PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words :

Question 1.
When was Ranjit Singh born? What was his father’s name?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 at Gujranwala. Sardar Mahan Singh was his father. He was the chief of the Sukerchakiya Misl.

Question 2.
Who was Mehtab Kaur?
Answer:
Mehtab Kaur was Ranjit Singh’s wife. She was the daughter of Gurbax Singh and grand daughter of Jai Singh of Kanheya Misl.

Question 3.
Which Era is termed as the Patronage of Trio?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a minor when his father, Mahan Singh died. Therefore, from 1792 to 1797 A.D., the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl remained in the hands of Raj Kaur (his mother), Sada Kaur (his mother-in-law) and Dewan Lakhpat Rai. This period is called the period of Trio.

Question 4.
Why did the residents of Lahore invite Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore?
Answer:
Lahore was ruled by three Bhangi sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these sardars. So – they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore.

Question 5.
Name the Sardars who were against Ranjit Singh in the Battle of Bhasin.
Answer:
Gulab Singh of Amritsar. Sahib Singh of Gujrat, Jodh Singh of Wazirabad and -Jassa Singh of Ramgarhia Misl were opposed to Ranjit Singh in the Battle of Bhasin.

Question 6.
Why did Maharaja Ranjit Singh attack Amritsar and Lohgarh?
Answer:
Amritsar had become the religious capital of the Sikhs. Similarly Lohgarh had military importance. Ranjit Singh attacked Amritsar and Lohgarh to capture them.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 7.
Of which Misl was Tara Singh Gheba the leader?
Answer:
Tara Singh Gheba was the leader of Dallewalia Misl. He was a very brave and powerful Misl Chief.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Write about Ranjit Singh’s childhood and education.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was the only son of his parents. In his childhood, he was brought up with great care. When he was five years old, he was sent for receiving education to the Dharmshala of Bhai Bhagu Singh at Gujranwala. But he showed no interest in studies. He, therefore, remained unlettered throughout his life. Thus most of his time was spent in hunting and other amusements. In his childhood, he had become a good swordsman and a horseman. He had been the victim of smallpox in his childhood. Thus, due to this terrible disease, he lost his left eye.

Question 2.
Describe the events of bravery of Ranjit Singh’s childhood.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh had all the qualities of a brave warrior. He was just 10 years old, when he began to fight in the battles along with his father and fought very bravely. At the age of 11, one day he, while hunting, Hashmat Khan, an enemy of his father finding him all alone, attacked him. Ranjit Singh faced Hashmat Khan very bravely and killed him on the spot. These events show the bravery of Ranjit Singh in his childhood.

Question 3.
Describe the events of occupation of Lahore by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore at the very first opportunity. In those days, Lahore was under the rule of three Bhangi sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these sardars. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore. Ranjit Singh lost no time in attacking Lahore with a large army. On hearing the news of the attack, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh fled away. Only Chet Singh feebly resisted Ranjit Singh’s army. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 4.
Write the significance of the conquest of Amritsar.
Answer:
The importance of the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh was as under:

  • It was the religious capital of the Sikhs. Its occupation raised the prestige of Ranjit Singh.
  • As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, the military power of Ranjit Singh increased.
    The fort of Lohgarh proved to be a boon for Ranjit Singh. He got the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan.
  • Ranjit Singh got the services of Akali Phool Singh and his 2000 Nihang comrades. Because of the extraordinary courage and bravery of the Nihangs, Ranjit Singh won many glorious victories.
  • As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh’s name and fame spread far and wide. Many Indians gave up the jobs of the East India Company and got employment with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Many European soldiers also joined the army of the Maharaja.

Question 5.
How did Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupy friendly Misls?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a great diplomat. He befriended the rulers of Ahluwalia, Kanahiya and Ramgarhia Misls. Finding a suitable opportunity, he captured these Misls.

Following is the description of the conquests of these Misls by Ranjit Singh:

  1. Occupation of the Kanahiya Misl. The Kanahiya Misl was led by the mother- in-law of Ranjit Singh. In 1812 A.D., Ranjit Singh got from her many regions of this Misl except Wadni.
  2. Capture of the Ramgarhia Misl. The leader of this Misl was Jodh Singh Ramgarhia. He died in 1815 A.D. and Ranjit Singh merged all his territories in his state.
  3. Ahluwalia Misl. In 1826 A.D., Ranjit Singh broke his relations with Fateh Singh of Ahluwalia Misl. As a result, he captured many territories of Ahluwalia Misl. But in 1827 A.D., they became Mends again.

Question 6.
Write the consequences of the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The conquest of Multan was an important military achievement of Ranjit Singh. The significance of this victory can be known from the following facts :
1. A Death blow to the Afghan Power. It is aptly said that “the conquest of Multan ended the Afghan influence in the Punjab.” Ranjit Singh completely smashed the power of the Afghans.

2. Commercial and Strategic Advantages. The victory of Multan was also important from the commercial as well as military point of view. Trade with Sindh and Afghanistan began to be carried on through this route. Consequently, the trade in Punjab made much progress. In addition to this, Multan was situated on the route from Delhi to Kandhar.

3. Increase in the Revenue. The victory of Multan also increased the income of Ranjit Singh. It is estimated that Ranjit Singh received an income of about 7 lakh rupees a year only from the Multan town.

4. Increase in the Prestige of Ranjit Singh. With the victory of Multan, the fame of Ranjit Singh spread in all the four corners of the Punjab.

Question 7.
Describe thle battle of Attock.
Answer:
An understanding was reached between Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan of Kabul in 1813 A.D. It was decided that Ranjit Singh would send 12 thousand soldiers to help Fateh Khan for the conquest of Kashmir and Fateh Khan, in return, would give him one- third of the conquered territories in addition to the booty of war. Besides, Ranjit Singh promised to help Fateh Khan in his conquest of Attock, whereas Fateh Khan would help Ranjit Singh in the conquest of Multan.

The combined forces of Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan conquered Kashmir with great ease but Fateh Khan did not fulfil his promise. He did not pay him anything out of the money looted by him by the conquest of Kashmir. Ranjit Singh attacked Attock in a fury (according to the treaty, Fateh Khan was to occupy Attock). His commander-in-chief Azizuddin took Attock from Jahandad Khan and gave him one lakh rupees and a big jagir. Fateh Khan could not tolerate this. He attacked Attock with a big army immediately. A furious battle was fought between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Hazro near Attock. The Sikhs came out victorious in this battle.

Question 8.
Write about the question of Sindh.
Answer:
The Sindh region, being situated on the South-western front of Lahore, had a great military importance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government understood well the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent one of its navigators Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission, so that he could not judge the intentions of the British. Although the nature of this Mission was friendly, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 9.
What was the question of Shikarpur?
Answer:
On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh was waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe attacked the border regions of Lahore kingdom. Ranjit Singh tried to capture Shikarpur by holding the Amirs of Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent troops to check Ranjit Singh from occupying Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh had to withdraw his forces.

Question 10.
Write about the events related to Ferozepur.
Answer:
The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the relations between Ranjit Singh and the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D. Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him capture it. The British Government itself occupied Ferozepur in 1835 A.D. and after three years, made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
How did Ranjit Singh conquer the weak Misls?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh was a shrewd politician. He befriended the rulers of powerful Misls. He started occupying the territories of weak misls with their help. From 1800 to 1811 A.D., he conquered the following Misls :
1. Conquest of Akalgarh (1801 A.D.). In 1801 A.D. after the battle of Bhasin, Dal Singh of Akalgarh (maternal uncle of Ranjit Singh’s father) and Sahib Singh of Gujarat started preparations for the attack on Lahore. When Ranjit Singh, came to know about it, he attacked Akalgarh and made Dal Singh a prisoner. Soon after this, Dal Singh was released and he died after some time. Ranjit Singh annexed his territory into his Kingdom. He gave a small tract of land to the widow of Dal Singh.

2. Occupation of Chaniot (1802 A.D.). Chaniot was under Jassa Singh, son of Karam Singh. In 1802 A.D., with the help of Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Chaniot. Jassa Singh was defeated and Ranjit Singh occupied Chaniot.

3. Conquest of Malwa by Ranjit Singh (1806 A.D.). In 1806 A.D., there arose a quarrel between Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala and Raja Jaswant Singh of Nabha on the question of the Doladhi village. Jaswant Singh, through the medium of Raja Bhag Singh of Jind, invited Ranjit Singh to settle their dispute. Ranjit Singh attacked the Malwa region. He brought twenty thousand horsemen with him. Fateh Singh Ahluwalia stood by the Maharaja in capturing the Doladhi village, Ranjit Singh proceeded towards Patiala. He got a large amount of Nazrana from the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. On his way back, Ranjit Singh also occupied Ludhiana, Raikot, Jagraon and Ghungrana.

In 1807 A.D. Ranjit Singh attacked Malwa for the second time. The Raja of Patiala, Sahib Singh and his wife Aas Kaur were on bad terms. Ranjit Singh got a chance to interfere in their internal affairs. On reaching Patiala, he got a heavy amount as ‘Nazrana’ from Sahib Singh of Patiala. After this, he captured the areas of Naraingarh, Wadni, Zira and Kotkapura. He also got Nazrana from the rulers of Kaithal, Shahbad, Ambala, Kalsian and Malerkotla.

4. Conquest of the Dallehwalia Misl. The leader of the Dallehwalia Misl, Tara Singh Gheba was quite powerful. So Ranjit Singh could not conquer this Misl while he was alive. After Tara Singh’s death in 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh defeated his widow at Rahon and captured all the territories of the Dallehwalia Misl.

5. Conquest of Sialkot (1808 A.D.). Jeewan Singh was the ruler of Sialkot. Maharaja Ranjit Singh demanded the territory of Sialkot from him. On his refusal, Ranjit Singh attacked Sialkot. Jeewan Singh surrendered. Maharaja merged Sialkot into his kingdom.

6. Conquest of Gujpat. At the time of Ranjit Singh’s, attack on Lahore, its Bhangi ruler Sahib Singh had run away’. Now he was ruling over the regions of Jalalpur, Islamgarh and Gujrat. The income from these regions was very high. To conquer them, Ranjit Singh attacked Sahib Singh. Sahib Singh was defeated. Ranjit Singh granted him a Jagir and annexed all his territories to his kingdom.

7. Conquest of Karorsinghia Misl. Kahan Singh ruled over Karorsinghia Misl. Ranjit Smgh asked him to come to his court. On his refusal, Ranjit Singh seized all his territories.

8. Conquest of the Fazalpuria Misl. Budh Singh ruled over the Fazalpuria Misl and it was spread on either side of the river Sutlej. Ranjit Singh first asked him to surrender. But when he refused, Ranjit Singh forcibly merged all his territories into his kingdom in 1811 A.D. These regions included Doab, Jalandhar, Hetpur and Patti.

9. Conquest of the Nakai Misl. This Misl was also ruled by the ruler of Karorsinghia Misl, Kahan Singh. When in 1807 A.D. Ranjit Singh defeated him, he also captured the Nakai Misl along with the Karorsinghia Misl.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Kashmir by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Kashmir, for its charming beauty and green scenery, was known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’. Naturally, Ranjit Singh was lured to capture it. He wanted to make his kingdom a heaven on the earth.

For this, he made the following efforts :
1. Pact with Kabul and Wazir Fateh Khan. In 1811-12 A.D. Ranjit Singh’s forces captured Bhimbar and Rajauwri near Kashmir. Now they wanted to attack the Kashmir valley. But at the same time Fateh Khan, the Wazir of Kabul also planned to capture Kashmir. Both Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan met at a place known as Rohtas on the banks of the Jhelum in 1813 A.D. A treaty was concluded between the two according to which the combined forces of both the parties would attack Kashmir.

According to it, Ranjit Singh was to get Rs. 9 lakhs from the spoils of the war and Fateh Khan was also to help him in the conquest of Multan. After the terms were settled, a 12000 strong Sikh force under the command of Dewan Mohkam Chand advanced towards Kashmir from the side of Jhelum along with the forces of Kabul. But Fateh Khan did not want, that any credit for this expedition should go to the Sikh army. He left the Sikh forces behind and himself with his army entered the Kashmir valley. Atta Mohammad Khan of Kashmir faced the enemy at a place named Shergarh. Fateh Khan, without the help of Sikh forces, defeated Atta Mohammad Khan. But Ranjit Singh wras not such a man as to bear all this rebuff.

2. Attack on Kashmir. In June 1814, Ram Dayal, a grandson of Diwan Mohkam Chand was given the command of the Kashmir expedition. The Sikh forces attacked Kashmir. At that time, Azim Khan, the brother of Fateh Khan was the Subedar of Kashmir. He made preparations to face this invasion. The forces under the command of Ram Dayal passed through the Pir Panchal Pass and entered the Kashmir valley. Azim Khan attacked the Sikh forces. The Sikh soldiers had to face misfortunes. Even then Ram Dayal faced the enemy bravely. At last, both the parties started negotiations for peace.

3. Occupation of Kashmir 1819 A.D. After the conquest of Multan in 1818 A.D., the Sikh forces were much encouraged. So Ranjit Singh began to plan the third invasion of Kashmir. Azim Khan the Subedar of Kashmir had gone to Afghanistan. Ranjit Singh thought of availing of this opportunity and under the command of Misar Dewan Chand sent 12000 Sikh soldiers to Kashmir. The second contingent under Kharak Singh, (Ranjit Singh’s son) was also sent to Kashmir and the third contingent under Ranjit Singh himself also set out for Wazirabad. Misar Dewan Chand reached Bhimber and captured Rajauri, Pir Panchal and Poonchh. After this, the Sikh forces entered Kashmir. Jabbar Khan faced the Sikh army at Sopavan. On the 5th July 1819, the Sikh army captured the forts of Sri Nagar, Shergarh and Agungarh. Thus Ranjit Singh came out victorious and consequently he annexed Kashmir in 1819. Ranjit Singh appointed Diwan Moti Ram, the son of Diwan Mohkam Chand, as the Governor of Kashmir.

Importance. The conquest of Kashmir is important due to the following reasons:

  • The victory of Kashmir increased the prestige of Ranjit Singh,
  • Kashmir was a good source of income and its annexation brought Ranjit Singh an annual income of Rs. 36 lakh,
  • The conquest of Kashmir put an end to the power and prestige of the Afghans.

Question 3.
Describe the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The territory of Multan was important both from the military and commercial viewpoint. The story of the conquest of Multan by Ranjit Singh is briefly given as under :
1. First Expedition. It was in 1802 A.D. that Ranjit Singh attacked Multan for the first time. Muzzaffar Khan ‘“the Nawab of Multan” gave a heavy amount of money to Ranjit Singh and agreed to pay an annual tribute. Thus Ranjit Singh returned home without a battle but with a huge sum of money.

2. Second Expedition. Muzzaffar Khan had agreed to pay an annual tribute to Ranjit Singh but he did not send Nazrana to him. Consequently, Ranjit Singh launched his second expedition against Multan in 1805 A.D. But when Ranjit Singh received the news that the Maratha chief Jaswant Rao Holkar, after being defeated by the British, had entered Punjab, he had to return to Lahore.

3. Third Expedition (1807 A.D.). In 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh sent his third expedition against Multan. The Sikh army captured some territory of Multan. But the Nawab of Bahawalpur acted as a mediator and a peace treaty was concluded between them.

4. Fourth Expedition. On February 24, 1810, the army of Maharaja occupied some parts of Multan. On February 25, the Sikh forces besieged the fort of Multan. But on the one hand, the food supplies of the Sikhs were being exhausted rapidly and on the other hand, Dewan Mohkam Chand also fell ill. Under these circumstances, Ranjit Singh was forced to lift the siege of the fort.

5. Fifth Expedition (1816 A.D.). In 1816 A.D. the Maharaja sent Akali Phoola Singh along with a large army to collect the revenue from the rulers of Multan and Bahawalpur. He was able to occupy the suburbs of Multan. The Nawab of Multan, therefore, concluded a pact with Akali Phoola Singh.

6. Final Expedition (1818). (i) The Sikh forces under the command of Dewan Bhawani Dass, attacked Multan but could not succeed, (ii) In January 1818 the Sikh army consisting of 20,000 soldiers under the command of Misar Dewan Chand attacked Multan. Nawab Muzzaffar Khan with 2,000 soldiers entered the fort. After capturing the city, the Sikh soldiers laid a siege to the fort. At last, Sohan Singh along with his few chosen companions was -successful in entering the fort through the Khizri gate. Thus the Sikhs finally captured Multan in 1818. The civil administration was entrusted to Sukh Dayal and the work of the supervision of the military administration was assigned to Baj Singh. Jamadar Khushal Singh was appointed as the Chief Police Commissioner. Dewan Sawan Mai was appointed as the Subedar of Multan.

Importance:

  • With the victory of Multan, the fame of Ranjit Singh spread to all the four corners of the Punjab,
  • The victory of Multan gave a death blow to the Afghan power.
  • The victory of Multan strengthened the economic position of Ranjit Singh. The trade in Punjab made much progress,
  • The Muslims of Sindh and Bahawalpur were separated permanently from each other. In future, they would not be in a position to forge a united front against Ranjit Singh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 4.
Describe the conquest of Peshawar by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Peshawar had special strategic importance as it was situated on the north-western frontier of the Punjab. Because of its geographical situation, it had great importance from military point of view.

After Multan’s conquest, Ranjit Singh paid his attention to Peshawar. He wanted to capture Peshawar.
1. First Expedition against Peshawar in 1818 A.D. Lawlessness was prevailing in the state of Kabul. Ranjit Singh exploited this situation. He, alongwith Akali Phoola Singh and Hari Singh Nalwa, marched towards Peshawar. His army was greatly opposed by the Khatak tribe. But the Sikh soldiers defeated it and captured the forts of Khairabad and Jahangira. Next, the Sikh forces advanced towards Peshawar. At that time, Yaar Mohammad Khan was the ruler of Peshawar. On November 20, 1818 A.D. Ranjit Singh was able to occupy Peshawar without any difficulty. But he realised that in order to annex Peshawar to his kingdom, he lacked sufficient power. Therefore, he appointed Jahandad Khan, the ex-Governor of Attock, as the Governor of Peshawar and himself returned to Lahore.

2. Second Invasion of Peshawar. When the Sikh forces returned to Lahore, Yaar Mohammad Khan fell upon Jahandad Khan and compelled him to run away. Ranjit Singh sent a force of 12,000 soldiers under the command of prince Kharak Singh and Misar Diwan Chand to attack Peshawar. But Yaar Mohammad Khan did not deem it proper to fight against the Sikhs and accepted Ranjit Singh’s suzerainty.

3. Third Invasion of Peshawar. In the meantime, Azim Khan the new Wazir of Kabul attacked Peshawar. In January, 1823, he defeated Yaar Mohammad Khan and occupied Peshawar. When Ranjit Singh came to know about it, he despatced a big army under his able generals including Hari Singh Nalwa, Prince Sher Singh and Attar Singh Atariwala. Azim Khan declared a Jehad or crusade against the Sikhs. On March 14, 1823 A.D. fierce battles took place between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Naushehra and Tibba, (also called Tibba Tehri). Akali Phoola Singh lost his life in this battle. Then the Sikh forces saw Ranjit Singh himself in the battle-field. His presence there awakened the spirit of self-confidence among the Sikh soldiers. Soon the Sikhs defeated Azim Khan.

4. Crushing the revolt of Sayyed Ahmed. Sayyed Ahmed a Wahabi leader organised a big army and declared Jehad (a religious war) against the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh firmly resolved to crush this revolt. In 1829 A.D. Sayyed Ahmed attacked Peshawar. Yaar Mohammad, who was under the Maharaja, could not face him. In the meantime, prince Sher Singh defeated Sayyed Ahmad in the battle of Balakot.

5. Annexation of Peshawar to the kingdom of Lahore. After 1831 A.D, Maharaja Ranjit Singh planned to bring Peshawar under his control. In 1834, he sent a large army under prince Naunihal Singh, Hari Singh Nalwa and General Ventura to conquer Peshawar. They besieged the fort and the city. But the Sikh army met with no opposition and it captured the city. Ranjit Singh annexed Peshawar to his kingdom and appointed Hari Singh Nalwa as the Governor of Peshawar.

6. Unsuccessful attempts by Dost Mohammad to recover Peshawar. In 1834 A.D. Dost Mohammad Khan, the Amir of Kabul, resolved to get back Peshawar from the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa was engaged in getting the fort of Jamrud repaired. This fort could prove to be a danger to Dost Mohammad Khan. That is why he sent an army of 18000 men under the command of his son, Muhammad Akbar against the Sikhs. A fierce battle was fought between them. At last the Sikhs came out victorious.

Question 5.
On what issues did Ranjit Singh and the British not agree?
Answer:
There were three main issues on which tension arose between Ranjit Singh and the English. These matters were the question of Sindh, the question of Shikarpur and the question of Ferozepur.
1. The Question of Sindh. Among the issues which created differences and bitterness between Ranjit Singh and the British, the problem of Sindh has a special place. Being situated on the South-western frontier of kingdom of Lahore, the territory of Sindh had a great military significance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government also knew quite well the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So, it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent its political agent of Lahore Col. Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission so that he could not judge the real intentions of the British. Although the nature of this Mission was friendly, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

2. The Question of Shikarpur. On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh was waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe made attacks on the border regions of kingdom of Lahore. Ranjit Singh tried to occupy Shikarpur by holding the Amirs-mf Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also closely watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent a military regiment under the command of Captain Wood to Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh was asked to retreat. Since Ranjit Singh was not powerful enough to face the British forces, he thought it wise to withdraw.

3. The Question of Ferozepur, 1835 A.D. The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the bilateral relations of Ranjit Singh and the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D, Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him capture it. The British Government itself captured Ferozepur in 1835 A.D., and after three years made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Activity:

Question 1.
In the given map Punjab, show the place of important conquests of Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations 1

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Name any four important conquests of Ranjit. Singh.
Answer:
Conquests of Peshawar, Lahore, Multan and Kashmir.

Question 2.
What was the name of the father of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Mahan Singh.

Question 3.
When did Ranjit Singh conquer Lahore?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

Question 4.
Name any four territories conquered by Ranjit Singh before 1812 A.D.
Answer:
Lahore, Amritsar, Sialkot and Jalandhar.

Question 5.
Name any four Misls conquered by Ranjit Singh.;
Answer:
Faizalpuria Misl, Krorsinghia Misl, Nakai Misl and Kanhaiya Misl.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 6.
Which was the first Misl?
Answer:
Faizalpuria Misl was the first Misl.

Question 7.
When did Ranjit Singh conquer Kashmir?
Answer:
Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir in 1819 A.D.

Question 8.
Name any one powerful Misldar who extended hand of friendship towards Ranjit Singh instead of opposing him.
Answer:
Sada Kaur of Kanhaiya Misl.

Question 9.
What was the importance of conquest of Lahore by Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
By this conquest, he was able to occupy the capital of the Punjab.

Question 10.
Why was Ranjit Singh eager to conquer Multan?
Answer:
If Ranjit Singh could occupy Multan, the Muslim states could not forge a united front against him.

Question 11.
Mention any one benefit of conquest of Multan to Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
The conquest of Multan ended the Afghan influence in the Punjab.

Question 12.
Why was Ranjit Singh so eager to conquer Peshawar? (Give one reason.)
Answer:
It was necessary for Ranjit Singh to capture Peshawar for the stability of his kingdom.

Question 13.
Write down any one main cause of the Sikh victory in the battle of Naushehra.
Answer:
The Sikhs fought this battle with a greater religious fervour than the Muslims,

Question 14.
Mention any one clause of the treaty of Amritsar (1809 A.D.).
Answer:
The river Sutlej would be the boundary between the kingdom of Ranjit Singh and the British territories.

Question 15.
Write down one disadvantage to Ranjit Singh from the Treaty of Amritsar.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh suffered a diplomatic defeat and had to put his pride in his pocket.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 16.
Write down one advantage to Ranjit Singh by the Treaty of Amritsar.
Answer:
The infant kingdom of Ranjit Singh was saved from the British danger because of this treaty.

Question 17.
What was the main advantage for the British by the treaty of Amritsar?
Answer:
The British had no worries about the problems of the North-west region.

Question 18.
What is called the period of “Guardianship of the Triad” or Truine?
Answer:
During the minority of Ranjit Singh, there were three regents who had all the powers of state in their hands.

Question 19.
Who was Sada Kaur?
Answer:
Sada Kaur was the mother-in-law of Ranjit Singh.

Question 20.
Who ruled Amritsar at the time of its invasion by Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Mai Sukhan.

Question 21.
What was the name of father of Ranjit Singh? What was the name of his Misl?
Answer:
Mahan Singh, the chief of the Sukherchakya Misl.

Question 22.
According to Dr. N.K. Sinha what was the policy of Ranjit Singh towards the British?
Answer:
Sinha has called it the policy of “yielding, yielding and yielding”.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 23.
Between whom the Tripartite Treaty was negotiated in 1839 A.D.?
Answer:
The British, Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Ranjit Singh was born in _________ at _________
Answer:
1780 A.D., Gujranwala

Question 2.
Ranjit Singh invaded Lahore in and easily occupied it by defeating the _________ chiefs.
Answer:
1799, Bhangi

Question 3.
Amritsar has become the_________capital of the Sikhs.
Answer:
religious

Question 4.
Ranjit Singh had been the victim of in his childhood. Due to this terrible disease he lost his _________
Answer:
Smallpox left eye

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 5.
In 1809 a treaty was signed between Ranjit Singh and the _________
Answer:
British

Question 6.
From 1828 to 1839 the relations between the British and Ranjit Singh started _________
Answer:
deteriorating

Question 7.
Tension arose between the British and Ranjit Singh on the matters of _________ and Ferozepur.
Answer:
Sindh, Shikarpur.

True or False :

Question 1.
The relations between Ranjit Singh and the British always remained cordial.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Ranjit Singh died in 1839.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 3.
Ranjit Singh did not conqure weak Misls.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The Residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of their Bhangi chiefs. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore.
Answer:
True.

Match the following :

Question 1.

1. Tripartite Treaty (a) 1839
2. Multan (b) 1805
3. Peshawar (c) 1834
4. Kashmir (d) 1818
5. Amritsar (e) 1819

Answer:
1, (a)
2. (d)
3. (c)
4. (e)
5, (b).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the coronation of Ranjit Singh,
Answer:
The coronation of Ranjit Singh took place with great pomp and show on the eve of Baisakhi at Lahore on April 12, 1801 A.D. He gave his government the name of Sarkar Khalsa. Ranjit Singh did not wear any crown. He issued his coins in the name of Guru Nanak Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Thus, Ranjit Singh recognised Khalsa as the supreme power. Imam Baksh was appointed as the kotwal of Lahore.

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Dera Jat by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
In order to conquer Dera Ghazi Khan, Ranjit Singh sent an army under Jamadar Khushal Singh in 1820 A.D. He captured Dera Ghazi Khan after defeating the Afghan ruler, Zaman Khan. Ranjit Singh gave this territory to the Nawab of Bahawalpur in lieu of a heavy amount to be given to him every year as a tribute. Ranjit Singh conquered Dera Ismail Khan and Mankera. Ranjit Singh took the territory of Mankera from its Nawab Ahmed Khan and made him the governor of Dera Ismail Khan.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 3.
Describe any four early conquests of Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Given below is the description of the four early conquests of Ranjit,Singh:
1. Conquest of Lahore. Ranjit Singh conquered Lahore at the very first opportunity. The Bhangi chiefs Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh escaped from Lahore. Only Chet Singh defied Ranjit Singh. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

2. Battle of Bhasin. The Sikh and the Muslim rulers of the surrounding areas were terrified at the victory of Ranjit Singh at Lahore. They decided to confront. Ranjit Singh by forming a powerful united front. A battle was fought at Bhasin in 1800 A.D. Ranjit Singh came out victorious in this battle without any bloodshed.

3. Conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh conquered Amritsar after the death of Gulab Singh. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh, was the ruler of that territory at that time. Mai Sukhan offered resistance for sometime but she gave way afterwards. In this way, Amritsar was merged in the territory of Ranjit Singh.

4. Relations with other Sikh Misls. Now Ranjit Singh also occupied the territories of Dallewala and Nakkai Misls.

Question 4.
Discuss the conquest of any four Misls by Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Ranjit Singh decided to capture the independent Sikh Misls. He befriended the rulers of Ahluwalia, Kanahiya and Ramgarhia Misls. He started occupying the territories of weaker Misls with their help.

A brief account of his conquest of these Misls is as given below:

  • Ranjit Singh defeated Dal Singh of Akalgarh in 1802 A.D. and merged his territory into his kingdom,
  • After the death of the ruler of Dallewalia Misl Sardar Tara Singh Gheba in 1807 A.D., Ranjit Singh conquered most of his territories.
  • In the very next year, he defeated Jeewan Singh, the ruler of Sialkot and merged his territories into his kingdom,
  • He annexed the territories of Sardar Kahn Singh of Nakai Misl and those of Sardar Sahib Singh of Gujrat in 1810 A.D.

Question 5.
What were the important provisions of the Treaty of Amritsar?
Answer:
On April 2, 1809, A.D. Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar with the English. The main provisions of this treaty were:

  1. Both the governments shall maintain friendly relations with each other.
  2. The English would not interfere in the affairs of the territory to the north of the Sutlej and Ranjit Singh would not interfere in the affairs of the territory to the south of the Sutlej.
  3. The British government recognised Ranjit Singh as the most favoured power. He was assured that the English would have no concern with his state nor with the citizens of his kingdom. None would keep forces more than what was absolutely necessary.
  4. Ranjit Singh would keep only that much army in the south of the Sutlej which was necessary for the maintenance of law and order.
  5. If any party to the treaty violated its provision, the treaty would be considered cancelled.

Question 6.
What was the significance of the Treaty of Amritsar (1809)?
Answer:
The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Maharaja Ranjit Singh on April 25, 1809 A.D. This treaty was important from the historical point of view for the English as v/ell as the Sikhs. But opinions differ regarding the importance of this treaty. Due to this, the English and the Maharaja gained something but the Maharaja -was also a loser in some respects. The greatest desire of the Maharaja was to become the sole ruler of all the Sikhs. But his dream was shattered due to this treaty. He could never exercise his control over the states of Malwa. This treaty gave a terrible blow- to the power and prestige of Ranjit Singh.

This treaty extended the boundaries of the British rule from the Yamuna to the Sutlej. Because of its close vicinity to Ranjit Singh’s kingdom, the British government could keep a more strict watch over the foreign policy and the military activities of the Maharaja. Of course, the treaty was also useful to the Maharaja. The infant state of Punjab was saved from being destroyed. Besides, Ranjit Singh got an opportunity to extend the frontiers of his kingdom in other directions. Therefore, he greatly extended the boundaries of his state in the north-western region.

Question 7.
Discuss the importance of the battle of Naushehra (Four points only).
Answer:

  1. Nazim Shah was defeated by the Sikhs in the battle of Naushehra. He made his sons swear that they would avenge this defeat. Thus, there started between the Afghans and the Sikhs an enmity which continued for a long time.
  2. The Sikhs won a name for their bravery in the battle of Naushehra. After the battle of Haidru, Naushehra was the second place at which the Sikhs had thoroughly routed the Afghans in a battle in the plains. Consequently, the Sikhs developed self-confidence and adopted even more aggressive policy against the Afghans.
  3. As a result of this battle, the prestige of Ranjit Singh rose very high. His power was acknowledged throughout the Punjab. Besides, due to his victory in the battle of Naushehra, the Maharaja’s hold on the Afghan territories between the Indus and Peshawar became stronger.
  4. The Afghan power in the north-west of India was thoroughly eliminated after this battle.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 8.
Write a short note on the Tripartite Treaty (The British, Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh).
Answer:
In 1839 A.D., Russia was advancing towards Asia. The British feared that Russia might attack India through Afghanistan. So they wanted to establish friendship with Afghanistan. The British sent Col. Burns to Kabul so that he could negotiate a friendship treaty with Amir Dost Mohammad of Kabul. Dost Mohammad demanded that the British should hand over to him the province of Peshawar after acquiring it from Ranjit Singh. But friendship of Ranjit Singh was most essential and important for the British. So, they did not accept this term of Dost Mohammad and signed a treaty with Shah Shuja, a brother of Dost Muhammad. Ranjit Singh was also a party to this treaty. This treaty is known as the Tripartite treaty.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the main victories of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Answer:
Following is the description of the conquests of Lahore, Amritsar, Attock, Multan and Kashmir by Ranjit Singh :
1. Conquest of Lahore. The conquest of Lahore was the first important achievement of Ranjit Singh. In those days, Lahore was under the rule of three Bhangi Sardars named Chet Singh, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh. The residents of Lahore were fed up with the cruelties of these Sardars. So they invited Ranjit Singh to attack Lahore. Ranjit Singh lost no time in attacking Lahore with a large army. On hearing the news of the attack, Mohar Singh and Sahib Singh escaped from Lahore. Only Chet Singh offered some resistance to Ranjit Singh. But he was defeated. In this way, Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in July, 1799 A.D.

2. Conquest of Amritsar. Ranjit Singh conquered Amritsar after the death of Gulab Singh Bhangi. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh was the ruler of that territory at that time. Ranjit Singh demanded the fort of Lohgarh situated at Amritsar and the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan. But Mai Sukhan refused. Ranjit Singh attacked Amritsar. Mai Sukhan put up resistance for sometime but she gave way afterwards. In this way, Amritsar was annexed to the kingdom of Ranjit Singh.

3. Conquest of Attock. An understanding was reached between Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan of Kabul in 1813 A.D. Accordingly, it was decided that Ranjit Singh would send 12 thousand soldiers to help Fateh Khan in the conquest of Kashmir and Fateh Khan in return would give him one-third of the conquered territories in addition to the booty received from thfere. Besides, Ranjit Singh promised to help Fateh Khan in his conquest of Attack, whereas Fateh Khan would help Ranjit Singh in the conquest of Multan.

The combined forces of Ranjit Singh and Fateh Khan conquered Kashmir with great ease but Fateh Khan did not fulfil his promise. He also did not give anything out of the wealth plundered by him from Kashmir. Ranjit Singh attacked Attock in fury (according to the treaty, Fateh Khan was to occupy Attock). Ranjit Singh’s minister Azizuddin took Attock from Jahandad Khan and gave him one lakh rupees and a big jagir. Fateh Khan could not tolerate this. He attacked Attock with a big army immediately. A fierce battle was fought between the Sikhs and the Afghans at Hazro near Attock. The Sikhs came out victorious in this battle.

4. Conquest of Multan. The territory of Multan was important both from the military and commercial points of view. Ranjit Singh attacked Multan six times till 1818 A.D. But every time, the Pathan ruler of Multan, Muzzaffar Khan would save his skin by offering him heavy Nazrana. Ranjit Singh determined to occupy Multan and annex it to his kingdom. In 1818 A.D. he sent 25 thousand soldiers under Misar Dewan Chand and his own eldest son Kharak Singh to invade Multan. The Sikh army besieged the fort of Multan. Muzzaffar Khan fought the Sikh army bravely. But he was killed in the battle and Multan was occupied by the Sikhs.

5. Conquest of Kashmir. Fateh Khan, the Wazir of Afghanistan, had not given Ranjit Singhs his share of booty after the conquest of Kashmir. Now Ranjit Singh sent an army under Ram Dyal to conquer Kashmir. Ranjit Singh himself accompanied Ram Dyal to fight this battle but the Sikhs could not achieve success. He again sent an expedition under Misar Dewan Chand and prince Kharak Singh. Zabar Khan, the new governor of Kashmir, advanced to face the Sikh army but was badly defeated at Supin.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Question 2.
Describe the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh, What was its importance?
Answer:
After the death of Gulab Singh Bhangi, his son Gurdit Singh became the ruler of Amritsar. He was a minor. Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh, therefore, looked after the affairs of the state. Ranjit Singh was finding an opportunity to conquer Amritsar. In 1805 A.D., he found this opportunity. He requested Mai Sukhan to give him the famous Bhangi Gun ‘Zamzama’ because the Sukarchakia Misl had played a major role in capturing that gun from Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1764. Ranjit Singh also demanded Lohgarh Fort. It is said that Jodh Singh Ramgarhia, son of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, counselled Mai Sukhan to hand over the gun to Ranjit Singh. But she did not agree. Maharaja Ranjit Singh wanted to capture Amritsar at any cost.

The demand for the gun was only an excuse to invade Amritsar. He attacked Amritsar and captured Lohgarh. Sada Kaur and Fateh Singh Ahluwalia helped Ranjit Singh in this conquest. The Maharaja came out victorious. Thus, he occupied Amritsar and the Fort of Lohgarh. As proposed by Jodh Singh, Ranjit Singh gave Mai Sukhan and Gurdit Singh a small Jagir for their maintenance. Akali Phoola Singh of Amritsar, who was a great warrior, alongwith his 2000 Nihang followers joined the army of Ranjit Singh.

Importance of the Conquest of Amritsar :
Following is the importance of the conquest of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh :

  1. It was the religious capital of the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh became the master of this historic city of the Sikhs.
  2. As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, the military power of Ranjit Singh increased. The Fort of Lohgarh proved a boon for the Maharaja. He also got the famous gun Zamzama from Mai Sukhan.
  3. Ranjit Singh acquired the services of Akali Phoola Singh and his 2000 Nihang followers. Because of the extraordinary courage and bravery of the’ Nihangs, Ranjit Singh achieved many glorious victories.
  4. As a result of the conquest of Amritsar, Ranjit Singh’s name and fame spread far and wide. Many’ Indians left the service of the East India Company and got employment with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Many Europeans also joined the army of the Maharaja.

Question 3.
Describe the relations of Ranjit Singh with the British from 1809-1839 A.D.
Answer:
On 25th April, 1809 A.D., the Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the British and Ranjit Singh. Although this treaty had ended the possibility of an immediate armed conflict, yet it could not end the feelings of doubt and fear growing in the minds of both powers.

After this treaty, until 1839 A.D., the Anglo-Sikh relations had to pass through the following stages:
Period of mutual distrust and suspicion (1809-1811). from 1809 to 1811 A.D. both Ranjit Singh and the British Government looked upon each other with distrust and suspicion. Both sides had imaginary fears against each other. Each of them had engaged spies to know about the military and diplomatic strategies of the other.

But gradually this mutual distrust lessened and by 1812 A.D. it was almost over.

Anglo-Sikh relations from 1812 to 1822 A.D. During the decade of 1812 to 1822 A.D., mutual cooperation and friendly relations existed between the British and Ranjit Singh.
1. Ranjit Singh’s refusal to help Nepal. In 1815 A.D. when a Gorkha Vakil came to seek help from the Maharaja against the British, he clearly refused. In the. first British-Nepal war (1814-15A.D.), the Maharaja, by helping the British, proved his friendship with them. Likewise, when in 1821 A.D. the representative of Appa Sahib Maratha came to seek help against the British, the Maharaja refused him blankly. On the other hand, the British made no interference in the affairs of Ranjit Singh in the North-west of the Sutlej.

2. Question of Wadni. In the beginning of 1822 A.D., there was some bitterness in the mutual relations of the British and Ranjit Singh regarding Wadni, a village situated in the south of the Sutlej. During his cis-Sutlej expedition in 1808 A.D., Ranjit Singh handed over this region to his mother-in-law Sada Kaur in exchange for twelve thousand rupees. But in 1820 A.D., Ranjit Singh imprisoned Sada Kaur and recaptured Wadni. Rani Sada Kaur sought the help of the British. The British resident at Ludhiana sent a British regiment that occupied Wadni. The Maharaja expressed his annoyance to the Governor-General. So in 1823 A.D. the Governor-General again accepted the suzerainty of Ranjit Singh over Wadni.

3. Cordiality again. Ranjit Singh tried his level best to maintain friendly relations with the British. In 1825-26 A.D., the chief of Bharatpur sought Ranjit Singh’s military help but the Maharaja refused. In 1826 A.D. Maharaja Ranjit Singh fell ill. On his request, the British Government sent Dr. Murray to Lahore. As a result, friendly relations were restored between the two sides for some time.

The estrangement of relations again. From 1828 to 1839 A.D. the relations between the ruler of Lahore and the British Government started deteriorating.

During this period, the following events created tension between them :
1. Increasing Power of Ranjit Singh. During the last ten years, Ranjit Singh had greatly increased his power by conquering Multan, Kashmir, Deraj at and Peshawar, etc. The British Government was jealous of the increasing power of Ranjit Singh. So, on the one hand, the British Government started adopting the policy of encircling the kingdom of Lahore from different directions. On the other hand, it pretended friendship with the Maharaja.

2. The Question of Sindh. Among the issues which created differences and bitterness in the relations, between Ranjit Singh and the British, the issue of Sindh was very complex. This region being situated in the South-west of Lahore, had a great military significance. It was essential for Ranjit Singh to capture it so that he might save his state from foreign invasions from this side.

The British Government also well understood the commercial importance of Sindh and Shikarpur. So, it did not want this region to fall into the hands of Ranjit Singh. In 1831 A.D. the British Government sent one of its officers Alexander Burns to the Amirs of Sindh for a Commercial treaty. It also sent a gift for Ranjit Singh through this Mission, so that he could not judge the real intentions of the British. Although it seemed to be a friendly mission, yet it created doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh against the Sindh policy of the British.

3. Meeting at Ropar between Ranjit Singh and William Bentinck. (Imp.) The Governor-General Lord William Bentinck very well knew about the doubts in the mind of Ranjit Singh. The fear of Russian attack on India was also spreading fast. The British Governor-General did not want that in that hour of crisis their relations with the Maharaja should deteriorate. Instead, he wanted that the relations with the Sikh ruler should be cemented and he should also know about the increasing influence of the British in Sindh. To achieve this purpose, on October 1831 A.D., Lord William Bentinck met the Maharaja at Ropar. But at the same time, he sent Col. Pottinger to make a commercial treaty with the Amirs of Sindh.

The negotiations between the Governor-General and Ranjit Singh were still going on in Ropar, when an important treaty was signed between the British and the Amirs of Sindh by the efforts of Col. Pottinger. Ranjit Singh returned disappointed from the meeting at Ropar.

4. The Question of Shikarpur. On the question of Shikarpur also there was a lot of tension between the British and Ranjit Singh. Since 1832 A.D., Ranjit Singh had been waiting for a suitable opportunity to occupy Shikarpur. He got this opportunity when the people of Mazari tribe attacked the border regions of Lahore Kingdom. Ranjit Singh tried to occupy Shikarpur by holding the Amirs of Sindh guilty of Mazari invasions. But the British were also watching the activities of Ranjit Singh. So as soon as he went ahead to capture Shikarpur, the British also sent a military regiment under the command of Captain Wood to Shikarpur. Ranjit Singh was asked to retreat. Since Ranjit Singh was not powerful enough to fight against the British, he thought it wise to withdraw.

5. The Question of Ferozepur, 1835 A.D. The question of Ferozepur had special significance in the relations of Ranjit Singh with the British from 1809 A.D. to 1838 A.D. Though Ranjit Singh’s claim to Ferozepur was proper and justified, yet the British did not let him occupy it. The British Government itself captured Ferozepur in 1835 A.D. and after three years made it its own permanent military station. But even this time, the Maharaja had to swallow the bitter pill.

6. Tripartite Treaty. In 1839 A.D., Russia was advancing towards Asia. The British feared that Russia might attack India through Afghanistan. So they wanted to establish friendship with Afghanistan. The British sent Col. Burns to Kabul so that he could negotiate a friendship treaty with Amir Dost Mohammad the ruler of ‘ that country. Dost‘Mohammad was willing to sign the treaty on the condition that the British should hand over to him the province of Peshawar by taking it from Ranjit Singh. But friendship of Ranjit Singh was most essential and important for the British. So, they did not accept this term of Dost Mohammad. On his part, Dost Mohammad entered into a treaty with Russia. It was a big challenge for the British. They made an agreement with Shah Shuja, the former ruler of Afghanistan.

Ranjit Singh was also a party to this agreement. It is known as the Tripartite Treaty. Ranjit Singh signed this treaty but he did not sign an important clause of it. It was, “That the armies of the British can attack Kabul by passing through Punjab.” But Ranjit Singh was afraid that the British would certainly violate this clause. So in the last years of his reign, he tried to take many steps against the British. But, Ranjit Singh died in 1839 A.D.

It is a fact that from 1809 A.D. to 1839 A.D. Ranjit Singh adopted the policy of maintaining a friendship with the British. He had decided that he will not fight with the British, whatever sacrifice he might have to make. Keeping in view his yielding policy on every occasion before the demands of the British, Dr. N.K. Sinha has called it the policy of “yielding, yielding and yielding.”

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations

Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Birth and Parentage. Ranjit Singh was born at Gujranwala in 1780 A.D. His father, Mahan Singh was the chief of the Sukarchakiya. Misl. The name of Ranjit Singh’s mother was Raj Kaur.
  • Childhood. He had fallen a victim to smallpox in his childhood. Thus, due to it, he lost his left eye. He was just 10 years old when he along with his father, began to take part in the battles. He had all the qualities of a brave warrior from his very childhood.
  • Marriage. Ranjit Singh was married to Mehtab Kaur, the daughter of Sada Kaur and granddaughter of Jai Singh of Kanheya Misl. When Ranjit Singh took over the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl, these matrimonial relations helped him a lot in increasing his power.
  • Occupation of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. In 1792 A.D. Ranjit Singh took over the reins of the Sukarchakiya Misl. In 1799 A.D., when he was 19 years old, Shah Zaman, the ruler of Kabul, granted Lahore to Ranjit Singh. He immediately invaded Lahore and easily occupied it by defeating the Bhangi chiefs.
  • Early Conquests. In 1802, he conquered Amritsar. Next, he started his march towards Sirhind between the Sutlej and Jamuna. But the English did not let him do so.
  • Treaty of Amritsar. In 1809 A.D. Ranjit Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar with the English. After this treaty, he began to extend his empire to a large extent in the North-west.
  • Important Conquests. Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Lahore in 1799 A.D., Amritsar 1802, Multan (1818), Kashmir (1819) and Peshawar (1834). Thus, he succeeded in establishing a vast empire.
  • Death. Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in June 1839.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 7 Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements and Anglo-Sikh Relations Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.