Nahan to settle down in his state. In Nahan, Guru Sahib selected a scenic, peaceful and secluded place on the banks of river Yamuna. The place was named Poanta meaning a place where Guru Sahib rested his feet.

Guru Sahib brought 52 poets to Poanta Sahib. Guru Sahib composed many important literary works with the assistance of those poets. Guru Sahib got translated Ramayana and Mahabharata into Gurumukhi for the intellectual development of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib also made arrangements for imparting training in horse riding, archery, and swordplay to the Sikhs at Poanta Sahib.

Battles of the Pre-Khalsa Period,

  1. Guru Sahib was compelled by the circumstances to fight the battle of Bhangani. Guru Sahib defeated Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Fateh Shah of Srinagar in the battle of Bhangani. It was the first battle and an important victory of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib decided to leave Poanta Sahib after the battle and came back to Anandpur Sahib. Guru Ji built forts of Anandgarh, Lohgarh, and Fatehgarh at Anandpur Sahib.
  2. In the meantime, Aurangzeb who was in South India at that time got the reports of rising power of Guru Sahib. He directed his officers in Punjab in 1693, to start a war against Guru Sahib, As a result, the Faujdar of Kangra deputed his son Khanzada to lead an expedition against Guru Sahib. The Sikhs gave him a crushing defeat.
  3. In 1695, the Faujdar of Kangra deputed Hussain Khan against Guru Sahib. However, his expedition turned into a tussle with hill chiefs and the local Sikhs and he did not get the chance to trouble Guru Sahib, as he was killed.
  4. Shahzada Muazzam took many steps to crush the power of hill chiefs and Guru Sahib. Shahzada Muazzam succeeded in reducing the power of hill chiefs. However, Prince Muazzam did not act against Guru Sahib because Guru Sahib was highly respected by some of his officers.

Creation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa on the Baisakhi day in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib prepared Khande Ka Pahaul (Baptism of Sword) and administered it to his five Piyaras (chosen ones) named Daya Ram. Dharam Das, Mohakkam Chand, Sahib Chand and Himmat Rai. Guru Sahib added the word ‘Singh’ (Lion) to their names. Guru Sahib also added the word Singh to his own name.

Battles of the Post-Khalsa Period, The period after the creation of Khalsa is called the Post-Khalsa Period. Guru Gobind Singh Ji remained engaged in many battles during Post-Khalsa period. Guru Sahib fought the first battle of Anandpur Sahib in 1701, battle of Nirmoh in 1702, battle of Basoli in 1702, second battle of Anandpur Sahib in 1704, battle of Shahi Tibi and battle of Chamkaur Sahib in 1705. From Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib reached Khidrana (Muktsar) after visiting places like Machchiwara, Dina etc. At Khidrana, Guru Sahib defeated the Mughal army in the last battle of his life in 1705. From Khidrana, Guru Sahib went to stay at Talwandi Sabo.

Death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Guru Gobind Singh Ji visited Nanded (Maharashtra) in 1708. The Faujdar of Sirhind had sent two Pathans to kill Guru Sahib. They used to visit the court of Guru Sahib occasionally. One evening, one of the Pathans got the opportunity to make a surprise attack on Guru Sahib and thrust a dagger into the stomach of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib received a severe injury. On October 7, 1708, Guru Sahib made the final union with the Divine Power.

Question 2.
Why did Guru Gobind Singh Ji create the Khalsa?
Answer:
It was the glorious day in the history of Sikh religion when the saints of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were transformed into ‘Singhs’ the lions. They were transformed into such selfless soldiers who readily sacrificed their lives for the protection of their religion with smile on their faces, whenever any occasion demanded.

The great transformation took place in 1699, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa. Guru Sahib had created the Khalsa due to following reasons:
1. Contribution of the first Nine Guru Sahibans. The creation of Khalsa was the culmination of the work started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. G.C. Narang remarks, “The harvest which ripened in the time of Guru Gobind Singh had been sown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and watered by his successors. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had called upon the people to fight against injustice and for freedom from tyranny. After Guru Nank Dev Ji, the second, the third and the fourth Gurus consolidated the work begun by the first Guru. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had given to the Sikhs a holy book, a code and a treasury. He was addressed as “Sacha Padshah”. Guru Hargobind by his New Policy converted the Sikhs into saint-soldiers. The first four Guru Sahibs and the 8th Guru were peace loving but they did not make any changes in the basic policies of the other Gurus. The 9th Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji enjoined upon his followers to be brave, fearless, and courageous. By creating Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, completed the process begun by his predecessors. In fact, all the elements of Khalsa are traceable in the doctrines given by the predecessors of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

2. Oppression ofAurangzeb. The atrocities committed by the Mughals on the Sikhs went on increasing during the period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Aurangzeb demolished Hindu temples and removed Hindus from the government services. He imposed more unjust taxes and restrictions on them. The most oppressive measure was the forcible conversion of the Hindus to Islam. The helpless Hindus had submitted helplessly to the continuous oppression. In fact, the very existence of Hindu religion in the Punjab was in danger. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was, severely opposed to any kind of oppression and had firmly resolved to fight against it. It was one of the main causes which led Guru Sahib to create Khalsa and to raise a strong army of the Sikhs.

3. Evil of Caste System. The Indian society was infested with social evils. The most crippling social evil was Caste System. The feelings of high and low caste were the major hurdles in achieving national unity. There was a big gulf between the Shudras and the Upper Classes in the society. There was a dire need of unity in the society. Guru Gobind Singh Ji furnished its solution by creating a united Khalsa. Guru Sahib wanted that the Khalsa should emerge as a united whole, dropping out all the caste considerations.

4. Aptitude of the Jats. The Jats had adopted Sikh religion in large numbers. The Jats were brave, fearless and had an inborn talent for battles. Guru Gobind Singh Ji needed a well-organised army to destroy the enemies of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib, therefore, encouraged the war loving Jats to adopt Sikh religion. Guru Sahib wanted to organise his followers and thus created the Khalsa.

5. Opposition of Hill Chiefs against Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Before the creation of Khalsa Panth, Guru Gobind Singh Ji had explored the possibility of raising a joint front against the oppressive Mughal Empire. Guru Sahib had learnt it from his experience that he could not bank upon the undependable hill people. Guru Sahib realised that the solution to the problem lay in raising their own army. Hence, Guru Sahib created the Khalsa.

6. To Strengthen Sikh Religion. One of the causes of the creation of Khalsa by Guru Sahib was that the people belonging to the factions of Meenas (Prithia’s sympathizers), Dhir Malia’s, and Ram Rai’s groups had been creating troubles for the Guru Sahibans before the period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted to save the Sikh religion from such dishonest people and to establish discipline within the Sikh community. Guru Sahib, therefore, established the Khalsa Panth.

7. Corruption in the Masand System. The Masands were very helpful in the spread of the message of Sikh religion, during the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, gradually many shortcomings crept into the Masand System. The Masands started exploiting the Sikh ,devotees instead of guiding them on the right path. They had started misusing the donations and gifts for the Sikh Panth. A more disciplined organisation like the Khalsa was the need of the hour.

8. Need of a New Organisation. By the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Sikh community had acquired its own language, distinctive script, their own spiritual guide and their own original holy book. Now they were in need of a new organization. Guru Gobind Singh Ji fulfilled this need by creating the Khalsa.

9. Aim of the Life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote ‘Bachitra Natak’ which is his autobiography. It states that Guru Sahib aimed at spreading the message of Sikh religion all over the worlds finish the oppression and protect the saints and noble souls. It was not possible to “achieve such an aim without organising an army of devoted soldiers. As a result, Guru Sahib created the Khalsa Panth.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 3.
What was the significance of creation of the Khalsa’?
Answer:
The creation of Khalsa was an epoch-making event in the history of the Sikhs. In the words of Dr. Hari Ram Gupta, a distinguished historian of Punjab, “The creation of Khalsa was an epoch-making event in the religious and political history of the country.”

The significance of creation of Khalsa can be studied, as under:
1. Completion of the work of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. All his successors worked with great devotion for the progress of the Sikh religion. Guru Gobind Singh Ji completed the works started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji by creating the Khalsa.

2. End of the Masand System. The fourth Guru Sahib, Guru Ram Das Ji had started Masand system. The Masands had done commendable work by spreading and popularising the Sikh religion during the early years of their existence. However, by the period of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, the Masands had degraded themselves by becoming selfish, greedy, and corrupt. Hence, Guru Gobind Singh Ji instructed his Sikhs to snap all their ties with the Masands, Consequently, the Masand system ended.

3. Importance of Khalsa Sangat Enhanced. Guru Gobind Singh Ji granted the right to Khalsa Sangat to prepare the Khande Ka Pahaul and of investiture for the new entrants to the Khalsa Panth. The Khalsa Sangat was also entrusted with the right to take decisions in a democratic way. Therefore, the importance of the Khalsa Sangat increased.

4. Rise in the number of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji united the Sikh« into a common bond of brotherhood, the Khalsa, by the investiture ceremony of Amrit’ from Khande Ka Pahaul. Guru Sahib Ji ordained, that from then onwards, any five Khalsa Sikhs could perform the investiture ceremony of ‘Amrit’ and admit the followers to Khalsa Panth. Consequently, the membership of the Sikh community increased by leaps and bounds.

5. Infused a New Spirit among the Sikhs. The Sikhs were filled with a new spirit of sacrifice by the creation of the Khalsa Panth. They started calling themselves the ‘Singhs’ (lions). By feeling like lions and being addressed as Singhs, their fears and cowardice disappeared. They started maintaining high moral standards in their conduct. Further, they felt themselves united with the end of caste considerations among them.

6. Brave and successful struggle against the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh Ji had infused the Sikhs with a spirit of courage and fearlessness. Guru Sahib made his sparrows to tear hawks and his single burly soldier was ready to cross swords with one lakh soldiers. It actually happened in the battle of Chamkaur Sahib when forty Sikhs crossed swords with thousands of Mughal soldiers. As a result of the foundation of the Khalsa, the Sikhs successfully fought many battles against the Mughals’from 1699 to 1708.

7. Battles between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Hill Chiefs. The creation of Khalsa alarmed the hill chiefs. Especially, Bhim Chand of Bilaspur was highly perturbed and terrified by the military activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Bhim Chand made alliance with the other hill chiefs in order to counter the rising power of Guru Sahib. As a result, Guru Sahib was compelled to fight battle against them.

8. Distinctive symbols of the Sikh Community. By the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Sikhs had acquired their exclusive sacred towns for pilgrimages. The Sikhs had their own holy book in ‘Adi Granth Sahib’. The Sikhs had by then their own distinctive festivals and customs. After the creation of Khalsa, they were given their own five sacred Ks. In this manner, they acquired distinctive outer symbols also, which made them a distinct religious sect.

9. Saviour of the Hindu Religion. Aurangzeb was cruelly oppressing the Hindus. The Singhs or the Khalsa offered him a stiff resistance. The people of other religions were much impressed by their examples and took courage to start a series of revolts against Aurangzeb. In this manner, the Hindu religion was saved from extinction especially in the North India.

10. End of Superstitions. The Khalsa did not accept the useless beliefs of the Hindus. The Khalsa stopped practising the Hindu ceremonies concerning sacrifices, Yajnas, fasting, Idol worship, etc. In this manner, with the coming of Khalsa, the clouds of superstitions and ignorance were cleared.

11. Popularity of the Democratic Principles. Guru Gobind Singh Ji initiated his Five Piyaras into the Khalsa Panth and then himself stood before them and asked them to initiate him into the Khalsa. Guru Sahib also ordained that any five Khalsas could initiate a person into the Khalsa Panth by performing the ceremony of initiation (Baptism).The Guru Sahib thus based the Khalsa Panth on sound democratic principles.

12. Rise of Political Power of the Sikhs. With the creation of the Khalsa, the spirit of heroism, fearlessness, courage, and self-sacrifice became alive forever among the Sikhs. Therefore, even after Guru Gobind Singh Ji had left the mortal world, the struggle of the Sikhs continued with the same force against the tyranny of the Mughals. Ultimately, they occupied a large part of the Punjab under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. They were severely persecuted by the Mughal governor of Lahore for some years after the death of Banda Bahadur, but they survived by establishing their reputation of being a courageous community which was firm in its resolve to destroy the Mughal power in the Punjab. By 1762, the powerful Sikh chiefs were able to establish their small independent states called the Misls.

Question 4.
Describe the Post Khalsa period battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
During the Post Khalsa Period Guru Gobind Singh Ji remained involved in the battles for a long time. A brief description of those battles is as follows:
1. The First battle of Anandpur Sahib 1701 A.D. The hill chiefs were perturbed by the creation of the Khalsa. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur issued warning to Guru Gobind Singh Ji that either Guru Sahib should vacate Anandpur Sahib or pay the rent for his total stay in Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib declined to accept his unreasonable demand. Bhim Chand made a joint front with the other hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib boldly faced their attack and defeated them though he had a small army. After their defeat, the hill chiefs sought the help of Mughal army and again attacked Anandpur Sahib. They were again badly defeated. In desperation, they offered a peace treaty, which Guru Sahib accepted. According to the terms of the treaty, Guru Sahib retired to Nirmoh, which was two kilometres away from Kiratpur.

2. Battle of Nirmoh (1702). Raja Bhim Chand had learnt from his experience that it was not possible for him to destroy the Sikh power. Hence, he tried to seek the help of Mughals. In 1702, from one side, Raja Bhim Chand and from the other direction, the Faujdar of Sirhind with his Mughal army attacked Nirmoh. The Gujjars of surrounding areas also joined in the attack. The Sikh army fought their enemies with great courage. The fight continued for full one day and a night. Finally, the Sikh army succeeded in repulsing the attack.

3. Battle of Satluj (1702). Guru Sahib decided to leave Nirmoh after his victory in the battle of Nirmoh. Guru Sahib had hardly crossed the river Satluj, when the enemy armies again attacked the Sikhs. The battle continued for four hours in which Guru Sahib and the Sikhs emerged victorious.

4. Battle of Basoli. Guru Sahib came to Basoli after crossing the river Satluj. Even here,the army of Bhim Chand came chasing after him. The army of the Sikhs again defeated the army of Bhim Chand. As the Rajas of Basoli and Jaswan were the admirers of Guru Sahib, Bhim Chand found it in his own interest to sign a treaty with Guru Sahib. The treaty was signed in the middle of 1702. As a result, Guru Sahib came back to Anandpur Sahib. For next one year, Guru Sahib did not fight any battle.

5. The Second battle of Anandpur Sahib. The hill chiefs felt uncomfortable and did not relish the fact that Guru Sahib was stronger and more influential than them. Hence, they formed a joint front and asked Guru Sahib to vacate Anandpur Sahib. When Guru Sahib declined straightaway to accept their unreasonable demand, the hill chiefs reacted by attacking Anandpur Sahib. They suffered a humiliating defeat this time again. Now Bhim Chand and his allies adopted a new strategy to avenge their repeated defeats and sought the help of the Mughals. The Faujdar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, brought his army.

Combined armies of Wazir Khan, the hill chiefs and the Gujjars attacked Anandpur Sahib. The Sikhs repulsed the attack on Anandpur Sahib. The enemy army besieged Anandpur Sahib and Mughal army cut off all the communication to Anandpur Sahib. The Sikh army faced starvation. The Sikhs suggested to Guru Sahib to vacate Anandpur Sahib but Guru Sahib refused to accept their suggestion. At that juncture, 40 Sikhs deserted Guru Sahib. Finally, on December 21, 1704, on the persuasion of Mata Gujari Ji, Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib.

6. Battle of Shahi Tibbi. The enemies occupied Anandpur Sahib after Guru Gobind Singh Ji had left if. They chased Guru Sahib. By the orders of Guru Sahib, Udai Singh along with his 50 Sikhs blocked the march of the big army of the enemy at Shahi Tibbi. All the Sikhs achieved martyrdom at Shahi Tibbi after killing thousands of enemy soldiers.

7. Battle of Sarsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji proceeded further and reached the banks of river Sarsa. The enemy continued pursuing Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib deputed his devoted Sikh, Bhai Jeevan Singh Rangreta to check the advance of enemy forces. The Sikhs gave them a tough fight and caused them heavy losses.

At that time, the river Sarsa was in flood. However, Guru Sahib and his undaunting Sikhs plunged into the river along with their horses. Some of the Sikhs were swept away in the river. Some precious Sikh literature was also lost in the flood. During such a confusing situation, Mata Gujari Ji and two younger’Sahibzadas, SaKibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh were separated from the main party.

8. Battle of Chamkaur Sahib 1705. After crossing the river Sarsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Chamkaur Sahib. Guru Sahib camped in a mud house of a landlord of the village. The enemy army came in his pursuit and besieged the place. At that time, only 40 Sikhs and two Sahibzadas, Sahibzada AJit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh were present there with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib gave the enemies tough fight even then. The three Piyaras and both the Sahibzadas achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib was left with only five Sikhs. The situation was very unfavourable for Guru Sahib. On the persistent request by the Sikhs, Guru Sahib vacated the place and moved to the jungles of Machchiwara. Guru Sahib reached Khidrana after passing through Alamgir, Dina, etc.

9. Battle of Khidrana 1705. The battle of Khidrana was the last battle of Guru Sahib. Those forty Sikhs, who had given him disclaimer (Badhawa) in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib returned to him and joined the battle. Guru Sahib had two thousand Sikhs, who fought with an army of ten thousand Mughal soldiers. The forty Sikhs with him, who had realised their folly, showed exemplary courage and valour and achieved martyrdom fighting against the Mughals. The Guru Sahib was so much impressed by their bravery that he forgave them for their previous fault. Guru Ji blessed them and granted them salvation or Mukti and named Khidrana as Mukatsar in their memory.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 5.
What do you know about Guru Gobind Singh Ji as a man?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji occupies a very high place in the history of Sikh religion and also of India. Guru Sahib was epitome of supreme sacrifices, literary scholarship, a model of courage, forbearance, patience, high moral character and a practical leader of men. Guru Sahib was a rare combination of multiple qualities.

A brief description of Guru Sahib as a complete human being can be given as follows:
1. Impressive Personality. Guru Sahib had a charming and impressive personality. Guru Sahib was tall, fair, with a broad forehead and muscular body. There was a unique glamour on his face. Guru Sahib always carried weapons. Guru Sahib adorned his headgear with a crest (kalgi). Guru Sahib is fondly and respectfully called ‘Kalgidhar Dashmesh’ due to his imposing gait. It was not possible for a mortal being to escape his mesmerizing influence. Guru Sahib was affable, gentle and cheerful by nature. Guru Sahib possessed the qualities of patience, confidence and forbearance.

2. A dutiful son and an ideal father. Guru Sahib was a dutiful son and an ideal father. By helping his father, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, in finding the right person to end the oppression of the Mughals by saying, “Who is more worthy than you, who is generous, holy and brave,” Guru Sahib proved that he was a dutiful son. Guru Sahib sacrificed all his sons for the protection of the religion. His two younger sons were bricked alive. His two elder sons achieved martyrdom. All the four died in the service of the Khalsa Panth. Guru Sahib respected the wishes of his mother. It was only on the advice of his mother that Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib.

3. High Moral Values. The life of Guru Sahib was based on high moral values. Guru Sahib never adopted dubious means in his life. Guru Sahib never compromised with falsehood whether it was war or peace time. His moral values earned him ful-fledged devotion of all the Hindus and Muslims. Guru Sahib never valued materialistic pleasures. It is a part of oral history that once a Sikh gifted him costly gold jewellery. Guru Sahib just threw it in the river.

4. Man of Firm Resolve. Guru Sahib was a man of firm determination. The ups and downs of life never made him leave his true path. Guru Sahib was hardly nine years old when his father sacrificed his life. His two younger sons were bricked alive. His two elder sons lost their lives in the battles for the cause of religion. His mother died of a shock at the tragedy of her two young grandchildren. No turmoil in his life succeeded in breaking his resolve to fight against injustice.

5. Tolerant in his Religious views. Aurangzeb had martyred Guru Teg Bahadur Ji just because he was not prepared to embrace Islam. But it did not make Guru Gobind Singh Ji a fanatic like him. Guru Sahib, a real saint, did not become revengeful towards the Muslims. Rather numerous Muslims were his ardent supporters and followers. Pir Muhammad, Buddhu Shah, Nihang Khan, Nabi Khan, Ghani Khan were such Muslims who admired and adored Guru Sahib for his religious tolerance and broadmindedness. There were numerous Turk and Pathan soldiers in his army. Guru Sahib himself made it clear in his Bachitra Natak that he had come on a divine mission to save his people from the wicked and tyrants.

6. A Literary Genius and Saint. Guru Sahib was a saint by nature. Guru Sahib was also a literary genius. Guru Sahib composed numerous verses in Persian, Hindi, and Gurumukhi. The Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Bachitra Natak, Chandi di Var, etc. are his literary achievements. Guru Sahib enjoyed the company of his 52 poets. Guru Sahib was usually engrossed in deep meditation even on his hunting expeditions. Guru Sahib lived peaceful and most fruitful life at Talwandi Saboo. Guru Sahib was a role model for writers like Saina Pat and Bhai Nand Lai.

7. A Complete Man. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a perfect example of a complete man. Guru Sahib was fearless, patient, and courageous. The creation of Khalsa and his literary works stand testimony to his genius. The most imposing and tyrannical Mughal empire of his times could not deter him from his resolves. Guru Sahib had made sacrifice of his four illustrious sons and his father Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. But he did not leave the path of Truth. His secular and rational ideas are well revealed in Zafarnama. Guru Sahib won the hearts of all. Even during his lifetime, Guru Sahib was worshipped as a god. However, Guru Sahib did not like such practice of his followers and had reprimanded them. Guru Sahib was a saint in the real sense and as a man, an epitome of perfection that a man could ever achieve.

Question 6.
Describe the battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana.
Answer:
The battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana were the two most important battles fought by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Both the battles took place during the Post Khalsa Period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
1. Battle of Chamkaur Sahib 1705. Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib, crossed the river Sirsa, and reached Chamkaur Sahib along with his Sikhs. There were only forty Sikhs in his party which reached Chamkaur Sahib. His two Sahibzadas, Sahibzada Ajit Singh, and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh were also with him. Guru Sahib took shelter in a mud fort of Chamkaur Sahib. The enemies followed them there and besieged the fort.

The doughty Sikhs gave them a tough fight. Both the Sahibzadas demonstrated their valor and martial qualities. They achieved martyrdom after slaying many enemy soldiers. Three Piyaras out of the five Piyaras namely, Bhai Sahib Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh, and Bhai Himmat Singh achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib was left with only five Sikhs. The five Sikhs requested Guru Sahib to leave the fort. Guru Sahib left the fort along with Bhai Daya Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh. The remaining Sikh followers continued to fight till they achieved martyrdom.

Guru Sahib moved towards the jungles of Machchiwara and passed through Alamgir, Dina etc. and finally reached Khidrana.

2. Battle of Khidrana 1705(P6. 2011 (A)) Guru Sahib reached the place called Taba near Khidrana, where a large number of Sikhs had already assembled. Those forty Sikhs who had deserted Guru Sahib in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib also joined the followers of Guru Sahib at Khidrana. Mai Bhago had especially arrived to fight along with other Sikhs for Guru Sahib. It is said that nearly two thousand Sikhs had gathered there.

On the other side, with ten thousand soldiers Wazir Khan, the Subedar of Sirhind, came in pursuit of Guru Sahib. On September 29, 1705, a fierce battle was fought at Taba near Khidrana. Guru Sahib and his followers fought the battle with unbelievable courage and valour. They slew the enemy soldiers into pieces in large numbers. The
Mughal soldiers started losing battle because of thirst. Finally, the remaining Mughal soldiers ran away to save their lives. Mai Bhago was badly injured and the forty Sikhs, who had signed a disclaimer (Badawa) achieved martyrdom. It was a complete victory for Guru Sahib and his Khalsa. Guru Sahib appreciated the sacrifices of the forty Sikhs and tore their disclaimer in the presence of Bhai Maha Singh. Guru Sahib prayed for their deliverance and the forty martyrs became the forty Muktas in the history of the Sikh religion. Now Khidrana is called Muktsar in their memory.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Activity:

Question 1.
In the given map of Punjab, show any four places where battles mere fought by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality 1

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word:

Question 1.
What was the childhood name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
The childhood name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was Gobind Dass Ji.

Question 2.
Give one main aim of the creation of the Khalsa.
Answer:
To end the tyranny of the Mughals.

Question 3.
Which kettledrum was made by Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji got manufactured Ranjit Nagara, the victory drum.

Question 4.
Between whom was the first battle of Anandpur Sahib fought?
Answer:
It was fought between Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 5.
Which three different hill chiefs had formed a joint front against Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib?
Answer:
The Rajas of Bilaspur, Kangra, and Guler.

Question 6.
When did the battle of Bhangani take place?
Answer:
The battle of Bhangani took place in 1688 A.D.

Question 7.
Write the names of those battles which Guru Gobind Singh Ji had fought during his Pre-Khalsa Period.
Answer:
The battle of Bhangani in 1688 and the battle of Nadaun in 1690.

Question 8.
How many persons had offered to sacrifice their lives on the command of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the assembly of 1699 at Anandpur Sahib?
Answer:
Five persons.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 9.
Which are the two words attached to the name of each Khalsa men and woman?
Answer:
The word ‘Singh’ is affixed to the name of each rpale Khalsa and the word ‘Kaur’ to the name of each Khalsa woman.

Question 10.
Give the names of any two battles which Guru Gobind Singh Ji fought during his Post-Khalsa Period.
Answer:
The First Battle of Anandpur 2. Battle of Chamkaur.

Question 11.
Give the names of the two Sahibzadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji who were bricked alive in a wall.
Answer:
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh Ji and Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji.

Question 12.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar?
Answer:
The earlier name of Muktsar was Khidrana.

Question 13.
What does a Khalsa say to the other in salutation when they meet?
Answer:
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.

Question 14.
At the time of creation of the Khalsa, who was the first person to stand up to sacrifice his life for the Panth?
Answer:
Daya Ram Khatri.

Question 15.
Where and when did Guru Gobind Singh Ji breathe his last?
Answer:
Nanded on 7 October, 1708 A.D.

Question 16.
Give the names of any two popular compositions of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Jaap Sahib, Bachitra Natak.

Question 17.
What was the significance of the Battle of Bhangani?
Answer:
The victory of Bhangani rasied the prestige of Sikh army of Guru Sahib.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 18.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar?
Answer:
Khidrana.

Question 19.
Wazir Khan was the Subedar of which place?
Answer:
Sirhind.

Question 20.
When and where was the Khalsa created?
Answer:
On the Baisakhi Day in 1699 A.D. at Anandpur Sahib.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji spent first five years of his childhood at____________
Answer:
Patna

Question 2.
Guru Sahib created the Khalsa in ___________
Answer:
1699 A.D.

Question 3.
Guru Sahib constructed forts of___________
Answer:
Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh, Fatehgarh

Question 4.
The first Battle of Anandpur Sahib 1701 was fought between __________ and __________
Answer:
Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Guru Gobind Singh

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 5.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji made the final Union with Supreme God at __________ on __________
Answer:
Nanded, 7 October 1708 A.D.

Multiple Choice Question:

Question 1.
Where was Khalsa created by Gobind Singh Ji? Give the correct answer:
(a) Delhi
(b) Lahore
(c) Anandpur Sahib
(d) Patna.
Answer:
(c) Anandpur Sahib

Match the following:
table-1
Answer:
1. (e)
2. (b)
3. (d)
4. (c)
5. (a).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief note on the battle of Bhangani fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Hill Chiefs.
Answer:
The Hill Chiefs were perturbed by the military preparations of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They, therefore, turned against Guru Sahib. In the meanwhile, an incident took place. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur showed intentions to route the marriage party of his son through Poanta Sahib, But Guru Sahib, who knew about the bad intentions of the Hill Chief, did not permit him to pass through Poanta Sahib. Bhim Chand took it as his insult and after the completion of the marriage ceremony of his son, he formed a joint front of the hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib.

A fierce battle was fought at Bhangani, a place six miles away from Poanta Sahib. During the course of the battle, the Pathan soldiers (Afghans) and the Udasis deserted Guru Sahib. However, the situation was saved when a contingent of Buddhu Shah’s soldiers reached the battleground just in time. Buddhu Shah and his four sons and his seven hundred followers fought along with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib gave a crushing defeat to the Hill Chiefs. It was the first victory of Guru Sahib in the battlefield.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on the creation of the Khalsa.
Answer:
In 1699, Guru Gobind Singh Ji called an assembly of his followers at Anandpur Sahib on the Baisakhi day. The assembly was attended by 80,000 people. When all the people present in the gathering settled down, Guru Sahib came on the stage, brandished his sword, and gave a call. “Is there any one who would lay down his life for Dharama?” There was no response for some time. Guru Sahib repeated his call three times. Finally, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and offered himself.

Guru Sahib took him to a tent nearby from where Guru Sahib had given the call. Guru Sahib soon returned with his sword smeared with blood dripping from it. Guru Sahib again asked for another person to sacrifice his life. Then, four persons responded to his call one by one and they were Dharam Das, Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand, and Himinat Rai.

Those five persons, who had offered themselves for sacrifice in response to the call of Guru Sahib, are remembered in the Sikh religion as Panj Piyaras—the Five Beloved Ones. Guru Sahib then gave them the Amrit’ prepared from Khande Ka Pahaul. They were consecrated as Khalsa and they became ‘Singhs’. After that, Guru Sahib himself received the ‘Amrit’ from the Punj Piyaras. In this manner, Guru Sahib Gobind Rai became Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 3.
Write four main achievements of Guru Gobind Singh Ji of his Pre- Khalsa Period (1675-1699).
Answer:
The four main achievements of Guru Gobind Singh Ji of his Pre-Khalsa Period are as follow:

  1. Raising of Army. Guru Sahib was hardly nine year’s old when his father Guru Teg Bahadur Ji achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib wanted to save his religion from the tyranny of the Mughals and avenge the martyrdom of his father. Guru Sahib, therefore, raised his own army.
  2. Construction of Ranjit Nagara. Guru Sahib got constructed a kettledrum and named it Ranjit Nagara. It was beaten whenever Guru Sahib left for hunting.
  3. Construction of the fort of Poanta Sahib. Guru Sahib visited Nahan on the invitation of the ruler of Nahan Raja Medni Parkash. Guru Sahib got constructed the fort of Poanta Sahib there.
  4. Battle of Bhangani. In 1688, Raja Bhim Chand along with some hill chiefs attacked Guru Sahib. A fierce battle was fought at Bhangani. Guru Sahib inflicted a crushing defeat on the hill chiefs.

Question 4.
What is the significance (importance) of the creation of Khalsa in the Sikh history?
Answer:

  1. With the creation of Khalsa, the Sikhs became a community of Sant Sipahis. Before the creation of Khalsa, the Sikh community was a mere sect of worshippers of True Name. But with the establishment of Khalsa Panth, the use of sword became an inseparable feature of their creed. Gum Sahib had emphasized the importance of sword.
  2. The number of followers of Guru Sahib started increasing rapidly after the creation of Khalsa.
  3. The lower castes of Punjab got a new lease of life and their caste barriers were broken with the creation of Khalsa.
  4. The establishment of Khalsa infused the Sikhs with the spirit of courage and heroism. Even a humble Sikh was transformed into a roaring lion.

Question 5.
Describe any four important features of the personality and character of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji is known for the greatness of his character and personality.

  1. A Literary Genius. Guru Sahib was a literary genius par-excellence. Guru Sahib had unmatched mastery over Gurumukhi, Sanskrit, Persian and Hindi (Braj Bhasha). Guru Sahib composed standard literary works like Akal Ustat, Bachitra Natak, (Guru Sahib’s autobiography), Chandi di Var, and Zafamama.
  2. A Great Organiser-, Soldier, and Military Strategist. Guru Sahib was a great organizer, a seasonsed soldier and a military strategist. Guru Sahib created Khalsa to organise the Sikhs.Guru Sahib commanded and fought many battles. Guru Sahib also built numerous forts.
  3. A Great Saint and a Religious Leader. Above all, Guru Sahib was a great saint and a religious leader. Guru Sahib spread the message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and taught the Sikhs to fight for the protection of their religion.
  4. A Great Social Reformer. Guru Sahib strongly opposed caste system and fought against other prevalent social evils.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 6.
Was Guru Gobind Singh Ji a Nation Builder? Support your answer with any four established facts.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was definitely a nation builder.

  1. Guru Sahib was a builder par excellence. Guru Sahib raised an edifice on the strong foundation laid by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib did not fight against the Mughals to establish a separate state but fought mainly to end the tyranny and oppression of the Mughals in the country. Guru Sahib did not have any religious contentions against Islam or the Mughals.
  2. Guru Sahib united the Sikhs in a bond of unity by creating the Khalsa. No class discrimination was observed in Khalsa Panth. Hence, the establishment of the Khalsa Panth was a national institution with the aims of unity and brotherhood of all the Indians.
  3. Guru Sahib composed the literature for the whole of humanity.
  4. The social reform activities of Guru Sahib were definitely motivated by the spirit of nation-building.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe in detail the battle of Bhangani,
Answer:
The battle of Bhangani was fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs. The important Hill Chiefs who fought against Guru Sahib were Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, Raja Kirpal Chand (Katoch) of Kangra, Fateh Shah, the ruler of Srinagar, Raja Gopal Chand of Guler and Raja Kesar Chand of Jasowal. Raja Bhim Chand was the leader of Hill Chiefs.

Causes. The main causes of the battle of Bhangani fought between Guru Sahib and the Hill Chief were, as follow.
1. Guru Sahib had started recruiting his followers in his army. They were being imparted training in horse riding, use of arms and hunting. In addition, Guru Sahib had collected a larger number of weapons. Guru Sahib advised his followers to donate horses and arms in place of cash and kind. The hill chiefs felt uncomfortable with the rising military activities of Guru Sahib.

2. The hill chiefs were ardent believers in Idol worship. But Guru Sahib strongly condemned this practice at Poanta Sahib.

3. The lifestyle of Guru Sahib was highly aristocratic and majestic. The hill chiefs were jealous of him because of his high standard of living. They feared that if Guru Sahib tried to acquire political power, they would stand in no comparison with Guru Sahib.

4. While Guru Sahib was making military preparations in the hill regions, the hill chiefs feared that it could push them into an undesirable conflict with Emperor Aurangzeb.

5. The Sikh followers used to give precious and costly gifts to Guru Sahib. It became a major cause of jealousy of the hill chiefs.

6. The immediate cause of battle of Bhangani was that Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur intentionally wanted to pass the marriage party of his son through Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib knew about the wrong intentions of Raja Bhim Chand and denied him the passage. Raja Bhim Chand took it as his insult and became revengeful. Soon after, he raised a joint front with other hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib.

7. Events of the Battle. A huge army under” the leadership of Raja Bhim Chand marched towards Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib also sent his forces to meet the enemy in a battle at Bhangani, a place near Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib faced some problem in the beginning of the battle. However, Guru Sahib gave tough fight evtfn in such a situation. A hard contested battle continued and Guru Sahib suffered some initial reverses. On that every occasion, Buddhu Shah of Sadhora arrived and joined Guru Sahib. The situation completly turned in favour of Guru Sahib after that. The enemy lost confidence and the hill chiefs totally became frustrated. Soon after, a large number of enemy soldiers were chopped off by the swords of the Sikhs and the hill chiefs ran away for their safety.

8. Importance of the Battle.

  1. The victory at Bhangani raised the prestige of the Sikh army of Guru Sahib.
  2. Guru Sahib was fully convinced that he could successfully end the tyranny of the Mughals by organizing and training his followers.
  3. The hill chiefs dropped the idea of fighting against Guru Sahib and decided to cultivate friendship with Guru Sahib.
  4. After the victory of Bhangani, Guru Sahib decided to leave Paonta Sahib and returned to Anandpur Sahib.
  5. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur specifically adopted the policy of friendship towards Guru Sahib. The period of peace and friendship with the hill chiefs was used by Guru Ji to raise the four forts in Anandpur Sahib, which were Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh, and Fatehgarh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 2.
Write on the personality and character of Guru Gobind Singh Ji under the headings as given below:
1. An Organiser Par-Excellence
2. A True Saint and a Religious Leader
3. A Social Reformer
4. A Poet and Literary Genius.
Answer:
An Organiser: Par-Excellence:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great organizer. Guru Sahib had proved his amazing ability as an organiser by creating the Khalsa. Guru Sahib united the scattered Sikh community suffering from the evils of social and religious conflicts into a brotherhood by the creation of Khalsa. Guru Sahib was the first Indian leader, who popularized the principle of democracy and helped Indians to learn to follow the directives of Gurumutta or the directives of Sangat.

As a Saint and Religious Leader:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was first and foremost a great religious leader. Patience and forbearance were the prominent features of his personality. Guru Sahib did not have any grudge against Islam. But he did not favour an attitude of meekly submitting to any kind of tyranny in the nam’e of saintly pursuits. The aim of creation of Khalsa was to end tyranny and oppression. Guru Sahib was a religious leader who respected all other religions as he respected the creed of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Guru Sahib was equally a saintly person. Guru Sahib had firm faith in one Supreme God and attributed all his acts to His name. Being a saintly person, Guru Sahib had never coveted any materialistic or worldly gains.

As a Social Reformer Guru Sahib was a great social reformer. Guru Sahib had strongly condemned the social evils like caste system, idol worship, etc. The Khalsa-Panth was open to people of all castes and tribes without any discrimination. The people who were considered as drudges of humanity, and had lived like slaves of higher classes, became under the inspiring leadership of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, doughty warriors. They took up the responsibility of protection of the country and religion. Guru Sahib had opposed the irrational ceremonies, sacrifices, Yajnas, etc. and helped to reform the society.

As a Poet and a Literary Genius (Scholar) :
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a poet and scholar of high merit. Guru Sahib had mastery over Gurumukhi, Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindi. Guru Sahib enjoyed composing verses in all the languages of his choice. His poetry is alive with the spirit of heroic deeds (Vir rasa) and deep religious and mystic insight. The most popular compositions of Guru Sahib are Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Chandi di Var, Akal Ustat, and Bachitra Natak. Guru Sahib always enjoyed the company of the scholars and poets.

At Poanta Sahib, Guru Sahib had gathered 52 poets. Guru Sahib even got translated Ramayana and Mahabharta and other ancient books into Hindi and Gurumukhi. While at Talwandi Sabo, Guru Sahib produced numerous literary works and earned the epithet of Guru Ki Kashi for Talwandi Sabo. A large number of scholars had gathered around him at Talwandi Sabo who were highly inspired by the scholarship of Guru Sahib. The most famous Sikh scholars, who were influenced by Guru Sahib, were Saina Pat and Bhai Nand Lai. Saina Pat composed Guru Shoba and Nand Lai composed Zindagi Nama in praise of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 3.
Describe the creation of Khalsa.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in 1699. It is considered as the foremost event in the history of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib took the following steps to create Khalsa:
1. Selection of Panj Piyaras (the Five Beloved Ones). Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the Khalsa Panth on the day of Baisakhi in 1699. Guru Sahib convened an assembly of his Sikh followers at Anandpur Sahib. On that day, his nearly 80000 Sikh followers gathered there. When all the people had settled down, Guru Sahib arrived in the meeting and sat on a raised platform. Guru Sahib brandished his sword and gave a call, “Is there any true Sikh of mine, who is ready to die for Dharma?” First, there was complete silence in the meeting for sometime. Then, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and presented himself to the Guru. Guru Sahib took Daya Ram to a nearby tent and returned after sometime with a sword with blood dripping from it. Guru Sahib repeated his call. The second time Dharam Dass Jat of Delhi offered himself. Guru Sahib took him to the tent.

Finally, Guru Sahib, in this way, accepted three more Sikhs one by one. They were Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand, and Himmat Rai. Guru Sahib was actually trying to check the loyalty of the-Sikh followers. Guru Sahib’s followers did not disappoint him. They won Guru Ji’s favour by this event. Finally, Guru Sahib brought all the chosen ones and raised them to the position of Panj Piyaras or the Five Beloved Ones.

2. Khande Ka Pahaul. After choosing his Panj Piyaras, Guru Sahib bestowed upon them the Amrit from Khande Ka Pahaul. For preparing Khande Ka Pahaul, Guru Sahib asked for an iron vessel. The vessel was filled with pure water, some ‘Patasas’ were added, and the water was stirred with a double-edged dagger by one of the Panj Piyaras. The sacred hymns of the Gurus from, the Adi Granth Sahib, namely Jupji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Chaupais and Sawayas were recited simultaneously. The water which was prepared thus was ‘the Amrit’ or the ‘Sacred Water of Immortality’.

The procedure adopted by Guru Gobind Singh Ji was his new procedure to prepare the Amrit. It was first bestowed upon the Panj Piyaras. Then Guru Sahib instructed them to kneel down and gave them the instruction to give a call, “Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Shri Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.” Guru Sahib sprinkled the Amrit on their faces and heads. Guru Sahib called each of them as Khalsa and attached the word ‘Singh’ to their names. After that, Guru Sahib received the Amrit himself from the Panj Piyaras. Guru Sahib then revealed that every step was directed by the Divine Power.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality

Question 4.
Describe briefly the principles of the Khalsa Panth. Also state the significance of creation of Khalsa.
Answer:
The Principles of Khalsa Panth.

  1. The person, who wanted to join the Khalsa Panth, should first receive Khande Ka Pahaul.
  2. Every Sikh was to add ‘Singh’ (lion) after his name and every woman, ‘Kaur’ after her name.
  3. The Sikhs were given the distinguished marks. They were to wear five Ks.  Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (Iron bangles), Kachchera (a pair of shorts), and Kirpan (dagger).
  4. The Khalsa was to believe in one God and abstain from idol worship.
  5. Every Khalsa was to take bath in the morning and recite the five prayers of Japji Sahib, Jap Sahib, Anand Sahib, Chaupai and Sawayas.
  6. Every Khalsa was to earn his livelihood by right means. Every Khalsa would donate Daswandh for religious activities.
  7. The Khalsa would not practise the Caste System.
  8. Every Khalsa would sacrifice every thing for the Guru and the Khalsa Panth.
  9. Every Khalsa was to put on weapons and remain ready to fight for the protection of Sikh religion.
  10. The Khalsa was not to use intoxicants and tobacco.
  11. The Khalsa was to lead a high moral life.
  12. The salutation of the Sikhs was to be Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Shri Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.’

Significance of the creation of the Khalsa
By the creation of Khalsa, the great Guru laid the foundation of a brotherhood which produced in fullness of time, men of uncommon bravery, unique devotion and rare spirit of sacrifice. Men like Banda Bahadur, Bhai Mani Singh, Baba Deep Singh, Bhai Taru Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia were among those which the Khalsa produced within only fifty years of its creation. Secondly, the creation of Khalsa converted Sikhs into a race of saint-soldiers. Though the Sikhs worshipped the Supreme Being at heart, they were ready to take up arms against injustice and oppression.

Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Birth and Parentage. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 22, 1666, at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujri Ji.
  • Childhood and Education. Gobind Dass was the name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in his childhood. Guru Sahib spent first five years of his childhood at Patna. Guru Sahib learnt Persian from Bhai Mati Dass and Qazi Pir Mohammad. Guru Sahib learnt Sanskrit from Pandit Harjas and horse riding and training in arms (military training) from a Rajput Bajar Singh.
  • Military Organisation. Guru Gobind Singh Ji decided to raise an army of the Sikhs. Hence Guru Sahib ordained that the Sikhs should donate arms and horses to Guru Gaddi.
  • Creation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in 1699. Guru Sahib achieved three aims by creating the Khalsa viz. freedom from the oppression of the Mughals, setback to caste system and the abolition of the Masand system.
  • Five Ks. The five Ks of the Khalsa are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Karra (iron bangle), Kirpan (sword) and Kachchera (a pair of shorts).
  • Significance of the creation of Khalsa. A new Sikh community of Sant Sipahis came into existence with the creation of the Khalsa. Gradually, the Sikhs emerged as a political power in the Punjab.
  • Literary Achievements of Guru Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh Ji composed Akal Ustat, Krishan Avtar, Sahastra Nam Mala, Chandi di Var and Zafarnama.
  • Battle of Bhangani (1690). The battle of Bhangani was fought in 1690. It was fought between the Mughals and the Hill Chiefs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji participated in the battle in support of the Hill Chiefs. Guru Sahib defeated the Mughals badly.
  • Battle of Nadaun. The battle of Nadaun was fought between the Mughal forces
    and hill forces in 1690 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji helped Hill Chiefs. He defeated the Mughal army. v
  • First Battle of Anandpur Sahib (1701). The first battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought between Hill Chief Bhim Chand and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Sahib gave a crushing defeat to the Hill Chief.
  • Second Battle of Anandpur Sahib (1704). In the second battle of Anandpur Sahib, the Confederacy of the Hill Chiefs of Bilaspur, Kangra and Guler fought against Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Sahib came out victorious in the battle.
  • Final Union with the Divine Power. In 1708 Guru Gobind Singh Ji visited South India. Guru Sahib stayed at Nanded in Maharashtra. On October 3, 1708, Guru Sahib made the final union with Divine Power because of an injury received by him.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Which cantonments of Punjab revolted at the time of War of Independence of 1857 A.D.?
Answer:
The revolt took place at Lahore, Ferozepur, Peshawar, Ambala and Mianwali in the Punjab at the time of War of Independence of 1857.

Question 2.
What was the contribution of Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal to the freedom struggle?
Answer:
Sardar Ahmed Kharal rose against the English asking, the people not to pay land revenue to the British. At many places, he had to fight against the British. At last, Ahmed Khan was killed near Pakpattan while fighting with the British.

Question 3.
How did Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji show non-cooperation with the British Government?
Answer:
Baba Ram Singh Ji was opposed to the foreign government, foreign institutions and foreign goods. So he preached non-cooperation with the English. He boycotted government postal system, foreign clothes and government courts.

Question 4.
Why was the Ghadar Movement founded?
Answer:
The Ghadar movement was organised by the Indian emigrants in the U.S.A. to work for the liberation of their motherland. Its aim could be achieved by an armed national revolution in India. The Hindustan Ghadar Party was established in the U.S.A. Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna was elected its President and Hardayal as its Secretary.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 5.
Write the two causes of emergence of the Akali Movement.
Answer:
Following were the two main causes for the rise of the Akali Movement:

  1. To free the Gurudwaras from the corrupt Mahants.
  2. To bring about reforms in the management of the Gurudwaras.

Question 6.
Why was the Key Morcha organised?
Answer:
The keys of the treasury of Sri fiarmandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Shiromani Committee demanded the keys from it but it refused to hand over the keys to it. So the Sikhs launched the Morcha to secure the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Question 7.
Write the causes of Guru Ka Bagh Morcha.
Answer:
Gurudwara Guru Ka Bagh near Amritsar was under the charge of Mahant Sunder Dass who was a characterless fellow. The Akalis asked him to mend his ways but he paid no heed to it. So the Akalis sent Jathas to launch the Morcha of Guru Ka Bagh.

Question 8.
When did Simon Commission come to India and why was it boycotted?
Answer:
The Simon Commission came to India in 1927. It was boycotted by all the political parties because no member of the commission was Indian.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Which activities of Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji in 1857 frightened the Britishers?
Answer:

  1. Whenever Baba Ram Singh went from one place to another, his horsemen accompanied him. This made the English Government think that the Namdharis were preparing for a revolt.
  2. The English watched the postal system of BabarRam Singh with doubt and suspicion.
  3. Baba Ram Singh divided the Punjab into 22 Subas to preach his ideas. The incharge of each Suba was the Subedar. At this, the English got frightened.
  4. A Kuka Regiment was raised with the help of the Raja of Jammu. The Raja’arranged for the military training of the Kukas.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 2.
Describe the tragedy that occurred between the Namdharis and the Britishers at Malerkotla.
Answer:
The Namdharis started carrying weapons. As a result, they had a direct confrontation with the English. At that time, many Christian missionaries were preaching against the Sikhs. Even cow-slaughter was openly allowed by the English. The Namdhari Sikhs could not tolerate all these activities. They attacked the slaughter house at Raikot and killed several cow-slaughterers. The Namdharis also attacked Malerkotla to loot the treasury of the Nawab and to punish cow-slaughterers there. The British forces reached Malerkotla and captured about 70 Namdharis. The British forces killed 49 Namdharis by cannon fire by the orders of the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana. Baba Ram Singh was exiled and sent to Rangoon where he left for his heavenly abode in 1885. Even afterwards, some Namdharis continued their religious and social activities.

Question 3.
Describe the work done by the Arya Samaj in the Punjab.
Answer:
The Arya Samaj did the following work in the Punjab:

  1. The Arya Samaj helped in awakening a spirit of national consciousness in the Punjab.
  2. Lala Lajpat Rai, Sardar Ajit Singh, Shardhanand, Bhai Parmanand and Lala Hardyal were the products of the Arya Samaj Movement.
  3. It also encouraged the Swadeshi Movement in the Punjab.
  4. It opened a large number of schools and colleges in the Punjab.

Question 4.
Describe the efforts made by the Ghadar Party in the Punjab.
Answer:
Following efforts were made by the Ghadar Party in the Punjab for the independence:

  1. Thousands of volunteers were enrolled in the party. Ras Bihari Bose sent many volunteers to Lahore, Ferozepur, Meerut, Ambala, Multan, Peshawar and many other cantonments in Punjab. They incited the soldiers to rise in revolt.
  2. Sardar Kartar Singh Sarabha sought the help of Lala Ramsaran Dass of Kapurthala to bring out a newspaper called Ghadar. But he could not succeed in doing so. Later, Ghadar Goonj was published.
  3. In February 1915, Sarabha tried to begin an armed revolt at Ferozepur. But because of the treachery of Kirpal Singh, he could not succeed in doing so.

Question 5.
What work was done by Baba Gurdit Singh for the people going to Canada?
Answer:
The people of the Punjab wanted to migrate to Canada to earn their living. But because of anti-Indian policies of the Canadian Government, no ship was ready to take them to Canada. In 1913 A.D. Baba Gurdit Singh of Amritsar district chartered a Japanese ship named Kamagata Maru by which the Indian migrants could be taken to Canada straight away. The ship was named Nanak Jahaz. In it, he tried to take the people who wanted to migrate to Canada. But when they reached there, they were ordered by the Canadian government to go back. ®

Question 6.
What were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Answer:
Following were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy:

  1. Rowlatt Act. The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British Government to crush the national movement. People called it Black Act. According to it, any person could be arrested without any warrants.
  2. Arrest of Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. Hartals were organised at many places in Punjab to protest against the Rowlatt Act. Violent incidents also occurred. So the Government arrested two popular leaders of the Punjabis at Amritsar. They were Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. At this people were enraged.
  3. Murder of Englishmen. The police opened fire on the excited people at Amritsar. In return, the people killed five Englishmen. So the administration of Amritsar city was handed over to General Dyer.

Question 7.
How did Sardar Udham Singh take revenge of Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Answer:
Udham Singh was a great patriot of India, who sacrificed his life for the sake of his motherland. In 1940 A.D., he killed in England Michael O’ Dwyer, who had been the Governor of the Punjab at the time of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Udham Singh was sentenced to death. He died on the gallows in June 1940 A.D.

Question 8.
Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.
Answer:
The Khilafat Movement was started by the Muslims against the English after the First World War. Turkey was defeated in the First World War and the victorious nations wanted to disintegrate the Turkish Empire. The Indian Muslims were much disappointed and were sympathetic towards Turkey.

They considered Khalifa of Turkey as their religious leader. They could not tolerate his disrespect and they raised their voice against the British Government. The Muslims started the Khilafat movement to protest against the British action. This movement became a part of the national movement of India and many leaders of the Congress also joined it. They helped in spreading it in the whole country.

The most eminent leaders of the Khilafat Movement were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 9.
Write the activities of the Babbars.
Answer:
The aim of the Babbar Akalis was to kill the enemies of their religion and the supporters of the English rule. They called it Reformation. They were in dire need of arms. They wanted money to purchase arms. So they plundered many rich people and snatched arms from them. They appealed to the Punjabi soldiers to achieve independence with the help of arms. They also brought out a newspaper named Babbar Akali Doab. They killed many supporters of the Government. They taught the Punjabis the lesson of sacrifice and the way of fighting for the attainment of independence.

Question 10.
Write a note on Naujawan Sabha.
Answer:
Sardar Bhagat Singh formed the Naujawan Sabha in 1925-26. The main objective of this Sabha was to develop a spirit of patriotism among the people. Sardar Bhagat Singh was the General Secretary of this Sabha. It received the support of extremist group of the Congress. Soon it became the main centre of the revolutionaries. From time to time, its meetings were held at Lahore to discuss the ideology of Lenin and Karl Marx. It also discussed the revolutionary events which took place in other countries.

Question 11.
Write a note on the Simon Commission.
Answer:
In 1927, the British Government appointed a Commission. Its chairman was Sir John Simon. So, this Commission is known as Simon Commission. This Commission reached India in 1928. There was no Indian member in this Commission. Therefore, wherever this Commission went, it was greeted with black flags. Slogans of ‘Simon Commission go back’ were raised at many places. These peaceful demonstrations were suppressed by the Government cruelly. Lala Lajpat Rai was beaten with lathis at Lahore. He died of the injuries received by him a few days later. All the political parties condemned this policy of the Government.

Question 12.
Describe the work of Praja Mandal.
Answer:
The achievements of the Punjab Praja Mandal and the Riasti Praja Mandal under the presidentship of Sardar Sewa Singh Thikriwala were as under:

  1. The Praja Mandal held its meetings to discuss the problems of the common people and the peasants.
  2. It raised voice against the atrocities committed on the people of Patiala by its ruler.
  3. It sought the help of Baba Hira Singh Bhattal, Teja Singh Swatantar, Sunder Singh etc. and opposed the State Government and the English rule.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words:

Question 1.
What efforts were made by Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji for the freedom of India?
Answer:
Baba Ram Singh was a great patriot. After the death of Baba Balak Singh, he led the Kuka Movement. In 1857, he baptised many people and reorganised the Namdhari Movement. The main objective of this movement was to work for religious and social reforms. Besides, it also opposed the English rule and followed a policy of non-cooperation with it.

Activities of Baba Ram Singh Ji

  1. Whenever Baba Ram Singh went from one place to another, his horsemen accompanied him. This made the English Government think that the Namdharis were preparing for a revolt.
  2. The English watched the postal system of Baba Ram Singh with suspicion.
  3. Baba Ram Singh divided the Punjab into 22 Subas to propagate his faith. The in charge of each Suba was called the Subedar. At this, the English were alarmed.
  4. A Kuka Regiment was raised with the help of the Raja of Jammu. The Raja arranged for the military training of the Kukas.
  5. During the British rule, cow slaughter continued openly in the cities of the Punjab. This greatly agitated the Namdharis. They were ready to make any sacrifice for the protection of the cow. They began to kill butchers. In 1871, they attacked the slaughterhouses at Amritsar and Raikot and killed many butchers.
  6. A Kuka conference was held at Bhaini Saheb on 13th January 1872. The Kukas came to know here that cow slaughter was going on in the Muslim state of Malerkotla. A band of 150 followers of the Kuka Movement enthusiastically took a spot decision that they will punish the Muslim butchers of Malerkotla, despite the fact that Baba Ram Singh did not approve of such acts. The Kukas marched in a procession and suddenly attacked the palace and treasury of the Nawab of Malerkotla.

Many Kukas and the soldiers of Nawab were killed in this skirmish. But the Kuka followers were subdued and contained when fresh reinforcements arrived from Patiala and Nabha. The battle fought in the state of Patiala, resulted in the arrest of 68 Kukas and they were sent back to Malerkotla. Forty nine Kukas were blown off by the cannons by the orders of Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana.

After a trial, sixteen Kukas were sentenced to death. Baba Ram Singh was deported to Rangoon.
The truth is that the Namdharis under the command of Baba Ram Singh struck to their resolution and did not even care for their lives.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 2.
What was the contribution of Arya Samaj to the freedom movement in Punjab?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883) was the founder of the Arya Samaj. It was founded by him at Bombay in 1875 A.D. A branch of Arya Samaj was established at Lahore in 1877 A.D.
Its role in the freedom movement. Arya Samaj not only worked for religious and social reforms but also played a great role in the freedom movement. Its contribution to independence movement may be studied as under:
1. Aroused feelings of nationalism. The forceful assertion of Swami Dayanand that the ancient Aryan race and the ancient Indian culture were the most superior in the world, created the feelings of nationalism and self-respect among the people.

2. Provided leaders to the National Movement. The prominent Arya Samaj leaders welcomed the establishment of the branches of the Congress in Punjab and joined them. Again, it was Arya Samaj which produced such prominent leaders as Lala Lajpat Rai, Sardar Ajit Singh and Shardhanand, who infused a burning desire for freedom in the hearts of the Punjabis. Bhai Parmanand and Lala Hardayal were prominent Arya Samajists, whereas the great revolutionary Sardar Bhagat Singh was a student of D.A.V. College, Lahore.

3. Role in the Non-Cooperation Movement. This institution took an active part in the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji. It opened many schools and colleges and supported the Swadeshi Movement.

4. Suffered atrocities of the Government. On watching these activities of the Arya Samaj, the British attitude towards it hardened and the members of Arya Samaj were harassed. The members of Arya Samaj who were in government service were suspected and considered as untrustworthy. They were denied promotions in the services. Even then they firmly followed their -path.

5. Split in the Arya Samaj. In 1892 A.D., the Arya Samaj was divided into two parts — the College Party and the Gurukul Party. Lala Lajpat Rai and Mahatma Hans Raj were the leaders of the College Party. They were in favour of education in English literature and Western Sciences. As a result, the gulf between the English Government and the Arya Samaj was soon removed. Even then the Arya Samaj continued extending cooperation to the freedom fighters. The newspapers of the Punjab belonging to Arya Samaj remained in the forefront in the freedom movement.

Question 3.
What efforts were made by the Ghadar Party for the attainment of freedom?
Answer:
In the last decade of the 19th century, some Punjabi farmers, the majority of them being the Sikhs, migrated to other countries with the desire of better standard of living. In the beginning, they went to such countries as Burma, Malaya, Hong Kong, Singapore and China. But as soon as they came to know that the labourers received better wages in America and Canada, they decided to migrate to these countries. They became economically very well off but they were not treated well and were discriminated in these countries. They started efforts to make their country free from the foreign rule and established the Ghadar Party. The American continent was the main centre of this movement. The news of the national movement being carried on in India made them believe that India will soon win freedom.

Establishment of the Ghadar Party. In March 1913 A.D. nearly 200 immigrants took part in a conference in Washington and ‘Hindi Association’ was formed which was given a final shape on 1st November 1913 in San Francisco. It was also decided there that a weekly newspaper ‘Ghadar’ should be published in the memory of the Revolt of 1857 A.D. This newspaper was published in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi. Accordingly, the ‘Hindi Association’ was renamed as the ‘Ghadar Party’.

Aims of the Ghadar Party. A resolution was passed at the foundation ceremony of the Ghadar Party which stated its aims and objects:

  1. The object of the party will be to root out the British rule from India.
  2. This object could only be achieved by means of an armed revolution.

The Ghadar Newspaper suggested the following methods to achieve the aims of the party:

  • To spread discontentment among the Indian soldiers.
  • To kill the henchmen of the British.
  • To raise the banner of revolt.
  • To break prisons.
  • To loot the government treasuries and the thanas.
  • To publish rebellious literature.
  • To forge alliances with the powers opposed to Britain.
  • To commit dacoities.
  • To procure arms.
  • To make bombs.
  • To set up secret organisations.
  • To destroy the Railways and the Telegraph System.
  • To enlist the youth for rebellious acts.

Organization of the Ghadar Party. The head office of the party was named as ‘Yugantar Ashram’ which was situated at 436 Hill Street, San Francisco.

Baba Sohan Singh Bhakana was elected the president and Lala Hardyal was elected the secretary of the party. Many State Committees were set up in Astoria, Marys Ville, Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno, Bakersfield, Los Angeles and Imperial Valley. These state committees sent their two elected representatives to the central council. The central council was formed in order to prepare the action plan and the programme.

The party chose its slogan ‘Vande Matram’ and accepted the tricolour composed of red, yellow and green colours as their flag.

Efforts for the attainment of independence.
In the opinion of the leaders of the Ghadar Party, the proper time for an armed revolt in India had come. The Ghadarites like Ramchander had instilled in the party men a spirit of sacrificing their everything for the freedom of their motherland. The incident of Kamagata Maru had enraged the Sikhs and other immigrants and they determined to root out the British rule from India. They hoped that as soon as they step on the soil of India, the movement for revolt will begin.

Nonetheless, the revolutionary sentiments of the Ghadarites were enough to excite the people to side with them. They organised many raids on the British officers to loot and plunder them.

They communicated with other revolutionaries in the other parts of India also. Ras Bihari Bose visited India in January 1915. He planned to incite the soldiers to revolt. The revolutionaries of the Ghadar Party infilterated in the army but the British officers got wind of this conspiracy beforehand. Consequently, many persons were arrested and most of them were hanged. The regiments involved in the conspiracy were disarmed. In order to control the activities of the Ghadar leaders, Defence of India Act was passed. Under this Act, any suspected person could be prevented from entering any area.

Gradually, the British completely controlled the situation and the movement completely fizzled out by 1915 A.D. The cases of sedition were instituted against many leaders of the Ghadar Party and were punished.
Work done by the Ghadar Party for Freedom. (Imp.) Following efforts were made by the Ghadar Party for the independence of the country.

  1. Thousands of volunteers were enrolled in the party. Ras Bihari Bose sent many volunteers to Lahore, Ferozepur, Meerut, Ambala, Multan, Peshawar and many other cantonments in the Punjab. They incited the soldiers to rise in revolt.
  2. Sardar Kartar Singh Sarabha sought the help of Lala Ramsaran Dass of Kapurthala to bring out a newspaper called Ghadar. But he could not succeed in doing so. Later, Ghadar Goonj was published.
  3. In February 1915, Sarabha tried to begin an armed revolt at Ferozepur. But because of the treachery of Kirpal Singh, he could not succeed in doing so.
  4. The Ghadar Party prepared a flag for the free India. Kartar Singh Sarabha distributed these flags everywhere in Punjab.

The Failure of the Ghadar Party. There were many causes of the failure of the Ghadar Party which can be described as under:

  1. No other leader was able enough to lead the Movement after Lala Hardyal went to Switzerland.
  2. The headquarters of the Ghadar movement were in Berlin from where huge monetary and other help was being received. But all these resources and help were used unlawfully.
  3. Mutual bickerings and some times, communal feelings also adversely affected the movement.
  4. The scarcity of weapons and ammunition also led to the failure of the Ghadar Movement.
  5. The leaders of fhe Ghadar Party did not prepare any plan to attract the common people. Their programme was quite limited and there was no incentive for the common man to act.
  6. The intelligence department of the British government was very efficient and as soon as the revolutionaries of the Ghadar Party reached India, they were made prisoners. The British intelligence infilterated in almost every level of the organisation. For example, a person named Kirpal Singh became the member of the innermost circle of the party and had informed the British officers about the armed revolt to be started by the Indian soldiers in the army.
  7. Most of the workers were discouraged by the harsh measures taken by the government. The chief leaders were either hanged, interned or deported and were also heavily fined.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 4.
Describe the Kamagattamaru Incident.
Answer:
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the economic situation in India, especially in the Punjab, was very critical. The chances of employment were insufficient and the wages were very low. This was the reason that the people of the Punjab, particularly the Sikhs, migrated to other parts of the British empire to earn their living. Most of them settled in Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore and Thailand. There were many opportunities for them to get employment in Canada and America due to rapid industrial development there. In reality, the then governments of the U.S.A. and Canada welcomed the labourers from abroad with open arms. Consequently, about ten thousand people, from the Punjab, majority of them being Sikhs, settled at Vancouver in Canada. Due to continuous migration of the Black people, the Canadian government became suspicious.

The Canadian government issued two ordinances in this respect. According to the first ordinance, there should be at least 200 dollars with the emigrant who desired to disembark at the Canadian shore and according to the second ordinance, it was compulsory for such a person to reach Canada on a single ticket by a single ship directly from his place of birth or from that country of which he was a citizen. According to these two ordinances, even the dependent children of the Indian immigrants who had settled in Canada much long ago could not migrate to Canada because they could not reach Canada directly travelling by a foreign country’s ship. It looks as if the Indian British Government was in league with the Canadian Government in this matter.

Efforts made by Baba Gurdit Singh. Baba Gurdit Singh, Sarhali, a wealthy trader of Singapore, thought of a strange plan, He floated a ship-navigation Co. in Hong Kong in 1913 A.D. and chartered a Japanese ship named ‘Kamagata Maru’ by which the Indian migrants could be taken to Canada straight away. He collected 370 passengers and the ship sailed for Canada from Singapore on 14th April, 1914. It reached the port of Vancouver on 23 May, 1914. Though these migrants fulfilled the conditions laid down in both the ordinances issued by the Canadian government yet they were not allowed to disembark.

First of all the passengers refused to return to India but when the government threatened to open fire on the ship, only then they gave in. They did not get permission to disembark at any harbour during their return journey and the ship reached a port known Budge-Budge situated near Calcutta (Kolkata) on 29th September, 1914.

They were ordered to. board a special train in order to send them to the Punjab where they had to be imprisoned under a recently promulgated ordinance known as Ingress into India Ordinance. These passengers were thoroughly searched and no weapons or arms were found. Most of the passengers did not wish to go to the Punjab. The passengers then marched in a procession towards Calcutta (Kolkata). A company of British soldiers overtook them on the way and compelled them to return to the railway station. In the conflict, the soldiers opened fire and nineteen persons were killed. Six soldiers were also killed.

The police arrested many persons whereas others„evaded arrest by taking to their heels. Baba Gurdit Singh managed to escape. The police could not trace him for seven years. At last, he produced himself for arrest at Nankana Sahib on the birthday of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1921 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 5.
Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Answer:
On April 13, 1919 A.D., the Baisakhi day, about 20000. people assembled for a peaceful meeting in the Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar to protest against the arrest of their leaders Dr. Saif-ud-Din Kitchlu and Dr. Satya Pal and also against the Rowlatt Act. A large number of people who had come to visit Sri Harmandir Sahib also joined the meeting. Brigadier-General Dyer was seeking an opportunity to teach a lesson to the Indians for flouting the Government orders. He arrived at the Jallianwala Bagh with 500 troops who were ordered to open fire without giving the people a warning to disperse. About 400 innocent people were killed and nearly 1200 were injured. The tragedy is known as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

General Dyer had hoped that his action would cool down disturbances not only in the Punjab but also in the whole of India. But his hopes were belied. A wave of horror and anger swept the country from one end to another. The great poet Rabindra Nath Tagore surrendered his title of “SIR” as a measure of protest. The people lost faith in the professions of goodwill by the British Government. After the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy, Martial Law was imposed in the whole of the Punjab. The people were tortured by the police. Such actions of the Government increased bitterness between the British and the Indians. The people were not frightened and were not prepared to surrender before the British. On the other hand, their determination to fight against the foreign rule became stronger.

Question 6.
What was the contribution of the Babbar Akali Movement to the freedom struggle?
Answer:
The Akali Movement gave birth to the Babbar Akali Movement. Kishan Singh Garhgajj was its founder. At the time of its birth, the movement aimed to free the Gurudwaras from the corrupt and characterless Mahants. The supporters of the British Government were at the back of these Mahants. So the aim of the Babbar Akalis was to kill the enemies of their religion and the supporters of the English rule. They formed their first Jatha which was called Chakkarwarti Jatha.

This movement was called the Babbar Akali Movement.
Role in the freedom movement. The Babbar Akalis planned to kill the informers and the supporters of the government. They called it Reformation. They believed that with the end of the supporters of the English, the British Government could fail and leave India forever.

Following is the description of their activities:
1. Collection of arms. To achieve their aim, the Babbar Akalis were in dire need of arms. They also tried to manufacture weapons. They wanted money to purchase arms and weapons. So they began to plunder the rich. They also snatched arms from them.

2. Appeal to the soldiers. The Babbars appealed to the Punjabi soldiers to take up their arms and work for the freedom movement.

3. Press Propaganda. The Babbars also brought out their newspaper named Babbar Akali Dal with a cyclostyle machine. It was resolved by the Babbars that the man who read this newspaper, would make the other five persons read it. This was the only subscription of this newspaper.

4. Killing of government supporters. The Babbars published a list of 179 persons in their newspaper whom they wanted to kill or reform. They informed such persons through the newspaper. Two or three Babbars went to the villages of such persons and killed them. They publicly took the responsibility of such killings on their shoulders. They had also encountered with the police.

5. Atrocities by the Government. The Government also resolved to kill the Babbars. Some of them were arrested and some were killed. More than a hundred Babbars were tried in the courts. On February 27, 1926, Jathedar Kishan Singh, Baba Santa Singh, Dharam Singh Hyatpura and some other Babbars were sentenced to death by hanging.

Though the Babbar Movement could not succeed in achieving its aims yet it played an important role in the freedom movement of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 7.
Describe Jaito Morcha.
Answer:
The Morcha of Jaito was launched in 1923 A.D. Following is the description of its causes and events:
Causes. Sardar Ripudaman Singh, the Maharaja of Nabha was a great well-wisher of the Sikhs. When he became the member of the Council of Governor-General, he got the Anand Marriage Bill passed. He became very popular not only with the Sikhs but also with the people of the country. But the English did not like it. So the British Government wanted to insult him on one pretext or the other. During the First World War, it got the opportunity to do so when the Maharaja refused to send his armies on the side of the English. On the other hand, there arose a dispute between Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala and Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha. The English got many cases registered against the Maharaja of Nabha through the Maharaja of Patiala. As a result, Maharaja Ripudaman Singh was dethroned.

Events. The Sikhs got enraged and criticized this act of the government. The Shiromani Committee took up the case in its hands. Under its leadership, the Sikhs resolved to hold protest meetings. In this connection, Dewans were arranged at many places. All the patriotic Sikhs held a big religious gathering in Gurudwara Gangsar (Jaito) to protest against the British Government. But the police arrested many Sikh leaders and captured the Gurudwara Gangsar Sahib. At this time, Akhand Path was going on there. But it was interrupted because of police activities. The Sikhs got enraged and launched a Morcha for an encounter with the English.

On September 15, 1923 A.D. a Jatha of twenty-five Sikhs was sent to Jaito. During the next six months, Jathas of 25 Sikhs each were continuously sent to Jaito. The Government committed atrocities on the Jathas. The Shiromani Committee resolved to send the Jathas, each consisting of five hundred Sikhs. The first Jatha of 500 Sikhs under the leadership of Jathedar Udham Singh Nagoke left for Jaito. On the way, thousands of people of Majha and Malwa joined it. It faced the British army at Nabha. The Sikhs were unarmed. Consequently, more than 150 Sikhs were martyred and about 200 were injured.

The Morcha of Jaito continued for two years. Jathas of 500 Sikhs each were regularly sent to Jaito to court arrest. Jathas from Calcutta (Kolkata), Canada, Shanghai and Hong-Kong also reached Jaito. At last, the Sikhs compelled the Government to accept their demand. The Punjab Government passed the Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1925. According to it, the control of the(Gurudwaras came into the hands of the Sikhs.

Question 8.
Write a detailed note on the Indian National Army.
Answer:
Establishment of Azad Hind Fauj. A prominent revolutionary Ras Bihari Bose had organised Indian National Army (Azad Hind*Fauj) in Japan. During the Second World War Japan defeated the British army, at many places and made the soldiers prisoners. Most of the prisoners were Indians. So with the help of captain Mohan Singh, Ras Bihari Bose organised Azad Hind Fauj.

Ras Bihari Bose wanted to hand over the command of the Azad Hind Fauj to Subhash Chander Bose. Subhash Chander Bose was in Germany at that time. So Ras Bihari Bose asked him to come to Japan. Reaching Japan, Subhash Chander Bose took over the command of the Azad Hind Fauj. Since then he came to be known as Neta Ji.

Role of Azad Hind Fauj in the Struggle for Freedom. On October 21, 1943 A.D. Neta Ji formed Azad Hind Government in Singapore. He said to the Indians, “Give me blood, I will give you freedom.” Soon he declared war against America and England.

  1. In November 1943, Japan captured Andaman Nicobar islands of India and handed over them to Azad Hind Fauj. Neta Ji named these islands as Shaheed and Swaraj respectively.
  2. In 1944 the Azad Hind Fauj captured Maudank Chowki in Assam. Thus it touched its motherland and it unfurled the flag of the Azad Hind Sarkar there.
  3. After this, it captured the Kohima Chowki in Assam.
  4. Now, it tried to capture the important Chowki of Imphal. But due to adverse circumstances, it could not succeed.

Failure of the Azad Hind Fauj:
The main reasons for the defeat of Indian National Army were as follows:

  1. Its strength was very small as compared to the British forces.
  2. Japan was defeated in the second world war. So it could no more give any help to the Azad Hind Fauj.
  3. After the death of Subhash Chander Bose in an air accident, the I.N.A. had no capable leader who could command the Indian National Army.

Arrest of officers of Azad Hind Fauj and their trial. Three officers of Indian National Army (Shah Nawaz, Prem Sehgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon) were tried by a Court Martial in the Red Fort on the charge of sedition or revolt against the king. The court gave its verdict that the three officers were guilty and sentenced them to death, but the government was disturbed to see the enthusiasm of the public. The government was afraid that if they were executed there would be so much bloodshed in the country that it would be difficult to control the situation. Therefore, the government set them free. It was a great victory of nationalism of India.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or in one word:

Question 1.
Who was the leader (President) of the Ghadar Party?
Answer:
Sohan Singh Bhakna.

Question 2.
Give the names of three martyrs in Punjab in 19th February, 1916 movement.
Answer:
Kartar Singh Sarabha, Banta Singh and Arur Singh.

Question 3.
In which year the Akali movement was started?
Answer:
The Akali movement in Punjab was started in 1921.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 4.
When was ‘Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee’ established?
Answer:
The Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee was established in 1920.

Question 5.
Which ‘Gurudwara Act’ was passed in 1925? Did Sikhs accept it?
Answer:
In 1925, The Sikh Gurudwara Act was passed which was accepted by the Sikhs.

Question 6.
What was the policy of Babbar Akalis?
Answer:
The policy of Babbar Akalis was to kill enemies of the Sikhs and become fearless.

Question 7.
What was the Khilafat Movement?
Answer:
The Khilafat Movement was started by the Muslims against the British policy towards Turkey.

Question 8.
What was the Rowlatt Act? What was it called by the people?
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act was passed to crush the freedom movement. People called it Black Act.

Question 9.
When did the Simon Commission come to India?
Answer:
The Simon Commission came to India in 1928.

Question 10.
Who was the founder of the Namdhari Movement?
Answer:
Baba Balak Singh was the founder of the Namdhari Movement.

Question 11.
When did the Namdharis attack Malerkotla? What punishment was given to them?
Answer:
A band of Namdharis attacked Malerkotla in 1872 A.D. and were executed.

Question 12.
When was the resolution of Complete Independence or “Poorna Swaraj” passed?
Answer:
It was passed in the Congress Session at Lahore in 1929.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 13.
Write one social cause of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
Racial discrimination.

Question 14.
Why was Rowlatt Act passed?
Answer:
To suppress the revolutionary activities in the country and to suppress the national movement.

Question 15.
Write one result of 1857.
Answer:
End of the rule of the British East India Company.

Question 16.
Tell any two administrative causes of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:

  1. Denial of high jobs to the Indians.
  2. Ill-treatment of Indians by the British officers.

Question 17.
By whom and when was independent Indian Army established?
Answer:
The Indian National Army was established by Subhash Chander Bose in Singapore in 1943.

Question 18.
When did Simon Commission come to India?
Answer:
In 1928 A.D.

Question 19.
When and where was ‘Guru Ka Bagh Morcha’ held?
Answer:
Guru Ka Bagh moracha was held on 23rd August, 1921 at Ajnala near Amritsar.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The main centres of Revolt of 1857 in the Punjab were _____________
Answer:
Lahore, Ferozepure, Peshawar and Mianwali

Question 2.
The founder of the Kuka Movement was_____________
Answer:
Baba Ram Singh Ji

Question 3.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in____________at.
Answer:
1875, Bombay

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 4.
Sardar Bhagat Singh founded the _____________ in _____________
Answer:
Naujawan Bharat Sabha, 1925-26

Question 5.
Akali Movement was started to bring about reforms in the management of the _____________ and to free the Gurdwaras from the corrupt _____________
Answer:
Gurdawaras, Mahants

Question 6.
The Simon Commission was boycotted by all the _____________ because no member of the commission was _____________
Answer:
Political parties, Indian.

True or False:

Question 1.
Henry Lawrence was appointed the chairman of the Board of Administration.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Kharak Singh was a very powerful ruler.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of India in 1849.
Answer:
True

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 4.
The Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
There was no dispute between the British and the Lahore Kingdom over the treasure of Suchet Singh.
Answer:
False.

Match the following:

Question 1.

1. Ghadar Party (a) Ship
2. Kamagatamaru (b) San Francisco
3. Rowlatt Act (c) Jallianwala Bagh
4. Udham Singh (d) Michael O’Dwyer

Answer:
1. (b)
2. (a)
3. (c)
4. (d).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the incident of ‘Kamagatamaru’ or “Nanak Jahaz”.
Answer:
‘Kamagatamaru was the name of a ship which was chartered by a Punjabi Baba Gurdit Singh. Some other Indians along with Baba Gurdit Singh boarded this ship and reached Canada. But they were neither allowed to step down there nor were allowed to leave the ship at some other ports like Hongkong, Shanghai, Singapore, etc. on their return journey. On reaching Calcutta (Kolkata), the passengers took out a procession. The police fired on the procession. Consequently, 18 persons were killed arid 25 injured. The revolutionaries were now convinced that the British could be turned out of the country only by an armed rebellion. They, therefore established a party named the Ghadar party and started the revolutionary movement.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 2.
Describe the contribution of Ras Bihtfri Bose to the Ghadar Movement.
Answer:
The members of the Ghadar Movement were asked to reach Punjab. Other revolutionaries also reached Punjab. Among them was also Ras Bihari Bose. He himself controlled the Ghadar Movement in Punjab. The government came to know’about the revolution day announced by him. Many leaders of the revolutionaries were captured by the police. Some were sentenced to death. Ras Bihari Bose escaped and reached Japan. He organised the Indian National Army in Japan in 1941.

Question 3.
What were the effects of the Ghadar Party on the Indian National Movement?
Answer:
Although the government suppressed the Ghadar Movement harshly, yet it deeply influenced the national movement. Due to the efforts of the Ghadar movement, the two groups of the Congress were united. The Congress and the Muslim League came closer and signed the Lucknow Pact in 1916 A.D. In addition to it, this movement compelled the government to think about the Indian problem sympathetically. In 1917 the Secretary of State for India, Lord Montague announced the policy of England regarding India, in which he stressed on the increasing participation of Indians in every branch of administration.

Question 4.
Write a note on the conflict between the British and the Sikhs on the issue of control over the Sikh Gurudwaras.
Answer:
The English were the supporters of Mahants of Gurudwaras. This attitude of the British was disliked by the Sikhs. The Mahants had entered the Gurudwaras as servants (Sewadars). But during the British rule, they became their permanent owners. They considered Gurudwaras as their personal property. The Mahants received the support of the British government. So they believed that their position was safe. They, therefore, started living a life of luxury. The Sikhs could not tolerate this.

Question 5.
When and how did the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occur? Write a short note on it.
Answer:
The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occurred on the Baisakhi Day at Amritsar in 1919. On this day, the people of Amritsar were holding a meeting in Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer ordered firing on this peaceful gathering without giving any warning. Hundreds of innocent people were killed and many persons were injured. Consequently, discontent spread throughout the country and the freedom struggle took a new turn. Now it became the struggle of the masses.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 6.
How the incident of Jallianwala Bagh gave a new turn to Independence Struggle of India?
Answer:
Because of the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh (13th April, 1919) about 400 persons were killed and about 1200 were injured. The massacre in this incident gave a new turn to the independence struggle of India. Formerly, this struggle was limited only to a few people. Now it became the struggle of the masses. The labourers, farmers, students, all joined it. As a result of this tragedy, the freedom struggle became more powerful.

Question 7.
How did the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee and the Shiromani Akali Dal come into existence?
Answer:
Till 1920 A.D., die Gurudwaras in the Punjab were in the hands of characterless and corrupt Mahants. The Sikhs wanted to free their Gurudwaras from these corrupt Mahants. So they started Gurudwara Reform Movement. In this matter, they also wanted to get help from the British government but failed. In November 1920, it was resolved by the Sikhs to form a committee of the Sikh representatives to look after the management of the Gurudwaras. As a result, the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee came into being and on December 14, 1920, the Shiromani Akali Dal was established.

Question 8.
Write a note on ‘All India Peasants’ Association’.
Answer:
‘All India Peasants’ Association’ was established on 11th April, 1936 at Lucknow (U.P.). In 1937, the branches of this organisation were set up in other parts of the country. Its president was Swami Sehjanand.

Its main objects were:
(a) To save peasants from economic exploitation.

(b) To end Zimindari and Talukedari systems. To achieve these goals, it put up these demands:

  • The peasants should be given economic security,
  • Land revenue should be reduced.
  • The loans of the peasants should be remitted.
  • Better arrangement for the irrigation of the land should be made,
  • The minimum wages of farm labourers should be fixed. In 1937-38, the Kisan Sabha started a movement named ‘self land of farming which was called ‘Bakasat’. In it, disinheritance of peasants from land by landlords was opposed. In this struggle, 600 farmers were arrested and the movement was suppressed.

Question 9.
Write a short note on the new social classes that came into being.
Answer:
Due to the spread of education during British rule, an educated middle class emerged in India. It included lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc. These were enlightened people. Though in the beginning, they were supporters of the British rule, they took active part in the freedom movement of the country. With the growth of industries a new class of capitalists emerged. They invested their capital in large industries. Growth of industries also gave rise to working class. There was always a clash between the capitalists and the working class. The working class was in a miserable condition. The workers were given low wages and they had to work for long hours in insanitary conditions in the factories.

Question 10.
Write a note on the development of Indian literature.
Answer:
In modern times, all the branches of literature in India made much progress. Besides Hindi and Urdu, all regional languages of the country have progressed and literature in these languages has been produced on a large scale. Some of the important writers of this period were Rabindernath Tagore, Munshi Prem Chand, Sarat Chander Chatterjee, Sir Mohammad Iqbal, Sahir Ludhianvi, Sumitra Nanadan Pant, Amrita Pritam, Raj Kumar Verma, etc.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 11.
Write a note on Swadeshi and Boycott Movements.
Answer:
Swadeshi and Boycott Movements. The Swadeshi and Boycott movements were the products of the partition of Bengal. On July 20, 1905, Lord Curzon issued an order dividing the province of Bengal into two parts. The nationalists viewed the act of partition as a challenge to the Indian nationalism and opposed it firmly. They felt that mere demonstrations, public meetings and resolutions were not likely to have much effect on the rulers. More positive action was needed to reveal the intensity of popular feeling. The answer was Swadeshi Movement and Boycott. Use of Indian goods and boycott of British goods was proclaimed. Several leaders, by moving about from place to place, propagated Swadeshi. Therefore, the people started using Indian goods in larger and larger numbers and stopped purchasing foreign goods. Consequently, great impetus was given to native industries. In this movement, the students and women played an admirable role. Some of the Muslim leaders also joined it. In Bombay, Madras and in many parts of Northern India, this movement was propagated on a large scale.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe in detail the activities of Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
Answer:
The establishment of Naujawan Bharat Sabha took place in Lahore in 1925-26. Its founder members were Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Sukhdev, Principal Chabil Dass, Yashpal, etc.

Main Objects. The main objects of this organisation were as follow:

  • Spread of the spirit of fraternity among the people.
  • Stress on simple life.
  • To develop the spirit of sacrifice.
  • To promote feelings of patriotism among the people.
  • To propagate revolutionary ideas among the masses.

Membership. All the men and women between 18 years and 35 years could join this association. Only those persons could become its members who had faith in its programme. Many women and men of Punjab extended co-operation to this association. Durga Devi Vohra, Sushil Mohan, Amar Kaur, Parvati Devi and Leelavati were members of this association.

Activities. The members of this association were active at the time of visit of Simon Commission. In Punjab, under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai, the revolutionaries took out a procession against Simon Commission in Lahore. The English government lathi-charged the procession. In this Lala Lajpat Rai was badly injured. He died on 17th November, 1928. During this period, all the revolutionaries set up their central organisation which was named as Hindustan Socialist Republic Association. Members of Naujawan Bharat Sabha also started working in collaboration with this association.

Assembly Bomb Case. On 8th April, 1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly and surrendered.

The police arrested Sukhdev and Rajguru, two other great revolutionaries. These revolutionaries were implicated in the second Lahore Conspiracy case and tried.

On 23rd March, 1931 Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged to death in Borstal Jail at Lahore. The pieces of their dead bodies were put in bags and were thrown half-burnt near Hussaniwala in Ferozepur on the bank of river Sutlej. A memorial has been built at Hussaniwala in the memory of these great martyrs.
It is true that Sardar Bhagat Singh, the gem of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, set such an example of martyrdom of which the coming generations will always feel proud of.

Question 2.
Why did the’Akali Movement begin? Describe its main Morchas.
Answer:
The Akali Movement was started in the Punjab after the Ghadar Movement in 1921 and continued upto 1925. Following were its main causes:

  1. The management of the Gurudwaras was in the hands of the Mahants. They were squandering away the income of the Gurudwaras in luxurious living. The Sikhs did not like this.
  2. The English were backing the Mahants. The English had committed several atrocities on the members of the Ghadar Party, 93% of whom were the Sikhs. It had a deep effect on the minds of the Sikhs.
  3. The Sikhs were dissatisfied with the Act of 1919. Whatever was given to them by this Act was much less than their expectations.

Main Events Or Main Morchas:
1. Nankana Sahib incident. The Mahant of Nankana Sahib Gurudwara was a very characterless person. A peaceful jatha of the Sikhs was sent on 20th February, 1921 to oust him from the Gurudwara. The Mahant meted out a very harsh treatment to the jatha. His vagabonds attacked the Jatha. Bhai Lakshman Das, the leader of the Jatha and his companions were burnt alive.

2. Problem of the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib. The keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee demanded the keys from the government but it refused to hand over the keys. The Sikhs made demonstrations against this act of the government. It made many Sikhs prisoners. The Congress and the Khilafat Committee also supported the Sikhs. At last, the government was forced to hand over the keys to the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee.

3. ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ Morcha. Gurudwara ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ is situated in Amritsar district. This Gurudwara was in the hands of a characterless person named Mahant Sunder Das. Shiromani Committee sent a jatha under Dan Singh on 23rd August, 1921 to take over the control of the Gurudwara. The police arrested the members of this Jatha. This incident enraged the Sikhs all the more. They began to send more and more Jathas. These Jathas were badly treated. Their members were beaten with lathis and were dragged by their hair.

4. Panja Sahib incident. The Sikhs decided to send a Jatha by train to participate in Guru Ka Bagh Morcha. The Sikhs of the Panja Sahib (Hasan Abdal) (now in Pakistan) requested the Government to stop the train at Panja Sahib so that the members of the Jatha might be served food. The government turned down the request of the Sikhs. At this, two Sikhs named Bhai Karam Singh and Bhai Partap Singh laid down before the train and sacrificed their lives.

5. Babbar Akali Dal. The Sikhs established Babbar Akali Dal in August, 1922 to fight against the British rule. The most prominent leader of this Dal was Jathedar Kishan Singh. His violent acts created a wave of terror in Punjab. The Government succeeded in capturing many Babbar Akalis with the help of the army and 91 Babbar Akalis were tried. Babbar Akalis like Kishan Singh, Dharam Singh, Dalip Singh, etc. were sentenced to death.

6. Jaito Ka Morcha. The British Government dethroned Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha without any faulf of his in July, 1923. Shiromani Akali Dal and all the patriotic Sikhs decided to hold a meeting in Gurudwara Gangsar (Jaito) against the Government. A Jatha of 500 Akalis set out for Gangsar on 21st February, 1924. It faced the British army at Nabha. The Sikhs were unarmed. Consequently, more than 100 Sikhs were martyred and about 200 Sikhs were injured.

7. The Sikh Gurudwara Act. The Punjab Government passed the Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1925. According to it, the task of administration and care of the Gurdwaras came into the hands of the Sikhs. Gradually, all the Sikh prisoners were released.

Thus the Sikhs made great sacrifices in the Akali Movement. On the one hand, they freed the Gurudwaras from the clutches of the Mahants who were the puppets in the hands of the English. On the other hand, they lighted such a fire against the English which continued burning upto the attainment of independence by India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 3.
Explain the achievements of Brahmo Samaj.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the founder of Brahmo Samaj. He was a great social reformer. He not only ended the evil practices prevailing in Hindu Society but also saved it from the influence of Christianity. First of all, he started, ‘Atamey Sabha’. After that in 1830 A.D., he founded ‘Brahmo Samaj’. It preached against social evils like Sati, child marriage, female infanticide, etc. It opposed idol worship and caste system. It asked the people tq study the Vedas and Upanishads and advised people to follow the path shown by the Vedas.

Brahmo Samaj was divided into two separate groups after the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The first group was led by Davendra Nath Tagore. The second group was led by Keshab Chander.

The achievements of Brahmo Samaj or Raja Ram Mohan Roy were as under:
1. Social Reforms:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy preached against the practice of “Sati”. He was able to get Sati practice declared illegal by Governor-General William Bentinck in 1829 A.D.
  • He also raised a voice of protest against caste system, untouchability, human sacrifices and other social evils.
  • He gave special attention to the improvement of the condition of women.

2. Religious Reforms:

  • Brahmo Samaj strongly condemned idol worship and superstitions.
  • It encouraged people to believe in one God.
  • It advised people to remain away from sins and to do good deeds. According to it, ‘God Worship’ was the only way to achieve salvation.

3. Cultural Awakening. Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid stress on the spread of western education and western culture. He said that with the spread of western ideas, social evils will come to an end. He established an English school in 1817 A.D. at Kolkata. Brahmo Samaj established a Vedant College in 1825 A.D. where education was imparted by western methods.

Thus Raja Ram Mohan Roy made great efforts to free Indian society from many evils. That is why, he is called “an advance ambassador of new era” and “father of Indian nationalism”.

Question 4.
Describe in detail the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer:
Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 A.D. A resolution to begin this movement was passed by the Congress in its session at Calcutta (Kolkata). In those days, Muslims had also started Khilafat movement against the British government. So the Hindus and the-Muslims jointly opposed the government.

Programme. In order to give a proper shape to the movement, a detailed programme was prepared. According to it, the students stopped going to government schools and colleges. Lawyers stopped attending courts. Some people boycotted English cloth and started wearing hancf woven cloth. They also boycotted government jobs and law courts.

Gandhiji wanted to carry on this movement peacefully but in 1922 A.D. a police station in a village named Chauri-Chaura in Uttar Pradesh was burnt down along with one police inspector and 27 constables by the people. Gandhiji was very much perturbed over this incident and withdrew the agitation. Gandhiji was arrested and was imprisoned for six years.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 5.
Describe in detail the ‘Quit India Movement’.
Answer:
Quit India Movement was the most significant movement in the freedom struggle. This was started by Gandhiji in August 1942 A.D. By this .’time, Indian leaders had completely lost faith in the British government. The British government, without asking Indians, declared India’s participation in the Second World War. Congress declared that Indians will themselves protect their country and the British should, therefore, quit India. The Government determined to crush the movement. Gandhiji and all the members of the Working Committee of Congress were arrested early in the morning on 9th August, 1942 A.D. The Congress was declared an illegal organisation.

Beginning of the movement and its progress. The news regarding the arrest of Gandhiji spread in whole of the country. Strikes, protest meetings and processions took place in all the cities of the country. People raised slogans like ‘Britishers Quit India’, ‘Release Mahatma Gandhi’, ‘British Government Murdabad’.

The British Government followed the policy of suppression for crushing the movement. Police committed many atrocities on the public. Peaceful processionists were fired at and cane-charged. Consequently, thousands of people were killed and injured. More than one lakh men and women were arrested.

Enraged by the government’s atrocities, Indian public also adopted violent means. They burnt many government buildings, post offices and railway trains. The Government held Congress responsible for these incidents. Gandhiji was very much disturbed by these allegations. On 10th February 1943, A.D., Mahatma Gandhi started fast for 21 days in the jail as a protest. Gandhiji was released on 6th May, 1944 A.D. Quit India Movement had ended by that time.

Effects. This movement strengthened the freedom struggle. Now it became a movement of the people. The British also understood that it would not be easy for them to rule in India any longer.

Question 6.
Write a detailed note on the establishment and functions of the Indian National Congress. (Pb. 2003 E)
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was established on December 28, 1885. Mr. A. O. Hume, a retired English officer, was its founder.

Aims:
Following were the aims of the Congress in the beginning.

  • It aimed to gather the patriotic leaders all over India at one platform.
  • It aimed to remove the differences of caste, religion and regions and promote national integration.
  • It aimed at making efforts for the social, economic and political upliftment of India.

Role of Congress during its earlier phase. The earlier phase of Congress was called a moderate or liberal period. It extended from 1885 to 1905. It played the following role during the moderate period.

  1. The Congress believed in constitutional and peaceful methods during this period. They presented their demands to the government through petitions, protest meetings and speeches. Although they were not able to influence the British administration much, yet they played a great role in creating political awakening among the masses of India by their activities.
  2. They raised the demands for reducing the defence expenditure, holding the civil services examination in India, raising the age for appearing in. the Indian civil services examination, seeking representation in the legislative and administrative work.
  3. Leaders like Dadabhai Naurojee and Gokhale exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British administration.
  4. During this period, the Congress leaders believed that the English people believed in justice. They regarded their rule a boon for the Indians. They believed that the English Government would fulfil their demands.
  5. The passing of Indian Council Act of 1892 was one of the earlier achievements of their struggle for political rights. Overall, they were not considered to have achieved much. However, they were definitely successful in increasing political awakening among the Indians.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom

Question 7.
What were the causes of the rise of national consciousness in India?
Answer:
The causes of emergence of spirit of national consciousness among the people of India were as under:
1. Impact of the Revolt of 1857. The great rising of 1857 had created among the Indians a feeling of national awakening. It gave birth to the movement for the liberation of the country.

2. Exploitation of Indians by the British. The British exploited India economically. Due to their commercial policy, India’s trade and industry were destroyed. The educated Indians were also discontented with the British policy of denying high government jobs to them. They felt the need to organise themselves to struggle for their rights.

3. Western Culture and Education. The western education created in the minds of Indians the ideas of liberty, equality and brotherhood. The educated Indians began to think of achieving freedom from the foreign rule.

4. Press and Vernacular Literature. The Indian newspapers and literature also helped in the growth of new spirit in the Indian politics. The well-known newspapers like Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Indian Mirror, The Hindu, The Kesri, The Bengali, etc. propagated the views of national leaders and exposed the evils of the British rule which awakened the national feelings among the Indians.

5. Effects of International Events. During this period, revolutions took place in France, America and some other countries. The people of these countries changed the governments by sacrificing their lives. The Indians also drew inspiration from these revolutions and started thinking of fighting against the British Imperialism.

6. British Policy of Racial Discrimination. Passing of the Vernacular Press Act and denying high posts to the Indians, created bitterness against the British in the minds of Indians. It brought political awakening in the country.

7. Modern means of Transport and Communication. The development of modern means of transport and communication like railways, roads, post and telegraph services also helped in the growth of national movement. They linked villages and towns. They encouraged social contacts among the people. This promoted national unity and the cause of nationalism.

Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Centres of the Revolt of 1857 in the Punjab. Lahore, Ferozepur, Peshawar and Ambala were the main centres of the revolt of 1857 in the Punjab. Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal took an active part in this revolt.
  • Namdhari or Kuka Movement. The founder of the Namdhari movement was Baba Balak Singh. But the movement became very powerful under Baba Ram Singh. The Kukas attacked the cow-slaughterers and killed them.
  • Arya Samaj. Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the founder of the Arya Samaj. It was founded by him in 1875 A. D. at Bombay. The Arya Samaj played an important role in the social and religious fields. It also played a remarkable role in the freedom movement.
  • Ghadar Movement. The Ghadar Movement was a revolutionary movement. The main aim of this movement was to overthrow the British rule in India. The Ghadar Party was established in 1913 A.D. in San Francisco. Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna was its president. Under the command of Ras Bihari Bose and Kartar Singh Sarabha, the Ghadar revolutionaries wanted to throw the English out of India through aA armed revolution.
  • Naujawan Sabha. Sardar Bhagat Singh founded the Naujawan Sabha in 1925-26. Its aim was to arouse the spirit of sacrifice, patriotism and revolution among the youth.
  • Akali Movement and Gurudwara Reform Movement. During the British rule, the management of the Sikh Gurudwaras was in the hands of the corrupt Mahants. The Sikhs wanted to free their religious places from the Mahants. So they started the Gurudwara Reform Movement.
  • Babbar Akali Movement. Many Sikh leaders wanted to turn the Gurudwara Reform Movement violent. The policy of the Babbar Akalis was to kill the enemies of their religion and frighten them. Havaldar Kishan Singh was the founder of this movement.
  • Khilafat Movement. The Khilafat Movement was started against the English because of their policy towards Turkey. The names of two brothers who started it in India were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
  • Rowlatt Act. The Rowlatt Act was passed to crush the national movement. People called it Black Act. According to this Act, any person could be arrested and imprisoned without any trial.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy. The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occurred on April 13, 1919. On that day, people of Amritsar were holding a meeting in Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer ordered firing on this peaceful meeting without any warning. Hundreds of innocent people were killed and injured.
  • Resolution of Complete Independence. Resolution of Complete Independence was passed in the Lahore Session of the Congress which was held in December 1929. It was presided over by Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Name the Guru whowas earlier known as Bhai Lehna Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna Ji was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dey Ji.

Question 2.
Define Lagar System.
Answer:
The Langar system or Pa1lgat refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction, like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food. Guru Amar Das Ji had made a rule according to which no body would come in his presence without first partaking food in the Pangat.

Question 3.
Name the Guru who laid the foundation of Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji laid the foundation of a large well (Baoli) in GoindwaL

Question 4.
Name the Guru whom Akbar visited.
Answer:
Akbar met Guru Amar Das Ji at Goindwal.

Question 5.
Write two objectives of the Masand System.
Answer:
The two aims of Masand System were as follows:

  1. To collect the donations for the development work relating to Sikh religion.
  2. To organise the Sikhs.

Question 6.
Who was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs? Vhich city was founded by him?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs and Guru Sahib built the city of Ramdaspur (Amritsar).

Question 7.
When and who laid the foundation of Sri Harimandir Sahib?
Answer:
The foundation stone of Sri Harimandir Sahib was laid in 1589 A.D. by the renowned Sufi Saint of his times, Miari Mir.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 8.
What is the significance of four doors on the four sides of Sri Harimandir Sahib?
Answer:
The significance of erecting the doors in all the four directions in Sri Harimandir Sahib is to indicate that Sri Harimandir Sahib is open to all classes, all the religions and all the castes without any discrimination.

Question 9.
Name the four cities established by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the following four cities:

  1. Tarn Taran,
  2. Kartarpur,
  3. Hargobiridpur and
  4. Chheharta.

Question 10.
Define the meaning of ‘Daswandh’.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji made many rules for Masand System. The most important rule was about ‘Daswandh’. According to it, the devotees were required to donate tenth part of their income to the Guru for religious activites. It was called Daswandh.

Question 11.
Why was the Adi Granth Sahib compiled?
Answer:
The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled to provide a collection of authentic Bani (hymns) of Guru Sahiban for the proper guidance of the Sikhs. Guru Arjan Dev Ji wanted to provide a true religions book to ensure that Sikhs could receive the true knowledge of Guru Bani and might not be cheated by the false writings written in the name of Guru Sahibs.

Question 12.
What do you know about Langar System?
Answer:
The Langar System or Pangat was started bydGuru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued the system With full devotion. This system proved to be a powerful agency for popularising the Sikh religion.

Question 13.
What was preached by Guru Angad Dev Ji to the Sikhs through the Sangat System?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the message of peace and brotherhood and dealt a severe blow to the caste system among the Sikhs.

Question 14.
What was the contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji towards Langar system?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji further promoted the Langar system or Pangat, which was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This system worked with the voluntary support of his Sikh followers. Bibi Khiwi, wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji, managed the Pangat System with full devotion.

Question 15.
Write about the wrestling ground established by Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Angad. Dev Ji believed that the physical fitness was essential for the intellectual development of the Sikhs. Hence, in order to develop physical health of his Sikh followers, Guru Sahib established a gymnasium at Khadoor Sahib. Guru Sahib organised there wrestling matches regularly.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 16.
What do you know about Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
The city of Goindwal is situated on the bank of river Beas. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed here a Baoli, a large oblong tank of water. This Baoli has eighty four steps with landing places. Guru Sahib had decreed that whoever would reverently repeat the Japuji Sahib on every step shall escape from wandering in the wombs of the eighty four lakhs of living .creatures. In the course of time, Goindwal became an important centre of Sikh pilgrimage.

Question 17.
Write the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about Caste System.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was strongly against untouchability and discriminations based on Caste System (Jati System). Guru Sahib considered those people foolish and ignorant who believed in Jati System and untouchability. Guru Sahib had instructed the Sikhs to condemn untouchability and Caste System.

Question 18.
What were the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about the Sati System?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the practice of Sati. Guru Sahib told that a widow who had burnt herself alive on the pyre of her dead husband could not be called a true Sati. According to him, a widow who preferred to live her life in the memory of her dead husband could be called a true Sati.

Question 19.
What reforms did Guru Amar Das Ji introduce for marriage, birth and death ceremonies?
Answer:

  1. Guru Amar Das Ji replaced the ceremony of Pheras (going around the fire pit in Hindu marriage) with-the ceremony of Lavan in Sikh marriages.
  2. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of singing the ‘Anand Bani’ at the time of birth and marriage.
  3. Guru Sahib instructed the Sikhs to say the prayers to God and chant the name of God on all the sad occasions or .death ceremonies.

Question 20.
Write about the importance of Ramdaspur or Amritsar.
Answer:
The Sikhs got their own city of pilgrimage and an important business centre with the founding of Ramdaspur or Amritsar. With the passage of time, the city of Ramdaspur or Amritsar greatly contributed to the development of the Sikh community.

Question 21.
Write about the Baoli Sahib (water source) of Lahore.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji had constructed a large well (Baoli) in Dubbi Bazaar in Lahore. It became a place of pilgrimage for his Sikh followers.

Question 22.
What was the need of compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib by Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji wanted that his Sikhs should be benefited from the true and divine hymns of Guru Sahiban for which he found it necessary to make available a true and sacred religious book. Therefore, Guru Sahib compiled Adi Granth Sahib and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib for the spiritual benefit of his Sikh followers.

Question 23.
Write two social reforms brought about by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji brought about the following social reforms:

  1. Guru Sahib tried to encourage widow remarriage.
  2. Guru Sahib prohibited the use of liquor and intoxicants by his Sikh followers.

Question 24.
Write about the relationship between Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar had very friendly relations with Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The opponents of Guru Arjan Dev Ji tried to poison the ears of Akbar against Guru Sahib, but Akbar rebuffed them. Due to Guru Sahib’s advice, Akbar remitted the land tax of the farmers of Punjab during the year of bad harvests.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 25.
Why did Jahangir want to kill Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:

  1. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
  2. He was perturbed (troubled) by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Thus, the Mughal Emperor Jahangir wanted to put to death Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 26.
Write the importance of the swords of ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji put on two swords and called them ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’. The ‘Miri’ sword represented the leadership of Guru Hargobind Ji over the Sikhs in their worldly affairs. The sword ‘Piri’ indicated the leadership of Guru Sahib in spiritual matters of the Sikhs.

Question 27.
How did Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji fortify the city of Amritsar?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji raised a thick wall all around the city of Amritsar. Guru Sahib also constructed a fort called ‘Lohgarh’ within the city and garrisoned it.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Describe the Baoli Sahib (water sources) at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji completed the work of construction of the Baoli at Goindwal, which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib told his Sikh followers that whosoever would recite the hymns of ‘JupJi Sahib’ with full devotion on each of the 84 steps, he would become free from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh types of lives (Yonis) and achieve Moksha (Salvation). Indu Bushan Banerjee says that the Baoli played a significant role in the history of Sikh religion. The Baoli of Goindwal became a popular place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. The Gurudwara Baoli Sahib stands there.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of the Manji System and why was it started?
Answer:
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji. The number of his Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Amar Das Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pieces. The Manji system had great significance in the history of Sikh religion. Dr. G.C. Narang says that this work of Guru Sahib consolidated the foundations of Sikh religion and helped to spread Guru’s teachings in all parts of the country.

Question 3.
What reforms were introduced in marriage ceremonies by Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
At the time of Guru Amar Das Ji, the influence of caste system was dominating the people of Punjab. The people considered it against their religion to marry outside one’s own caste. Guru Sahib believed that such a tradition had divided the people. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to break the caste barriers and permitted inter-caste marriages. Guru Sahib also reformed the marriage ceremonies. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of Lavan in place of Pheras. Bhai Jetha Ji (Guru Ram Das Ji) wrote the Lavans on the advice of Guru Amar Das Ji.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 4.
How did Guru Angad Dev Ji separate the Sikhs from the Udasi sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, had founded the Udasi sect. He praised the life of an ascetic (monk or sanyasi). This idea of spiritual ascetic life was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to the Sikhs that the Sikh religion was a religion of the householders and not of the monks who broke the family ties for their spiritual life. There was no place for ascetics in the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib also declared that a Sikh who adopted a life of an ascetic was not a true Sikh. In this manner, Guru Sahib separated the Sikhs from the Udasis and consolidated the foundations of Sikh religion.

Question 5.
Write about the Anand Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had composed fresh Bani called Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib had composed the Anand Sahib at the time of birth of his grandson named Anand. It has forty hymns. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed his Sikh followers to sing Anand Sahib on the happy occasions in their lives like birth, marriage or any other similar occasion. After the composition of Anand Sahib, the need of Vedic hymns for Sikh community completely ended. The Sikhs sing the hymns of Anand Sahib on the occasions of happiness in their lives upto this day.

Question 6.
Write about the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura. This city is now called Amritsar. Guru Ram Das Ji had started the work of digging of two Sarovars (ponds) called Amritsar and Santokhsar in 1577. Guru Sahib found that it was difficult to look after the work of construction of the ponds from Goindwal. Hence, Guru Sahib decided to camp at the site of construction at Amritsar. His followers started visiting him at his camping site and some of them also stayed there, which led to the rise of a small township. This township was lovingly named Ramdaspur.

Guru Ram Das Ji tried to provide all the amenities to his followers who were staying there because of their devotion to him. Guru Sahib also established a small market there. That market became popular as ‘Market of Guru Ji’ or ‘Guru Ka Bazaar’. In this manner, the city became an important place of pilgrimage and trading centre for the Sikhs and contributed in a significant way to the growth of Sikh religion.

Question 7.
Write about Sri Harimandir Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji had raised Sri Harimandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar Amritsar after the final union of Guru Ram Das Ji with the Divine Power. Sufi fakir, Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harimandir Sahib in 1589. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harimandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harimandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without distinction. Baba Budda Ji supervised the work of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and completed it in 1601. In 1604, Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Baba Budda Ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Sri Harmandir Sahib is the main centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. According to one scholar, “Amritsar is for the Sikhs what Mecca is for the Muslims.”

Question 8.
What do you know about Tarn Taran Sahib?
Answer:
The town of Tarn Taran was founded by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Tarn Taran has great significance in the history of Sikhs. Tarn Taran is an important place of pilgrimage like Amritsar for the Sikhs. A large number of Sikh pilgrims come to Tarn Taran and take bath in the Sarovar. It was because of Tarn Taran that the Jats of Majha region of Punjab adopted Sikh religion during the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Jats of the Majha region proved to be most courageous and fearless while fighting against the Mughals in the battles. Indu Bushan Banerjee remarks that the history of the Sikhs took a new turn with the entry of the Jats into Sikh religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 9.
What were the benefits of the Masand system for the Sikh religion?
Answer:
The Masand System played an important role in the development and organisation of the Sikh religion. The importance of the Masand System for Sikh religion was as under:
1. The system ensured regular and fixed donations for the Guru Gaddi. With a fixed income from donations, Guru Sahib was able to undertake much constructive work for the development of Sikh religion. Guru Arjan Dev Ji not only built tanks at Amritsar and Santokhsar, but also built new cities, constructed ponds, dug wells, etc.

2. Masand System, not only ensured fixed donations, but also, helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion more enthusiastically. Earlier, the work of spread of religion was done through Manji system. It was confined only to the Punjab during those days. However, Guru Arjan Dev Ji appointed Masands even outside Punjab. It helped in the spread of Sikh religion even outside.

3. Guru Sahib started holding his own court when he had an assured income through Masand System. The Masands and the devoted Sikhs brought donations and gifts to the court of Guru Arjan Dev Ji on every Baisakhi day and bowed their heads before him to seek his blessings. Gradually, the court of Guru Sahib acquired the status of a court of an emperor for the Sikhs and Sikh Sangat started calling Guru Arjan Dev Ji as Sachcha Padshah (The True Emperor) out of love and devotion for him.

Question 10.
Write about the daily life of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji had changed his lifestyle according to his‘New Policy’. According to his new daily routine, after taking his bath early morning, Guru Sahib visited Sri Harimandir Sahib to give religious instruction. After the discourse, the Langar was served every day. After the Langar, Guru Sahib used to take rest for some time before leaving for hunting. Guru Hargobind Ji had instructed Abdul and Nathmal to sing songs of heroism (songs of vir rasa) on high notes in order to infuse courage into the Sikh Sangat. Guru Sahib organised special troupes of singers (Dhadis). In this manner, Guru Sahib created a new awareness among the Sikhs and created in them the spirit of courage.

Question 11.
What do you know about the ‘Akal Takht’?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji used to give religious instructions at Sri Harimandir Sahib. Guru Sahib had constructed a new building called ‘Akal Takht’ (the Throne of Supreme God) in the western part of the premises of Sri Harimandir Sahib to give advice to the Sikhs in the worldly matters. There was raised a platform about 12 feet high. Guru Sahib used to solve the military and political problems of the Sikhs while sitting there. Guru Sahib also listened to heroic songs (songs of vir rasa) from his followers at Akal Takht. Guru Sahib also imparted physical training to his Sikh followers hear Akal Takht.

Question 12.
Throw light on any four measures taken by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs after Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s demise in 1539. His period proved to be a blessing for the rise of Sikhism.

Guru Sahib contributed to the rise of Sikhism by doing the following work:

  1. Improvement of Gurumukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurumukhi script. .In order to popularise Gurumukhi, Guru Sahib wrote ‘Bal Bodh’ to help children to learn the alphabet or Gurumukhi.
  2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and other Writings. Guru Angad Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write a Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to know the true instructions of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote his own Bani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
  3. Langar System. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued Langar system with full devotion. It helped in reducing the ill-feelings based on caste system among the people and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.
  4. Founding of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

Question 13.
How was Masand system useful for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Refer to answer in 70-75 words to question no. 9 of section B.

Question 14.
Write a note on the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The Mughal Emperor Akbar had very cordial relations with Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, Jahangir the next Mughal emperor, abandoned the policy of toleration after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was on the lookout for an opportunity to give mortal blow to Sikh religion. In the meantime, Prince Khusro, the son of Jahangir, revolted against his father. After being defeated at the hand of his father, Khusro came to Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Sahib blessed him. Jahangir imposed a fine of two lakh rupees on Guru Sahib on the charge of helping rebellious Khusro. Guru Sahib showed his inability to pay. As a result, Guru Sahib was detained and subjected to severe torture. It infuriated the Sikhs. The Sikhs learned that the only course then left open to them was to rise in arms for the protection of their religion.

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

Question 1.
What is the contribution of Guru Angad Sahib to the development of Sikh religion?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion in 1539 after Guru Nanak Dev Ji. His period proved to be a blessing for the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib contributed to the development of the Sikh religion in the following manner:
1. Improvement in Gurumukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurumukhi script. In order to popularise Gurumukhi, Guru Sahib wrote ‘Bal Bodh’ to help the children learn the alphabet of Gurumukhi. The Gurumukhi was a common language of the people of the region. It helped in the promotion of Sikh religion. All the religious literature of Sikhism is written in Gurumukhi script.

2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write the Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to follow the true path shown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib himself also wrote Bani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

3. The Langar System. Guru Aiigad Dev Ji continued the Langar system with full devotion. Langar was served to all the people without any distinction based on caste system. It helped in decreasing the feelings of inequality based on caste system and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.

4. Separating the Udasis from the Sikhs. The eldest son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bhai Sri Chand had established the Udasi sect. He had popularised asceticism (Sanyas). The idea of asceticism was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to his followers that the Sikh religion is a religion of householders. There was no place for ascetics (Sanyasis) in it. Guru Sahib declared that those Sikhs, who believed in asceticism, were not true Sikhs. In this manner, by separating Udasis from the Sikh community, Guru Sahib strengthened the Sikh religion.

5. Laid the foundation of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

6. Enforced Discipline. Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained strict discipline in his Sikh community. He turned out Bhai Satta and Bhai Balwand out of Sikh Sangat for breaking discipline. However, on the request of Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. This episode served as a warning to the indisciplined elements in the Sikh community.

It is true that Guru Angad Dev Ji had given a distinct identity to the Sikh religion by making improvements in Gurumukhi script. The Sikh followers got their own separate script and language. The langar system freed the Sikh religion from the influence of caste system. It helped Sikh religion to establish its own separate identity different from the Hindu religion. All the credit goes to Guru Angad Dev Ji for all such developments which made Sikh religion a distinct religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 2.
What work was done by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikh religion?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji occupies an important place in the history of Sikh religion. The seeds of the religion which Guru Nanak Dev Ji had sowed, sprouted during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji raised a fence around the new religion and saved it from getting absorbed into Hindu religion. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh community to adopt new customs and traditions in their social life, which developed the real traits of Sikh religion.

They were different from the social customs and traditions of the Hindu religion. No doubt, Guru Sahib was a great divine soul. Payne, a scholar, called him an aggressive reformer. Another scholar has praised Guru Sahib as a genius and a man of justice. It is a historical fact that it was during his period that Sikh religion established its distinctive identity.

A brief survey of the work of Guru Amar Das Ji is as follows:
1. Construction of Baoli at Goindwal. Guru Amar Das Ji completed the construction work of Baoli at Goindwal which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib said that a Sikh could get freedom from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh forms of lives by reciting the hymns of Jupji Sahib on each step. The Baoli of Goindwal became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

2. Langar System. Guru Amar Das Ji also made the Langar system popular which helped further in the spread of Sikhism. Guru Sahib made some more rules for Langar System. As per the new rules, whosoever wanted to earn the benefit of participation in Sangat, he must partake Langar with the rest of the Sangat before joining it in the presence of Guru Sahib. While partaking food in the Langar, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishs, Shudras, Kings, common men and people of all castes and tribes sat in one row and partook food.

Langar system propagated the message of Sikh religion in a more forceful and effective manner. It ended the discrimination based on castes. It developed the feelings of unity and equality in the Sikh Sangat. As a consequence, it bound the Sikhs into a strong bond of unity.

3. Collection of the Sayings of Guru Sahiban. Guru Angad Dev collected the true ‘Bani’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and added his own ‘Bani’ also. Guru Angad Dev Ji entrusted the sacred collection to Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji also composed his ‘Bani’ and added to the collection. In this manner, the true ‘Bani’ was preserved in a pure form and later found place in the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’. The grandson of Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji accomplished the ultimate task.

4. Manji System. The number of followers of Sikhism had increased manifold by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji found it difficult to reach all his disciples who were spread over a large area. Guru Sahib divided his spiritual territory into 22 regions. Each region was called a ‘Manji’. Each Manji was a centre of religious preaching and Guru Sahib appointed learned and reliable Sikh devotees to control each Manji.

The establishment of Manji system was an important step in the systematic organisation of the Sikh religion. G.C. Narang in his book ‘Transformation of Sikhism’, remarks that the introduction of Manji System by Guru Sahib had strengthened the Sikh religion and contributed to the spread of Guru’s divine message in different regions of the country in a more effective way.

5. Separation of Sikhs from the Udasis. The Udasi sect of Baba Sri Chand had also become popular in the early period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Guru Gaddi, There was a possibility of Sikh religion losing its identity by being merged with the Udasi sect. It is recognised by many historians that Guru Amar Das Ji had judged the situation and strongly spoken against the main principles of asceticism of Udasi sect, which were against the principles of Sikh religion as founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh Sangat to understand clearly that they would not be able to become true Sikhs, if they adopted the principles of Udasi sect. In this manner, because of the efforts of Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikh religion maintained its separate identity and flourished.

6. Separate Sikh ceremonies. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to discontinue useless customs and traditions. Among the Hindus, it was a tradition of weeping and crying over the death of one’s near ones. Guru Sahib advised his disciples to meditate on God in such situations in one’s life instead of performing useless ceremonies and rites. Guru Sahib also started a new ceremony for marriage which was called Anand Karaj.

7. Composition of Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib composed a new Bani which is called ‘Anand Sahib’. Anand Sahib ended the importance of Vedic hymns for the Sikhs and gave them their own sacred literature.
Thus, the period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Gurugaddi and his sacred literature occupy the most important place in the history of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib constructed a Baoli, introduced Manji System, elaborated the Langar System, and introduced new traditions and customs in the Sikh religion which was well-organised during his days.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 3.
Describe the social reforms introduced by Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
During the times of Guru Amar Das Ji, the society was suffering from many social evils. Guru Amar Das Ji was fully aware of those shortcomings and brought about numerous social reforms.

The main achievements of Guru Amar Das Ji in the field of social reforms are as follow:
1. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Amar Das Ji made efforts to end the evils in the society caused by caste system. Wherever Guru Sahib went, he criticised the differences among the social groups based on caste system. Guru Sahib was of the view that those caste differences were against the wishes of Supreme God and a hindrance in the way of social development. The 19th century leaders of social reform movements had the same views and all their activities to reform social condition were similar to what Guru Amar Das Ji did in the 16th century.

2. Opposed to Untouchability. Guru Amar Das Ji made successful efforts to end untouchability. No untouchability or Jati considerations were permitted and observed in the Langar. People of all castes, tribes and social status sat together and partook food with brotherly feelings. It is said that Emperor Akbar and Raja of Hamirpur partook food in the Langar according to the rules laid down by Guru Amar Das Ji.

3. Supported Widow Remarriage. Widow remarriage was not permitted during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. The widows were forced to live a miserable life after the death of their husbands. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly supported widow remarriage and tried to secure a respectable position for women in the society.

4. Condemnation of the Practice of Sati. Another most shameful social evil was the custom of Sati. The historians believe that it was Guru Amar Das Ji who had raised a voice of protest against the custom of Sati for the first time in the history of India. Even Akbar borrowed the idea of taking some measures against the practice of Sati from Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib declared that a woman was not a true Sati who had burnt herself alive on the pyre of her husband. Guru Sahib opined that a true Sati could be a woman who lived her life in the memory of her dead husband. For that, the widow should lead a highly moral life and purity and spend her time in praying to God.

5. Criticism of Purdah System. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the Purdah System prevalent among the women. Guru Sahib considered purdah as the main hindrance in the development of society. Guru Sahib did not permit purdah for women who volunteered to serve the Langar and wanted to participate in Sangat.

6. Criticism of the Use of the Intoxicants. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to remain away from the intoxicants. In one of his ‘Shabads’, Guru Sahib has strongly criticized the use of liquor. Guru Amar Das Ji guided his followers to pray for forgiveness and become addicted to the spirit of Name. Guru Sahib condemned the addiction to intoxicants. Guru Sahib suggested an alternative of seeking enjoyment in social service.

7. Promotion of Brotherhood among the Sikhs through New Festivals. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikh Sangat to celebrate three main festivals, i.e. Maghi, Diwali and Baisakhi in a new way. On the advice of Guru Sahib, the Sikh Sangat used to gather around the house of Guru Sahib and celebrated those festivals as he directed. This reform played a major role in uniting the Sangat in a strong bond of brotherhood.

8. New Ceremonies concerning Birth and Death. Guru Amar Das Ji a’-o started new and distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage, and death for the Sil ‘ Thncp ceremonies are different from the ceremonies of the Hindus. There was assistance of the Brahmins in performing those ceremonies. These reforms played a major role in imparting a separate identity to the Sikh religion.

It is a historical fact that the reforms undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji had given a new strength to Sikh religion.

Question 4.
What efforts were made by Guru Ram Das Ji for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
The fourth Guru Sahib of Sikh religion was Guru Ram Das Ji. Guru Sahib made the following contribution to the growth of Sikh religion:
1. Laid the foundation of Amritsar City. Guru Ram Das Ji laid on the land bought during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji, the foundation of a city called Ramdaspur. Presently, it is called Amritsar. In 1577, when Guru Sahib started construction work on the two ponds (Sarovars) called Amritsar and Santokhsar, he found that it was not easy to supervise the construction of ponds from Goindwal. Guru Sahib encamped at the construction site. His Sikh devotees also came after him and pitched their tents around the ponds. The camping place developed into a small settlement. That settlement became popular as Ramdaspur. Guru Sahib wanted to provide every facility to his devotees who had followed him to the place out of love for him. Guru Sahib, therefore, invited 52 merchants belonging to 52 different trades and provided all the things required by the settlers. They set up a type of Bazaar which is now called Guru Ka Bazaar. The city soqn acquired the status of an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. They stopped visiting the places of Hindu pilgrimage.

2. Introduction of Masand System. Guru Ramdas Ji needed a large amount of money to complete the construction work of ponds (Sarovars) of Amritsar and Santokhsar. Therefore, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib deputed his trusted Sikh devotees to go to far off places to spread the message of Sikh religion and collect donations. Such devotees were called Masands. Those Masands successfully spread the message of Sikhism and collected large donations. This system played a major role in the spread of Sikh religion to far off places. The Masand system proved to be a link between the Sikh devotees and Guru Sahib and established an emotional bond between them.

3. End of the Conflict with the Udasis. Guru Angad Dev Ji and Guru Amar Das Ji had separated Udasi sect from the Sikh community but Guru Ram Das Ji adopted a kind attitude towards the Udasi sect. According to a tradition, once. Baba Sri Chand, the founder of Udasi sect came to meet Guru Ram Das Ji. During his meeting, Baba Sri Chand asked Guru Sahib that why he had kept a long beard. Guru Sahib gave an answer full of humility when he said that his beard was meant to dust the feet of great personalities like Baba Sri Chand. Baba Sri Chand was highly impressed by the answer of Guru Sahib and he accepted Guru Sahib as superior to him. In this manner, the conflict between the Udasi sect and the Sikh community ended. It immensely helped in the spread of Sikh religion.

4. Social Reforms. Guru Ram Das Ji continued the work of social reforms which was started by Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Sahib continued new ceremonies which were started by Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Sahib also criticised the custom of Sati, encouraged widow remarriage, and introduced new ceremonies to be performed on the occasions of marriage and death.

5. Friendship with Emperor Akbar. Emperor Akbar had adopted the policy of tolerance towards all the religions. He was highly impressed by the teachings of Sikh Guru Sahiban and had great respect and regard for Guru Ram Das Ji. (He had also special regards for Guru Amar Das Ji). It is a part of history that Akbar had pleaded before Guru Sahib to accept the gift of 500 bighas of land. The city of Amritsar flourished on that land afterwards. Similarly, when Punjab suffered from drought, Akbar remitted the land tax during the year of drought on the advice of Guru Ram Das Ji. It gave big relief to the farmers of Punjab.

6. Guru Gaddi made Hereditary. Guru Ram Das Ji made the Guru Gaddi hereditary before his final union with Divine Power. Guru Ram Das Ji appointed his most capable son Arjan Dev Ji as his successor and thus made the Guru Gaddi hereditary. But keeping in view the principles of bestowing the Guru Gaddi as introduced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji maintained the principle of selection based, on merit.

Guru Ram Das Ji had started a new chapter in the history of Sikhism by adopting the principle of heredity for succession to Guru Gaddi. Latif is of the opinion that this step changed the nature of Guru Gaddi. Thereafter, the Sikhs, who followed Guru Sahiban as their spiritual leaders, looked on them as their emperors also. However, the rule established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji that Guru Gaddi was to be conferred on the most capable follower of the Guru was maintained.

Guru Ram Das Ji guided the Sikhs for a shorter period but even within that period, the Sikh religion gained much popularity,

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 5.
What was the contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
The histcfry of Sikh religion entered a new phase with the coming of Guru Arjan Dev Ji to Guru Gaddi. It was the result of his efforts that Sikhs were blessed with Harmandir Sahib Ji and numerous other places of pilgrimage. Not only that, the Sikhs got their first sacred and divine book when Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled the Adi Granth Sahib. The Hindus had their Ramayana, the Muslims their Quran Sharif, the Christians their Bible, and the Sikhs their Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

A brief description of the activities and contributions of Guru Arjan Dev Ji is given as follows:
1. Construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib (Pb. 2013 (I)). Guru Arjan Dev Ji completed the work of construction of Amritsar and Santokhsar Sarovars after the expiry of Guru Ram Das Ji. Guru Sahib constructed Sri Harmandir Sahib in the midst of Amritsar Sarovar. Guru Sahib constructed a door each in all the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. These four doors convey the message that Sri Harmandir Sahib is open to all the religions, castes and tribes without any discrimination. Guru Sahib told his followers that a pilgrimage to Sri Harmandir Sahib would bestow the benefit of 68 places of pilgrimage of the Hindus. In this manner, Sri Harmandir Sahib became one of the most sacred and important rebgious places.

2. Foundation of Tarn Taran. Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Tarn Taran as well. The city was founded in the heart of Majha region. It is also an important place of pilgrimage like Amritsar for the Sikhs. Guru Ji also constructed many other buildings and Sarovars.

3. Construction of Baoli at Lahore. On his tour to Lahore, Guru Arjan Dev Ji got constructed a Baoli in the Dubbi Bazaar. The Baoli soon became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs of the surrounding region.

4. Foundation of Hargobindpur and Chheratta. Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Hargobindpur on the banks of river Beas to celebrate the birth of his son Hargobind Ji. Apart from this he also got a well dug at Chheratta near Amritsar in order to provide water to the local people. Guru Sahib also arranged for six pulleys to draw Water from the well and the area is known after those pulleys as Chheratta.

5. Foundation of Kartarpur, In 1593, Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur and also built a Sarovar in Kartarpur which is called Gangsar.

6. Improvement in the Masand System. Guru Arjan Dev Ji felt the need to improve Masand system. Guru Sahib instructed the Sikh followers to deposit one-tenth (Daswandh) of their annual income with the Masands. The Masands deposited the collections in the main treasury (Guru Ki Golak) at Amritsar on every Baisakhi day. The Masands appointed their representatives to collect donations. Those representatives were called Sangatias. The one-tenth donation was called Daswandh. Apart from the work of collection of Daswandh, the Masands also spread the message of Sikh religion.

7. Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. Gum Arjan Dev Ji bestowed upon the Sikhs a sacred and religious book by compiling the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Ar^an Dev Ji compiled Adi Granth Sahib at Ramsar. Bhai Gurdas Ji assisted Guru Sahib in its compilation. The work of compilation was cofnpleted in 1604. Guru Sahib included the hymns of first four Gurus, followed by the hymns of Bhakti saints and finally the sayings of Bhatt Bahiyan. Guru Arjan Dev Ji also included his own Bani in the holy book.

8. Encouraged Horse Trade. Guru Arjan Dev Ji encouraged the Sikhs to start trading in horses. The Sikhs were benefited from the trading in horses in the following ways:

  • Trading in horses was the most profitable business in those days. As a result, the Sikhs became very rich by trading in the horses. They contributed Daswand regularly out of their income from this trade.
  • The Sikhs became fully trained in making a selection of good horses. It helped them in the long run in organising a Sikh cavalry.

9. Spread of Religious Teachings. Guru Arjan Dev Ji made many people his followers by his religious teachings. Guru Sahib impressed the people with his ideals, teachings, amiable personality, sweet temper, and toleration. Many Muslims also joined the Sikh religion under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Thus the Sikh religion progressed tremendously under the spiritual leadership of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Adi Granth Sahib, the most sacred book of the Sikhs, was compiled, the cities like Tara Taran, Kartarpur, Hargobindpur, were founded and the Sikh religion was blessed with Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Question 6.
Describe the origin, development and merits of the Masand System.
Answer:
Origin of the Masand System: Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth Guru of the Sikhs, started the Masand System. He felt the need for more money when he was looking after the work of digging of Amritsar Sarovar and Santokhsar Sarovar. Guru Ram Das Ji did not have enough resources. Therefore, Guru Sahib deputed his trusted followers in different directions of the country to collect funds from his Sikh devotees. They were called the Masands or Ram Dasis. These followers were the close confidants of Guru Ram Das Ji. Wherever those followers or Masands went, they collected the donations and spread the message of Sikh religion.

Progress of the Masand System: Guru Arjan Dev Ji made improvements in the Masand system and made it an institution that was more effective. Before the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the donations to earlier Guru Sahiban were not fixed and were irregular. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had started construction work of many buildings and Sarovars for which he required a fixed and regular inflow of cash. Apart from this, it had become difficult to collect the donations from numerous Sikh followers whose number had increased manifold. Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave a proof of his superior managing skill by providing the solution for the existing problems of organization of the Sikh religion.

Guru Sahib improved the organization of Masand system by taking the following measures:

  1. Guru Sahib fixed the amount of donation to be made by his Sikh devotees to him. Guru Sahib enjoined upon his devotees to donate one-tenth of their annual income for the maintenance of Langar.
  2. Gum Sahib appointed his representatives, who were called the Masands for the collection of Daswandh from his Sikh devotees. The Masands deposited the collections in the treasury of Gum Sahib (Gum Ki Golak) at Amritsar on Baisakhi day every year. The receipts were issued to the Masands for the donations received at Amritsar.
  3. The Masands had appointed their representatives who were called the Sangtias, to collect the Daswandh. The Sangtias collected the Daswandhs from far off places and deposited them in the treasury of the Guru.
  4. The Sangtias and Masands considered it a sin to use even a single penny out of the donations for personal use. Gum Sahib had already ordained on this issue that whosoever embezzled the money of Daswandh, would become the victim of physical sufferings.
  5. The Masands did not confine their activities only to the collection of Daswandhs, they also employed their energies for spreading the message of the Sikh religion. Gum Sahib ensured at the time of appointment of a Sikh as a Masand that he had a high moral character and deep faith in the Sikh religion.

Importance and Benefits of the Masand System: The Masand system played an important role in building and consolidation of the Sikh religion. The importance of Masand System for the Sikh religion can be given as follows:
1. The donations to Guru Gaddi became fixed and regular. It helped Guru Sahib to continue with his constmction work. Gum Sahib founded not only the Sarovars at Amritsar and Santokhsar but also built many cities, ponds, wells etc with the regular donations. The constmctive work of Guru Sahib contributed in a significant way to the spread and popularity of Sikh religion.

2. On the one hand, the Masand System ensured a regular income to the Guru Ji and on the other, it popularised the Sikh religion in an effective manner. Earlier, Manji System carried out the work of spread of the Sikh religion. The Manji system had confined its activities to the Punjab region. Guru Sahib appointed Masands even outside Punjab. It resulted in the spread of Sikh religion in other parts of the country because the Masands collected not only the Daswandh but also devoted their energies for spreading the message of Sikh religion.

3. Guru Sahib started holding his own court with the regular donations received in the form of Daswandh. The Masands and devoted Sikhs brought donations and gifts to the court of Guru Arjan Dev Ji on every Baisakhi and bowed their heads before him to seek his blessings. Gradually, the court of Guru Sahib acquired the status of a court of an emperor and the Sikh Sangat started calling Guru Arjan Dev Ji as Sachcha Padshah (The True Emperor) out of love and devotion for him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe the ‘New Policy’ of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji, the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Hargobind Ji adopted a ‘New Policy’. The main feature of his new policy was to make the Sikhs peace loving as well as courageous and fearless.

The main features of the ‘New Policy’ of Guru Hargobind Ji are the following:
1. The Royal Insignias and the title of ‘Sachcha Padshah’: Guru Hargobind Ji adopted, the title of ‘Sachcha Padshah’ and put on a number of royal insignias in line with his ‘New Policy’. Guru Sahib started wearing princely dress and discontinued using the saintly headgear and woollen beads (sayli) which were the symbols of saints and fakirs. Guru Sahib put on two swords and a crest (kalgi) in place of woollen beads (sayli) and saintly headgear. Guru Sahib also kept bodyguards for self-defence just like the princes of the contemporary times.

2. Miri and Piri: Guru Hargobind Ji had become the military leader of the Sikhs besides being their spiritual leader. From then onwards, Guru Sahib was ‘Mir’ (Militatry Commander) and ‘Pir’ (Religious Leader) of the.Sikhs. Guru Sahib put on two swords to represent his new role as ‘Mir’ and ‘Pir’ of his Sikhs. Guru Sahib named one sword as ‘Piri’ and the second as ‘Miri’. Guru Sahib gave special attention to the physical fitness of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib encouraged his Sikh followers to take exercise regularly, to participate in wrestling bouts, to go on hunting and to receive training in horse riding. Guru Sahib thus transformed his saintly followers into saint soldiers by adopting his ‘New Policy’.

3. Construction of Akal Takht: Guru Hargobind Ji took upon himself the responsibility of guiding the worldly activities of his Sikh followers apart from his role of being their true Guru in the sphere of spiritual life. Guru Sahib imparted, spiritual knowledge at Sri. Harmandir Sahib. In order to guide the Sikhs in their worldly affairs, Guru Sahib built Akal Takht (Throne of Supreme God-The Timeless) near Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Sahib listened to the military and political problems of the Sikhs while sitting on a raised platform 12 feet high at the Akal Takht.

4. Raising of Army: Guru Hargobind Ji raised an army for self-defence of the Sikhs. There were numerous professional soldiers and volunteers in his army. The fearless and courageous Jats of Majha region volunteered to join his army. According to one estimate, Guru Sahib had 800 horses, 300 horse riders, and 60 musketeers. Guru Sahib was served by a contingent of 500 such volunteers who did not seek any salary. Besides this army, Guru Sahib was also served by a separate contingent of Afghan (Pathan) soldiers headed by Painda Khan.

5. Keeping of Horses and Arms: Guru Hargobind Ji took special measures to make his ‘New Policy’ successful. Guru Sahib advised his Sikh followers to make donations of horses and arms as far as possible. Consequently, Guru Sahib collected many horses and a large number of arms.

6. Fortification of Amritsar: Guru Hargobind Ji raised a thick wall around the city of Ramdaspur (Amritsar) for its defence and security. The fort of Lohgarh was built and stocked with armaments and other military provisions.

7. New Daily Routine: Guru Hargobind Ji also made changes in his daily routine. According to his ‘New Policy’ his new daily routine was that after taking his bath early in the morning, Guru Sahib visited Sri Harmandir Sahib to give religious instruction. After the discourse, the Langar was served every day under his supervision. After the Langar, Guru Sahib used to take rest for some time before leaving for hunting. Guru Hargobind Ji had instructed Abdul and Nathamal to sing songs of heroism (songs of vir rasa) on high notes in order to infuse courage in the Sikh Sangat. Guru Sahib organised special troupes of singers (Dhadis). In this manner, Guru Sahib raised a new awareness among the Sikhs and made them brave and fearless.

8. Inculcated the spirit of Self-Defence: The core of the ‘New Policy’ was to inculcate’ the spirit of self-defence among his Sikh followers. Therefore, the aim of raising the army was neither to grab the Jand of others nor to intimidate any one. No doubt, Guru Sahib valiantly fought battles against the Mughals, but in no way, those battles were motivated by any lust for territory. Rather they were genuine efforts for self-defence and survival.

Question 8.
Besides adopting the New Policy what other measures were taken by Guru Hargobind Ji for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji was the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the fifth Guru Sahib. Guru Hargobind Ji was bom on June, 1595 in village Wadali in District Amritsar. Guru Sahib was a precocious child. Guru Sahib became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs after the martyrdom of his father, the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji in 1606 and successfully guided the course of Sikh religion upto 1645. Gum Sahib made significant contribution, to the development of Sikh religion by adopting the ‘New Policy’ and winning battles against the Mughals.

A brief survey of the contribution of Gum Hargobind Ji to Sikhism is given as under:
1. Stay at Kiratpur: The king of Kahlur, Raja Kalyan Chand, was a follower of Guru Sahib. The Raja had given land to Gum Gaddi. Gum Sahib built a city called Kiratpur on that land. Gum Sahib made the city his abode in 1635. Gum Sahib lived the last ten years of his life at Kiratpur and spent his time in spreading the message of Sikh religion.

2. Conversion of Hill Chiefs to Sikhism: Gum Hargobind Ji converted many people from hilly regions to Sikh religion. Many hill chiefs had accepted Sikhism under his influence. However, the people of hilly region did not continue to follow the Sikh religion for a long period. The royal families reverted to their old practices of idol worship and other related ceremonies. Such practices were not permitted by Sikh religion.

3. The Religious Tours of Guru Hargobind Ji: Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor, became a friend of Guru Hargobind Ji when he released Guru Sahib from his confinement in Gwalior fort after realising his mistake. Guru Sahib undertook religious tours during that period of peace. Guru Sahib first visited Amritsar and then Lahore. At Lahore, Guru Sahib raised Gurudwara Dera Sahib in the memory of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. From Lahore, Guru Sahib went to Kashmir passing through Gujranwala and Bhimbar (Gujarat). Guru Sahib had made many followers in Kashmir. Guru Sahib inaugurated ‘Sangat’ in Kashmir. Bhai Sewa Das was deputed as representative of Guru Sahib in the ‘Sangat’.

Guru Sahib visited Nankana Sahib also. On his return journey from there, Guru Sahib spent some time at Amritsar. Guru Sahib also visited Nanakmatta (Gorakhmatta) in Uttar Pardesh. The yogis at Nanakmatta ran away from the city on seeing the grandeur of the entourage of Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib stayed there for some time to propagate the message of Sikh religion and reactivated the Sangat system. On his way back to Punjab, Guru Sahib also toured Malwa region of Punjab. Guru Sahib returned to Amritsar after staying for sometime at Dharauli Bhai (Ferozepur)

4. Deputed Religious Preachers: Guru Hargobind Ji remained involved in the battles upto 1635. Due to his pre-occupation, Guru Sahib deputed his eldest brother Bhai Gurditta (a saintly person with a big following) for preaching and spreading Sikh religion. Bhai Gurditta sent his four representatives named Bhai Almast, Phul, Gauda, and Balu Hasan for this task. Almast spread the message of Sikh religion in Nanakmatta and Dacca; Gauda and Phul in Doab and Malwa and Balu Hasan in Kashmir, Hazara, and Pathohar. Guru Sahib also sent Bhai Bidhi Chand to Bengal, Bhai Gurdas to Kabul and then to Benaras for preaching the Sikh faith.

5. Appointment of Guru Har Rai Ji as Successor: Guru Hargobind appointed his grandson Har Rai (son of Bhai Gurditta) as his successor before joining with the Divine Power.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 9.
Describe the work of Guru Har Rai Ji in the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib took over the Guru Gaddi after Guru Hargobind Ji’s demise. Guru Har Rai was a kind-hearted and a peace-loving person.

A brief description of the history of the Sikhs during the period of Guru Har Rai Ji (1645-1661) is given below:
1. Contribution-to Sikh Religion: Guru Har Rai Ji abandoned the policy of wars and always followed the policy of peace. Guru Sahib followed the footprints of Guru Nanak Dev Ji throughout his life. Guru Sahib spent most of his time at Kiratpur and extensively popularized Sikh religion. Guru Sahib always encouraged people to live a religious life and taught them to follow the true path. Guru Sahib made the following contribution to Sikh religion:

  1. Guru Sahib organised a religious congregation every morning and evening to spread the message of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib always stressed upon his followers to lead a pious life.
  2. Guru Sahib had converted numerous people to Sikh religion. The prominent persons among his new followers were Bairagi Bhagat Gir (Bhagat Bhagwan), Bhai Sangatia, Bhai Gauda and Bhai Bhagat.

Guru Har Rai Ji deputed many preachers to different places for the propagation of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib renamed Bairagi Bhagat Gir as Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan and sent him to spread the message of Sikh religion in the eastern part of the country. It is said that Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan Ji was such a powerful preacher that he established 360 centres (gaddis) in India, which are still functioning. Another important person who was converted to Sikh religion under the influence of Guru Har Rai Ji was Sangatia of Kartarpur.

He was renamed as Bhai Pheru. Bhai Pheru Ji was entrusted with the responsibility of preaching the Sikh faith in the central Punjab. It is said that Bhai Pheru established many centres (gaddis) and it was he who took the true message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to the common man in ,true sense during the period of Guru Har Rai Ji. Guru Har Rai Ji himself toured numerous, places in Punjab and converted many people to the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib preached mainly at Kartarpur, Mukandpur (Jalandhar), Dosanjh, and in Malwa region. The Sikh religion made much progress under Guru

2. Blessed Phul and his Descendants. It is said that while Guru Har Rai Ji was on his religious tour, Guru Sahib stayed fear some time in the village Nathana in Malwa region. While Guru, Sahib was staying at Nathana, two real brothers, Kala end Karam Chand often used to visit him. One day, Kala brought his nephews, Sandali and Phul along with him .before Guru Sahib. During the meeting, Guru: Sahib observed that Phul was patting; his stomach. Guru Sahib inquired the cause bf suehian act by Phul. Kala explained, to Guru Sahib that Phul could not speak. Kala told that Phul was patting his stomach, to convey that he was hungry. Guru Sahih heing a kind-hearted person, highly moved. Guru Sahib blessed him with a boon that Phul would become famous and wealthy and his horses would , i sdonki water on the banks of Yamuna.,

Guru Sahib also announced that the descendants of Phul would rule for many generations and their fame and prosperity would continue to increase as long as they (continued to follow the preachings of Guru. Sebib. It is said that Kala also brought his own children on the persuasion of his wife to seek boon for them. Guru Sahib also blessed them. Guru Sahib blessed Kala, thah his children would own. large tracts of land and they would not pay tribute to anyone. The blessings of Guru, Sdhib bore fruit. The descendants of Phul ruled over Nabha, Jind, and Patiala kingdoms for 200 years and became famous as Phulkin.

3. Guru Har Rai Ji’s help to Dara Shikoh: Guru Har Rai Ji was a peace loving person send avoided wars and controversies. However, Guru Sahib got involved in irrt a tjAditical controversy during’the later part of his life. The reason of the trouble was his friendship with the Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shahjahan.

A war of succession took place among the sons of Shahjahan in 1657-58. Aurangzeb , emerged Victorious and Dara Shikoh, who was a strong claimant to the Mughal throne; suffered a humiliating defeat. Dara Shikoh ran away to Punjab along with ’his family. Dara Shikoh had acquaintance with Guru Sahib. Therefore, he visited; Guru Sahib to seek his blessings and help. Guru Sahib was a kind-hearted and peace-loving person. Guru Sahib did not provide any military help to the prince. However, Guru Sahib blessed him and allowed him to stay with him for some time.

4. Summons to Guru Har Rai Ji from Delhi. After his accession to the throne, Aurangzeb wanted to learn about the actual nature of the help given by Guru Sahib to Dara Shikoh. Aurangzeb also believed that the Sikh religion was anti-Islam. Hence, he summoned Guru Sahib to Delhi. Guru Sahib did not gq to Delhi but sent his son, Ram Rai to the court of Aurangzeb at Delhi as vjiis representative. Aurangzeb wanted to establish that some of the contents of the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ were against the principles of Islam. In order to prove his point, Aurangzeb pointed out a verse in ‘Asa Di Var’ by Guru Nanak Dev JL ’|he meaning of the verse was,

“The clay of a Musalman may find its Way into the kiln of a potter, who makes vessels and bricks out of it. It cries out as it burns.’ i Ram Rai tried to save hitnself from the wrath of diehard Aurangzeb and interpreted it by changing the wording of the verse. Ram Rai explained that the word “Musalman’ was wrongly written by the scribe. He declared that the actual word in the verso was ‘baiman’ i.e. a faithless or a cheat. Aurangzeb felt happy. He awarded a Jagir to Ram Rai in Dehradun. Ram Rai saved himself from the wrath of Aurangzeb but it pained Guru Sahib, when he found that his son had not stood by his convictions as demanded by the Sikh religion.

5. Nomination of Har Krishan Ji as Successor to Guru Gaddi: Guru Har Rai Ji did not pardon Ram Rai for his lack of conviction and for cowardice. Hence, Guru Sahib denied him the right to succeed him to Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib excommunicated him from the Sikh community and selected his five years old son Har Krishan Ji as his successor. Guru Sahib finally merged with the Divine Power on October 6, 1661, after occupying the Guru Gaddi for seventeen years.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 10.
What was the contribution of Guru Har Krishan Ji to the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji was born on July 7, 1656 at Kiratpur. The name of his mother was Mata Sulakhani and of his father, Guru Har Rai Ji. Guru Sahib became the eighth Guru of the Sikhs in 1661. Guru Sahib was hardly five years Old when he took over Guru Gaddi. Guru Har Krishan Ji is fondly remembered as Child Guru or ‘Child Saint’ due to his tender age at which he became the eighth Guru of the Sikhs.

The main events of the period of Guru Har Krishan Ji are described as follows:
1. A meeting with Brahmin Lai Chand: Guru Har Krishan Ji was a very intelligent child. Guru Sahib had intuitive power with mystic awareness. It is a part of oral history that Guru Sahib onCe met a Brahmin called Lai Chand. Hie Brahmin, Lai Chand was very proud of his knowledge. Lai Chand tried to put questions to Guru Sahib on the contents of Gita with the aim of testing his intellect. Guru Sahib answered all his queries in such an intelligent and mature manner that the Brahman was very astonished and was left speechless.

2. Hostility of Ram Rai. Guru Har Krishan Ji faced the hostility of his dissatisfied brother Ram Rai. Ram Rai was confident of succeeding to the Guru Gaddi on being the eldest son of Guru Har Rai Ji, the seventh Guru. He was not ready to compromise with the loss of his claim over Guru Gaddi, which he himself had lost due to his cowardice. Hence, he prayed to Aurangzeb for justice. Aurangzeb was busy in suppressing the revolts against his rule at that time. He, at first, therefore, did pot give any importance to the pleadings of Ram Rai but; after some time he tried to exploit the conflict between the estranged brothers with the aim of crushing the Sikh movement. Aurangzeb called Guru Har Krishan Ji to Delhi to present the proof of his right to Guru Gaddi.

3. Guru Har Kishan Ji at Delhi. Guru Har Kishan Ji continued to spread the message of Sikh religion and reached Delhi. Guru Har Kishan Ji stayed in the house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. The house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh was six miles away from the Red Fort of Delhi in a village Raisina. In order to test the proverbial intelligence of the young Guru Sahib, Jai Singh hid his chief queen among his female servants who were wearing similar dresses. He requested Guru Sahib to take his seat in the lap of the chief queen. Guru Sahib looked at all the women and located the chief queen, and sat in her lap. Mirza Raja Jai Singh was astonished to watch the talent of observation of young Guru Sahib. The Gurudwara Bangla Sahib now stands there in his memory.

4. Final Union with the Divine Power. Guru Har Kishan Ji suffered an attack of small pox. Guru Sahib had learnt from intuition that he would soon leave for his final journey. Guru Sahib asked for a coconut and five paisas, circled them thrice, and spoke, “Baba Bakala”. Just after giving his last message, Guru Sahib merged himself with the Divine Power. It was on March 30, 1664, when Guru Sahib gave his last message. Gurudwara Bala Sahib stands on the banks of river Yamuna in his memory.

Question 11.
Describe the travels of Malwa undertaken by Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji started his tour of Malwa region in 1673. Guru Sahib’s wife Mata Gujari and his son Gobind Ji also accompanied him.
1. Guru Sahib made his first stop at Saifabad. It was his second visit to this place. The people of Saifabad gave a warm welcome to Guru Sahib. They arranged for the stay of Guru Sahib and his family in a fortress. Guru Sahib stayed there for three months. When Guru Sahib left the place for onward journey, Saifudin presented a strong horse to Guru Sahib and a camel buggy for Mata Gujari Ji.

2. After leaving Saifabad, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji visited villages and cities situated in Malwa and Bangar regions of Punjab. According to one scholar, Guru Sahib visited ten places. The main places, which Guru Sahib visited were Mulowal, Khiyala, Maund, Talwandi Sabo, Bhatinda, etc. All these places have Gurudwaras in the memory of the visit of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib got dug a well at Mulowal in order to overcome the scarcity of water in the region. Other villages, which Guru Sahib visited were quite backward in many respects. Guru Sahib helped those villages to overcome their hardships. Guru Sahib toured those regions from 1673 to 1675 and spread the message of Sikh religion among the people.

Effects: The tours of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji immensely influenced the people of the Malwa region.

  • The landlords of Malwa region started treating the farmers humanly under the influence of the polite nature of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
  • Guru Sahib had established many centres of religious preaching at different places. His impressive personality and sweet voice swayed the people of the region and they adopted Sikh religion.
  • A new awareness came among the people of the region due to his religious discourses. They were imbued with new religious fervour and became fearless and courageous. The rising enthusiasm and unity among his Sikh followers started giving nightmares and headaches to the Mughal administration.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word:

Question 1.
What was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
The earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji was Bhai Lehna.

Question 2.
What was the name of the father of Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji)?
Answer:
The name of the father of Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji) was Pheruman.

Question 3.
To whom was Bhai Lehna married?
Answer:
Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji) was married to Bibi Khivi.

Question 4.
Who had established the Udasi Sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, established the Udasi Sect.

Question 5.
Which place was the centre of religious activities of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Khadoor Sahib in Amritsar district.

Question 6.
Where was Guru Amar Das Ji born and when?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was born in 1479 A.D. in Village Basarke in district Amritsar.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe one difficulty which Guru Amar Das Ji faced on occupying Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
He was faced with the opposition of Bhai Dattu and Bhai Dasu.

Question 8.
How many children did Guru Amar Das Ji have?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had two sons and two daughters.

Question 9.
How many steps were constructed in the Baoli (Large Well) at Goindwal?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli at Goindwal.

Question 10.
Which Guru Sahib had started Manji system?
Answer:
Guru Amar Dass Ji started the Manji system.

Question 11.
Write about any one major contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji completed the construction of Goindwal.

Question 12.
Which three festivals were selected by Guru Amar Das Ji for the Sikh community to celebrate?
Answer:
Baisakhi, Maghi, and Diwali.

Question 13.
When did Guru Amar Das Ji make the final union with the Divine power?
Answer:
Guru Amar Dass Ji made the final union with Divine Power in 1574.

Question 14.
Who had made the Guru Gaddi hereditary?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji declared that after Guru Ram Das Ji, the Guru Gaddi will be hereditary.

Question 15.
What was the name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
The name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji was Bibi Bhani.

Question 16.
Write about anyone important contribution made by Guru Ram Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded and developed the holy city of Amritsar.

Question 17.
What WAS the earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar?
Answer:
The earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar was Ramdaspur.

Question 18.
Write the names Of two Sarovars (Large ponds) constructed by Guru Ram Das.JL.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji got dug two Sarovars namely, Santokhsar and Amritsar.

Question 19.
By, what name did the bazaar founded by Guru Ram Das Ji around Amritsar become famous?
Answer:
“Guru ka Bazaar”.

Question 26.
When was Guru Arjan Dey Ji born and where?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1563 A.D. at Goindwal.

Question 21.
Why did. Guru Bam Das Ji not consider Bhai Prithi Chand worthy of succession to Guru Gaddi lifter him?
Answer:
Bhai Prithi Chand was a cheat, greedy and intriguer.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 22.
Describe any one difficulty which Guru Arjan Dev Ji encountered on coming to Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
Gum Sahib fa|ed animosity and opposition of his eldest brother Bhai Prithia.

Question 23.
Write the nime of Guru Sahib who w§s the first martyr.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 24.
Write any ode effect of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdona of Guru Arjan Dev Ji provoked the Sikhs to rise in arms.

Question 25.
Which tyro nerSOns had assisted Guru Arjan Dey Ji in the execution of his plans for the construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib?’
Answer:
Bhai Buddha Ji and Bhai Gurdas Ji.

Question 26.
When was the Construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib completed?
Answer:
In 1601A.D.

Question 27.
Which three cities were founded by Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru. Arjan Dev Ji’ laid the foundations of Tam Taran, Hargobindpur, and Kattarpur.

Question 28.
What were the Representatives of Guru Arjan Dev Ji called?
Answer:
The representatives of Guru Arjan Dev Ji were called the Masands.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 29.
Who Completed the work of compilation of ‘Adi Granth Sahib’?
Answer:
Guru Arjari Dev Ji.

Question 30.
Where was Adi Granth Sahib placed?
Answer:
Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar.

Question 31.
How many hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji have been included in Adi Granth sahib
Answer:
976 Hymns.

Question 32.
From whom did Guru Hargobind Ji receive the training in the use of arms and knowledge of religion?
Answer:
Bhai Buddha Ji.

Question 33.
Write any one cause for the adoption of “New Policy’’ by Guru Hargobind
Answer:
For self-defence of the Sikh community.

Question 34.
Which four places emerged as sacred cities for the Sikh religion by the time of Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Goindwal, Amritsar, Tam Taran, and Kartarpur.

Question 35.
Which four Sikh institutions had played a major role in the consolidation and progress of Sikh religion?
Answer:
The institutions of Pangat, Sarigat Manji System and Massand System.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 36.
Write the names of any four Commanders of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Pheru, Bhai Jetha and Bhai Paindal

Question 37.
Which two singers were instructed by Guru/Hargobind Ji to sing heroic songs (via rasa) on high notes in his, presence?.
Answer:
Nathamal and Abdullah.

Question 38.
Write any one cause which resulted the confinement of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Jahangir was irritated by his New Policy

Question 39.
Why was the title of “Band! ciihor Baba” (a holy deliverer) given to Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Gum Sahib got released 52 Rajput chiefs imprisoned in the Gwalior Fort

Question 40.
How many battles werefoU’g&tr between the Sikhs and fhfe Mughals during the period of Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Three battles

Question 41.
Write the names of four main missionary preachers of the period of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Almast, Phul, Gonda and BalujHas&an.

Question 42.
Write the name of father of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Baba Gurditta Ji.

Question 43.
Write the names of any four new missionary preachers, deputed by Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Bairagi Bhagat Gir, Bhai Sangt^a, Bhai Gauda and Bhai Bhagtu.

Question 44.
Give the names of three prominent preachers appointed by Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan Ji (Bairagi Bhagat Gir); Bhai Pehru, Bhai Gaudh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 45.
Where did Guru Har Krishan Ji stay While on his way tb Delhi for preaching?
Answer:
At the house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Guru Angad Dey Ji collected the teachings of _________ and wrote them in ___________ script.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Gurmukhi

Question 2.
Guru Amar Das Ji constructed a large well _________at _________
Answer:
Baoli, Goindwal

Question 3.
Guru Ram Das Ji constructed a large pond called _________
Answer:
Amritsar

Question 4.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the cities of _________ and _________
Answer:
Taran Taran, Kartarpur

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 5.
Guru Hargobind Sahib put on two swords which he called one of _________ and the other of _________
Answer:
Miri, Piri.

True or False:

Question 1.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji started Manji System.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji was the 9th Guru.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji did not include the hymns of Bhakti saints in the Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
False

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 4.
Sri Harmandir Sahib is one of the most sacred and important places of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Guru Har Rai Ji did not abandon the policy of war.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Guru Har Rai Ji nominated Har Krishan Ji successor to Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji did not visit Assam.
Answer:
False.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the institution of Guru and Sikh (Guru and his follower) established?
Answer:
A brotherhood of Sikh community had been fully evolved before the final union of Guru Nanak Dev Ji with the Divine Power. Guru Nanak Dey Ji took special care to perpetuate the Sikh community. Guru Sahib appointed his most devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor before he breathed his last. Bhai Lhna ascended the Guru Gaddi under the name Guru Angad Dey Ji after the final union of Guru Nanak Dey Ji with the

Divine Power. In this manner, Guru Sikh tradition was evolved and gradual it was firmly established. The tradition of Guru Panth (Guruship of Guru Gaddi) became the most revered institution in the history of the Sikh religion.

Question 2.
Why had Guru Nanak Dev Ji appointed Bhai Lehna to Guru Gaddi in place of his own sons by completely setting aside their claims?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji had two sons, named Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Das. Guru Sahib did not appoint either of them W Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib preferred to appoint his devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib had special reasons to turn down the claims of his sons to Guru Gaddi, which were as follow:
1. A perfect householder’s life for a Sikh was one of the important principles of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dey Ji. However, Baba Sri Chand was an ascetic and Baba Lakhmi Das was too worldly. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna had sincerely followed the teachings of Guru Nanak Dcv Ji and lived a life of a perfect householder.

2. The humility and service to the Guru with complete devotion were the core principles of the creed of Guru Nanak Dcv Ji. Baba Sri Chand was devoid of these very qualities in his personality. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna was a perfect model of humility and complete surrender to Guru Sahib.

3. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in the superiority of the Vedas, Shashtras and the Brahmin class. Guru Sahib did not consider Sanskrit as a sacred language. However, Baba Sri Chand Ji had deep faith in Sanskrit language, the Vedas and the Shastras.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 3.
Describe the position of Langar System and its importance during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
The expansion and promotion of the Langar System by Guru Angad Dev Ji had beneficial results. The Langar System became an important and effective method of propagation of Sikh religion. Secondly, it turned up as an institution for the shelter of the poor people and thirdly, it became a powerful agency for preaching and popularity of the principles of Sikh religion. There were already numerous similar institutions that worked on charity of some individuals but Langar system was probably the first institution of its own kind which depended on. the collective donations and gifts of the whole Sikh community. It ended the feelings of high and low rooted in the principles of caste system and inculcated the feelings of unity and brotherhood among the members of the Sikh community.

Question 4.
Which incident of the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji revealed Guru Sahib as a strict disciplinarian?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji set an effective example of discipline in the Sikh community for his devotees. According to the oral history, there were two famous players of Rabab (a string musical instrument) named. Satta and Balwant in the service of Guru Sahib. Both of them became proud of their artistic skills and started overlooking the instructions of Guru Sahib. They also started boasting that the popularity of Guru Sahib was due to their mastery over ragas and way of singing of the Guru Bani. They even went to the extent of claiming that the popularity of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was due to the melodies of Mardana. Guru Sahib banished them from his place due to their indiscipline and overbearing attitude. However, on the pleading of his devoted follower Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. It left a deep impression on the minds of the Sikhs. Consequently, the importance of discipline was honoured in Sikh religion very strictly.

Question 5.
How did Guru Amar Das Ji become the follower of Guru Angad Dev Ji? How had Guru Amar Das Ji received the Guru Gaddi?
Answer:
Before adopting Sikh religion, Bhai Amar Das, one day, got a chance to listen to divine Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which was being sung by Bibi Amro, the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so impressed and captivated by the divine hymns that he immediately sought the audience of Guru Angad Dev Ji and adopted Guru Angad Dev Ji as his Guru. From then onwards, Guru Amar Das Ji stayed with Guru Angad Dev Ji at Khadoor Sahib from 1541 to 1552 and devoted himself completely to the service of Guru Angad Dev Ji. During the chilly winter of Punjab plains, Bhai Amar Das Ji used to fetch water in an earthen pitcher from the river Beas for the bath of Guru Angad Dev Ji early in the morning.

Once on his way back to Guru Sahib’s house, Bhai Amar Das Ji stepped on a thorn and stumbled. The pitcher fell making a loud noise. A sleeping woman, a wife of a washerman on the wayside of his path, was awakened from her sleep and lamented with a taunt that the old man might be the homeless Amro. Guru Angad Dev Ji learnt about this episode. Guru Sahib immediately called Bhai Amar Das Ji in his presence and ordained, “From now on Amar Das shall not remain homeless, rather he shall be a shelter to numerous homeless.” In March 1552, Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed Guru Amar Das Ji as his successor. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji became the third Sikh Guru.

Question 6.
Describe the progress of Langar System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced some new rules for Langar system. According to the new rules, no one was expected to join the Sangat of Guru Sahib without partaking food in the Langar. The women, who served in the Langar, were not allowed to observe Purdah. It is said that even Emperor Akbar took food in the Langar following all the rules before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. The Langar was open to people from all the sections of the society without any consideration of religion, caste and tribe. The Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaish, Shudras and people of all other castes sat together and partook food served equally to all. It gave a strong blow to the caste, colour, and racial considerations, which were quite dominating at that time. It developed the feeling of equality among the followers of Guru Sahib. No doubt, Langar system had definitely bound the Sikh community in a common bond of unity and brotherhood and developed the feeling of equality among them thereby.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe the progress of Manji System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced the Manji System. The number of the Sikhs had increased tremendously by his times. However, Guru Sahib was quite advanced in age and he, therefore, found it difficult to reach his Sikhs spread far and wide in order to preach his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his religious domain into 22 provinces. Each province was called ‘Manji’. Each ‘Manji’ was further divided into local centres called ‘Piris’. The Manji System played an important part in the history of Sikh religion. G.C. Narang is of the view that the contribution of Guru Sahib Ji to Manji System consolidated the base of Sikh religion and facilitated in a great way the spread of Sikh religion in all parts of the country.

Question 8.
“Guru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer.” Give any four arguments in support of the above statement.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib strongly criticised the principles of Caste system. Guru Sahib declared that the class differences were totally unacceptable to Supreme God. Therefore, no caste or class considerations were observed in Langar System.
  2. The practice of Sati was very common in the times of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib strongly condemned the evil of Sati.
  3. Guru Sahib also denounced the prevailing Purdah system in very strong terms. Guru Sahib considered Purdah a great hindrance in the growth of society.
  4. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to keep away from the use of intoxicants.

Question 9.
Write about the contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the progress of Sikh religion (Panth).
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Guru Sahib of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib had contributed to the progress of the Sikh religion in the following ways:

  1. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib in the holy city of Amritsar.
  2. Guru Sahib founded the cities of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur.
  3. Guru Sahib compiled the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib. He appointed Bhai Buddha Ji as the first Chief Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
  4. The Sikhs made voluntary donations for langar and Guru Ki Golak. But they were uncertain and irregular. Guru Sahib fixed the contribution of Sikh community equivalent to one tenth of its annual income. Guru Sahib also deputed his trusted Sikhs for the collection of donations from his Sikh disciples. Such representatives of Guru Sahib were called the Masands.

Question 10.
What is the importance of the Adi Granth Sahib in the history of the Sikh religion?
Answer:
The compilation of Adi Granth Sahib provided the strong foundation for the Sikh religion. Adi Granth Sahib became the most reliable and holy book of the Sikhs. All the social ceremonies concerning the life of the Sikhs, like birth, marriage, initiation to adulthood, death, etc. were performed in divine presence of the Adi Granth Sahib. The Sikhs who had deep faith in the holiness of Adi Granth Sahib, developed a feeling of being one with the fellow believers, giving rise to class consciousness and ultimately to the rise of a distinct Sikh’Panth. Later, the holy book was raised to the status of Guru itself and the holy book became the Guru of the Sikh religion. The Sikhs and numerous other people believe that the hymns of Guru Granth Sahib are divine utterances.

Question 11.
Write the historical significance of Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Adi Granth Sahib is the holy book of the Sikhs. It was not written with any historic perspective or motive. However, it has great historical importance also. It is one of the major sources of the political, social, religious, economic and cultural history of the 16th and 17th century Punjab. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had severely condemned the rule of Lodhis and oppression of Babur over the people of Punjab in his sayings. It is a source of information about the dominance of caste system, the exploitation of women, and other shortcomings of Indian society like irrational customs, rites and traditions during those days. The religion had lost its sanctity. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had declared “No one is a Hindu or a Muslim,” suggesting that religion had lost its actual meaning and people were treading a wrong path.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 12.
Write down any four causes of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The circumstances which led to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji were as follows:

  1. Intolerant Religious policy of Jahangir. Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor, was hostile to Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He was planning to convert him to Islam or to kill him.
  2. The Enmity of Prithia. Guru Ram Dass Ji had appointed Guru Arjan Dev Ji as his successor because Guru Sahib was much impressed with the intelligence and ability of Bhai Arjan Dev Ji. However, Bhai Prithi Chand did not like his decision. Prithi Chand started conspiring against Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
  3. The Grandeur of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s court. The Guru Sahib held a splendid court. The Sangat had also increased the grandeur of his court and out of their respect and love for him had started addressing him as their “Sacha Padshah”. The Mughal emperor could not tolerate all these developments so he decided to take some severe action against him.
  4. The penalty imposed on Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Jahangir imposed a penalty on Guru Sahib and detained him. The fanaticism of Jahangir crossed all limits and he passed the orders to execute Guru Sahib by inflicting tortures on his person.

Question 13.
What was the reaction against the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji caused fundamental changes in the attitude of the Sikhs.
1. Guru Sahib had left a parting message for his son Guru Hargobind that read, “The day is approaching fast when Good and Evil will clash Let him (Guru Hargobind Ji) sit fully armed on the throne and maintain army to the best of his ability.” The last message of Guru Sahib was the starting point of the military policy of the Sikhs. The Sikh religion of ‘Saints’ became the religion of ‘Saint Soldiers’ (Sant Sipahis) with rosary in one hand and a sword in the other.

2. Before the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the Sikhs and the Mughals had very cordial relations. However, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji injured the religious feelings of the Sikhs and they developed ill-will against the Mughal rule in their hearts.

3. The Sikh religion became more popular due to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sikh followers of Guru Sahib were now all out to sacrifice their lives for the cause of their religion. There is no doubt that the martyrdom of Guru Sahib had given a new direction to the history of Sikh religion.

Question 14.
Write any four important aspects of the personality and character of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji was a man of high character and pleasing manners. The four main aspects of his personality are as under:

  1. Guru Sahib was a successful organizer and religious leader. Guru Sahib vigorously spread the message of Sikh religion and gave an organised form to the Sikh community by making necessary reforms in the Masand System.
  2. Guru Sahib was a great builder. Guru Sahib completed the work of building the city of Amritsar, constructed Sri Harmandir Sahib, and founded cities like Tarn Taran, Hargobindpur etc. Guru Sahib also constructed a Baoli at Lahore.
  3. Guru Sahib completed the work of compilation of Adi Granth Sahib.
  4. Guru Sahib was a great social reformer. Guru Sahib encouraged widow remarriage and checked the use of intoxicants among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib also established a centre where free medicines and clothes were provided to the sick.

Question 15.
Name any four cailses which forced Guru Hargobind Ji to adopt the “New Policy”.
Answer:
1. Hostility and Interference of the Mughals. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir adopted the policy of oppression towards Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Consequently, it became necessary for the next Guru Sahib, Guru Hargobind Ji to adopt New Policy for the defence of the Sikh religion.

2. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. It became clear to the Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji that they had to bear the arms along with the rosaries for the protection of Sikh religion. Hence, Guru Hargobind Ji adopted the New Policy with the same aim in view.

3. Parting Message of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. In his last message, Guru Arjan Dev Ji had instructed the Sikhs to bear arms. Hence, Guru Hargobind Ji started imparting the training in arms along with spiritual knowledge to the Sikhs.

4. Entry of the Jats in Sikhism. Guru Hargobind Ji was encouraged to adopt the new policy on the entry of Jats in the Sikh religion. The Jats were freedom loving by nature and had great aptitude for fighting battles.

Question 16.
Write briefly the contribution of Guru Hargobind Ji to Sikhism.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib put on two swords when he occupied Guru Gaddi. One sword represented his Miri and the other his Piri. With that, Guru Sahib became the political leader as well as a religious guide of the Sikhs.
  2. Guru Sahib also erected a new building near Sri Harmandir Sahib. The new building is called Akal Takh’t. Guru Sahib imparted the training in arms to the Sikhs.
  3. Jahangir imprisoned Guru Hargobind Ji in the fort of Gwalior. Soon after, he learnt that he had taken a wrong decision. He released Guru Sahib. However, Guru Sahib persuaded Jahangir to release all the Rajput kings imprisoned in the Gwalior fort.
  4. Guru Sahib also fought battles with the Mughals. The Mughal emperor Shahjahan sent army against Guru Sahib three times. Guru Sahib fought against them very bravely. The Mughal army lost all three battles.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 17.
Write any four contributions of Guru Har Rai Ji to the Sikh religion.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib regularly organised religious meetings in the morning as well as in the evening everyday for spreading the message of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib encouraged people to adopt a religious way of life.
  2. Guru Sahib converted many people to Sikh religion. The prominent among them were: Bairagi Bhagat Gir, Bhai Sangtia, Bhai Gauda, and Bhai Bhagtu.
  3. Guru Sahib deputed Sikh preachers to spread the message of the Sikh religion to distant places. One of his prominent preachers, who was earlier a Bairagi Sadhu became his follower. He changed his name from Bhagat Gir to Bhagat Bhagwan. He established 360 centres (gaddis). Some of those centres are still active.
  4. Guru Sahib himself actively preached the message of Sikh religion in different parts of the Punjab.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was one of those great saints of the world who sacrificed their lives for the sake of their religion. The circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Sahib were as follow:
1. Fanaticism of Jahangir. Jahangir became the Mughal Emperor in 1605. He hated the Sikhs. He had similar feelings for Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He wanted that either Guru Sahib should become a Musalman or else be put to death. He definitely played a big role in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Hostility of Prithia. Guru Ram Das Ji had appointed Guru Arjan Dev Ji as his successor to Guru Gaddi because Guru Sahib was convinced of his intelligence and ability. Prithia, the elder brother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, did not relish the decision of Guru Ram Das Ji. Then Prithia started conspiring against Guru Arjan Dev Ji in league with the governor of Punjab and his finance minister Chandu Shah. It is true that Prithia had died before the martyrdom of Guru Sahib but it was he who had done the maximum damage to Sikh religion by infusing hatred in the hearts of Mughals against Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

3. Splendour of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s Court. The Sikhs had grown rich by the blessings of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sangat set up a magnificent court for Guru Sahib, where Guru Sahib continued with his religious activities. The Sangat started addressing Guru Sahib as “Sachcha Padshah” out of love and devotion for him. Jahangir could not tolerate the rising strength of Sikh community within his empire. Hence, the Emperor decided to act against Guru Sahib.

4. Case of Prince Khusro. Khurso, the eldest son of Emperor Jahangir, was once even considered for succession to the throne of Mughal Empire by Akbar himself. Prince Khusro revolted against his father Emperor Jahangir. The Mughal army chased him. Khurso came to Punjab and sought shelter with Guru Sahib whom he considered as a friend of his grandfather Akbar. Guru Sahib, a saintly figure, expressed good wishes for Khusro. However, the Mughal Emperor took this act of Guru Sahib as a political offence and decided to sentence Guru Ji to death.

5. Hostility of Chandu Shah. Chandu Shah was a high ranking official of the Mughal administration in Punjab. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had declined to marry the daughter of Chandu Shah to his own son on the suggestion of Sikh Sangat. Chandu Shah felt insulted and tried to instigate Akbar against Guru Sahib with the motive of taking revenge. Akbar held Guru Sahib in high esteem and considered himself as a friend of Guru Sahib. Akbar did not give any importance to the grumbling of Chandu Shah. Chandu Shah did not stop conspiring against Guru Sahib. After the death of Akbar, Chandu Shah instigated Jahangir and convinced him that Guru Sahib had helped the rebellious Prince Khusro. Jahangir had already decided to end the religious movement of Guru Sahib. The instigation by Chandu Shah further provoked Jahangir to take a strong step against Guru Sahib.

6. Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had compiled the Adi Granth Sahib. The enemies of Guru Sahib told Jahangir that Guru Sahib had included such matter in the holy book which was against Islam. Jahangir asked Guru Sahib to remove all such matter from Adi Granth Sahib, which was supposed to be against Islam. Guru Sahib clearly told Jahangir that he was not going to delete anything from the Adi Granth Sahib as there was no such matter in it which could be considered against any religion. Then Jahangir proposed to Guru Sahib to add something in Adi Granth Sahib in praise of Prophet Muhammad. Guru Sahib refused to oblige Jahangir and told him that nothing could be incorporated in the Adi Granth except as directed by the Divine Voice itself. Jahangir was infuriated by such a reply.

7. Penalty imposed on Guru Sahib. The religious fanaticism of Jahangir reached its peak due to the reasons given above. Jahangir issued an order to put Guru Sahib to death by torture. Later, he changed his own orders and asked the Guru Sahib to pay a penalty of two lakh rupees. Guru Sahib refused to pay even a single paisa as penalty and claimed that all the money with him was meant only for the poor and orphans. Jahangir was enraged and again issued orders for the torture and execution of Guru Sahib.

Martyrdom. Guru Sahib was subjected to horrible physical torture. Guru Sahib was made to sit on red-hot iron plate and then hot sand was poured on his body. Guru Sahib was also made to enter boiling water. Finally, in May 1606 Guru Sahib was martyred. According to Sikh scholars, when Guru Sahib was being tortured, one day Guru Sahib expressed a desire to take bath in a river. When Guru Sahib entered the river Ravi, he suddenly disappeared.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 2.
Discuss the importance of martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev Ji had far reaching effects on the history of Sikhism.

  1. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave birth to militant spirit among the Sikhs.
    The Sikh community was transformed into a sect of aggressive fighters for the cause of religion from being a community of pious and peace loving people. They had been transformed into Sant Sipahis.
  2. Earlier, the Mughals and the Sikhs had very cordial relations but the martyrdom of Guru Sahib had hurt their religious sentiments and they became the bitter enemies of the Mughal rule.
  3. The martyrdom of Guru Sahib raised the prestige and popularity of the Sikh religion. The Sikhs were bent upon the protection of their religion by all means.

Indeed, the martyrdom of Guru Sahib turned a new leaf in the history of Sikh religion. It transformed peace-loving saintly Sikhs into Sant Sipahis. “The martyrdom of Guru Sahib convinced the Sikhs that they must arm themselves and fight if they want to live.”

Question 3.
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. What is the importance of his martyrdom in the history of Sikh religion?
Answer:
The following circumstances (causes) were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji:
1. Increase in the tension between the Mughals and the Sikhs. The relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were quite cordial during the reign of Emperor Akbar but they became bitter enemies of each other during the reign of Emperor Jahangir. Jahangir had martyred Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sikhs had, as a result, rose in arms for the protection of their religion. It created much bitterness between the Mughals and the Sikhs which ultimately resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji in the reign of Aurangzeb.

2. Intolerant Religious Policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. He had started suppressing his Hindu subjects and imposed numerous restrictions on them. He tried to convert them to Islam forcibly. The oppression perpetrated by Aurangzeb on his innocent and weak subjects moved the heart of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji and Guru Sahib resolved to save humanity from the atrocities of the fanatic ruler which resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. It was the second martyrdom in the history of Sikh religion.

3. Propagation of Sikh Religion. Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, following the footsteps of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, propagated the message of Sikh religion by undertaking extensive tours in different regions of India. Aurangzeb could not tolerate the rising popularity of Sikh religion. Aurangzeb developed jealousy in his heart against Guru Sahib.

4. Hostility of Ram Rai. It was complained that Ram Rai, the elder brother of Guru Har Rai Ji projected the religious activities of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji as against the Mughal rule. This led Aurangzeb to summon Guru Sahib to Delhi to justify his religious activities and it resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Sahib.

5. Appeals of Kashmiri Brahmins. The condition of the Kashmiri Brahmans had become miserable due to the oppression of Muslim rulers. The governor of Kashmir was trying to convert Kashmiri Brahmans to Islam forcibly. The Kashmiri Brahmans appealed to Guru Sahib for protection. Guru Sahib was moved by the miseries of the Brahmans and found that the situation demanded a big sacrifice for the protection of religion.

Guru Sahib advised Kashmiri Brahmans to convey his following message to Aurangzeb:
“Guru Teg Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru is seated on the throne of Great Guru Nanak, who is the protector of the Hindu faith and religion. First make him a Musalman and then all the people, including ourselves, will, of our own accord, adopt your faith.”

The Kashmiri Brahmans conveyed the message of Guru Sahib to the fanatic Mughal ruler. Guru Sahib decided to visit Delhi. The Mughals martyred Guru Sahib in Delhi.

Importance. The martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji is very important in the history of Sikh religion. The following points may reveal its significance:

  1. Maintained the Tradition of Sacrifices for Religion. Guru Teg Bahadur Ji maintained the tradition of Guru Sahibans to sacrifice their lives for the protection of religion by setting example of his own martyrdom.
  2. Led to the Creation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji learned from the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji that the religious oppression by the Mughals would not end as long as they were ruling over India. The only answer was to destroy their rule. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa at Anandpur Sahib in 1699 to end the oppression of the Mughals.
  3. Feelings of hatred and revenge against the Mughals, The whole Punjab was filled with feelings of hatred and revenge against the Mughal rule because of the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
  4. Gave a Fatal blow to the Mughal Empire. The martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji gave a fatal blow to the very existence of the Mughal Empire. The Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh Ji continued to struggle bravely against the Mughal Empire and ultimately destroyed its existence in Punjab.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Activity:

Question 1.
Show the main historical places of Punjab in the given map of Punjab.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji 1

Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Guru Angad Dev Ji. The second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji collected the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and wrote them in Gurumukhi script. This contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji proved to be the first step towards the writing of ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote ‘Vani’ in the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The institutions of Sangat and Pangat were well maintained during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das was the third Sikh Guru who remained on Guru Gaddi for twenty-two years. Guru Sahib shifted his headquarters from Khadoor Sahib to Goindwal. At Goindwal, Guru Sahib constructed a large well (Baoli) where his followers (Sikhs) took a bath on religious festivals. Guru Amar Das Ji introduced a simple marriage ceremony which is called ‘Anand Karaj’. The number of his Sikh followers increased rapidly during his period.
  • Guru Ram Das Ji. The fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das Ji started the. work of preaching his faith from Ramdaspur (present Amritsar). The foundation of Amritsar was laid during the last years of Guru Amar’Das Ji. Guru Ram Das Ji got dug a large pond called Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar. The Guru Sahib needed a large sum of money to construct the Sarovars (ponds) at Amritsar and Santokhsar. For this purpose, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib also made Guru Gaddi hereditary.
  • Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Sikh Guru. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar. Guru Sahib also founded the cities of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur. The fifth Guru Sahib also wrote the first Divine book of the Sikhs (Birs dictated to Bhai Gurdas), Adi Granth Sahib Ji’ and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib. Baba Budda Ji was appointed as the Head Granthi at Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji consolidated the Sikh religion by sacrificing his life for the protection of the Sikh religion.
  • Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Hargobind Ji was the sixth Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib adopted the ‘New Policy’. According to this policy, Guru Sahib became the religious as well as the political leader of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib constructed Akal Takht, which stands before Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Sahib also gave to the Sikhs the training in the use of arms.
  • Guru Har Rai Ji and Guru Harkrishan Ji. Guru Har Rai Ji and Guru Harkrishan Ji ascended the Guru Gaddi successively after Guru Hargobind Ji. Their period is called the period of peace in the history of Sikh religion.
  • Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The ninth Guru, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was a peace loving person like Guru Nanak Dev Ji.He was ready for self sacrifice like Guru Arjan Dev Ji and courageous and fearless like his father Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji preached his religion fearlessly. By sacrificing his life, Guru Sahib brought a new revolution in the history of the Sikh religion.
  • Masand System. Masand is a Persian word. The meaning of the word is higher place or raised status. During the period of Guru Ram Dass Ji, the masands were called Ramdas. Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave the system an organised form. As a result, Guru Sahib started receiving regular donations from his Sikh followers for his religious activities.
  • Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled and written by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Dev Ji dictated the contents of Adi Granth Sahib and his devoted follower Bhai Gurdas noted it down. The Adi Granth Sahib was completed in 1604 A.D..
  • Wearing of two swords of Miri and Piri. Guru Hargobind Sahib put on two swords which he called one of Miri and the other of Piri. His sword of Miri symbolized his leadership of the Sikh followers in worldly affairs. The Piri sword represented his leadership ,of the Sikhs in spiritual affairs.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words :

Question 1.
Which incident is known as Sachcha Sauda?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev’s father gave him twenty rupees to start some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent that money in feeding the hungry saints and this incident is famous as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Question 2.
To which place did Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s wife belong? Write the names of his sons.
Answer:
Mata Sulakliani, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, belonged to Batala (District Gurdaspur). Guru Nanak Dev Ji had two sons named Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Das.

Question 3.
What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining Enlightenment? Explain their meaning.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that ‘No’one is a Hindu or Muslim’. These were the first words, which Guru Nanak Dev Ji uttered after attaining enlightenment. The meaning of his message was that all the Hindus and Muslims were equal. It also meant that Hindus and Muslims had forgotten the real message of their respective religions.

Question 4.
What work was done by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur and under whom?
Answer:
At Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji worked as Bhandari (the store accountant) in a Lodhi Khana (government storehouse) of Subedar Daulat Khan Lodhi.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 5.
Name the four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The four main ‘Banis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are: ‘Var Malhar’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’ and ‘Barah Maha’.

Question 6.
What did Guru Nanak Dev Ji preach at Kurukshetra?
Answer:
At Kurukshetra, Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that a person should lay stress more on the purity of his mind and soul than on mere purity of his physical appearance (carnal existence).

Question 7.
What did Guru Ji preach the Sidhas and Yogis at Gorakhmata?
Answer:
The Sidhas and Yogis smeared their bodies with ashes and led strange ways of life. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave them the message that they would not attain salvation by adopting useless customs like smearing their bodies with ashes, holding sticks, shaving heads, giving up social responsibilities, etc.

Question 8.
Explain Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views on God.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the Supreme God was Formless, Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Eternal. He had both the forms of being absolute (Nirguna) and of (Saguna). The word Vanis is also used for Banis.

Question 9.
What type of sacred thread did Guru Nanak Dev Ji want?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted a sacred thread of pure deeds. According to him, such a sacred thread never breaks, nor is stained.

Question 10.
What is the meaning of Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is pious deal or in other words a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji made a pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the saints.

Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words :

Question 1.
Write in brief the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus, could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further teaches that God is Self- Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.

3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.

4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of his grace and greatness.

5. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his Second Udasi (travel)?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There, Guru Sahib visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kulu, Spiti, etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountain and Amarnath Cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.

Question 3.
Describe the Sacred Thread ceremony of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread which was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.

Question 4.
What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.

Question 5.
Write about the places Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited during his first Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places during his first Udasi :

  1. Guru Sahib went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where Guru Sahib made Bhai Lalo his follower.
  2. Then Guru Sahib visited Talumba, Kurukshetra and Panipat. Guru Sahib gave the message of doing the right deeds to the people of those areas.
  3. From Panipat, Guru Sahib reached Haridwar via Delhi. Guru Sahib preached against superstitions at those places.
  4. Then Guru Sahib visited Kedarnath, Badrinath,’ Gorakhmatta, Benaras, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup (Assam) Shillong, Dacca, Jaganath Puri and a number of places in South India. Finally, Guru Sahib came back from Pakpattan to Sultanpur Lodhi via Dipalpur.

Question 6.
Write about the important places visited by Guru Nanak Dev Ji during the third Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan. He visited the following places during this Udasi:

  • Multan,
  • Mecca,
  • Madina,
  • Baghdad,
  • Tehran,
  • Qandhar,
  • Peshawar,
  • Hassan Abdal and
  • Gujrat.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 7.
Give details of the time spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new city on the banks of river Ravi in 1521. The city was called “Kartarpur”, which means ‘a city of God’. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the last eighteen years of his life along with his family members at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan.)

Guru Ji’s work at Kartarpur:

  1. During his stay at Kartarpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed War Malhar’, War Majha’, War Assa\ ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Onkar’, etc.
  2. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the practices of Sangat and Pangat at Kartarpur in a systematic manner. During a session of ‘Sangat’, the followers of the Gui’u (Sikhs) sat together and meditated and recited hymns of the Guru. In the session of a ‘Pangat’ all the followers of the Guru sat together and partook their meals from a common kitchen (langar). This practice is also called Langar system.
  3. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji prepared himself for the final journey of his life, he appointed his most devoted follower,

Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru-gaddi. Bhai Lehna as Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
Write about any six teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in detail.
Answer:
The teachings and life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji served as ideals for all. Guru Sahib was strongly against the narrow views like irrational customs and rites, caste system, racialism, etc. Guru Sahib had deep faith in the True Name and existence of Supreme God and gave this message to all those who sought His grace.

The main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are given as follow :
(A) The Greatness of God . Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God are as given below:
1. Faith in One Supreme God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed that there is one Supreme God. Guru Sahib did not believe in the incarnation of God. Guru Sahib had called ‘Ram’, ‘Krishna’, ‘Buddha’ etc. as supreme beings but did not accept them as incarnations (Avtars) of God.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is Formless. According to him, God is Self-Created, Hence, God should not be worshipped in the form of idols made by man.

3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. God is present in every living being. Everything exists only because of him.

4. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji assured humanity that God was compassionate and generous. God comes whenever he is sought. The person, who attributes all his acts to the will of God, God himself comes to his rescue.

5. The Recitation of True Name (Sat Nam). Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed on the recitation of the True Name. Guru Sahib explained that as a person needed water for washing his body, so he needed the recitation of the true name for the purification of his mind.

6. Importance of Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the grace of Guru as most essential for reaching God. The Guru is like a ship which takes the follower across the sea of life. Guru Sahib said one could not realize God without the blessings of the Guru. The Guru is the ladder or a path to reach God.

(B) The Teachings for Right Conduct.
1. Complete faith in the Principles of Right Conduct (Sat Karma). Guru Nanak Dev Ji told that a person passed through a cycle of births and deaths time and again as a result of the deeds performed by him. A person who did wrong deeds, took birth again and again to pay for his evil deeds. On the other hand, a person who performed pious deeds escaped the cycle of births and deaths and achieved moksha.

2. Stress on the life of a Householder. Guru Nanak Dev Ji favoured the life of a true householder. Guru Sahib gave the message that a person should live a right type of life on this earth and try to become pure. Guru Sahib showed by his personal example that a person could attain salvation while leading the life of a householder. Guru Sahib showed that a person could lead a detached and pure life even as a family man.

3. Faith in Love for Humanity. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in social differences based on colour and race. To him, all the human beings were the creatures of one and the same God, hence they were all equal. They were primarily human beings, Hindus ahd Muslims afterwards. No person is high or low because of his birth. The Guru Sahib emphasised the fundamental unity of mankind and the doctrine of human equality. ‘*

4. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised the caste system. For him, no one was a Hindu, Muslim, low or high. According to him, there was fundamental equality and unity among all the castes and religions.

5. Social Service. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the person who did not love and respect all the creations of God, could never achieve God. Guru Sahib asked his followers to serve the society and love humanity selflessly. For him, love for humanity was love for God.

6. Criticism of Idol Worship. Guru Nanak Dev Ji criticised idol worship in very strong terms. According to him, it was useless to worship God in the form of an idol made by a man. For him, the right way to worship God was to recite His Name with full devotion and to realise His presence all around.

7. Criticism of Yajnas, Sacrifices, and Irrational Ceremonies. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. According to him, superficial presentations to God had no place in the worship of God.

8. Attainment of Supreme Bliss (Sach Khand). According to the Guru Sahib, the main aim of life of a human being is the attainment of Supreme Bliss or Sach Khand. The Sach Khand is that state of mind qnder divine grace wherein all the troubles and fears of a person disappear. A devotee becomes fearless and his troubled mind gets peace. In such a state of mind, the person gets a glimpse of the Supreme Being.

9. Emphasis on Life of Virtue. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message to people to lead a virtuous life. Guru Sahib gave the following principles for an ideal life

  • Speak the truth,
  • Do not steal,
  • Live a life of piety,
  • Never hurt the feelings of fellow beings.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great saint and a social reformer. Guru Sahib created the spirit of human love in the hearts of people by his divine message. Guru Sahib showed the true and prefect path of recitation of name of God. Guru Sahib instilled faith in One Supreme God and saved the misguided humanity from the path of darkness and led it to the true path of God.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Throw light on the childhood of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on April 15,1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.

His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart aince his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven.

Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to leam Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lal with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutbudin.

The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perforin his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.

Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other-worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Dass were born to them. .Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.

Enlightenment: Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every da^ at the time of bath. One morning. Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time. Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.

Question 8.
Describe the time period spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur Lodhi.
Answer:
Sometime between 1486-87, the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Sahib to Sultanpur Lodhi with a hope to divert his attention to worldly affairs. Guru Sahib started staying with Shri Jai Ram, his brother-in-law, and the husband of his sister Bibi Nanaki.

Job with Lodhi Khana. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was well-versed in Persian language and arithmetic. Guru Sahib joined as Bhandari (the store accountant) in Lodhi Khana (storehouse), of a Faujdar under Daulat Khan Lodhi on the recommendation of Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib worked very honestly and sincerely. However, a complaint was lodged against him that he was distributing the store-goods among the saints and wanderers without keeping any record. When the records were verified everything was found in perfect order.

The Life of a Householder and Meditation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also brought his family to Sultanpur Lodhi after sometime. Guru Sahib started living a simple and pure family life. It was his routine that Guru Sahib visited the river Kali Bein on the outskirts of the town to take bath and to meditate on the name of God. He gave a part of his earnings in charity to the needy.

Enlightenment. It is recorded in Janam Sakhis, that one morning, as per his routine. Guru Sahib went to take bath in the river Kali Bein. But Guru Sahib disappeared for the next three days. A rumour spread in the town that he had been drowned in the river. All his relatives and well-wishers started worrying about his well-being. However, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had spent those days in deep meditation. And on attainment of enlightenment, Guru Sahib .planned to spread the divine knowledge during the rest of his life.

After three days, Guru Nanak Dev Ji again returned to Sultanpur Lodhi and kept a mystic silence for some days. When Guru Sahib was persuaded to speak, he uttered his first divine message, “Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Musalman”. Faujdar Daulat Khan, Qazi, and Brahmins sought the explanation of his message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught them that the Hindus as well as the Muslims had forgotten the true tenets of their religions. He said that there was no difference in being a Hindu or Muslim. All were equal before God. Thus, Guru Sahib started preaching his divine teachings with the message of brotherhood and humanity. In order to preach his divine message, Guru Sahib resigned from his worldly job and started his travels.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 4.
Describe the early life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on April 15,1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.

His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart aince his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven.

Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to leam Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lal with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutbudin.

The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perforin his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.

Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other-worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Dass were born to them. .Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.

Enlightenment: Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every da^ at the time of bath. One morning. Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time. Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.

Question 5.
Describe the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled from Kaiiash mountai n in the north to Ramesfiwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca. Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his. life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dev Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and custdTns. Guru Nanak Dev Ji showed them the true religious path.

Question 6.
Explain in detail the concept of God according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The core of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the praise of God (Nirankar). A simple description of the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on God is as follows:
1. There is One God : Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of “Ek Onkar” which means One Supreme God. It was the core of all his teachings. It was the gist of his teachings or Mool Mantar. The gist of all his divine preaching on the idea of God is represented in his main saying (Mool Mantar). Guru Sahib told that there is one God and He can not be divided. This message had a social and religious importance for the contemporary world. The Muslims prayed to God accepting Prophet Muhammad as his prophet. The Hindus worshipped numerous gods and goddesses by accepting each of them as Supreme form. In his teachings, Guru Sahib strongly denied the concept of incarnation of Supreme God. On that account, Guru Sahib did not accept Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Muhammad as the incarnations of Supreme God.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created : Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Formless. It does not have any shape or form (Nirguna) but there are different attributes of God also (Sarguna). Hence, the exact perception of God remains beyond the reach of words. God is Self Created, not by time (Akal Purakh), eternal and timeless (Akal Murat). Hence, it will not help, if Supreme God is worshipped only in the form of an idol created out of the perception of a common man. Guru Sahib rightly claimed that an ignorant man did not have the capacity to perceive the real God and neither has the ability to perceive and represent the Supreme God in the form of an idol or a symbol.

3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent: According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is omnipresent and omnipotent. Guru Sahib said that He is present everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque. One of his couplets when translated, elaborates thus, “Why to seek One that was created and dies. Seek the only one, who is eternal.”

The being, which is created, will die. The being, which is created, is bound by time. It has a beginning. The thing, which has a beginning, has an end also. However, the Supreme God is Self-Created, that is, He was not created and thus will not end with time. He is Akal Murat, that is not bound by time (start and end) and thus timeless (permanent).

4. God is Compassionate (Kind): Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that God is very kind. He helps whenever he is sought. He lives in the hearts of his believers. To Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God was personal and merciful. He helped them who had faith in him in time of trouble and difficulty.

5. God is Supreme and Great: Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Supreme and Great. For-him, it was beyond the capabilities of human beings to understand his Supreme Existence. Only God knows what actually He is. Thus said Guru Nanak Dev Ji, V-iiion qs&i 3n<alk, 3TN”. ‘He, The Great, knows, what can be known on being great.’ Many people had tried to explain the greatness of God but none had been successful in revealing His greatness in words.

6. Importance of His edict (Hukam) : The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were full of praise of “Hukam” (rules ordained by God) of God. According to Guru Sahib, every event in the universe takes place as ordained by God (Hukafn). Guru Sahib suggested that humanity should accept the sweet will of God as revealed in His Hukam. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had devoted the second section of Jupji Sahib in praise of the Hukam. Guru Sahib writes that the person, who humbly accepts the Hukam, he merges himself with God and his ego sublimates and ends. Guru Sahib wrote, “The person who accepts the Hukam, loses his ego.”

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
When and where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom in 1469 at Talwandi, a village 64 kilometres from Lahore.

Question 2.
Why was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to Sultanpur Lodhi?
Answer:
To adopt some profession to earn his living.

Question 3.
Where was a new spirit of Brotherhood promoted by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started preaching his message at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan).

Question 4.
What was the meaning of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The meaning of Udasis is those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook.

Question 5.
Who founded the city of Kartarpur and when?
Answer:
Kartarpur was founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji in about 1521.

Question 6.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thug?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan Thug at Talumba,

Question 7.
Who changed the name Gorakhmatta to Nanakmatta?
Answer:
The Gorakh Panthi Yogis changed the name of Gorakhmatta to Nanakmatta.

Question 8.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend the last years of his life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent his last years at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan).

Question 9.
Write any one teaching of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The blessings of Guru are essential to achieve God.

Question 10.
Give any two views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

  1. God is one.
  2. He is formless.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 11.
Describe any one influence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on the people of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of Punjab started worshipping one God and the Idol worship declined.

Question 12.
Which invasion of Babur was compared to ‘Marriage Party of Sins’ by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The third invasion of Babur on India.

Question 13.
What two institutions were started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji which form the basis of the Sikh religion?
Answer:
Sangat and Pangat.

Question 14.
What were the aims of Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
To help humanity to adopt the right religious path.

Question 15.
At what age did Guru Nanak Dev Ji attain enlightenment?
Answer:
At the age of thirty years.

Question 16.
Where is Gurdwara Panja Sahib?
Answer:
At Hasan Abdal in district Campbell Pur now in Pakistan.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji was born at now called ______________
Answer:
Taiwandi, Nankana Sahib

Question 2.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji established the traditions of and _________________
Answer:
Sangat Pangat

Question 3.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji made a pious deal (Sacha Sauda) by spending twenty rupees on _____________________
Answer:
feeding the beggars and saints

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 4.
The name of Guru Nanak Dey Ji’s father was _________________________
Answer:
Mehta Kalu Ram

Question 5.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji was appointed ____________________________ as his successor.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna (Angad Dey Ji).

Multiple Choice Question :

Question 1.
When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
(a) In 1169
(b) In 1269
(c) In 1369
(d) In 1469.
Answer:
(d) In 1469.

Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Kartarpur (a) Guru Nanak Dey
2. Lodhi Khana (b) Persian
3. God Vishnu (c) Sultanpur
4. Pandit Brij Lai (d) Lord Jagan Nath
5. Manbir Qutbudin (e) Sanskrit.

Answer:
1. (a)
2. (c)
3. (d)
4. (e)
5. (b).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write on the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dey Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dey Ji travelled from Kailash mountain in the north to Ramehwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dey Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and custms. Guru Nanak Dey Ji showed them the true religious path.

Question 2.
Which religious beliefs and traditions were strongly criticised by Guru Nanak Dey Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji gave no importance to religious ceremonies for the spiritual upliftment of the individual. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly criticised the irrational religious practices ind customs. The religious ceremonies which Guru Sahib condemned, were Vedic rites, Yajnas, Idol worship, pilgrimages, and useless ceremonies. Guru Sahib declined to recognise the ascetic yogic way of life.

Guru Sahib criticised the ascetics or yogis on two accounts:

  1. the lack of pure devotion towards God
  2. the neglect of social obligations.

Guru Nanak Dey Ji did not recommend Vaishnav way of Bhakti and also refused to recognise the concépt of incarnation (Avtarvad). Guru Sahib also criticised many practices, beliefs, traditions and activities of the Muslim clergy and society.

Question 3.
What is the social significance of the messages given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The message of Guru Nanak Dey Ji had great social significance. His message is for all. Every man and woman can easily follow and understand his teachings. There is no place for caste system or discrimination on religious basis. His teachings gave a setback to the caste system and developed the feeling of brotherhood among the people. Guru Sahib always identified himself with the common man. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly condemned the oppression, injustice, and corruption of contemporary society. Consequently, his teachings removed many evils of the society.

Question 4.
Describe in brief the main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught us:

  1. There is one God. He is omnipresent and omnipotent.
  2. The caste distinctions are meaningless. The rich, poor, Brahmans, Shudras, all are equal.
  3. The right conduct makes a man great.
  4. God should be worshipped with a pure mind.
  5. Guru Sahib gives much importance to True Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the Guru as essential for the realization of God. According to him, “True Guru acts as a guide in the attainment of the true name of God. Guru is the ladder which enables a man to reach the true goal of his life.”
  6. One should always earn one’s living by right means.
  7. The status of a woman is high. She gives birth to great men. All the women are worthy of highest respect.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the role of Guru Nanak Dey Ji as a teacher and the founder of the Sikh religion.
Answer:
(A) As a Great Teacher:
1. Preacher of Truth : Guru Nanak Dey Ji was a great teacher of humanity. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in the thirtieth year of his life. Guru Sahib travelled widely to spread his message. Guru Sahib spread the gospel of Truth in every nook and corner of the Punjab. Everywhere, people were impressed by his personality and message. Guru Nanak Dey Ji taught to abandon the materialistic dsires, selfishness, and greediness and enjoined upon his followers to lead a pious life. Guru Sahib taught those principles which he himself practised in his personas life.

2. A Guru for the Whole Humanity : The teachings of Guru Sahib were not meant for any particular community, place, or nation, rather they are for the whole world. Prof. K.S. Narang opines that his message was not just for one period of time. It is eternal. Guru Sahib’s teachings were so rational and complete that even modern rationalists cannot find any shortcomings in them. The main aim of his teachings was the welfare of the whole humanity. It was only with the spirit of the welfare of the whole humanity, that Guru Sahib undertook hard journey to Burma, China, Tibet, Arabia, etc.

(B) As the Founder of Sikh Religion : Guru Nanak Dey Ji founded the Sikh religion.
There are some fundamental principles of Sikh religion which are found only in Sikhism but not in Hinduism or Islam. For example, Guru Nanak Dey Ji started the institutions of Sangat and Pangat which were the important features of the new faith. Secondly, Guru Nanak Dey Ji did not appoint his son as successor to Guru-gaddi but gave it to his devotee Bhai Lehna. By this act, the Guru tradition became very significant and the Sikh religion was founded. The Sikh religion continued to develop during the period of next nine Gurus and the Sikh religion established itself as a full-fledged religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Write in detail about the first Udasi (travel) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji went first to the east and then to the south on his first journey. He started his journey around 1500 A.D. (Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in 1499 Guru Sahib took along with him an ardent devotee, Mardana on his first journey. Mardana was a good player of Rabab (a stringed musical instrument).

Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the various places which are given below:
1. Sayyidpur. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Sayyidpur from Sultanpur. Lodhi. In the beginning of his journey, Guru Sahib converted a carpenter Bhai Lalo. Guru Sahib refused to partake the food provided by Malik Bhago. Guru Sahib refused to take the food because Malik Bhago followed corrupt means and oppressed the poor to earn money.

2. Talumba. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Talumba in district Multan from Sayyidpur. Sajjan Thug, who pretended to be a religious man, lived there. Sajjan was basically a cunning man. Sajjan planned to play his dirty game with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, when Guru Nanak Dev Ji sang his hymns before going to bed, it deeply touched the heart of Sajjan. He fell at the feet of Guru Sahib and pleaded for forgiveness. Guru Nanak Dev Ji pardoned him and accepted him as his follower. After that, Sajjan stopped cheating the people and adopted the path of spreading the message of True Faith. The historian Teja Singh has rightly said, “The criminal’s den became a temple of God worship.”

3. Kurukshetra. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Kurukshetra from Talumba. He found thousands of Brahmins, Saints, and Hindus gathered there on the occasion of solar eclipse. Guru Nanak Dev Ji addressed the congregation, where Guru Sahib laid stress upon the purity of soul in place of giving more importance to the outer purity or purity of physical existence. Guru Sahib taught them the path of honesty, love, and truth.

4. Panipat. Guru Sahib went to Panipat from Kurukshetra. Guru Sahib met Sufi Sheikh Ikul Kabir. The Sufi saint was highly impressed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and became his follower.

5. Haridwar. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Haridwar from Panipat passing through Delhi on his way. At Haridwar, Guru Nanak Dev Ji observed that the people were throwing water upwards facing the sun saying that they were sending water to their ancestors. In order to help the people to see reason, Guru Sahib started throwing water in the opposite direction. When the people inquired about the aim of his such action, Guru Sahib told them that he was watering his fields in the Punjab. The people tried to mock at his reasoning. Then, Guru Nanak Dev Ji sought to reason by questioning that when they could not accept that he could send water a few hundred miles away, then how could they justify their belief that their water offerings were reaching their ancestors millions of miles away? When no one came up with any answer, they became the followers of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

6. Gorakhmatta. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Joshi Math etc. and finally reached Gorakhmatta. Guru Sahib met the followers of Saint Gorakh Nath. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught that they could not attain moksha by piercing their ears, smearing their bodies with ashes, keeping sticks in their hands and abandoning their social responsibilities. The Yogis of Gorakhmatta were so impressed that they changed the name of the place to Nanakmatta.

7. Benaras. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Benaras from Nanakmatta. Guru Sahib met Pandit Chaturdass in Benaras. The teachings and grace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji overwhelmingly impressed Pandit Chaturdass. He submitted before Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with all his followers and all of them became the devotees of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

8. Gaya. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey from Benaras and reached Gaya, the well-known place of pilgrimage of the Buddhists. Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed numerous people of Gaya with his teachings and they became his followers.

9. Assam: Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled through Bihar and Bengal and reached Assam. At ‘Dhubri’, Guru Sahib met Shankar Dev. Guru Sahib met a beautiful magician woman named Nooran, whom Guru Sahib taught that the real beauty was of a pure character.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey through Guwahati and Shillong and reached Syhlet. Guru Sahib met Sheikh Jalal at Syhlet. Sheikh Jalal was so impressed by his teachings that he became his follower.

10. Dacca, Cuttack and Jaganath Puri. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Dacca from Kamrup. Guru Sahib had an exchange of ideas with numerous religious leaders there. From Dacca, Guru Sahib passed through Cuttack and reached Jagannath Puri in present Orissa. Guru Sahib watched the performance of aarti (worship of an Idol with lamps and cinders) of Idol of Lord Jagannath, the incarnation of God Vishnu, Guru Sahib preached to the people the uselessness of Idol worship. He preached that God is Omnipresent.

11. Journey of South India. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey to South India. Guru Sahib visited Guntur, Kanchipuram, Trincholopoly, Nagapatnam, Rameshvaram, Trivandrum, and Sri Lanka. The’king of Sri Lanka, Shivnabh, was highly impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He became his follower. His Queen and other people accepted him as their Guru. In Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji deputed one of his followers, Jhanda Bedi to continue to spread his message.

The Return Journey. On his return journey from Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited numerous small towns. Finally, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kusali, Bycola, Anumadhyam, Pannar and Pakpattan. At Pakpattan, Guru Sahib met Sheikh Ibrahim, the tenth descendant of Sheikh Farid. Sheikh Ibrahim felt highly elated by listening to the divine talks of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. From Pakpattan, Guru Sahib went to Dipalpur and returned to Sultanpur.

Memory/Route Chart of First Udasi or Travel

  1. Sultanpur-Lodhi (starting point of journey)
  2. Sayyidpur
  3. Talumba
  4. Kurukshetra
  5. Panipat
  6. Delhi
  7. Haridwar
  8. Kedarnath
  9. Badrinath
  10. Joshimath
  11. Gorakhmatta
  12. Benaras
  13. Gaya (Bihar)
  14. Patna
  15. Hajipur (Bengal)
  16. Dhubri
  17. Kamrup
  18. Gawahati
  19. Shillong
  20. Dacca
  21. Cuttack
  22. Jaganathpuri
  23. Guntur
  24. Kanchipurram
  25. Trinchonopoly
  26. Nagapatnam
  27. Rameshwaram
  28. Trivandrum
  29. Sri Lanka
  30. Kusali
  31. Bycola
  32. Anumadhya
  33. Pannar
  34. Pakpattan
  35. Dipalpur, and finally
  36. Sultanpur Lodhi.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Guru Nanak Ji gave the people of the Punjab an ideal which was ultimately to mould his followers into a powerful community.” -Dr. Hari Ram Gupta
  • Parentage. The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu Ram. He was a Patwari (a revenue officer).
  • The Ceremony of Sacred Thread (Janeu). Guru Nanak Dev Ji was strongly opposed to useless ceremonies and empty rituals. He, therefore, refused to wear the thread of cotton, considered as a sacred thread.
  • The Pious Deal (Sachcha Sauda), The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave him
    twenty rupees for starting some business. Guru’Nanak Dev Ji spent this money to serve food to the saints, beggars and the needy and thus made a Pious Deal (Sachcha Sauda). _
  • Enlightenment. Guru Nanak Dev Ji attained enlightenment during his bath at a rivulet called ‘Bein’. One morning, he took a dip in the river and reappeared after three days as an enlightened being.
  • Udasis (Travels), The Udasis refer to those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook as a selfless pious wanderer without any care for his social bindings. The aim of his Udasis or travels was to end the prevalent superstitions and guide the humanity on the path of true faith. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went on three Udasis in different directions.
  • Stay at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan). Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur in 1521. He composed ‘Var Malhar’, ‘Var Manjh’, ‘Var Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Barah Mahan’ etc. at Kartarpur. He also established the traditions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’ there.
  • Teachings about God. The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were that God is Formless, Self-Created, Omnipresent, Omnipotent, Compassionate and Great. He can be easily achieved with the blessings of a True Guru and Self¬Surrender. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the later part of his life preaching the path of true religion at Kartarpur.
  • Guru Sahib Merged with the Supreme God. On September 22, 1539, he merged with Ultimate Supreme God. Before he breathed his last, he had appointed Bhai Lehna as his successor. Bhai Lehna became the second Guru under the name Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • Sangat and Pangat. The congregation of the followers of the Guru is called Sangat. They sit together to learn the real meaning of the Guru and sing in praise of God. According to the Pangat system, all the followers of the Guru sit together on the floor to partake food from a common kitchen (langar).

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words :

Question 1.
When was Ranjit Singh born? What was his father’s name?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 at Gujranwala. Sardar Mahan Singh was his father. He was the chief of the Sukerchakiya Misl.

Question 2.
Who was Mehtab Kaur?
Answer:
Mehtab Kaur was Ranjit Singh’s wife. She was the daughter of Gurbax Singh and grand daughter of Jai Singh of Kanheya Misl.

Question 3.
Which Era is termed as the Patronage of Trio?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a minor when his father, Mahan Singh died. Therefore, from 1792 to 1797 A.D., the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl remained in the hands of Raj Kaur (his mother), Sada Kaur (his mother-in-law) and Dewan Lakhpat Rai. This period is called the period of Trio.

Question 4.
Why did the residents of Lahore invite Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore?
Answer:
Lahore was ruled by three Bhangi sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these sardars. So – they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore.

Question 5.
Name the Sardars who were against Ranjit Singh in the Battle of Bhasin.
Answer:
Gulab Singh of Amritsar. Sahib Singh of Gujrat, Jodh Singh of Wazirabad and -Jassa Singh of Ramgarhia Misl were opposed to Ranjit Singh in the Battle of Bhasin.

Question 6.
Why did Maharaja Ranjit Singh attack Amritsar and Lohgarh?
Answer:
Amritsar had become the religious capital of the Sikhs. Similarly Lohgarh had military importance. Ranjit Singh attacked Amritsar and Lohgarh to capture them.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 7.
Of which Misl was Tara Singh Gheba the leader?
Answer:
Tara Singh Gheba was the leader of Dallewalia Misl. He was a very brave and powerful Misl Chief.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Write about Ranjit Singh’s childhood and education.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was the only son of his parents. In his childhood, he was brought up with great care. When he was five years old, he was sent for receiving education to the Dharmshala of Bhai Bhagu Singh at Gujranwala. But he showed no interest in studies. He, therefore, remained unlettered throughout his life. Thus most of his time was spent in hunting and other amusements. In his childhood, he had become a good swordsman and a horseman. He had been the victim of smallpox in his childhood. Thus, due to this terrible disease, he lost his left eye.

Question 2.
Describe the events of bravery of Ranjit Singh’s childhood.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh had all the qualities of a brave warrior. He was just 10 years old, when he began to fight in the battles along with his father and fought very bravely. At the age of 11, one day he, while hunting, Hashmat Khan, an enemy of his father finding him all alone, attacked him. Ranjit Singh faced Hashmat Khan very bravely and killed him on the spot. These events show the bravery of Ranjit Singh in his childhood.

Question 3.
Describe the events of occupation of Lahore by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore at the very first opportunity. In those days, Lahore was under the rule of three Bhangi sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these sardars. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore. Ranjit Singh lost no time in attacking Lahore with a large army. On hearing the news of the attack, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh fled away. Only Chet Singh feebly resisted Ranjit Singh’s army. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 4.
Write the significance of the conquest of Amritsar.
Answer:
The importance of the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh was as under:

  • It was the religious capital of the Sikhs. Its occupation raised the prestige of Ranjit Singh.
  • As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, the military power of Ranjit Singh increased.
    The fort of Lohgarh proved to be a boon for Ranjit Singh. He got the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan.
  • Ranjit Singh got the services of Akali Phool Singh and his 2000 Nihang comrades. Because of the extraordinary courage and bravery of the Nihangs, Ranjit Singh won many glorious victories.
  • As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh’s name and fame spread far and wide. Many Indians gave up the jobs of the East India Company and got employment with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Many European soldiers also joined the army of the Maharaja.

Question 5.
How did Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupy friendly Misls?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a great diplomat. He befriended the rulers of Ahluwalia, Kanahiya and Ramgarhia Misls. Finding a suitable opportunity, he captured these Misls.

Following is the description of the conquests of these Misls by Ranjit Singh:

  1. Occupation of the Kanahiya Misl. The Kanahiya Misl was led by the mother- in-law of Ranjit Singh. In 1812 A.D., Ranjit Singh got from her many regions of this Misl except Wadni.
  2. Capture of the Ramgarhia Misl. The leader of this Misl was Jodh Singh Ramgarhia. He died in 1815 A.D. and Ranjit Singh merged all his territories in his state.
  3. Ahluwalia Misl. In 1826 A.D., Ranjit Singh broke his relations with Fateh Singh of Ahluwalia Misl. As a result, he captured many territories of Ahluwalia Misl. But in 1827 A.D., they became Mends again.

Question 6.
Write the consequences of the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The conquest of Multan was an important military achievement of Ranjit Singh. The significance of this victory can be known from the following facts :
1. A Death blow to the Afghan Power. It is aptly said that “the conquest of Multan ended the Afghan influence in the Punjab.” Ranjit Singh completely smashed the power of the Afghans.

2. Commercial and Strategic Advantages. The victory of Multan was also important from the commercial as well as military point of view. Trade with Sindh and Afghanistan began to be carried on through this route. Consequently, the trade in Punjab made much progress. In addition to this, Multan was situated on the route from Delhi to Kandhar.

3. Increase in the Revenue. The victory of Multan also increased the income of Ranjit Singh. It is estimated that Ranjit Singh received an income of about 7 lakh rupees a year only from the Multan town.

4. Increase in the Prestige of Ranjit Singh. With the victory of Multan, the fame of Ranjit Singh spread in all the four corners of the Punjab.

Question 7.
Describe thle battle of Attock.
Answer:
An understanding was reached between Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan of Kabul in 1813 A.D. It was decided that Ranjit Singh would send 12 thousand soldiers to help Fateh Khan for the conquest of Kashmir and Fateh Khan, in return, would give him one- third of the conquered territories in addition to the booty of war. Besides, Ranjit Singh promised to help Fateh Khan in his conquest of Attock, whereas Fateh Khan would help Ranjit Singh in the conquest of Multan.

The combined forces of Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan conquered Kashmir with great ease but Fateh Khan did not fulfil his promise. He did not pay him anything out of the money looted by him by the conquest of Kashmir. Ranjit Singh attacked Attock in a fury (according to the treaty, Fateh Khan was to occupy Attock). His commander-in-chief Azizuddin took Attock from Jahandad Khan and gave him one lakh rupees and a big jagir. Fateh Khan could not tolerate this. He attacked Attock with a big army immediately. A furious battle was fought between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Hazro near Attock. The Sikhs came out victorious in this battle.

Question 8.
Write about the question of Sindh.
Answer:
The Sindh region, being situated on the South-western front of Lahore, had a great military importance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government understood well the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent one of its navigators Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission, so that he could not judge the intentions of the British. Although the nature of this Mission was friendly, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 9.
What was the question of Shikarpur?
Answer:
On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh was waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe attacked the border regions of Lahore kingdom. Ranjit Singh tried to capture Shikarpur by holding the Amirs of Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent troops to check Ranjit Singh from occupying Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh had to withdraw his forces.

Question 10.
Write about the events related to Ferozepur.
Answer:
The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the relations between Ranjit Singh and the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D. Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him capture it. The British Government itself occupied Ferozepur in 1835 A.D. and after three years, made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
How did Ranjit Singh conquer the weak Misls?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a shrewd politician. He befriended the rulers of powerful Misls. He started occupying the territories of weak misls with their help. From 1800 to 1811 A.D., he conquered the following Misls :
1. Conquest of Akalgarh (1801 A.D.). In 1801 A.D. after the battle of Bhasin, Dal Singh of Akalgarh (maternal uncle of Ranjit Singh’s father) and Sahib Singh of Gujarat started preparations for the attack on Lahore. When Ranjit Singh, came to know about it, he attacked Akalgarh and made Dal Singh a prisoner. Soon after this, Dal Singh was released and he died after some time. Ranjit Singh annexed his territory into his Kingdom. He gave a small tract of land to the widow of Dal Singh.

2. Occupation of Chaniot (1802 A.D.). Chaniot was under Jassa Singh, son of Karam Singh. In 1802 A.D., with the help of Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Chaniot. Jassa Singh was defeated and Ranjit Singh occupied Chaniot.

3. Conquest of Malwa by Ranjit Singh (1806 A.D.). In 1806 A.D., there arose a quarrel between Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala and Raja Jaswant Singh of Nabha on the question of the Doladhi village. Jaswant Singh, through the medium of Raja Bhag Singh of Jind, invited Ranjit Singh to settle their dispute. Ranjit Singh attacked the Malwa region. He brought twenty thousand horsemen with him. Fateh Singh Ahluwalia stood by the Maharaja in capturing the Doladhi village, Ranjit Singh proceeded towards Patiala. He got a large amount of Nazrana from the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. On his way back, Ranjit Singh also occupied Ludhiana, Raikot, Jagraon and Ghungrana.

In 1807 A.D. Ranjit Singh attacked Malwa for the second time. The Raja of Patiala, Sahib Singh and his wife Aas Kaur were on bad terms. Ranjit Singh got a chance to interfere in their internal affairs. On reaching Patiala, he got a heavy amount as ‘Nazrana’ from Sahib Singh of Patiala. After this, he captured the areas of Naraingarh, Wadni, Zira and Kotkapura. He also got Nazrana from the rulers of Kaithal, Shahbad, Ambala, Kalsian and Malerkotla.

4. Conquest of the Dallehwalia Misl. The leader of the Dallehwalia Misl, Tara Singh Gheba was quite powerful. So Ranjit Singh could not conquer this Misl while he was alive. After Tara Singh’s death in 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh defeated his widow at Rahon and captured all the territories of the Dallehwalia Misl.

5. Conquest of Sialkot (1808 A.D.). Jeewan Singh was the ruler of Sialkot. Maharaja Ranjit Singh demanded the territory of Sialkot from him. On his refusal, Ranjit Singh attacked Sialkot. Jeewan Singh surrendered. Maharaja merged Sialkot into his kingdom.

6. Conquest of Gujpat. At the time of Ranjit Singh’s, attack on Lahore, its Bhangi ruler Sahib Singh had run away’. Now he was ruling over the regions of Jalalpur, Islamgarh and Gujrat. The income from these regions was very high. To conquer them, Ranjit Singh attacked Sahib Singh. Sahib Singh was defeated. Ranjit Singh granted him a Jagir and annexed all his territories to his kingdom.

7. Conquest of Karorsinghia Misl. Kahan Singh ruled over Karorsinghia Misl. Ranjit Smgh asked him to come to his court. On his refusal, Ranjit Singh seized all his territories.

8. Conquest of the Fazalpuria Misl. Budh Singh ruled over the Fazalpuria Misl and it was spread on either side of the river Sutlej. Ranjit Singh first asked him to surrender. But when he refused, Ranjit Singh forcibly merged all his territories into his kingdom in 1811 A.D. These regions included Doab, Jalandhar, Hetpur and Patti.

9. Conquest of the Nakai Misl. This Misl was also ruled by the ruler of Karorsinghia Misl, Kahan Singh. When in 1807 A.D. Ranjit Singh defeated him, he also captured the Nakai Misl along with the Karorsinghia Misl.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Kashmir by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Kashmir, for its charming beauty and green scenery, was known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’. Naturally, Ranjit Singh was lured to capture it. He wanted to make his kingdom a heaven on the earth.

For this, he made the following efforts :
1. Pact with Kabul and Wazir Fateh Khan. In 1811-12 A.D. Ranjit Singh’s forces captured Bhimbar and Rajauwri near Kashmir. Now they wanted to attack the Kashmir valley. But at the same time Fateh Khan, the Wazir of Kabul also planned to capture Kashmir. Both Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan met at a place known as Rohtas on the banks of the Jhelum in 1813 A.D. A treaty was concluded between the two according to which the combined forces of both the parties would attack Kashmir.

According to it, Ranjit Singh was to get Rs. 9 lakhs from the spoils of the war and Fateh Khan was also to help him in the conquest of Multan. After the terms were settled, a 12000 strong Sikh force under the command of Dewan Mohkam Chand advanced towards Kashmir from the side of Jhelum along with the forces of Kabul. But Fateh Khan did not want, that any credit for this expedition should go to the Sikh army. He left the Sikh forces behind and himself with his army entered the Kashmir valley. Atta Mohammad Khan of Kashmir faced the enemy at a place named Shergarh. Fateh Khan, without the help of Sikh forces, defeated Atta Mohammad Khan. But Ranjit Singh wras not such a man as to bear all this rebuff.

2. Attack on Kashmir. In June 1814, Ram Dayal, a grandson of Diwan Mohkam Chand was given the command of the Kashmir expedition. The Sikh forces attacked Kashmir. At that time, Azim Khan, the brother of Fateh Khan was the Subedar of Kashmir. He made preparations to face this invasion. The forces under the command of Ram Dayal passed through the Pir Panchal Pass and entered the Kashmir valley. Azim Khan attacked the Sikh forces. The Sikh soldiers had to face misfortunes. Even then Ram Dayal faced the enemy bravely. At last, both the parties started negotiations for peace.

3. Occupation of Kashmir 1819 A.D. After the conquest of Multan in 1818 A.D., the Sikh forces were much encouraged. So Ranjit Singh began to plan the third invasion of Kashmir. Azim Khan the Subedar of Kashmir had gone to Afghanistan. Ranjit Singh thought of availing of this opportunity and under the command of Misar Dewan Chand sent 12000 Sikh soldiers to Kashmir. The second contingent under Kharak Singh, (Ranjit Singh’s son) was also sent to Kashmir and the third contingent under Ranjit Singh himself also set out for Wazirabad. Misar Dewan Chand reached Bhimber and captured Rajauri, Pir Panchal and Poonchh. After this, the Sikh forces entered Kashmir. Jabbar Khan faced the Sikh army at Sopavan. On the 5th July 1819, the Sikh army captured the forts of Sri Nagar, Shergarh and Agungarh. Thus Ranjit Singh came out victorious and consequently he annexed Kashmir in 1819. Ranjit Singh appointed Diwan Moti Ram, the son of Diwan Mohkam Chand, as the Governor of Kashmir.

Importance. The conquest of Kashmir is important due to the following reasons:

  • The victory of Kashmir increased the prestige of Ranjit Singh,
  • Kashmir was a good source of income and its annexation brought Ranjit Singh an annual income of Rs. 36 lakh,
  • The conquest of Kashmir put an end to the power and prestige of the Afghans.

Question 3.
Describe the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The territory of Multan was important both from the military and commercial viewpoint. The story of the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh is briefly given as under :
1. First Expedition. It was in 1802 A.D. that Ranjit Singh attacked Multan for the first time. Muzzaffar Khan ‘“the Nawab of Multan” gave a heavy amount of money to Ranjit Singh and agreed to pay an annual tribute. Thus Ranjit Singh returned home without a battle but with a huge sum of money.

2. Second Expedition. Muzzaffar Khan had agreed to pay an annual tribute to Ranjit Singh but he did not send Nazrana to him. Consequently, Ranjit Singh launched his second expedition against Multan in 1805 A.D. But when Ranjit Singh received the news that the Maratha chief Jaswant Rao Holkar, after being defeated by the British, had entered Punjab, he had to return to Lahore.

3. Third Expedition (1807 A.D.). In 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh sent his third expedition against Multan. The Sikh army captured some territory of Multan. But the Nawab of Bahawalpur acted as a mediator and a peace treaty was concluded between them.

4. Fourth Expedition. On February 24, 1810, the army of Maharaja occupied some parts of Multan. On February 25, the Sikh forces besieged the fort of Multan. But on the one hand, the food supplies of the Sikhs were being exhausted rapidly and on the other hand, Dewan Mohkam Chand also fell ill. Under these circumstances, Ranjit Singh was forced to lift the siege of the fort.

5. Fifth Expedition (1816 A.D.). In 1816 A.D. the Maharaja sent Akali Phoola Singh along with a large army to collect the revenue from the rulers of Multan and Bahawalpur. He was able to occupy the suburbs of Multan. The Nawab of Multan, therefore, concluded a pact with Akali Phoola Singh.

6. Final Expedition (1818). (i) The Sikh forces under the command of Dewan Bhawani Dass, attacked Multan but could not succeed, (ii) In January 1818 the Sikh army consisting of 20,000 soldiers under the command of Misar Dewan Chand attacked Multan. Nawab Muzzaffar Khan with 2,000 soldiers entered the fort. After capturing the city, the Sikh soldiers laid a siege to the fort. At last, Sohan Singh along with his few chosen companions was -successful in entering the fort through the Khizri gate. Thus the Sikhs finally captured Multan in 1818. The civil administration was entrusted to Sukh Dayal and the work of the supervision of the military administration was assigned to Baj Singh. Jamadar Khushal Singh was appointed as the Chief Police Commissioner. Dewan Sawan Mai was appointed as the Subedar of Multan.

Importance:

  • With the victory of Multan, the fame of Ranjit Singh spread to all the four corners of the Punjab,
  • The victory of Multan gave a death blow to the Afghan power.
  • The victory of Multan strengthened the economic position of Ranjit Singh. The trade in Punjab made much progress,
  • The Muslims of Sindh and Bahawalpur were separated permanently from each other. In future, they would not be in a position to forge a united front against Ranjit Singh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 4.
Describe the conquest of Peshawar by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Peshawar had special strategic importance as it was situated on the north-western frontier of the Punjab. Because of its geographical situation, it had great importance from military point of view.

After Multan’s conquest, Ranjit Singh paid his attention to Peshawar. He wanted to capture Peshawar.
1. First Expedition against Peshawar in 1818 A.D. Lawlessness was prevailing in the state of Kabul. Ranjit Singh exploited this situation. He, alongwith Akali Phoola Singh and Hari Singh Nalwa, marched towards Peshawar. His army was greatly opposed by the Khatak tribe. But the Sikh soldiers defeated it and captured the forts of Khairabad and Jahangira. Next, the Sikh forces advanced towards Peshawar. At that time, Yaar Mohammad Khan was the ruler of Peshawar. On November 20, 1818 A.D. Ranjit Singh was able to occupy Peshawar without any difficulty. But he realised that in order to annex Peshawar to his kingdom, he lacked sufficient power. Therefore, he appointed Jahandad Khan, the ex-Governor of Attock, as the Governor of Peshawar and himself returned to Lahore.

2. Second Invasion of Peshawar. When the Sikh forces returned to Lahore, Yaar Mohammad Khan fell upon Jahandad Khan and compelled him to run away. Ranjit Singh sent a force of 12,000 soldiers under the command of prince Kharak Singh and Misar Diwan Chand to attack Peshawar. But Yaar Mohammad Khan did not deem it proper to fight against the Sikhs and accepted Ranjit Singh’s suzerainty.

3. Third Invasion of Peshawar. In the meantime, Azim Khan the new Wazir of Kabul attacked Peshawar. In January, 1823, he defeated Yaar Mohammad Khan and occupied Peshawar. When Ranjit Singh came to know about it, he despatced a big army under his able generals including Hari Singh Nalwa, Prince Sher Singh and Attar Singh Atariwala. Azim Khan declared a Jehad or crusade against the Sikhs. On March 14, 1823 A.D. fierce battles took place between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Naushehra and Tibba, (also called Tibba Tehri). Akali Phoola Singh lost his life in this battle. Then the Sikh forces saw Ranjit Singh himself in the battle-field. His presence there awakened the spirit of self-confidence among the Sikh soldiers. Soon the Sikhs defeated Azim Khan.

4. Crushing the revolt of Sayyed Ahmed. Sayyed Ahmed a Wahabi leader organised a big army and declared Jehad (a religious war) against the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh firmly resolved to crush this revolt. In 1829 A.D. Sayyed Ahmed attacked Peshawar. Yaar Mohammad, who was under the Maharaja, could not face him. In the meantime, prince Sher Singh defeated Sayyed Ahmad in the battle of Balakot.

5. Annexation of Peshawar to the kingdom of Lahore. After 1831 A.D, Maharaja Ranjit Singh planned to bring Peshawar under his control. In 1834, he sent a large army under prince Naunihal Singh, Hari Singh Nalwa and General Ventura to conquer Peshawar. They besieged the fort and the city. But the Sikh army met with no opposition and it captured the city. Ranjit Singh annexed Peshawar to his kingdom and appointed Hari Singh Nalwa as the Governor of Peshawar.

6. Unsuccessful attempts by Dost Mohammad to recover Peshawar. In 1834 A.D. Dost Mohammad Khan, the Amir of Kabul, resolved to get back Peshawar from the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa was engaged in getting the fort of Jamrud repaired. This fort could prove to be a danger to Dost Mohammad Khan. That is why he sent an army of 18000 men under the command of his son, Muhammad Akbar against the Sikhs. A fierce battle was fought between them. At last the Sikhs came out victorious.

Question 5.
On what issues did Ranjit Singh and the British not agree?
Answer:
There were three main issues on which tension arose between Ranjit Singh and the English. These matters were the question of Sindh, the question of Shikarpur and the question of Ferozepur.
1. The Question of Sindh. Among the issues which created differences and bitterness between Ranjit Singh and the British, the problem of Sindh has a special place. Being situated on the South-western frontier of kingdom of Lahore, the territory of Sindh had a great military significance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government also knew quite well the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So, it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent its political agent of Lahore Col. Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission so that he could not judge the real intentions of the British. Although the nature of this Mission was friendly, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

2. The Question of Shikarpur. On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh was waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe made attacks on the border regions of kingdom of Lahore. Ranjit Singh tried to occupy Shikarpur by holding the Amirs-mf Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also closely watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent a military regiment under the command of Captain Wood to Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh was asked to retreat. Since Ranjit Singh was not powerful enough to face the British forces, he thought it wise to withdraw.

3. The Question of Ferozepur, 1835 A.D. The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the bilateral relations of Ranjit Singh and the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D, Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him capture it. The British Government itself captured Ferozepur in 1835 A.D., and after three years made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Activity:

Question 1.
In the given map Punjab, show the place of important conquests of Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations 1

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Name any four important conquests of Ranjit. Singh.
Answer:
Conquests of Peshawar, Lahore, Multan and Kashmir.

Question 2.
What was the name of the father of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Mahan Singh.

Question 3.
When did Ranjit Singh conquer Lahore?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

Question 4.
Name any four territories conquered by Ranjit Singh before 1812 A.D.
Answer:
Lahore, Amritsar, Sialkot and Jalandhar.

Question 5.
Name any four Misls conquered by Ranjit Singh.;
Answer:
Faizalpuria Misl, Krorsinghia Misl, Nakai Misl and Kanhaiya Misl.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 6.
Which was the first Misl?
Answer:
Faizalpuria Misl was the first Misl.

Question 7.
When did Ranjit Singh conquer Kashmir?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir in 1819 A.D.

Question 8.
Name any one powerful Misldar who extended hand of friendship towards Ranjit Singh instead of opposing him.
Answer:
Sada Kaur of Kanhaiya Misl.

Question 9.
What was the importance of conquest of Lahore by Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
By this conquest, he was able to occupy the capital of the Punjab.

Question 10.
Why was Ranjit Singh eager to conquer Multan?
Answer:
If Ranjit Singh could occupy Multan, the Muslim states could not forge a united front against him.

Question 11.
Mention any one benefit of conquest of Multan to Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The conquest of Multan ended the Afghan influence in the Punjab.

Question 12.
Why was Ranjit Singh so eager to conquer Peshawar? (Give one reason.)
Answer:
It was necessary for Ranjit Singh to capture Peshawar for the stability of his kingdom.

Question 13.
Write down any one main cause of the Sikh victory in the battle of Naushehra.
Answer:
The Sikhs fought this battle with a greater religious fervour than the Muslims,

Question 14.
Mention any one clause of the treaty of Amritsar (1809 A.D.).
Answer:
The river Sutlej would be the boundary between the kingdom of Ranjit Singh and the British territories.

Question 15.
Write down one disadvantage to Ranjit Singh from the Treaty of Amritsar.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh suffered a diplomatic defeat and had to put his pride in his pocket.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 16.
Write down one advantage to Ranjit Singh by the Treaty of Amritsar.
Answer:
The infant kingdom of Ranjit Singh was saved from the British danger because of this treaty.

Question 17.
What was the main advantage for the British by the treaty of Amritsar?
Answer:
The British had no worries about the problems of the North-west region.

Question 18.
What is called the period of “Guardianship of the Triad” or Truine?
Answer:
During the minority of Ranjit Singh, there were three regents who had all the powers of state in their hands.

Question 19.
Who was Sada Kaur?
Answer:
Sada Kaur was the mother-in-law of Ranjit Singh.

Question 20.
Who ruled Amritsar at the time of its invasion by Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Mai Sukhan.

Question 21.
What was the name of father of Ranjit Singh? What was the name of his Misl?
Answer:
Mahan Singh, the chief of the Sukherchakya Misl.

Question 22.
According to Dr. N.K. Sinha what was the policy of Ranjit Singh towards the British?
Answer:
Sinha has called it the policy of “yielding, yielding and yielding”.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 23.
Between whom the Tripartite Treaty was negotiated in 1839 A.D.?
Answer:
The British, Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Ranjit Singh was born in _________ at _________
Answer:
1780 A.D., Gujranwala

Question 2.
Ranjit Singh invaded Lahore in and easily occupied it by defeating the _________ chiefs.
Answer:
1799, Bhangi

Question 3.
Amritsar has become the_________capital of the Sikhs.
Answer:
religious

Question 4.
Ranjit Singh had been the victim of in his childhood. Due to this terrible disease he lost his _________
Answer:
Smallpox left eye

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 5.
In 1809 a treaty was signed between Ranjit Singh and the _________
Answer:
British

Question 6.
From 1828 to 1839 the relations between the British and Ranjit Singh started _________
Answer:
deteriorating

Question 7.
Tension arose between the British and Ranjit Singh on the matters of _________ and Ferozepur.
Answer:
Sindh, Shikarpur.

True or False :

Question 1.
The relations between Ranjit Singh and the British always remained cordial.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Ranjit Singh died in 1839.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 3.
Ranjit Singh did not conqure weak Misls.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The Residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of their Bhangi chiefs. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore.
Answer:
True.

Match the following :

Question 1.

1. Tripartite Treaty (a) 1839
2. Multan (b) 1805
3. Peshawar (c) 1834
4. Kashmir (d) 1818
5. Amritsar (e) 1819

Answer:
1, (a)
2. (d)
3. (c)
4. (e)
5, (b).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the coronation of Ranjit Singh,
Answer:
The coronation of Ranjit Singh took place with great pomp and show on the eve of Baisakhi at Lahore on April 12, 1801 A.D. He gave his government the name of Sarkar Khalsa. Ranjit Singh did not wear any crown. He issued his coins in the name of Guru Nanak Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Thus, Ranjit Singh recognised Khalsa as the supreme power. Imam Baksh was appointed as the kotwal of Lahore.

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Dera Jat by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
In order to conquer Dera Ghazi Khan, Ranjit Singh sent an army under Jamadar Khushal Singh in 1820 A.D. He captured Dera Ghazi Khan after defeating the Afghan ruler, Zaman Khan. Ranjit Singh gave this territory to the Nawab of Bahawalpur in lieu of a heavy amount to be given to him every year as a tribute. Ranjit Singh conquered Dera Ismail Khan and Mankera. Ranjit Singh took the territory of Mankera from its Nawab Ahmed Khan and made him the governor of Dera Ismail Khan.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 3.
Describe any four early conquests of Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Given below is the description of the four early conquests of Ranjit,Singh:
1. Conquest of Lahore. Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore at the very first opportunity. The Bhangi chiefs Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh escaped from Lahore. Only Chet Singh defied Ranjit Singh. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

2. Battle of Bhasin. The Sikh and the Muslim rulers of the surrounding areas were terrified at the victory of Ranjit Singh at Lahore. They decided to confront. Ranjit Singh by forming a powerful united front. A battle was fought at Bhasin in 1800 A.D. Ranjit Singh came out victorious in this battle without any bloodshed.

3. Conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh conquered Amritsar after the death of Gulab Singh. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh, was the ruler of that territory at that time. Mai Sukhan offered resistance for sometime but she gave way afterwards. In this way, Amritsar was merged in the territory of Ranjit Singh.

4. Relations with other Sikh Misls. Now Ranjit Singh also occupied the territories of Dallewala and Nakkai Misls.

Question 4.
Discuss the conquest of any four Misls by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh decided to capture the independent Sikh Misls. He befriended the rulers of Ahluwalia, Kanahiya and Ramgarhia Misls. He started occupying the territories of weaker Misls with their help.

A brief account of his conquest of these Misls is as given below:

  • Ranjit Singh defeated Dal Singh of Akalgarh in 1802 A.D. and merged his territory into his kingdom,
  • After the death of the ruler of Dallewalia Misl Sardar Tara Singh Gheba in 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh conquered most of his territories.
  • In the very next year, he defeated Jeewan Singh, the ruler of Sialkot and merged his territories into his kingdom,
  • He annexed the territories of Sardar Kahn Singh of Nakai Misl and those of Sardar Sahib Singh of Gujrat in 1810 A.D.

Question 5.
What were the important provisions of the Treaty of Amritsar?
Answer:
On April 2, 1809, A.D. Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar with the English. The main provisions of this treaty were:

  1. Both the governments shall maintain friendly relations with each other.
  2. The English would not interfere in the affairs of the territory to the north of the Sutlej and Ranjit Singh would not interfere in the affairs of the territory to the south of the Sutlej.
  3. The British government recognised Ranjit Singh as the most favoured power. He was assured that the English would have no concern with his state nor with the citizens of his kingdom. None would keep forces more than what was absolutely necessary.
  4. Ranjit Singh would keep only that much army in the south of the Sutlej which was necessary for the maintenance of law and order.
  5. If any party to the treaty violated its provision, the treaty would be considered cancelled.

Question 6.
What was the significance of the Treaty of Amritsar (1809)?
Answer:
The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Maharaja Ranjit Singh on April 25, 1809 A.D. This treaty was important from the historical point of view for the English as v/ell as the Sikhs. But opinions differ regarding the importance of this treaty. Due to this, the English and the Maharaja gained something but the Maharaja -was also a loser in some respects. The greatest desire of the Maharaja was to become the sole ruler of all the Sikhs. But his dream was shattered due to this treaty. He could never exercise his control over the states of Malwa. This treaty gave a terrible blow- to the power and prestige of Ranjit Singh.

This treaty extended the boundaries of the British rule from the Yamuna to the Sutlej. Because of its close vicinity to Ranjit Singh’s kingdom, the British government could keep a more strict watch over the foreign policy and the military activities of the Maharaja. Of course, the treaty was also useful to the Maharaja. The infant state of Punjab was saved from being destroyed. Besides, Ranjit Singh got an opportunity to extend the frontiers of his kingdom in other directions. Therefore, he greatly extended the boundaries of his state in the north-western region.

Question 7.
Discuss the importance of the battle of Naushehra (Four points only).
Answer:

  1. Nazim Shah was defeated by the Sikhs in the battle of Naushehra. He made his sons swear that they would avenge this defeat. Thus, there started between the Afghans and the Sikhs an enmity which continued for a long time.
  2. The Sikhs won a name for their bravery in the battle of Naushehra. After the battle of Haidru, Naushehra was the second place at which the Sikhs had thoroughly routed the Afghans in a battle in the plains. Consequently, the Sikhs developed self-confidence and adopted even more aggressive policy against the Afghans.
  3. As a result of this battle, the prestige of Ranjit Singh rose very high. His power was acknowledged throughout the Punjab. Besides, due to his victory in the battle of Naushehra, the Maharaja’s hold on the Afghan territories between the Indus and Peshawar became stronger.
  4. The Afghan power in the north-west of India was thoroughly eliminated after this battle.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 8.
Write a short note on the Tripartite Treaty (The British, Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh).
Answer:
In 1839 A.D., Russia was advancing towards Asia. The British feared that Russia might attack India through Afghanistan. So they wanted to establish friendship with Afghanistan. The British sent Col. Burns to Kabul so that he could negotiate a friendship treaty with Amir Dost Mohammad of Kabul. Dost Mohammad demanded that the British should hand over to him the province of Peshawar after acquiring it from Ranjit Singh. But friendship of Ranjit Singh was most essential and important for the British. So, they did not accept this term of Dost Mohammad and signed a treaty with Shah Shuja, a brother of Dost Muhammad. Ranjit Singh was also a party to this treaty. This treaty is known as the Tripartite treaty.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the main victories of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Following is the description of the conquests of Lahore, Amritsar, Attock, Multan and Kashmir by Ranjit Singh :
1. Conquest of Lahore. The conquest of Lahore was the first important achievement of Ranjit Singh. In those days, Lahore was under the rule of three Bhangi Sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these Sardars. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore. Ranjit Singh lost no time in attacking Lahore with a large army. On hearing the news of the attack, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh escaped from Lahore. Only Chet Singh offered some resistance to Ranjit Singh. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

2. Conquest of Amritsar. Ranjit Singh conquered Amritsar after the death of Gulab Singh Bhangi. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh was the ruler of that territory at that time. Ranjit Singh demanded the fort of Lohgarh situated at Amritsar and the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan. But Mai Sukhan refused. Ranjit Singh attacked Amritsar. Mai Sukhan put up resistance for sometime but she gave way afterwards. In this way, Amritsar was annexed to the kingdom of Ranjit Singh.

3. Conquest of Attock. An understanding was reached between Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan of Kabul in 1813 A.D. Accordingly, it was decided that Ranjit Singh would send 12 thousand soldiers to help Fateh Khan in the conquest of Kashmir and Fateh Khan in return would give him one-third of the conquered territories in addition to the booty received from thfere. Besides, Ranjit Singh promised to help Fateh Khan in his conquest of Attack, whereas Fateh Khan would help Ranjit Singh in the conquest of Multan.

The combined forces of Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan conquered Kashmir with great ease but Fateh Khan did not fulfil his promise. He also did not give anything out of the wealth plundered by him from Kashmir. Ranjit Singh attacked Attock in fury (according to the treaty, Fateh Khan was to occupy Attock). Ranjit Singh’s minister Azizuddin took Attock from Jahandad Khan and gave him one lakh rupees and a big jagir. Fateh Khan could not tolerate this. He attacked Attock with a big army immediately. A fierce battle was fought between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Hazro near Attock. The Sikhs came out victorious in this battle.

4. Conquest of Multan. The territory of Multan was important both from the military and commercial points of view. Ranjit Singh attacked Multan six times till 1818 A.D. But every time, the Pathan ruler of Multan, Muzzaffar Khan would save his skin by offering him heavy Nazrana. Ranjit Singh determined to occupy Multan and annex it to his kingdom. In 1818 A.D. he sent 25 thousand soldiers under Misar Dewan Chand and his own eldest son Kharak Singh to invade Multan. The Sikh army besieged the fort of Multan. Muzzaffar Khan fought the Sikh army bravely. But he was killed in the battle and Multan was occupied by the Sikhs.

5. Conquest of Kashmir. Fateh Khan, the Wazir of Afghanistan, had not given Ranjit Singhs his share of booty after the conquest of Kashmir. Now Ranjit Singh sent an army under Ram Dyal to conquer Kashmir. Ranjit Singh himself accompanied Ram Dyal to fight this battle but the Sikhs could not achieve success. He again sent an expedition under Misar Dewan Chand and prince Kharak Singh. Zabar Khan, the new governor of Kashmir, advanced to face the Sikh army but was badly defeated at Supin.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh, What was its importance?
Answer:
After the death of Gulab Singh Bhangi, his son Gurdit Singh became the ruler of Amritsar. He was a minor. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh, therefore, looked after the affairs of the state. Ranjit Singh was finding an opportunity to conquer Amritsar. In 1805 A.D., he found this opportunity. He requested Mai Sukhan to give him the famous Bhangi Gun ‘Zamzama’ because the Sukarchakia Misl had played a major role in capturing that gun from Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1764. Ranjit Singh also demanded Lohgarh Fort. It is said that Jodh Singh Ramgarhia, son of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, counselled Mai Sukhan to hand over the gun to Ranjit Singh. But she did not agree. Maharaja Ranjit Singh wanted to capture Amritsar at any cost.

The demand for the gun was only an excuse to invade Amritsar. He attacked Amritsar and captured Lohgarh. Sada Kaur and Fateh Singh Ahluwalia helped Ranjit Singh in this conquest. The Maharaja came out victorious. Thus, he occupied Amritsar and the Fort of Lohgarh. As proposed by Jodh Singh, Ranjit Singh gave Mai Sukhan and Gurdit Singh a small Jagir for their maintenance. Akali Phoola Singh of Amritsar, who was a great warrior, alongwith his 2000 Nihang followers joined the army of Ranjit Singh.

Importance of the Conquest of Amritsar :
Following is the importance of the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh :

  1. It was the religious capital of the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh became the master of this historic city of the Sikhs.
  2. As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, the military power of Ranjit Singh increased. The Fort of Lohgarh proved a boon for the Maharaja. He also got the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan.
  3. Ranjit Singh acquired the services of Akali Phoola Singh and his 2000 Nihang followers. Because of the extraordinary courage and bravery of the’ Nihangs, Ranjit Singh achieved many glorious victories.
  4. As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh’s name and fame spread far and wide. Many’ Indians left the service of the East India Company and got employment with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Many Europeans also joined the army of the Maharaja.

Question 3.
Describe the relations of Ranjit Singh with the British from 1809-1839 A.D.
Answer:
On 25th April, 1809 A.D., the Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the British and Ranjit Singh. Although this treaty had ended the possibility of an immediate armed conflict, yet it could not end the feelings of doubt and fear growing in the minds of both powers.

After this treaty, until 1839 A.D., the Anglo-Sikh relations had to pass through the following stages:
Period of mutual distrust and suspicion (1809-1811). from 1809 to 1811 A.D. both Ranjit Singh and the British Government looked upon each other with distrust and suspicion. Both sides had imaginary fears against each other. Each of them had engaged spies to know about the military and diplomatic strategies of the other.

But gradually this mutual distrust lessened and by 1812 A.D. it was almost over.

Anglo-Sikh relations from 1812 to 1822 A.D. During the decade of 1812 to 1822 A.D., mutual cooperation and friendly relations existed between the British and Ranjit Singh.
1. Ranjit Singh’s refusal to help Nepal. In 1815 A.D. when a Gorkha Vakil came to seek help from the Maharaja against the British, he clearly refused. In the. first British-Nepal war (1814-15A.D.), the Maharaja, by helping the British, proved his friendship with them. Likewise, when in 1821 A.D. the representative of Appa Sahib Maratha came to seek help against the British, the Maharaja refused him blankly. On the other hand, the British made no interference in the affairs of Ranjit Singh in the North-west of the Sutlej.

2. Question of Wadni. In the beginning of 1822 A.D., there was some bitterness in the mutual relations of the British and Ranjit Singh regarding Wadni, a village situated in the south of the Sutlej. During his cis-Sutlej expedition in 1808 A.D., Ranjit Singh handed over this region to his mother-in-law Sada Kaur in exchange for twelve thousand rupees. But in 1820 A.D., Ranjit Singh imprisoned Sada Kaur and recaptured Wadni. Rani Sada Kaur sought the help of the British. The British resident at Ludhiana sent a British regiment that occupied Wadni. The Maharaja expressed his annoyance to the Governor-General. So in 1823 A.D. the Governor-General again accepted the suzerainty of Ranjit Singh over Wadni.

3. Cordiality again. Ranjit Singh tried his level best to maintain friendly relations with the British. In 1825-26 A.D., the chief of Bharatpur sought Ranjit Singh’s military help but the Maharaja refused. In 1826 A.D. Maharaja Ranjit Singh fell ill. On his request, the British Government sent Dr. Murray to Lahore. As a result, friendly relations were restored between the two sides for some time.

The estrangement of relations again. From 1828 to 1839 A.D. the relations between the ruler of Lahore and the British Government started deteriorating.

During this period, the following events created tension between them :
1. Increasing Power of Ranjit Singh. During the last ten years, Ranjit Singh had greatly increased his power by conquering Multan, Kashmir, Deraj at and Peshawar, etc. The British Government was jealous of the increasing power of Ranjit Singh. So, on the one hand, the British Government started adopting the policy of encircling the kingdom of Lahore from different directions. On the other hand, it pretended friendship with the Maharaja.

2. The Question of Sindh. Among the issues which created differences and bitterness in the relations, between Ranjit Singh and the British, the issue of Sindh was very complex. This region being situated in the South-west of Lahore, had a great military significance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government also well understood the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So, it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent one of its officers Alexander Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a Commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission, so that he could not judge the real intentions of the British. Although it seemed to be a friendly mission, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

3. Meeting at Ropar between Ranjit Singh and William Bentinck. (Imp.) The Governor-General Lord William Bentinck very well knew about the doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh. The fear of Russian attack on India was also spreading fast. The British Governor-General did not want that in that hour of crisis their relations with the Maharaja should deteriorate. Instead, he wanted that the relations with the Sikh ruler should be cemented and he should also know about the increasing influence of the British in Sindh. To achieve this purpose, on October 1831 A.D., Lord William Bentinck met the Maharaja at Ropar. But at the same time, he sent Col. Pottinger to make a commercial treaty with the Amirs of Sindh.

The negotiations between the Governor-General and Ranjit Singh were still going on in Ropar, when an important treaty was signed between the British and the Amirs of Sindh by the efforts of Col. Pottinger. Ranjit Singh returned disappointed from the meeting at Ropar.

4. The Question of Shikarpur. On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh had been waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe attacked the border regions of Lahore Kingdom. Ranjit Singh tried to occupy Shikarpur by holding the Amirs of Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent a military regiment under the command of Captain Wood to Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh was asked to retreat. Since Ranjit Singh was not powerful enough to fight against the British, he thought it wise to withdraw.

5. The Question of Ferozepur, 1835 A.D. The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the relations of Ranjit Singh with the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D. Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him occupy it. The British Government itself captured Ferozepur in 1835 A.D. and after three years made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

6. Tripartite Treaty. In 1839 A.D., Russia was advancing towards Asia. The British feared that Russia might attack India through Afghanistan. So they wanted to establish friendship with Afghanistan. The British sent Col. Burns to Kabul so that he could negotiate a friendship treaty with Amir Dost Mohammad the ruler of ‘ that country. Dost‘Mohammad was willing to sign the treaty on the condition that the British should hand over to him the province of Peshawar by taking it from Ranjit Singh. But friendship of Ranjit Singh was most essential and important for the British. So, they did not accept this term of Dost Mohammad. On his part, Dost Mohammad entered into a treaty with Russia. It was a big challenge for the British. They made an agreement with Shah Shuja, the former ruler of Afghanistan.

Ranjit Singh was also a party to this agreement. It is known as the Tripartite Treaty. Ranjit Singh signed this treaty but he did not sign an important clause of it. It was, “That the armies of the British can attack Kabul by passing through Punjab.” But Ranjit Singh was afraid that the British would certainly violate this clause. So in the last years of his reign, he tried to take many steps against the British. But, Ranjit Singh died in 1839 A.D.

It is a fact that from 1809 A.D. to 1839 A.D. Ranjit Singh adopted the policy of maintaining a friendship with the British. He had decided that he will not fight with the British, whatever sacrifice he might have to make. Keeping in view his yielding policy on every occasion before the demands of the British, Dr. N.K. Sinha has called it the policy of “yielding, yielding and yielding.”

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Birth and Parentage. Ranjit Singh was born at Gujranwala in 1780 A.D. His father, Mahan Singh was the chief of the Sukarchakiya. Misl. The name of Ranjit Singh’s mother was Raj Kaur.
  • Childhood. He had fallen a victim to smallpox in his childhood. Thus, due to it, he lost his left eye. He was just 10 years old when he along with his father, began to take part in the battles. He had all the qualities of a brave warrior from his very childhood.
  • Marriage. Ranjit Singh was married to Mehtab Kaur, the daughter of Sada Kaur and granddaughter of Jai Singh of Kanheya Misl. When Ranjit Singh took over the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl, these matrimonial relations helped him a lot in increasing his power.
  • Occupation of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. In 1792 A.D. Ranjit Singh took over the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl. In 1799 A.D., when he was 19 years old, Shah Zaman, the ruler of Kabul, granted Lahore to Ranjit Singh. He immediately invaded Lahore and easily occupied it by defeating the Bhangi chiefs.
  • Early Conquests. In 1802, he conquered Amritsar. Next, he started his march towards Sirhind between the Sutlej and Jamuna. But the English did not let him do so.
  • Treaty of Amritsar. In 1809 A.D. Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar with the English. After this treaty, he began to extend his empire to a large extent in the North-west.
  • Important Conquests. Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in 1799 A.D., Amritsar 1802, Multan (1818), Kashmir (1819) and Peshawar (1834). Thus, he succeeded in establishing a vast empire.
  • Death. Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in June 1839.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The word Punjab is derived from two-Persian words, Panj (five) and Aab (water or river). Thus Punjab is the region of five waters. These five rivers are Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. The Punjab is situated on the North West of India. In 1947, After the partition of India, Punjab was partitioned into two parts. The western part of Punjab was transfered to Pakistan and eastern part of Punjab became North Western Province of Independent Republic of India. In Pakistani Punjab, which is called Western Punjab, three rivers are flowing namely Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. In Indian Punjab which is called East Punjab only two rivers are flowing namely Beas and Satluj. The name Punjab is so much popular that the residents of both the Bunjabs called their Punjab as only Punjab instead of west or east-. We will study in this book about medieval ancient Punjab between Yamuna and Sind rivers.
(а) Name the words and language from which the word Punjab has been derived. Write its meaning also.
Answer:
The world Punjab is combination of two Persian words Panj and Aab which means region of five waters or five rivers.

(b) After Partition of India, why the Word Punjab had not remained so appropriate?
Answer:
Before partition, Punjab was region of five rivers. But due to partition, its three rivers became the part of Pakistan and the remaining the Beas and Satluj remained in Present Punjab.

(c) Write briefly about any three Doabs.
Answer:

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. This part is not much fertile.
  2. Chhaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. The Important cities of this Doab are Gujrat, Bhera and Shahpur.
  3. Rachna Doab. It is the region between rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the Important towns of this Doab.

Question 2.
The Afghan Chiefs were annoyed at Stiff attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. To show their discontentment, they made a plan to declare Alam Khan as ruler of Delhi. They decided to take help of Babur for this. But in 1524 A.D., After managing his victorious areas Babar had just reached the Kabul that Daullat Khan Lodhi after gathering his army seized Lahore from Abdul Aziz. After this, he vacated Sultanpur from Dilawar Khan and also defeated Alam Khan in Dipalpur.
Alam Khan went to Kabul in Babur’s Asylum. Then Daultat Khan Lodhi attacked Sialkot but failed. In order to supress the rising power of Daulat Khan and to eradicate Babur’s army from Punjab, Ibrahim Lodhi again deployed his army. Daulat Khan Lodhi gave crushing defeat to the army. As a result of which independent rule of Daulat Khan was established in central Punjab.
(а) Describe any two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:

  1. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to understand the nature and habits of the Afghans.
  2. He tried to discipline the Afghans but failed miserably in his policy.

(b) Why Dilawar Khan Lodhi went to Delhi? How Ibrahim Lodhi treated him?
Answer:
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position
regarding his relations with his father. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severly punish his father for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture which were inflicted on the rebels and after word he was imprisoned. Somehow, he managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi. On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts, the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Before Guru Nanak Devi Ji, Punjab was ruled by Muslims. That is why Muslims could get high position in government. They were treated with respect. Judiciary was in favour of them.

At that time, Muslim society was divided into four sections—Amir and Sardars, Ulema and Sayyad, Middle class and slave.
Women did not enjoy a respectable position in the muslim society. There were harems of women in havelis of Amirs and Sardars (Nobles). The women belonging to Amir and Sardars lived in harems. The Slaves and concubines were provided- to serve them. The Purdah system preveiled at that time. The women of the families of common muslim lived in separate part of the house partitioned by purdah. Their portion was called. ‘Janan Khana’. -They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Purdah. This system was not strictly observed in the rural areas. ‘
(а) Define the Classes into which the Muslim Society was divided.
Answer:
At the end of fifteen century, Muslim society was divided into three classes

  1. Amirs (Nobles) high ranking commanders and Sardars
  2. Ulemas and Sayyad’s
  3. Middle class and the slaves.

(b) Mention the position of women in the Muslim Society.
Answer:
A description of condition of Muslim women is as given below:

  1. (i) Women did not enjoy respectable position in the Muslim society.
  2. (ii) The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
  3. The Purdah System was prevalent in the society. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rural areas.
  4. The women of the families of the common people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called ‘Janan Khana’. They could come out from here only after wearing Burka.

Question 4.
After enlightenment, when Guru Nanak Dev ji returned to Sultanpur Lodhi, he was silent. When he was compeled to speak, then he said only this, “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. When Daulat Khan, Brahman and Kazis asked the meaning of this phrase, then Guru Sahib said that Hindus and Muslims both had forgotten the real principles of their respective religions. The meaning of these words were also that there is no difference between Hindus and Muslims and both are equal. He started giving his message in these importnat words. Guru Ji spent his remaining life in spreading this message. After resigning from his job, Guru ji started long udasis.
(а) What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining enlightenment and explain their meaning?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. The meaning of his message was that Hindus and Mulsims both had distraced from the path of their respecitve religions.

(b) Describe briefly the views of Guru Nanak Dev ji about God.
Answer:

  1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev ji gave the message that there is one God and could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
  2. God is Formless and Self Created. Guru Nanak Dev ji preached that the Supreme Godis formless, without attributes and absolute. Even then the Supreme God has attributes which cannot be explained in words. Guru Nanak Sahib further taught that god is Self-Created and not bounded by the laws of time. Hence, he cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
  3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of the temple or mosque.
  4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji-, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of his grace and greatness.
  5. God is Compassionate (kind). According to Guru Nanak Dev ji, God is compassionate. He helps to his true seekers whenever they need them.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 5.
To see the indifferent attitude of Guru Nanak Dev ji towards worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu ji remained sad. In order to change his thinking, Mehta Kalu ji had given him duty of grazing buffalos. Guru ji took the animals towards fields but did not pay attention to them. They remained involved in meditation of God. Buffalos used to destroy the crops. Mehta Kalu ji had to bear many complaints about this. After hearing these complaints, Mehta ji gave the work of farming to Guru ji. Mehta ji gave twenty rupees to him and advised him to spend this in market for true and profitable deal. But due to his young age, Mehta ji sent Bhai Balaji with him. On the way, they met with the group of Saints. Guru ji spent that money in feeding hungry Saints. Mehta Ji was very disappointed when Guru ji returned empty handed. When he demanded the detail of twenty rupees, then guru ji explained the truth. This incident is called Sachha Sauda.
What is the meaning of Sachha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sachha Sauda is pious deal or in other words, a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev ji made pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the hungry Saints.

(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev ji had started showing his disinterest in education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest in worldy affairs. While on cattle grazing round, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into the fields of other people. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in the business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev ji spent all the money in feeding the hungry Saints. This incident of his life is popular as Sachha Sauda or the Pious Deal.

Question 6.
Guru Angad Dev ji continued Langar System, which was started by Guru Nanak Dev ji. This sy stem continued even at the time of Guru Amar Dass ji.
Guru Ji had made a rule according to which nobody would come in his presence without first partaking food. Mughal emperor Akbar and king of Haripur also had to partake food before meeting Guru Sahib, So this system proved to be powerful aid in propaganda work.
(а) Define Langar System.
Answer:
The Langar system or Pangat System refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food.

(b) What is the meaning of Manji System and Why was it started?
Answer:
Manji system was started by Guru Amar Dass ji. The no. of his Sikh followers had increased immensly by the time of Guru Amar Dass ji, However, Guru Amar Dass ji was very old and It was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees. The Manji System had great significance in the history of Sikh religion. Dr. Gokal Chand Narang says that this work of Guru Sahib consolidated the foundation of Sikh religion and helped to spread Guru’s teachings in the all parts of the country.

Question 7.
Guru Arjan Dev ji raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ in 1588 A.D. It is considered that Sufi Fakir Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without distinction. Bhai Budda Singh ji and Bhai Gurdas ji supervised the v. ork of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and was completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harminder Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

The construction work of Sri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar was an important task to firmly strengthen the Sikh religion. With this, Sikhs need not visit Hindu pilgrimage. Amritsar had become Mecca and Ganga Benaras of Sikhs.
(а) When and who laid the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Answer:
The foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib was laid in 1589 A.D. by the renowned Sufi Saint of his times Mian Mir.

(b) Write about Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev ji had raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ after the final union of Guru Ram Dass Ji with the Divine Power. Sufi Fakir, Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without any distinction. Bhai Budda ji supervised the work of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and got it completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Harmandir Sahib soon became Mecca and Ganga—Benaras or main centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

Question 8.
Two Mughal Emperors, Akbar and Jahangir were contemporary to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Since the aim of preaches of gurus was to constitute a society where there will be no privilege given to caste, post, blind faith and strong religious beliefs. For this, Akbar used to like gurus. But Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. He was troubled by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji. After sometime, Prince Khusro revolted against his father Jahangir. When Royal army chased Khusro, then he ran away and came to Punjab and met Guru ji. On this, Jahangir who was already against Guru ji, fined Guru ji Rs. two lakh for helping rebilious Khusro. Guru ji refused to pay this fine considering it as an unappropriate. For this Guru ji was sentenced to death by giving physical torture in 1606 A.D.
(а) Why did Jahangir want to kill Guru Arjan Dev ji?
Answer:
The Mughal Emperor Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. Jahangir was perturbed (troubled) by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were also coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji.

(b) Write a note on the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev ji.
Answer:
The Mughal Emperor Akbar had very cordial relations with Pancham Padshah (Sikh Guru) Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, Jahangir, the next Mughal’emperor abondoned the policy of toleration after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was on the look out for an opportunity to give mortal blow to Sikh religion. In the meantime, Prince Khusro, the son of Jahangir, revolted against his father. After getting defeat at the hands of his father, Khusro came to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Guru Sahib blessed him. Jahangir imposed a fine of two lakh rupees on Guru Sahib on the charge of helping rebellious Khusro. Guru Sahib refused to pay the fine. As a result, Guru Sahib was detained and subjected to severe torture. It infuriated the Sikhs. The Sikhs learned that the only course then left with them was to rise in arms for the protection of their religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
Guru Gobind Singh ji was the tenth and the last guru of Sikhs. Guru Nanak Dev ji founded Sikh religion. His successors spread Sikh religion. The work was completed by Guru Gobind Singh ji.
He gave final shape to Sikh religion by establishing Khalsa in 1699 A.D. He developed the spirit of heriosm, courage and unity among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave a strong reply to the opression of Mughals with limited resources and lesser number of Sikh soldiers. Before his final union with divine power, he ended the guru system and gave his divine power to Granth Sahib Ji and Khalsa. For this, he had qualities of a spiritual leader, supreme organiser, general by birth, impressive scholar and best reformer at the same time. ”
(а) When and where Guru Gobind Rai ji was born? Write the names of his parents.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Rai Ji was born on 22nd December 1666 A.D. at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Teg Bahadur ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujari ji.

(b) Describe the personality of Guru Gobind Singh ji as a General.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh was a successful military commander and a brave soldier. Guru Sahib fought every battle courageously and established himself as a successful General. Guru Sahib had complete mastery over sword play, archery and horse riding. Guru Sahib had all the qualities of a commander of high calibre. Guru Sahib had made the Mughals and hill chiefs to lick dust even with the lesser number of soldiers and limited resources. During the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib had hardly forty Sikhs in his army. But under his command, they displayed such a spectacular fighting skill that the Mughal army of thousands, failed to defeat him.

Question 10.
In 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi, Guru Gobind Rai ji convened a assembly of Sikh followers at Anandpur Sahib. On that day, his nearly 80,000 Sikh followers gathered there. When all the people had settled down, then Guru Sahib brandished his sword and gave a call. “Is there any true Sikh of mine, who is ready to die for Dharma.” Guru Sahib repeated these words thrice. Third time, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and bowed before Guru Sahib. Guru ji took him to nearby tent and returned after sometime with a sword with blood dropping from it. Guru ji repeated his call. This time Dharam Dass jat of Delhi offered himself. Guru Sahib also took him to the tent. In this way, Guru Ji demanded five heads and five men, Bhai Mohkam Chand (Washerman of Dwarka), Bhai Sahib Chand (Barber of Bidar) and Bhai Himmat Rai (Kahar of Jagan Nath Puri) besides Bhai Daya Ram and Bhai Dharam Dass offered their heads to Guru ji. After some time, Guru ji brought that five men before gathering, wearing saff and colored beautiful clothes.

At that time, Guru ji himself had worn saffron coloured clothes. People were surprised to see that five men. Guru ji blessed them with title of ‘Panj Pyare’ collectively.
(а) When and where was Khalsa created?
Answer:
In Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi.

(b) Describe the principles of Khalsa.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh ji created Khalsa in 1699 A.D. Guru Sahib made the following rules for the Khalsa.

  1. Every Sikh would add ‘Singh’ (lion) after his name. Every Sikh woman would add word ‘Kaur’ after her name.
  2. Before becoming Khalsa, every person has to drink Khande-ke-Pahaul. Only after that he will be declared Khalsa.
  3. Every Sikh must wear five Ks. which are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (the iron bangle), Kirpan (dagger) and Kachchera (a pair of shorts).
  4. Every Sikh shall recite the five prayers after taking bath every morning, which are recited when the Khande ka Pahul is prepared.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 11.
The main target of the military expedition of Banda Singh Bahadur was Sirhind where Subedar Wazir Khan lived, who had troubled Guru Gobind Singh ji throughout his life. He had sent army against Guru ji in battles of Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. At this place his younger sons were bricked alive in a wall. Wazir Khan had murdered thousands of innocent Sikhs and Hindus. That is why, Banda Bahadur and Sikhs had great anger on Wazir Khan. As the news of Banda, Bahadur marching towards Sirhand in Punjab, spread, thousands of people rallied under the flag of Banda Bahadur. A nephew of Suchha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhind administration also joined the invading Sikh army along with his one thousand soldiers. On the other side, number of Wazir Khan’s soldiers were 20000. In his army, besides horsemen, there were gunmen and cannon firemen and elephant riders.
(a) What were the orders, given by Guru Gobind Singh ji to the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnamas?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh ji instructed the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnama to consider Banda Bahadur as their leader in their struggle against the Mughals.

(b) Describe battles of Chhapparchiri and Sirhind.
Answer:
The Subedar of Sirhand Wazir Khan had troubled Guru Gobind Singh ji throughout his stay in Punjab. Besides, the two young Sahibzadas were bricked alive in a wall on his orders. So Banda Bahadur wanted to avenge the heinous crimes committed by Wazir Khan. As he marched towards Sirhind, many people rallied under his flag. A nephew of Sucha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhand administration, also joined the Sikh army along with his thousand soldiers. However, later he deserted the Sikh army. On the otherside, Wazir Khan had twenty thousand soldiers at his disposal. On May 22, 1710 A.D. a fierce battle between two armies took place at Chapparchiri, a place 16 kilometers away from Sirhind, Wazir Khan was slain in this battle. The enemy army became the victim of the swords of Sikhs in large numbers. The dead body of Wazir Khan was hanged from a tree. Suchha Nand, who had master minded the attrocities on Sikhs, his nose was pierced and was paraded, in the town.

Question 12.
In 1837 A.D., The Governor-General of India, General, Lord Auckland was feared at the increasing influence of Russia in Afghanistan. He also felt that Dost Mohammad was establishing friendly relations with Russia, a enemy of British. In these situations, Lord Auckland wanted to make ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja (Former ruler of Afghanistan who lived on Pension from British) instead of Dost Mohammad. For this, on 26th June 1838 A.D. with the permission of British Government, there was Treaty between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja which is called Tripartite Treaty. According to this treaty Shah Shuja would be the ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja accepted the right over all areas (Kashmir, Multan, Peshawar, Attuck, Derafat etc.) conquered by Maharaja from Afghans. Maharaja did not accept one term of the treaty that during Afghan war, he would let the English forces pass from his area. On this, the relations between Maharaja and British bittered. Maharaja died on June 1839 A.D.
(а) When was Ranjit Singh born? What was his father’s name?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 A.D. His father’s name was Mahan Singh.

(b) What was the Tripartite Treaty?
Answer:
The Tripartite Treaty was signed between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja in 1838 A.D. The terms of this treaty were as under :

  1. The territories conquered by Ranjit Singh would not be included in the Kingdom of Shah Shuja.
  2. No party would help any foreign power.
  3. Ranjit Singh would be allowed to control that-part of Sindh which he had quite recently conquered.
  4. Enemy of one would be considered as the enemy of other two signatories of the treaty.
  5. Whatever decision the British and Ranjit Singh would take in the matter of Sindh, would be accepable to Shah Shuja.
  6. Shah Shuja would not establish relations with any country without the consent of Ranjit Singh and British.

Question 13.
Although, Lord Hardinge, after defeating Sikhs did not include Punjab in British empire, but he certainly weakened the Lahore Government. British occupied southern areas of Satluj of Lahore state. He occupied fertile areas of Doab Bist Jalandhar. Kashmir, Kangra. Hilly states of Hazara were freed from Lahore. Army of Lahore state was reduced. A large amount of money was recovered from Lahore state. Punjab was weakened so much on economic and army front that when the english desired, they could occupy.
(а) Who was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

(b) What were the terms of second treaty of Lahore?
Answer:
The second Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British and Sikhs on 11th March, 1846 A.D. The terms of the treaty were as under.

  1. British Government will keep large force in Lahore in the security of Maharaja Dalip Singh and inhabitants of Lahore. These forces would remain there upto 1846 A.D.
  2. Lahore city and fort would remain in control of British.
  3. Lahore government signed a treaty on 9 March 1846 A.D. by which it was decided that Lahore government will respect the jagirdars and officials of the area given to the English.
  4. Lahore government will have no right to seize the cannons, property, treasury from the forts given to English.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 14.
On January, 1848, Lord Dalhousie became the Governor-General of India in place of Lord Hardinge. He believed in expansion of Brisith empire in India. First of all he decided to include Punjab in British Empire. British got the opportunity to fight with Sikhs on revolt by Mool Raj of Multan and Chattar Singh of Hazara and his son Sher Singh. After the defeat of Sikhs in Second Anglo Sikh War the work of real shape of already decided was given to foreign secreatary Henery Elliot. He compeled the members of Council of Regency to sign a treaty. According to that treaty, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned. British occupied the whole property of Punjab. Kohinoor Diamond was sent to Queen of England (Victoria) A pension of Rs. 4 Lakh-5 Lakh was settled for Dalip Singh. On that day, Henry Elliot narrated a declaration paper written by Lord Dalhousie in Lahore Darbar. In this declaration, the decision of inclusion of Punjab in British Empire was justified.
(а) When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire? Who was the Governor-General of India at that time?
Answer:
Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849 A,D. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.

(b) What do you know about Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Answer:
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Punjab (Lahore State). He was minor at the time of First Anglo-Sikh war. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal of 1846 A.D., a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration of the Lahore Darbar. It was to run the administration till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh. But the Sikh forces lost the Second Anglo-Sikh war. As a result of it, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and given a pension of 4-5 lakhs annually. Punjab became the part of British Empire.

Question 15.
Many cow slaughterers were killed by attacking on slaughterhouses of Amritsar and Raikot. Many in Kukas were openly hanged but they did not get back from their objectives. On January 1872 A.D., a group of 150 Kukas reached Malerkotla to punish cow slaughterers. On 15 January 1872, there was great fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many people were killed on both sides. British government sent forces in Malerkotla to take action against Kukas. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by the cannons on 17th January 1872 A.D. Other 16 Kukas were also blown off by cannons fire on 18th January 1872 A.D. after a trial. Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was deported to Rangoon. Many Namdharis were sent to Kala Pani. Many were drowned to death in a sea. Properties of many Kukas was confiscated. In this way, British government did many attrocites. But this wave continued up till 15th August 1947 A.D. untill India became independent.
(а) Why did Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji show non-cooperation with the British Government?
Answer:
Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was opposed to the foreign government, foreign administration and foreign goods.

(b) Describe the tragedy that occured between the Namdharis and Britishers in Malerkotla.
Answer:
Namdharis had started the work of protection of cows. For the protection of cows, they began to kill butchers. In January 1872 A.D. a group of 150 Kukas (Namdharis) reached Malerkotla to punish Cow slaughterers, On 15th January, there was a staff fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many peoples were killed on both sides. British government sent his special force to Malerkotla. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by cannon on 17th January 1872 A.D. After a trial, other 16 Kukas were also killed by cannon on 18th January 1872 A.D.

Question 16.
In an atmosphere of unrest and anger, about 20,(TOO people from Amritsar and nearby villages assembled at Jallianwala Bagh on Baisakhi day 13th April 1919. General Dyer declared these type of meetings illegal on that day at 9.30 A.M. But people did not know about it. That is why the meeting was continuing.
General Dyer got an opportunity to avenge the massacre -of the five Britishers. He arrived at the entrance gate of Jallianwala Bagh with 150 soldiers. There was only one narrow street to reach the garden. General Dyer standing on that street, ordered the people to get out within three minutes. But it was not possible. After three minutes, General Dyer gave shoot order. About 1000 people were killed and more than 3000 were injured. After the incident of Jallianwala Bagh, the country’s independence wave got new direction. The revenge of this incident was taken by Sardar Udham Singh after 21 years by shooting dead Sir Michel O’Dyer (who was Lieutenant governor at the time of incident).
(а) Who took the revenge of Jallinwala Bagh Massacre and How?
Answer:
Shaheed Udham Singh took revenge of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Twenty-one years after the massacre, he shot dead Michel O’ Dwyer in England.

(b) What were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Answer:
Following were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

  1. Rowlatt Acts. In 1919 A.D., the British Government passed the Rowlatt Act. According to which police was given special powers to crush the people. So the people oppossed it.
  2. Arrest of Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. Strikes were called at many places in Punjab to protest against the Rowlatt Act. Violent incidents occurs in some cities. So the Government arrested two popular leaders of Punjab Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. This enraged the people.
  3. Murder of some Britishers. Police opened fire on the excited people at Amritsar. In return, people killed five Englishmen. So the administration of Amritsar was handed over to General Dyer.
    To express anger against these incidents, a meeting was being held at Jallianwala Bagh Amritsar, where tragedy occured.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 17.
Group of Akalis started vacating gurdwaras from corrupt Mahants. They got vacated Gurudwara Punja Sahib situated at Hasan Abdal, Gurudwara Sachha Sauda of District Shaikhupura and Gurudwara Chola Sahib of Amritsar District. Akalis fought with Mahants at Tarantaran. Similar incidents happened at Gurudwara Baba Ki Ber at Sialkot and Gurdwara Gajra at District Layalpur (Faislabad). Even then, Akalis remained in struggle to vacate Gurudwaras. There occured incident at Gurdwara Nankana Sahib on 20th February 1921 when group of Akali gathered at gurdwara peacefully. There Mahant Narayan Dass of thfit Gurdwara got massacred 30 Akalis. British Government did not show any sympathy to Akalis. But Muslims and Hindus of Sarparant showed sympathy to Akalis.
(a) Why was the key Morcha Organised?
Answer:
The keys of the treasury of Sri Harnaandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Sikhs launched the Morcha to secure the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

(b) Describe the incident of Guru Ka Bagh.
Answer:
Gurudwara ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ is situated 13 KM away from Amritsar at Ajnala Tehsil. This Gurudwara was in the hands of a corrupt person named Mahant Sunder Dass. The Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee sent a Jatha under the leadership of Dan Singh on 23rd August, 1921 A.D. to take over the charge of the Gurudwara in its hands. The Englishmen arrested the members of this Jatha.

This incident further enraged the Sikhs. Sikhs sent more and more Jathas. These Jathas were badly treated and tortured by the Englishmen. All the political parties of the country criticised this action of the British. In the end, Akalis won the ‘Guru Ka Bagh Morcha’ in peaceful manner.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Who was Behlol Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Behlol Lodhi was the Sultan of Delhi from 1450 to 1489. He established the rule of the Lodhi dynasty.

Question 2.
Describe any one quality of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was a good soldier.

Question 3.
Describe two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:

  1. Ibrahim Lodhi himself was an Afghan (Pathan) but he failed to understand the freedom-loving nature and habits of the Afghans, his own tribesmen.
  2. He abandoned the policy of his father and grandfather and tried to discipline the Afghans. He failed miserably in his policy.

Question 4.
When did Babur conquer Punjab and whom did he defeat in this battle?
Answer:
Babur won a victory in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Delhi Sultan.

Question 5.
Define the classes into which the Muslim society was divided.
Answer:
The Muslim society was divided into three classes:

  1. Amirs (nobles) high ranking commanders, Ulemas and Sayyids (Muslim clergy)
  2. Middle Class and
  3. the Slaves.

Question 6.
What do you know about the Ulemas?
Answer:
The Ulemas were the leaders of Muslim religious class. They were scholars of Arabic and religious literature.

Question 7.
What was the difference between the food of the Hindu and the Muslim societies?
Answer:
The food of Amirs, high-ranking military officers, Sayyids, Sheikhs, Qazis and Muslim priests was rich and non-vegetarian. But the food of the Hindus was simple and mostly vegetarian.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 8.
Who were the Sayyids?
Answer:
The Sayyids claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad. This class is highly respected in the Muslim society.

Question 9.
Describe the Muslim Middle Class.
Answer:
The Muslim Middle Class consisted of middle-ranking government officials, soldiers, traders and farmers. Their financial condition was good. In the Muslim society, the people holding the government posts were considered as the members of the middle class of the society.

Question 10.
Describe the dress of the Muslim women.
Answer:
The Muslim women wore shirts, ghaghras, and tight pajamas, covering their whole body. They covered their whole body with a cloak called Burka.

Question 11.
Describe the sources of entertainment of the Muslims.
Answer:
The main sources of entertainment of Muslim nobles, Amirs and military commanders were polo, horse riding, dance and music. The game of chess was equally popular among the Amirs or the Upper Class and the poor section of Muslim society or the Lower Class.

Question 12.
What is meant by Social Classes?
Answer:
A society is generally divided into different classes having their separate characteristics.

Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words :

Question 1.
Describe the religious policy of Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
According to Muslim historians, Sikander Lodhi was an intelligent ruler, who believed in welfare of his subjects and impartial justice. However, Dr. Indu Bhushan Banerjee strongly opposes this view. According to him, he did justice only to the Muslim section of his subjects. He was a highly oppressive ruler and adopted the policy of intolerance in case of his Hindu subjects. He demolished numerous temples and forcibly converted many Hindus to Muslim faith. Millions of Hindus became victims of his atrocities.

Question 2.
Describe the administration of Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
Sikander Ledhi was a powerful ruler. He centralized his administration and kept all the nobles and feudal lords under his strict control. He appointed Daulat Khan . Lodhi as Nazim of Punjab. The boundaries of Punjab extended from Bhera to Sirhind at that time. Dipalpur was an important Suba of the Punjab province. However, Dipalpur was under nominal control of Lodhi Emperor.

Sikander Lodhi worked for public welfare and considered it his main duty to solve the problems of his subjects. Unfortunately, he adopted this policy only in case of his, Muslim subjects. But he did not treat Hindus well.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 3.
Describe the revolts during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
The following two major revolts took place against the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.

  1. The Revolt of Afghans (Pathans). Ibrahim Lodhi tried to discipline the freedom-loving Afghan tribesmen. The Afghans did not tolerate it. They, therefore, rose in revolt under the leadership of Alam Khan, an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to crush their revolt.
  2. Revolt in Punjab. Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab. He was also an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. He was annoyed by the stiff, obstinate and suspicious attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. As a result, Daulat Khan Lodhi decided to free himself from the control of the Emperor and started conspiring against him. He invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India to achieve his own aim.

Question 4.
Why did Dilawar Khan Lodhi go to Delhi? How did Ibrahim Lodhi treat him?
Answer:
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position regarding his relations with his father Daulat Khan. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severely punish his father Daulat Khan for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture, which were inflicted on the rebels and afterward, even he was imprisoned by the Sultan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi.

On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts; the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.

Question 5.
Describe the Sayyidpur attack of Babur.
Answer:
Babur marched towards Sayyidpur (Emnabad) after occupying Sialkot. A large army stationed at Sayyidpur offered a stiff resistance to the cavalry of Babur. However, Babur won the battle. The defeated army was mercilessly killed. The people of Sayyidpur were also subjected to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves. Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his ‘Babur Vani’.

Question 6.
Write about Babur’s invasion of India in 1524 A.D.
Answer:
In 1524, Babur attacked India for the fourth time. Alam Khan, the real uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, appealed to Babur to help him in occupying the throne of Delhi. Even the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, another relative of Ibrahim Lodhi, had sought the help of Babur against Ibrahim Lodhi. Consequently, Babur, passing through Bhera reached Lahore. On reaching Lahore, Babur learnt that Daulat Khan had been driven out of Lahore by the army of Delhi before his arrival.

Babur immediately took revenge of the defeat of Daulat Khan by defeating the army of Delhi. In the meantime, misunderstanding developed between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur at Dipalpur. Daulat Khan was expecting th&t Babur would appoint him as the governor of Punjab after his victory. But Babur gave him only the territories of Jalandhar and Sultanpur. The disappointed Daulat Khan was infuriated. He ran away to hilly areas in order to raise an army to take revenge of his insult at the hands of Babur. However, the situation took a new turn when Babur entrusted Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi and left for Kabul to strengthen his army and make more preparations for another invasion of India.

Question 7.
What efforts were made by Alam Khan to conquer Punjab?
Answer:
Babur entrusted the charge of Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi at the end of his fourth expedition before returning to Kabul. Later, Alam Khan Lodhi planned to grab the whole of Punjab. However, his dream was shattered when Daulat Khan defeated him and turned him out of Punjab. Alam Khan Lodhi again went to seek protection of Babur. He signed a treaty with Babur. According to the terms of the treaty, Alam Khan Lodhi promised Babur to help him to occupy the throne of Delhi. Alam Khan assured Babur that after occupying Punjab, he would accept the suzerainty of Babur over Punjab. However, Alam Khan failed in his plans. Ultimately, Alam Khan helped Daulat Khan against Ibrahim Lodhi. This time again he failed to achieve his goal and all his plans to grab Punjab were ruined.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 8.
Describe the strategy of war between the army of Ibrahim Lodhi and of Babur at Panipat.
Answer:
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections.

  1. Advance Wing
  2. Central Wing
  3. Left-Wing and
  4. Right Wing.

There were 500 elephants also in his army.

Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.

Question 9.
Write a note on the Amirs and Sardars.
Answer:
The Amirs and high-ranking commanders belonged to the upper section of the Muslim society. They were given ranks and titles. The commanders were paid in the form of land grants called ‘Iqtas’ from where they collected land revenue. They were free to spend land revenue as they liked.

The commanders always remained involved in wars. They were engaged in making plans to free themselves from the control of the Delhi ruler in one way or the other. They ‘ did not look after the local administration, which was a part of their official duty. They spent their wealth on a life of luxury and debauchery. They lived in big mansions with many wives. They had many male and female slaves.

Question 10.
Write about the religious leaders of the Muslims.
Answer:
There were two sections of Muslim high clergy.

  1. Ulemas. They belonged to religious class of the Muslim society. They were authorities on Arabic and religious literature,
  2. Sayyids: Apart from the Ulemas, there was a class of Sayyids in the Muslim religious society. They claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad.

Both the Sayyids and the Ulemas had a thorough knowledge of the law governing the Muslim society.

Question 11.
Describe the slave class.
Answer:
The lowest class in the Muslim society included persons like weavers, potters, laborers, slaves and eunuchs. The prisoners of war^ were made slaves. They were also exported to the other countries. The eunuch slaves were employed to serve the royal ladies in the harems. The women slaves were like an object of amusement for satisfying the whims of the Amirs and high ranking commanders. Such women received shelter, food and clothing in return. Their condition of life depended upon the mercy of their owners.

Question 12.
What were the food habits of the Muslims?
Answer:
The food habits of Upper Section of Muslim Society. The Muslims were mostly non-vegetarians. The upper section of Muslim society included Amirs, high ranking commanders, Sayyids, Sheikhs, priests and Qazis. They enjoyed delicious food, spices and chillies in excess. The ‘Pulao’ and ‘Korrma’ were their most favourite delicacies. Among sweets and desserts, they liked puddings of ground flour (Halwa) and syrups (sharbats). It was a normal habit with the members of the upper class to take drugs.

The food of common Muslims. The common Muslims were non-vegetarians. The baked cakes of wheat (chappati) and roasted meat were their staple diet. The cooked food | was also available in the bazaars. Most of the Muslim artisans loved to take mashed curd (lassi) along with their meals.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 13.
Write about the dress of the Muslims.
Answer:

  1. The Upper-Class Muslims wore costly and gaudy dresses. Their clothes were made of silk and fine cotton. The Amirs wore elongated headgear (Pagadi). They called their headgear ‘Cheera’.
  2. The Dress of the Slaves of the Nobles. They wore girdle (special cloth) covering abdomen. They kept a handkerchief and wore red slippers. They wore ordinary headgears.
  3. The Muslim Clergy. They wore cotton clothes. They wore headgears of seven yards long cloth. The Sufis wore loose gowns.
  4. The common Muslims. They wore shirts and pyjamas. They also wore shoes and socks.
  5. The Muslim women. A Muslim woman wore blouse, ghagra and narrow pyjama. For purdah, Burqa was used.

Question 14.
Mention the position of women in the Muslim society.
Answer:
A description of condition of the Muslim women in the sixteenth century is given below :

  1. They did not enjoy a respectable position in the Muslim society.
  2. The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
  3. The Pardah system was rigorously observed. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rUral areas.
  4. The women of the families of the common people working in the houses of upper-class people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called Zenana Khanpa. They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Pardah.

Question 15.
Write about the caste system prevalent before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The Hindu society was divided into different castes or classes before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The main castes were: Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. Apart from these main castes, there were numerous sub-castes.
1. Brahmans. The Brahmans had become totally- negligent of their duties and responsibilities towards the society and worked for their personal interests. They indulged in flattery of the ruling class to serve their own interests. They-also had great influence on the common man. The common people were trapped in numerous superstitions due to the influence of Brahmans.

2. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The condition of the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas was comparatively better.

3. Shudras. The condition of Shudras was very miserable. They were hated and treated as untouchables. There was no harmony between the upper castes and the lower castes in the Hindu society.

Question 16.
Write about the army administration of Babur and of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections.

  1. Advance Wing
  2. Central Wing
  3. Left-Wing and
  4. Right Wing.

There were 500 elephants also in his army.

Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The political condition of the Punjab was very miserable before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (i.e. in the beginning of the 16th century). The Punjab was known as the Lahore Province (Suba) in those days and formed the part of the Delhi Empire. However, the glory of Delhi Empire had declined by that time. As a result, the Punjab administration was weak and inefficient.

The brief description of political condition of Punjab in the beginning of the 16th century was as ahead:
1. Despotic Rule. In the beginning of 16th century, Punjab was ruled by the despotic rulers. All the Delhi Sultans of this period from Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi, were despots. They believed in the doctrine of Divine Right of the King and considered themselves as the representatives of God on the earth. All the powers of the Empire were concentrated in their hands. How can one expect that rights of common man were safe during the rule of such despots.

2. Political Anarchy. The country had been reduced to an arena of intriguet u, ^ ,£l the reign of the Lodhis. The last years of the reign of Sikander Lodhi witnessed revolts all over the Empire. During the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, there were frequent revolts in his kingdom. All his commanders and courtiers were busy in conspiring against him. The provincial governors were either trying to establish their independent kingdoms or joining the camps of contenders to the throne of Delhi. Such a state of anarchy worsened the condition of Punjab. It was a historic fact that no ruler could effectively rule Delhi without his control over the Punjab. Hence, all the Subedars were watching the situation in Punjab keenly. The governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, was making every effort to establish his independent control over Punjab. A spirit of revolt was rising among the people of Punjab due to the selfish policies of the incapable rulers.

3. Lawlessness. In.the beginning of the 16th century, there was complete lawlessness in the Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry making. The government officers were corrupt. There was no hope for any one to get justice in such a situation. The condition of the period is also reflected in the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib Ji said that justice had taken wings. Guru Sahib Ji further revealed that there was not a single man ,who would do job without taking bribe. The ruler himself sought gratification to deliver justice. Sikander Lodhi tried to deliver justice but he adopted this approach only for his Muslim subjects.

4. Wars. The Punjab was reduced to a battle-ground. Every ambitious noble was making efforts to establish his control over Punjab, so that he could occupy the throne of Delhi. The intrigues and ambitions of military commanders, Subedars, and courtiers led to numerous clashes. During the period, a tussle between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi continued for a long time. Babur invaded the Punjab five times during 1519-1526 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
Describe Babur’s conquest of Punjab.
Answer:
The victory of Babur over Punjab was the outcome of the first battle of Panipat. It was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. Babur won this battle and occupied Punjab.

Babur’s invasion. Babur left Kabul for India in November 1525, with his twelve thousand soldiers. He defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi at Lahore on his march towards Delhi. The Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi proceeded towards north-west along with an army of one lakh soldiers against Babur. His army was divided into four wings, namely, the advance guard, central division, right-wing and left-wing. There were five hundred elephants in his army. The rival armies stood face to face in the battlefield of Panipat.

Beginning of the Battle. There was no attack from either side for eight days. Ultimately, on April 21, 1526, the army of Ibrahim attacked Babur’s forces. Babur started his attack by continuously firing his cannons. It was a new situation and experience for the Delhi army. Immediately afterward, the right and left Talugma wings of Babur’s army attacked Delhi army. It was followed by a strong charge of the middle wing of Babur’s army consisting of cavalry on the centre of Delhi army. In this manner, Delhi army was encircled from all sides. They could move neither forward nor retreat. The elephants of Ibrahim’s army were terrified and injured by the gunshots. They trampled their own soldiers of Delhi army under their feet. Within no time, the ground of Panipat was flooded with corpses of the killed soldiers. By the end of the noon, on the same day, the battle was over. The dead body of Ibrahim was found lying among numerous corpses of Rajput soldiers who were bodyguards of the dead Sultan. This battle completed the occupation of Punjab by Babur.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line :

Question 1.
What was the political condition of Punjab under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi?
Answer:
The Punjab had been reduced to an arena of intrigues under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 2.
Why did Ibrahim Lodhi summon Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi?
Answer:
Ibrahim summoned Dault Khan to Delhi to punish him.

Question 3.
Why did Daulat Khan send his son Dilawar Khan to the Sultan of Delhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi had thought that the Sultan of Delhi would punish him severely.

Question 4.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi invite Babur to attack India?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi wanted to establish his own independent rule over Punjab.

Question 5.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi turn against Babur?
Answer:
Babur did not appoint him the ruler of whole of the Punjab after his victory.

Question 6.
Where did Daulat Khan fight Babur?
Answer:
Daulat Khan fought a battle with Babur at Malout but was defeated.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 7.
Write down the words in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the political condition of the Punjab of early 16th century.
Answer:
The king was like a lion, judicial officers were dogs.

Question 8.
When was Babur’s first attack on Punjab made?
Answer:
Babur first attacked on Punjab in 1519 A.D.

Question 9.
Why did Babur went to conquer Punjab?
Answer:
He wanted to occupy the throne of Delhi after conquering Punjab.

Question 10.
When was the First Battle of Panipat fought?
Answer:
21 April 1526 A.D.

Question 11.
Who was Alam Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 12.
Who were the religious leaders of the Muslims in the early 16th century?
Answer:
Ulemas and Sayyids.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 13.
What was the condition of the Shudras?
Answer:
They were hated and treated as untouchables.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom in _________
Answer:
1469 A.D.

Question 2.
The First Battle of Panipat was fought in _________
Answer:
1526 A.D.

Question 3.
In the beginning of the 16th century A.D., the Hindu Society was divided into ____________ main castes.
Answer:
Four

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 4.
The Ulemas were the leaders of the Muslim ________ class.
Answer:
Religious

Question 5.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his_______________.
Answer:
“Babur Vani”.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Daulat Khan was the Subedar of
(a) Bihar
(b) Peshawar
(c) Rohirkhand
(d) Punjab.
Answer:
(d) Punjab.

Question 2.
The strength of army of Ibrahim Lodhi in the battle ground of Panipat was
(a) One lakh
(b) 50000
(c) 20000
(d) 70000.
Answer:
(a) One lakh.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the political condition of Punjab of-early sixteenth century.
Or
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev JL
Answer:
In the early sixteenth century, the condition of the Punjab was very deplorable. It was called Lahore province and was a part of the Delhi Empire in those days. The Sultans of Delhi (Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi 1451 to 1526) were despots. Anarchy spread in Punjab under their rule. The whole atmosphere was poisoned with conspiracies. There was naked dance of lawlessness in the whole of Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officials were corrupt and openly neglected their duties. There was no hope of getting justice in such a situation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that justice had taken wings. Bhai Gurdas had also described the corruption and maladministration of this period.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
What was the cause of struggle between Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi and Daulat Khan Lodhi in the beginning of the sixteenth century? What steps did Ibrahim Lodhi take to check Daulat Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. In name, he was subordinate to Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi but he was virtually acting as an independent ruler of Punjab. He won over Alam Khan Lodhi, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, to his side through secret negotiations, wherein he assured Alam Khan Lodhi his help in acquiring the throne of Delhi. When Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about this secret plot. he summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi. Daulat Khan sent his son Dilawar Khan Lodhi in his place to clarify his position. When Dilawar Khan Lodhi arrived in Delhi, Ibrahim Khan Lodhi imprisoned him. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison and reached back Lahore to join his father. Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India in order to take revenge upon Ibrahim Lodhi for his act.

Question 3.
Describe the struggle between Babur and Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India, Daulat Khan expected that Babur would appoint him the governor of Punjab after his victory. However, Babur gave him the territory of Jalandhar and Sultanpur only. As a result, he raised the banner of revolt against Babur. It soon led to a battle between them in which Daulat Khan and his son Ghazi Khan were defeated. After that, Babur returned to Kabul after entrusting his Indian possessions to Alam Khan. The moment Babur turned his back, Daulat Khan chased out Alam Khan, who at that time, represented Babur in Punjab, and declared himself the ruler of Punjab instead. Alam Khan visited Babur at Kabul and invited him to invade India. Babur again invaded India for the fifth time in 1525 and imprisoned Daulat Khan. Daulat Khan was later pardoned but he died soon after.

Question 4.
Describe the struggle between Babur, the Badshah of Kabul, and Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi.
Or
Describe the first battle of Panipat. What was the significance of this battle in the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Babur marched towards Delhi after defeating Daulat Khan Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi also left Delhi with an army of one lakh soldiers to cross swords with Babur. They fought the battle at Panipat on April 21, 1526. Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi, was defeated and killed in the battle. Babur, the Padshah of Kabul, reached Delhi with his victorious army and unfurled his flag of victory over Delhi. With that Delhi Sultanate came to an end and the rule of the Mughal dynasty began. Hence, the battle of Panipat decided the fate of Punjab and also of whole of India. (Refer to the point Beginning of the Battle in answer to Question 2 of Section C of this very chapter for the details of the battle of Panipat).

Question 5.
Describe the condition of the Hindu society of the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam. Sikandar Lodhi killed a Brahmin named ‘Bodhan’ because he had resisted conversion to Islam. It is also a part of local oral history that once Sikandar Lodhi had planned to kill all the Hindus who had assembled at Kurukshetra in a religious fair. However, he refrained from executing his plans due to the fear of mass revolt of the Hindus against him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 6.
Describe the various classes of sixteenth-century Muslim society.
Answer:
The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into following three classes:

  1. Upper class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders, and powerful feudal lords, etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the sultans and high-ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim Society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.
  2. Middle class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle-ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim Society.
  3. Lower class. The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the social condition of the Muslims in the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
1. The Punjab remained under the control of the Muslim rulers from 11th to 16th century. During the reign of those Muslim rulers, many Muslims came and settled in Punjab. They married women of Punjab, which included the slave women and concubines. Many low caste people of Punjab embraced Islam due to the fear of Muslim rulers and also the influence of Sufi saints. Many Persian (Iranian) and Afghan tribes came to Punjab and made it their home. Hence, by the beginning of sixteenth century, there was a substantial increase in the Muslim population of Punjab. Their position was far better than those of the Hindus in the Punjab. The reason for their comparatively better position was the rule of Muslim kings over Punjab for a long time. Besides, only Muslims were appointed on high jobs in the Muslim government.

2. The Classes of Muslim Society. The Muslim society was divided into the following three classes:
1. Upper Class. The high-ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’, etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was spent in luxury and merry-making. The upper-class people lived in palaces or mansions. They indulged in drinking and kept numerous women for their different types of amusements. The Ulemas enjoyed great respect in the society. They had indepth knowledge of Quran and Arabic language. As a result, they wielded great influence in the Muslim royal courts.

2. Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in this class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.

3. Lower Class. The artisans, domestic servants, male and female slaves etc. formed the lower class of the Muslim society. The standard of living of this section of Muslim society was very low. They worked hard to earn their livelihood. The artisans like weavers, goldsmiths, ironsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, etc. could hardly earn two square meals by even putting in hardwork throughout the day. The domestic servants and slaves served the high class of the Muslim society.

Question 2.
Describe the condition of Muslim and Hindu women in the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
1. Condition of Women. The condition of women in Punjab was pitiable in the beginning of the sixteenth century. They were rated as feeble, hopeless, weak and inferior to men. They were treated as slaves in their own homes. They were cursed to live in subordination to men. Among some of the Rajput clans, the birth of a girl was considered as an ill-omen and she was killed at the time of birth. Even the condition of Muslim women was not good. They were rated as the objects of amusement for men.

2. Irrational Social Traditions. Numerous irrational social traditions were current in contemporary society which hindered the overall growth of women.
Some of the worst traditions and customs were:
Practice of Sati, Female infanticide, Child Marriage, Johar, Purdah System, Polygamy, Sati practice, etc.

According to Sati practice, whenever the husband of a woman died, she burnt herself alive on the pyre of her dead husband. If any woman refused she was maltreated by the whole society. All the facilities of life were denied to her.
Johar: ‘Johar’ was a tradition popular among the Rajput women. According to this tradition, the Rajput women immolated themselves in order to safeguard their honour.

Purdah system: The Purdah system was prevalent among both the Hindu and Muslim women. The Hindu women covered their faces with their chunnis or saris and Muslim women.wore Burkas.

Polygamy: The custom of polygamy was very popular among the Muslims. The Emperor and high-ranking officers kept many women for their amusements and fun. Female education was totally neglected. Only the women of royal family received some education. The rest of women folk remained illiterate. There were other numerous restrictions on women. For example, they were not permitted to move out of their homes freely and they remained trapped in the four walls of their houses. Their movements outside their houses were strictly restricted.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 3.
Describe in brief the intrigues of Daulat Khan Lodhi in Punjab.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the son of Tatar Khan. Sikander Lodhi had appointed his reliable and near relative Tatar Khan as the governor of Punjab because of the sensitive situation in Punjab Province. After the death of Tatar Khan, his son Daulat Khan was appointed as governor of Punjab. During the lifetime of Sikander Lodhi, Daulat Khan remained loyal to Delhi Sultans but after the death of the Sultan, he started conspiring against the Delhi Sultanate with an aim to establish his independent control over Punjab.

1. Intrigues against Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about the plots of Daulat Khan Lodhi against him. He summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi to clarify his position. But the Sultan Daulat Khan was guilty. Hence, he sent Dilawar Khan, his son, in his place to Delhi to represent him. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He tried to convey him the message that he could severely punish those who dared to conspire against him.

Afterwards, he imprisoned Dilawar Khan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison. On reaching Lahore, he told Dault Khan about all the happenings. Daulat Khan was quick to realise the danger of facing a real conflict with Ibrahim Lodhi. Therefore, first of all, he immediately declared himself as an independent ruler of Punjab. Further, in order to strengthen his position, he sought the help “of Babur, the ruler of Kabul, and sent his son Dilawar Khan to him for negotiations. Dilawar Khan assured Babur of the full support of his father. Babur was desirous of becoming the ruler of India. He had earlier invaded India a couple of times with the same aim.

Hence, he found his dream of ruling India becoming true, when he received the offer of Daulat Khan. He marched towards India with full strength and easily occupied Lahore. However, when he proceeded further, he faced a strong opposition of the Afghan leaders. He ordered his army to indulge in loot and plunder at Lahore. Soon after, Dipalpur and Jalandhar were also looted. After conquering Punjab, Babur made Daulat Khan the Subedar of Jalandhar and entrusted the rest of Punjab to Alam Khan Lodhi, who was also made a representative or Vakil of Babur in India.

2. Daulat Khan’s Revolt against Babur. Daulat Khan had expected that Babur would declare him an independent ruler of Punjab. He was shocked and infuriated when Babur declared him the Subedar of Jalandhar only. He raised the banner of revolt against Babur along with his son Ghazi Khan. Babur easily crushed his revolt. Daulat Khan escaped to the hills of Shivaliks to save his life. When Babur left India, Daulat Khan came down from the Shivalik hills. He occupied a major portion of Punjab after defeating the armies of Alam Khan and Ibrahim Lodhi.

3. Defeat of Daulat Khan and his death. Babur was keeping an eye on the activities of Daulat Khan Lodhi. When he learnt that Daulat Khan had occupied Punjab again, he left Kabul in November 1525 to invade India. On reaching Lahore, he learnt that Daulat Khan Lodhi was camping at Malout near Hoshiarpur. Hence, Babur immediately attacked Malout. Daulat Khan was not able to resist the attack and lost the battle. He was imprisoned and sent to Bhera but he died before reaching there.

Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Political Condition. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. The political condition of Punjab was not good at the time of his birth. The rulers of Punjab were weak and divided and fought among themselves. The Punjab was passing through a phase of chaos and external aggressions.
  • Social Condition. The social condition of the Punjab during the period was miserable. The Hindu society was divided into castes and sub-castes. The condition of women was pitiable. The rulers were fanatics. The people were of low moral character. They were ignorant and superstitious.
  • Lodhi Rulers. Punjab was under the rule of the Lodhis. The rulers of this dynasty were Behlol Lodhi (1450-1489), Sikander Lodhi (1489-1517) and Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526).
  • The Punjab under Ibrahim Lodhi. The Punjab was the centre of intrigues during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi. The Subedar (Governor) of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India.
  • Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur. During the fifth invasion of Babur on India, Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Subedar of Punjab, fought against Babur. Daulat Khan Lodhi was defeated.
  • The victory of Babur over Punjab. The First Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526. In this battle, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and Babur occupied Delhi and Punjab.
  • Muslim Society. The Muslim society was divided into three classes namely, the Upper Class, Middle Class and the Lower Class. The leading military commanders, Iqtadars, Ulemas and Sayyids were included in the Upper Class. In the Middle class, the traders, farmers, soldiers and low ranking government officers were included. The Lower Class comprised artisans, slaves and household servants.
  • Hindu Society. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Hindu society was divided into four main castes, which were the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The goldsmiths, ironsmiths, weavers, carpenters, tailors, potters etc. were counted among the lower castes. The Jats formed an important sub-caste.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Name the words and the language from which the word Punjab has been derived. Write its meaning also.
Answer:
The word Punjab is a combination of two words
Punj
Aab.
These two words are of Persian language.

The meanings of these words are five rivers. These five rivers are:
the Satluj,
Beas,
Ravi,
Chenab and
Jhelum.

Question 2.
What was the impact of the partition of India on Punjab?
Answer:
After the partition of India, Punjab was partitioned into two parts. The western part of Punjab was transferred to Pakistan and eastern part became East Punjab province of independent Republic of India.

Question 3.
In which period of Indian history was Punjab called ‘Saptsindhu’ and why?
Answer:
The Punjab was called Saptsindhu during the Vedic period of Indian history. During that period, Punjab was a region of seven rivers.

Question 4.
Write the names of the five passes situated in the western ranges of the Himalayas.
Answer:
The five passes of the North-West mountain ranges are —Khyber, Tochi, Gomal, Kurram and Bolan.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 5.
If Punjab had no Himalayas in the North, what type of area would it have been?
Answer:
Had there been no Himalayas in the north of Punjab, it would have been a cold and dry region. There would have been no farming.

Question 6.
What is the meaning of ‘Doab’?
Answer:
The territory between two rivers is known as the Doab. There are five Doabs in the Punjab.

Question 7.
How was the Doab Bist Jalandhar named? Write the names of any two famous cities of this area.
Answer:
Doab Bist Jalandhar is the region between the rivers Beas and Satluj. By joining the first letters of the names of the rivers Beas and Satluj, the word. Bist is formed. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the two famous cities of this region.

Question 8.
Why is the Doab Bari called Majha? What are the residents of this area called?
Answer:
The Bari Doab is situated in the central Punjab. The word Majha means inner or the centre and that is why it is called the Majha. The people living in this region are called Majhels or Majahis.

Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Write any four advantages of the Himalayas.
Answer:
The following are the main four benefits of the Himalayan mountains:

  1. The rivers of Himalayas flow during the whole year. They make the land of the Punjab fertile.
  2. There are dense forests in the Himalayan mountains. These forests provide many herbs and large quantities of wood.
  3. The high snow-covered peaks of the Himalayas protect India from the attacks of foreign invaders from the North.
  4. The Himalayan mountains check the monsoon winds and help in bringing rains.

Question 2.
Write briefly about any three Doabs.
Answer:

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. It is not a fertile region for farming.
  2. The Chhaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum.
    The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.
  3. The Rachna Doab. It is the region between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is a very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the important towns of this Doab.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 3.
How did the rivers of Punjab affect the course of its history?
Answer:
The rivers of Punjab always stopped the march of the invaders of India. When the rivers were in flood in the rainy season, they expanded in the vast area and it became impossible to cross them. Undoubtedly, it was the reason that Alexander was held back for many days on the banks of river Jhelum before crossing it because it was in flood. These rivers proved unsurmountable hurdles for many invaders.

The rivers of Punjab had also been used as the natural boundaries for administrative purposes. The Mughal rulers divided the areas of the administrative units like Sarkars, Parganas, and Subas by adopting the rivers as the boundaries. The rivers of Punjab had made its land fertile and brought its people wealth and prosperity. Had the rivers not brought the alluvial soil from the high mountains to the plains, Punjab would not have any fertile land.

Question 4.
Give information about the boundaries of Punjab in different periods of Indian history.
Answer:
The boundaries of the Punjab territory varied from time to time throughout its history.

  1. According to the Rig-Veda, the boundaries of Punjab included the regions covered by the rivers Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Saraswati.
  2. During the Mauryan and Kushaii periods, the boundaries of Punjab extended upto Hindukush mountain ranges and Taxila.
  3. During the Sultanate period (1206-1526), the boundaries of Punjab extended from Lahore to Peshawar. During the Mughal period (1526-1707), the Punjab was divided into two provinces, namely, Lahore Suba and Multan Suba.
  4. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the boundaries of Punjab extended from the river Satluj to Peshawar.
  5. The British named the territory of Lahore kingdom of Maharaja Dalip Singh (son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) as the Punjab after annexing it to the British Indian Empire.
  6. After the partition of India, a major part of die Punjab was transferred to Pakistan.
  7. On the basis of language, Punjab was divided into three states, namely Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 5.
How did the Himalayan mountains influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
The Himalayas influenced the history of Punjab in the following manner:

  1. Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab remained the Gateway of India for centuries since ancient times due to the North-Western mountain ranges of the Himalayas. The foreign invaders crossed the passes of these ranges to invade India.
  2. The Problem of the North-West Frontier: The security of North-West Frontier of India had always remained a major problem for the rulers of India. Those rulers, who failed to ensure the security of North-West Frontiers, suffered heavy losses. ,
  3. Protection against Foreign Invasions: It was impossible to cross the high ranges of the Himalayas from north. Consequently, Punjab remained secure in the north for a long time since nobody could invade from the northern side.
  4. Economic Prosperity: The rivers, originating in the Himalayas, replenished her plains with fertile soil from year to year. Consequently, the plains of Punjab were counted among the most fertile lands of the world.

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

Question 1.
Describe the mountain ranges of the Himalayas and its North-Western hills.
Answer:
The landscape of Punjab had numerous features. The boundaries df Punjab make a triangle. They extend from the Himalayas in the north o Sindh and to Rajasthan in the south. They touch the Sulaiman mountain ranges in the west and in the opposite direction in the east, reach upto river Yamuna.

The Himalayas and North-West Mountains: The description of the geographical features of the Punjab is as follows:
(A) The Himalayas. There are a number of Himalayan ranges in Punjab. There are many important valleys in these ranges. The average width of Himalayan ranges in the Punjab is 250 kilometres. However, these ranges are not very high.

These ranges can be divided into three parts on the basis of their average height, which are:

  1. the Great Himalayas,
  2. the Middle Himalayas and
  3. the Outer Himalayas.

1. The Great Himalayas. In the east, the mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas reach upto Nepal and Tibet. In its western part, it is again called the Great Himalayas. The Great Himalayas separate the Punjab regions of Lahul-Spiti and thstrict of Kangra from Kash mir. The scenic Kulu Valley and Rohtang Pass are situated in these ranges. These ranges rise from 5851 metres to 6781 metres. These mountain ranges are always covered with snow.

2. The Middle Himalayas. They are popularly known as the Pangi mountain ranges. These ranges start from Rohtang Pass. They cover the valleys of Chamba and Dharamshala. They extend from Kashmir to the districts of Rawalpindi, Gujrat and Jhelum. These ranges rise upto a height of 923 metres and are called ‘Mountains of Dholadhar’.

(B) North-West Mountains. The North-West Mountains form the western part of the Himalayas in Punjab. These mountains include the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges. They have not high rising ranges. The most important feature of these ranges is the presence of a number of passes in them which link India with the other parts of Asia. Among these passes, the Khyber Pass is the most important. It is 1100 metres above the sea level and links Kabul with Peshawar. It remained a major entry point to India for the invaders. Apart from Khyber, there are Kurram, Tochi, Gomal and Bolan Passes. All these Passes are to the south of Khyber and link Afghanistan with India. The Bolan Pass is in the south extreme of the Sulaiman Mountain range from where begins the Kirthar Mountain range. Bolan Pass is a wider pass. It permits transit between Quetta City and Afghanistan.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 2.
Describe the Plains of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of the plains of Punjab are prosperous. For Punjab, its plains were like a stage, where the drama of history was played. They are spread between the river Indus in the North-West and river Yamuna in the South-East.

These plains are counted among the most fertile plains in the world.
(A) The two regions of the Plains. The plains of Punjab are divided into two regions: The Eastern -plain and the Western Plain. The plains surrounded by Yamuna and Ravi rivers are called the Eastern plains. They are very fertile. They are also densely populated. The plains between Ravi and Indus rivers are called Western plains. They are less fertile as compared to the Eastern Plains.

(B) Five Doabs. The word ‘Doab’ is a Persian word which means two waters or two rivers. Hence, the territory between two rivers is called Doab. The plains of Punjab consist of five Doabs. It was during the reign of Akbar that Punjab was divided according to the boundaries of its Doabs for the first time and since then its administrative boundaries have been retained. The naming of each Doab is quite interesting and done on a very scientific basis. The name of a Doab is formed by joining the first letters of those two rivers between which the plain to be named is situated.

The description of these Doabs is as follows:

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. The region situated between the rivers Indus and Jhelum is called the Sindh Sagar Doab. It is not a very fertile region. Jhelum and Rawalpindi are the important cities of this Doab.
  2. Rachna Doab. This area situated between the rivers Ravi and Chenab is quite fertile. The important towns of this Doab are Gujranwala and Shekhupura.
  3. Bist-Jalandhar Doab. This Doab consists of the plains situated between the rivers Beas and Satluj. It is a very fertile area. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the leading cities of this Doab. It is also the most popular Doab. Its popularity can be judged from the fact that its local people mean to talk about Punjab whenever they use the single word Doab or Bist-Jalandhar Doab.
  4. Bari Doab. The territory between the rivers Beas and Ravi is called the Bari Doab. It is also a fertile region. It is popular as Majha as it refers to central location of the area in the Punjab. The two most famous cities of Punjab, namely, Amritsar and Lahore, are situated in this Doab.
  5. Chaj Doab. The territory between the Chenab and Jhelum is called Chaj Doab. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.

(C) Malwa and Bangar. The wide plain situated between the rivers Satluj and Yamuna is a part of Punjab. The plain can be divided into two parts namely, Malwa and Bangar.

  1. Malwa. The area extending from the banks of river Satluj to the banks of river Yamuna is called Malwa. Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda etc. are the prominent cities of Malwa. The area is known in Punjab as Malwa and the people belonging to this area are called Malwais. The area got its name from the name of a republican tribe called Malava, which lived here during the ancient period of Indian history.
  2. Bangar or Haryana. This region extends from river Ghaghar to river Yamuna. Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Hissar are the prominent cities of this area. This area has. great historical importance because numerous battles which influenced the course of Indian history, were fought here.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line:

Question 1.
What is meant by Sapt Sandhu?
Answer:
Sapt Sandhu means land of seven rivers.

Question 2.
Which Mughal ruler had divided the Punjab into two provinces?
Answer:
The Mughal ruler Akbar the Great divided the Punjab into two provinces.

Question 3.
By what name was the Punjab called during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
The Punjab was called ‘Lahore Kingdom’ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Question 4.
When did the British annex Punjab?
Answer:
The British annexed Punjab in 1849.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 5.
When did the division of Punjab take place on linguistic basis?
Answer:
The Punjab was divided into two states namely, Punjab and Haryana in 1966 on linguistic basis.

Question 6.
Name any four major tribes which invaded Punjab after crossing the passes of the north-west ranges of Himalayas.
Answer:
The four main tribes were the Aryans, Sakas, Greeks and Kushans.

Question 7.
Name the four main cities of Terai region (foothills) of the Himalayas in Punjab.
Answer:
The four main cities of the Terai region are Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur.

Question 8.
In which two parts are the plains of Punjab divided?
Answer:
The plains of Punjab are divided into two parts namely, Eastern Plains and Western Plains.

Question 9.
Why are the plains of Punjab called ‘Real Punjab’? Give any one reason in support of the claim.
Answer:
The plains are fertile and are the main cause of prosperity of Punjab.

Question 10.
Name any two Doabs of the Plains of Punjab.
Answer:

  1. Bist-Jalandhar Doab,
  2. Bari Doab.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 11.
Name the rivers which surround the Malwa region in the Punjab.
Answer:
The rivers Satluj and Ghaghar surround the Malwa region.

Question 12.
How did the plains influence the history of Punjab? Describe any one influence.
Answer:
The prosperity of the Punjab encouraged the foreign invaders to attack the Punjab.

Question 13.
Name any four places in Punjab where historic battles took place.
Answer:
Tarian, Panipat, Peshawar and Thanesar.

Question 14.
Write any one influence of the rivers on the history of Punjab.
Answer:
The rivers acted as a great hurdle in the path of invaders of Punjab.

Question 15.
What is the meaning of the term “Doab”?
Answer:
Territory between two rivers.

Question 16.
The plains of the Punjab consisted of how many Doabs before its partition in 1947?
Answer:
Five.

Question 17.
Give the names of the provinces of the Punjab during the rule of Emperor Akbar.
Answer:
Lahore and Multan.

Question 18.
Give the name of the Governor-General of India who annexed Punjab in 1849.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 19.
How the Tarai region of Punjab played an important role in the history of Sikhs? Give one example.
Answer:
The Sikhs took shleter in the forests of Terai whenever Punjab was attacked by the invaders.

Question 20.
Give the names of the rivers in the Indian part of Punjab.
Answer:
Satluj, Beas and water of Ravi.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The word Punjab is derived from __________ Persian words __________ and __________
Answer:
Two, Panj, Aab

Question 2.
The Punjab was called ___________ during the Vedic period of Indian history.
Answer:
Sapatsandhu

Question 3.
The territory between two rivers is known as the ___________
Answer:
Doab

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 4.
The Sindh Sagar Doab is the region between the rivers and ___________
Answer:
Sindh, Jehlum

Question 5.
The Punjab was called _____________ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Answer:
Lahore Kingdom.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Who annexed the Punjab in the British Empire?
(a) Dalhousie
(b) Clive
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) John Lawrence.
Answer:
(a) Dalhousie

Question 2.
Which province was the gateway of India?
(a) U.P.
(b) Bengal
(c) Bihar
(d) Punjab.
Answer:
(d) Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What role did the Punjab play in the history of India?
Answer:
The Punjab played an important role in the history of India due to its special geographical location. It became the cradle of Indian civilization. The oldest ancient culture (Indus Valley Civilization) flourished in the Punjab. The Aryans made it the centre of their political sway. They composed their sacred books like the Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharta, Ramayana etc. in the Punjab. Punjab was the the Gateway of India.

All the invaders upto the medieval period came to India by passing through Punjab. Hence, people of Punjab had to fight numerous battles to hold back the advancing invaders, Apart from this, Punjab was the birthplace of Hinduism and Sikhism. Guru Nanak Dey Ji gave his divine message on this very land. It was here that Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa Panth and successfully resisted the Mughal oppression. Banda Singh Bahadur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh hold prominent places in the history of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 2.
Give a brief description of the geographical division of Punjab keeping in view the history of Punjab.
Answer:
The geographical features of Punjab can be divided into three parts, keeping in view the history of Punjab:

  1. Himalayas and the North-West Mountain ranges.
  2. The Terai region (foothills).
  3. The Plains.

The mighty Himalayas form the boundary of Punjab in the north. The high rising peaks of the Himalayas are always covered with snow. The Himalayas hìve three ranges which run parallel to one another. There are numerous passes in the North-West ranges through which the invaders, traders and religious preachers had been corning to India since ancient times. The second geographical division of Punjab is Terai region. It is sandwiched between the mountains and the plains of Punjab. The population in this region is small.

The most important geographical division of Punjab is its plains, which are very fertile. They extend from river Indus in the north-west to river Yamuna in the southeast. It is formed by the fertile soil deposited by the rivers from the Himalayas. It is the cause of the prosperity of Punjab since ancient times.

Question 3.
How did the geographical features of Punjab influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Each geographical feature of Punjab had influenced differently the history of Punjab.

  1. The passes of the North-West Mountain Ranges of Himalayas allowed passage to numerous invaders. Hence, the security of the North-west region remained a major problem for every ruler. On the other hand, the snow-capped high rising peaks of the Himalayas in the north of Punjab provided perfect security from all the possible invaders from the northern side.
  2. The distinctive culture of Punjab is a gift of the Himalayas standing in the North and the West of Punjab.
  3. The prosperity and wealth of Punjab had always attracted greedy invaders. Consequently, Punjab had to face their invasions frequently.
  4. The Terai region provided shelter to the Sikhs during their hard times. The Sikhs saved themselves and courageously faced the oppressive rulers.

Question 4.
Who annexed the Punjab to the British Empire and when? Describe the role of the Punjab in the freedom struggle of India.
Answer:
Dalhousie (1848-1856), the Governor-General of India, annexed the Punjab to the British Indian Empire in 1849. The Punjab made commendable contribution to the freedom struggle of India. Baba Ram Singh started the Kuka Movement in Punjab. He was the first to oppose the British rule. The people of Punjab began the freedom struggle during the 20th century by starting, Gaddhar Movement, Gurudwara Movement, Babbar Akali Movement, Naujwan Sabha (Martyr Bhagat Singh’s Movement), Akali Movement, Praja Mandal Movement etc. Martyr Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life on the gallows for the sake of his motherland. The heroes of freedom struggle like Madan Lai Dhingra, Kartar Singh Sarabha and Udham Singh laid down their lives for the freedom of India. Ultimately, in 1947, India became free.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History

Question 5.
Describe the main features of Mountain Valleys (Tilhat) or Terai region (Foothills) in Punjab.
Answer:
The Terai region of Punjab is situated below the hills of Himachal Pradesh and of Punjab. This region is 308 to 923 metres high above the sea level. It presents a different look from the rest of the Himalayan regions in Punjab because of its meadows and valleys. The areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and some areas of Ambala district are parts of this region. It is mostly a hilly area. CSnsequently, the region is not much fertile. The water borne diseases rapidly spread here during the rainy season. It has a small population. The people of the region are forced to work hard for their livelihood. This hard life has made them strong and sturdy.

Question 6.
How far have the plains influenced the history of Punjab?
Answe

  1. Punjab had always remained a prosperous state because its plains are fertile. The wealth and prosperity of Punjab always attracted the greedy invaders from outside Punjab.
  2. Many historic battles were fought in the plains of Punjab. Peshawar, Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Sirhind, Bhatinda, Bhera, Kari, Tarrain, Panipat etc. witnessed major decisive battles. The three major decisive battles, the Battles of Panipat took place in Punjab.
  3. The people of Punjab were made to fight numerous battles because of the geographical location of the plains of Punjab. They suffered numerous atrocities at the hands of invaders. For example, Timur was notorious for his inhuman atrocities, which he inflicted on the people of Punjab.
  4. The people of Punjab developed the qualities of bravery and courage due to their involvement in frequent wars which they were made to fight.
  5. The Aryans developed Hinduism in Punjab. During the medieval period, this very land had the honour of being the birthplace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji who gave his spiritual message in a very simple language.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
“The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab.” Justify this statement with your arguments.
Answer:
The Himalayas stand high like a huge wall on the northern side of Punjab. The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab:
1. Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab had remained the Gateway of India for centuries because of the North-West ranges of Himalayas. First of all, the Aryans from Iran crossed the North Western mountain passes and invaded India. They faced strong opposition of the people of Punjab. But they ultimately settled in this region.

2. The Problem of North-West Frontiers: The protection of North-West Frontiers had always remained a major problem for the Indian rulers. The Indian rulers were forced to spend a large amount of money for the protection of these frontiers.

3. Protection against the attacks of foreigners: The Northern ranges of the Himalayas are very high and always remain covered with snow. Therefore, Punjab remained safe from the attacks of the foreigners from the northern side.

4. Economic Prosperity: The Punjab has remained a prosperous region due to the Himalayas. The rivers of Himalayas replenished the upper soil of its land. Consequently, Punjab plains were counted among the most fertile regions of the world.

5. The Trade Relations with Foreign Countries: The passes in the north-west ranges served as trade routes to the foreign countries. The merchants from West Asian and Central Asian countries visited India by these trade routes. The Punjabi traders also visited their countries.

6. Distinctive Culture of Punjab: The Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals and Afghans came to India crossing the passes of North-West Himalayas. Their different languages like Arabic, Persian, Turkish, etc. mixed with Sanskrit based local languages and dialects. This fusion of different cultures gave birth to the distinctive culture of Punjab which is now full of Indian and foreign features.

Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Punjab (meaning). The word Punjab is derived from two Persian words, Pan (Five) and Aab (water or river) meaning five waters or rivers. Thus the Punjab is the region of five waters.
  • The ancient names of Punjab. The Punjab was known by different names during different periods of history. The ancient names of Punjab were:Saptsindhu, Panjnad, Lahore Suba, the North-Western Frontier Province, etc.
  • The Geographical Divisions. From the geographical point of view, Punjab can
    be divided into three divisions:
    1. The Himalayas and its North-West ranges,
    2. The foothills or Terai region and
    3. The Plains.
  • The Malwa Region. The Malwa region is surrounded by the rivers Satluj and Ghagghar. In the ancient times, the ‘Malava’ tribe lived here. The region is named Malwa after the name of that tribe.
  • The effects of the Himalayas on the history of the Punjab. The Punjab was the “Gateway of India” due to the existence of a number of passes in the North-West ranges of the Himalayas. During the medieval period, all the invaders came through these passes to invade India.
  • The Plains of Punjab. The plains of Punjab are very fertile. The prosperity of Punjab encouraged foreign invaders to attack India.
  • The influence of rivers of Punjab on its history. The rivers of Punjab were a hurdle in the path of the invaders. They also played the role of providing natural boundaries. The Mughal rulers had adopted river boundaries as the administrative divisions like Parganas, Sarkars and Subas.
  • Terai Region. The Terai region is covered with dense forests. The Sikhs took shelter in these forests during their hard times (Dark Period of their history). They organised themselves and increased their military strength and effectively faced the oppressive rulers.
  • The different Castes and Tribes of Punjab. The people of different castes and tribes lived in the Punjab. The prominent tribes, sects and the castes in the Punjab were the Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, Khatris, Aroras, Gujjars, Arians, etc.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.