PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

“Governance” means The process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented. Various factors are involved in governance. Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government.

It’s not about making ‘correct’ decisions, but about the best possible process for making and implementing those decisions.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

Main Characteristics of Good Governance:

  1. Good governance is answerable to the community,
  2. Good governance is transparent.
  3. Good governance follows the rule of law.
  4. Good governance is responsive.
  5. Good governance is effective and efficient in implementing decisions and follows processes.
  6. Good governance is participatory.

History and development of E-governance:

In India E-Governance originated during the seventies. The ICT was used to manage data related to elections, census, tax administration etc. After that, with the efforts of the National Informatics Center (NIC) all the district headquarters were connected during the eighties. From the early nineties, e-governance has used IT for wider sectoral applications with emphasis on reaching out to rural areas.

Earlier, a talk between a citizen and the Government takes place in a government office. But with the advancement of Information and Communication technologies, work culture of government offices has enhanced. Information and Communication Technologies has made it possible to locate service centers near to clients.

Such centers may consist of an unattended kiosk in the government agency, a service kiosk located close to the client outside the government agency, or the use of a personal computer at home or office.

In all the cases public traditionally look for information and services addressing his/her needs. In both cases quality and efficiency are of great importance. Therefore, the establishment of e-Govemance requires a good knowledge of the needs that exist in the society and that can be offered using ICT.

Due to widespread demand of E-govemance and exponentially increasing size of data, new technologies Hke Open source solutions and cloud computing need to be used in working of government. Today, electricity, water, phone and all kinds of bills can be paid over the internet. All these work is what government and citizens are using and doing. All ‘this dependents on internet and when citizens depends on government internet services all that come is E-Govemance.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

E-governance:

Online working of a government or providing its services online to its citizens at their door step is known as E-Govemance. In other words, E-Govemance means online availability of government services.

E-Govemance has made the working of government more efficient andmore transparent to its citizens. Success or failure of any government depends on three things:

  1. The way the government works.
  2. Transparency in its working and information.
  3. Communication to its citizen.

In E-Govemance, government use of internet technology to communicate and provide information to common peoples and businessman.

There are four pillars of E-Governance:

  1. Connectivity: Connectivity is required to connect the people to the services of the government.
  2. Knowledge: The knowledge here is referred to as IT knowledge.
  3. Data Content: To share information over the internet, government possesses its database which should have the data content related to government services.
  4. Capital: Capital is referred to money used by government to provide their services.

Objectives of E-Governance:

The two main objectives of e-governance are:
1. To satisfactorily fulfil the public’s needs and expectations by simplifying their interaction with various online services.
2. To facilitate a speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and effective process for performing government administration activities.

E-Governance models:

These four models of e-governance are as:

  1. Government to citizens (G2C)
  2. Government to government (G2G)
  3. Government to employees (G2E)
  4. Government to businessman (G2B)

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance 1

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

1. Government to citizens (G2C):

This model of e-govemance refers to the government services which are shared by citizens. In this model, citizens visit to the links of services that they want to use. This model strengthens the bond between government and its citizen. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Payment of online bills such as electricity, water, telephone bills etc.
  2. Online registration of applications.
  3. Copies of land-record.
  4. Online filling of complaints.
  5. Availability” of any kind of online information.

2. Government to government (G2G):

This model refers to the services which are shared between the governments. These types of services or information are as:

  1. Sharing of information between police department of various state.
  2. Government document exchange which includes preparation, approval, distribution, and storage of ail governmental documents, is also done through e- governance.
  3. Most of the finance and budget works are also done through e-governance.

3. Government to businessmen (G2B):

It is used by businessmen to communicate to the government. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Collection of taxes.
  2. Rejection and approval of patent is done by this model.
  3. Payment of all kind of bills and penalty.
  4. Sharing of all kind of information, rules and data.
  5. Complaints or any kind of dissatisfaction can be shown by this.

4. Government to employees (G2E):

This model increases the transparency between government and its employee. Information that can be shared by this model:

  1. All kind of data submission (attendance record, employee record etc.) from various government offices is done by this model.
  2. Employee can file all kinds of complaints and dissatisfaction by this model.
  3. All kind of rule- regulation and information for employees can be shared by this.
  4. Employees can check their payment and working record.
  5. Employees can register all kind of working forms online.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

Areas of E-governance:

Today area of e-governance is very wide. E-Governance is implemented by government in almost every field.

I. E-Governance in urban areas:

1. Transportation

Services provided by e-governance in this area are:

  1. Issue of learner licensees, Issue of driving licenses, Renewal of driving licenses etc.
  2. To provide transport-related facilities online.
  3. For online bookings, cancellation of seats, for enquiry about departure of buses, availability of seats and buses etc.
  4. Issuance of Time Table of buses.
  5. Provision of booking facility for Interstate transport.
  6. Transportation Improvement Program.
  7. Regional Transportation Plans.
  8. Congestion Management Process.
  9. Transportation Demand Management.

Various projects such as

  • IRCTC (Indian Railway Catering and tourism Cooperation ltd.) Offers online rail ticket booking, and checking of ticket reservation status.
  • HRTC (Himachal Road Transport Corporation project) is for online bookings, cancellation of seats, for enquiry about departure of buses, availability of seats and buses etc.

2. Online payment of bills and taxes

Services provided by e-govemance in this area are :

  1. Online Transactions such as payment of license fees, university fees, etc.
  2. Payment of Bill such as online payment of electricity and water bills,utility bills, to avail of trade licenses and transact on government matters at these facilities. ‘
  3. Payment of taxes such as online payment of motor vehicle taxes, revenue taxes,
  4. Payment of house EMIs.

Various Projects such as

  • SAMP ARK by Chandigarh government.
  • E-Suvidha by the government of Uttar Pradesh.
  • E-SEVA (Electronic seva) by Andhra Pradesh.
  • E-Mitra by the Government of Rajasthan

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

3. Information and public relation key services:

With these kinds of projects people can get any kind of information with just a single click are as under :
1. Information about vacancies, tenders and market rates etc.
2. Village e-mail etc.

Various projects such as
1. LokMitra by the government of Himachal Pradesh.

4. Municipal services

Services provided are as:

  1. House Tax Assessment, Billing and Collection.
  2. Maintaining records of Land & property. Certificates like Land sale Permission, Legal heir certificate.
  3. Issue of Passport Verification Certificate.
  4. Issue of Death and BirthCertificates.
  5. Registration & Attorneys of properties such as computerization of the Document registration work at Sub Registrar Office.
  6. Provide services such as issuance of certificates, issuance of orders in respect of Social Security Schemes such as old age pension, widow pension, freedom fighter pension etc.
  7. Review and approval authority for site plans

Various projects such as

  • SDO Suite by Assam government.
  • Rural Digital Services.

5. Roads and traffic management

Services provided by this type of e-governance is :

  1. Network of Roads & Bridges.
  2. Road construction and their maintenance.
  3. Traffic Management.

Safety, Accident and pollution control.arious projects such as
1. RSPCB (Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board) by Govt, of Rajasthan.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

II. Areas of e-governance in rural areas

In rural areas e-govemance has its very powerful impact.
1. Agriculture:
Following are the projects used in Agriculture.
1. AGMARKNET: It is a project approved by Department of Marketing & Inspection (DMI), Ministry of Agriculture, and the Government of India.
2. SEEDNET: It is a SEED informatics network under ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.

2. Local information:

For local information such as personal information, prices of seeds, fertilizers, loan rates etc.
Various projects such as
1. E-Aadhar
2. E-JanSampark

3. Disaster management:

To deal with these disasters, much state government has started e-governance service for this.
Project in this area are:
1. Chetana by the state of Bihar is a Disaster management system which has been started to deal with natural disasters such as flood and earthquake.

4. Land record management:

By facilitating e-governance service in this area, millions of land records can be maintain in a very short time span.
Projects in this area are :

  1. Land Records Management System State Government of Punjab.
  2. Devbhoomi State Government of Uttarakhand.
  3. Bhu-Lekh UP State Government of Uttar Pradesh.
  4. E-Dhara State Government of Gujarat.

5. Panchayat:

Services provided by e-governance in this area are:

  1. Issue of Birth/Death certificate.
  2. Application for inclusion of name in Voter list.
  3. Conducting various welfare schemes for the poor and needy sections of the society.
  4. Preparing district wise planning, implementing those plan, and review for success.
  5. To provide wage employment to the needy from amongst the poorest section of the rural society.
  6. Rural water supply and sanitation.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance

Various projects:

1. E-GramViswa Gram Project by Gujarat.

III. E-governance in Health

Service provided by these projects are as:

  1. Availability of medicines.
  2. Special health camps.
  3. Facilities at Anganwadi centers.

Various projects are:

  • Hospital OPD Appointment:
  • Online Vaccination Appointment for International Traveler:

IV. E-governance in Education

Providing basic education (elementary, primary, and secondary) to children.

  1. Providing computer education to children.
  2. Results for 10th& 12th classes.
  3. Information on eligibility for “Distribution of books” scheme.

Various projects are:
Online Scholarship Management System such as Ashirwad portal by Punjab Government.

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 E-Governance will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Internet allows us to use many services like Internet Banking, Online Shopping, Online Ticket Booking, Online Bill Payment, emaihetc.

Internet provides concept of electronic commerce that allows the business deals to be conducted on electronic systems

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Email:

Email, short for “electronic mail,” It is one of the most widely used features of the Internet, along with the web. It allows us to send and receive messages to and from anyone with an email address, anywhere in the world.

Gmail:

‘Google Mail’ or ‘Gmail’ is a free email service provided by Google. You can send and receive emails, block spam, create an address book, and perform other basic email tasks.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications 1

Creating new account:

In this, we’ll study about how to get started with email by creating an account in Gmail.
Follow these step-by-step instructions to create a Gmail account
1. Open up our internet browser.
2. Type address. WWW.gmail.com

3. Create Google Account
The ‘choose our username’ is the unique email address that we wish to use, which will be placed before ‘@gmail.com’.
1. Type password
2. Then fill your birth date (Month, Day, Year)
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3. Fill your Gender (Male/Female)
4. Mobile phone number and any other e-mail address(if exist)
Once we have completed this page fully, clicking Next Step will take us to the next Page.
Click “Continue to Gmail” to go to our inbox and get started.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Captcha Code:

A CAPTCHA is a type of test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
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A CAPTCHA is a program that protects websites by generating and grading tests that humans can pass but current computer programs cannot.

How to send and receive E-mail?

To send an email, click “Compose Mail” located above the folder list. An entry form appears in the Gmail interface.

The recipients: In the “To:” box, type the address of the person we want to write to.
To view the “Cc:” tab click “Add Cc”. Cc means “carbon copy”, type here the addresses of people who are not the main recipients of the message, but we still want to send a copy to.

To view the “Bcc:” tab click “Add Bcc”. Bcc stands for “Blind carbon copy “, type here the addresses of people we want to send a copy of the mail to, without the other recipients knowing.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

The subject

In “Subject:”, enter the subject of the email.
When we finish typing our mail, click the “Send” button to send it immediately or on the “Save” button to save as draft.

Attach file(s)with email message:

In the new message window, click the paperclip icon to add an attachment. Find and click on the folder or files we wish to attach, then click “Open” and we should see the attachment added to our message.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications 5

Google Apps:

Google Apps is a suite of Web-based applications from Google that includes e-mail, calendar, word processing, spreadsheet and presentations.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

1. Google Calendar

Google Calendar is a time-management web application and mobile app created by Google. Google Calendar allows multiple calendars to be created and shown in the same view. Each can be shared, either read-only or with full edit control, and either with specified people or with everyone.
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2. Google Maps

Google Maps is a desktop web mapping service developed by Google. It offers satellite imagery, street maps, 360° panoramic views of streets (Street View), real-‘time traffic conditions (Google Traffic), and route planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle (in beta), or public transportation.
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3. Translate

Google Translate is a free multilingual statistical machine translation provided by Google to translate text, speech, images, or real-time video from one language into another.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

4. Google +

Google+ (Google Plus) is Google’s attempt at social networking. The Google+ service that delivers functionality and many features similar to those of Facebook.
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5. Google Docs

Google Docs is an online word processor that lets you create and format text documents and collaborate with other people in real-time.
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6. Google Sheets

Google Sheets is an online spreadsheet app that lets you create and format spreadsheets and simultaneously work with other people.

7. Google Slides

Google Slides is an online presentations app that allows you to show off your work in a visual way.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

8. Play Store

Google Play is Google’s online store for purchasing and downloading apps, music, books, movies and similar content for use on Android-powered smartphones, tablets, Google TV and similar devices.
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Google Drive

Google Drive is a service offered by Google that allows us to store and share files online.
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Benefits of Google Drive:

  1. Google Drive lets us send large files directly from our Gmail account.
  2. Google Drive allows us to access our files remotely.
  3. Google Drive has its own mobile application which gives us access to our files on our iPhone or smartphone.
  4. Google Drive allows us to find content easily with a keyword search.
  5. Google Drive is equipped with an OCR (optical character recognition) function, which allows us to search for words or expressions in scanned documents.
  6. Google Drive allows users to open various types of files.
  7. All the facilities described above are free.

How to share file(s)?

1. Open Drive, or a file or folder we want to share.
2. Open the sharing box:

  • While we have a file open: Click Share in the top-right comer.
  • While we have a folder open: Click the share icon in the top-right.
  • From our file list in Drive: Select the name of a file or folder and click the share icon at the top.

3. Under “People” in the sharing box, type the email addresses of the people or Google Groups we want to share with.
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4. Choose the type of access we want to give -these users by clicking the dropdown arrow to the right of the text box:

  • Can edit: Users can edit the file or folder and share it with others.
  • Can comment: Users can view and add comments to the file, but can’t edit it.
  • Can view: Users can see the file or folder but can’t edit or comment on it

5. Click Done. The users will receive an email letting them know we’ve shared the file or folder with them.
6. If we want to share multiple files at once, add the files to a folder in Drive and then share the entire folder with the people we want to see the files.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

How to download software?

The same basic steps apply to most downloads:

  1. Click the link.
  2. Choose open or save.
  3. Confirm the download.
  4. rim or open the download.

Internet in Media

TV, radio and the Internet used to be completely separate things, but that’s no longer true with today’s technology. We can now watch TV shows on our computer, connect to the Internet on many.

1. On Line Newspaper:
Online newspaper is the online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical.

2. Online TV channels, Radio, Live programs(Streaming Media)
Online radio is the distribution of audio broadcasts over the Internet. There are thousands of Internet radio stations that can be streamed to a software media player in a computer, mobile device, stand-alone Internet radio, media hub or media server.

What is Cloud?

The term ‘Cloud’ refers to a Network or Internet. In other words, we can say that Cloud is something, which is present at remote location.
Applications such as e-mail, web conferencing, customer relationship management (CRM) execute on cloud.
Cloud networking refers to manipulating, configuring, and accessing the hardware and software resources remotely. It offers online data storage, infrastructure, and application.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Cloud Printing:

Cloud Printing enable users to print documents and other materials on any device associated with the cloud (network). Users create content with any softwarefool they want and transfer the file to a cloud printing service provider via whatever device they choose, which then routes the file to a cloud-attached printer at a location selected by the user.

Internet Security:

The Internet is indeed private and secure, but there are a number of serious security risks.

1. Virus/Anti-virus:
A computer virus is a computer program that replicates itself into other computer programs and can cause damage to a computer’s software, hardware or data.

2. Spyware:
Spyware is a program installed on our computer that sends information about us and how we use our computer to a third party, typically without we being aware this is happening. Spyware often enters our system when we install some type of free software from an untrusted source.

3. Trojan:
A Trojan horse, often shortened to Trojan, is a type of malware designed to provide unauthorized, remote access to a user’s computer. Trojan horses do not have the ability to replicate themselves like viruses; however, they can lead to viruses being installed on a machine since they allow the computer to be controlled by the Trojan creator.

4. Phishing Scams:
Phishing is an e-mail fraud method in which the wrongdoer sends out legitimate-‘looking email in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from recipients.

5. Digital Signature:
Digital Signature is a digital code which is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Internet Applications will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Data has become an important part of human life. It has increased the need of data management. This need has given birth to various software. MS Access is one of the most common software in this category.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

MS-Access:

Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). It is used for database creation and management. MS-Access Allow user to perform basic tasks such as opening and closing database, Creating tables, Forms, queries and Reports. If we want to understand Access, Firstly we must have to understand databases.

It is part of the MS Office software suite. It is used in millions of corporate firms across the globe and in homes also.

MS Access is used to store and retrieve large amounts of data. It can be used for something simple such as keeping a record of your books collection or for something larger such as invoicing/ stock management.

Relational Database:

Relational database was proposed by Edgar Codd around 1969. It has since become the dominant database model for commercial applications.

A relational database organizes data in tables. A table is made up of rows and columns. A row is also called a record. A column is also called a field.

MS-ACCESS is a relational database management system. Relational databases allow you to organize your data into tables; each table focuses on a specific topic; the various tables can then be linked to each other for inquiry and reporting purposes.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Guidelines to design a Database:

  1. Identify all the fields needed by you to produce the required information
  2. Organize each piece of data into its smallest useful part to make the design perfect.
  3. Make group related fields into tables
  4. Determine each table’s primary key which will uniquely identified.
  5. You will have to Include a common field in related tables.

Some Technical Words of Access:

Access arranges and divided database as under:

  1. Database file: The database file is the main file of database which consists the whole data of the document.
  2. Table: A table is the basic element of a Database and contains the data entered by users. Each row (or record) contains information about a particular item.
  3. The record is made up of several fields; each field contains one piece of information relating to the item.
  4. Fields: A field is an individual set of data items that are of the same type.
  5. Data Types: Databases consist of tables, tables consist of fields and fields are of a certain data type.

Components of MS Access:

  1. Table: Tables are the data storage facilities in MS Acfcess. Each table contains rows called records and columns called fields. A record is a collection of facts about a particular person or an organization. Each record in a table should be unique.
  2. Queries: A query that copies or changes data. Queries include append, delete, make-table, and update queries. A query that asks a question about the data stored in your tables and returns a result set in the form of a datasheet, without changing the data.
  3. Forms: Forms provides us friendly environment to view the data in which it shows a single record at a time.
  4. Reports: Reports provide a means of organizing and summarizing data. A report can be a simple list, a student’s report or a school report.
  5. Macros: Macro is an automatic action that should be performed to an object of the data. It allow users to their work automatically.
  6. Modules: A module is collection of procedure statement and declaration which are stores as unit. Module are verv similar to macros.
  7. Database objects: Databases in Access 2010 are composed of four objects: tables, queries, forms, and reports.

Data Types:

In access many types of data types can be used the data type is decided before creating a table. We know there are different data types of table. Some of the important data types of access are given below:

Data types Size/Format Storage Capacity Functions
Text Up to 255 characters Text – including numeric text (eg phone numbers) Text consists of digits/ numbers, letters or their combination. It can have maximum of 255 letters.
Number Long Integer Integer Single and double bytes Whole numbers Numbers been used only from the prescribed size which we will declare in document.
Data types General Both date & time It is used for date and time. The data can vary from 100 to 9999. it is 8 byte long
Yes/no Yes/No True/False On/Off N.A For data with only 2 possible values. It is used for logical values.
Currency Currency Scientific, percentage Up to 15 figures It can also be use in mathematics or scientific functions.
Auto Number N.A Automatic counter- incremented by 1 for each record It is used in all numeric programs it automatically give increment to a number.
Memo Up to 65535 characters Longer pieces of text Memo is used in where we have to enter a longer text
OLE
Object video
N.A For pictures, sound, videos, word/excel, documents or any other docs. It is been used to insert picture, sound, videos, word/excel, documents
Hyperlink N.A N.A It is used For links to the WWW or e-mail
Calculated N.A N.A This data type allow you to create a field that is based on a calculation of other fields in the same table

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Advantages of Access:

  1. Convenient storage capacity: A Microsoft Access database can hold up to 2 GB of data. *
  2. Easy installation and work: Access gives data managers a fully functional, relational database management system.
  3. Easy to participate: Access works well with many of the developing software programs based in Windows like Microsoft SQL Server and non-Microsoft products like Oracle and Sybase.
  4. Importing data: Microsoft Access allow user to import their important data.
  5. Multi-user support: More About ten users in a network can use an Access application.
  6. Popular Rdbms: Microsoft Access is the most popular desktop Relational database system in the world.
  7. Saves your money: Microsoft Access is more economical than other larger systems; offering the same functions and usage.
  8. Secure Database: MS access is secure database system information is secure which you saved on it.

Starting access:

To start access 2010 from the start menu:
Click the start button, click all programs, click Microsoft office, and then click Microsoft access 2010. The new page of the backstage view opens, displaying thumbnails of the available templates and template categories.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 1
Another shortcut way to open access is Press windows kev with R it will open run command window on Run command type MS access is blank box.
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After the open of MS access you have to click on the blank database available Under templates.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 3

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Working with Tables:

A table is a database object that vou define and use to store data update DATA. A table consists of records and fields. Every record contains data about one instance of the subject.

Creating and Modifying tables:

When you create a new table, you have complete control over the number of fields, the names of the fields, and what sort of data they can store. You can create a new table in the either datasheet view or design view.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 4

Creating tables in datasheet view

To create a table in datasheet view:

On the create tab, in the tables group, click the table button. A new blank table opens in the object window in datasheet view.

Adding fields by entering data:

Whenever you add a new column to the datasheet, a new field is defined in the table.

  1. Click in the first cell in the click to add COLUMN, ENTER the first item of data for the new record, and then press the tab or enter key to move the first cell in the column to the right.
  2. Access AUTOMATICALLY ASSIGNS the value 1 to the id field.
  3. WHEN THE record has been changed, but has not yet been saved.
  4. Click the pencil icon in the row selector. This saves the first record with the value 1 assigned to the id field; subsequent records will be numbered sequentially.
  5. Continue entering items of data in consecutive cells, and pressing the tab or enter key.
  6. When you finish entering all the data for the first record, click anywhere in the row below to save the record.
  7. After entering so many records as per your requirement you have to save the table

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Creating Tables in design view:

In Design view, the Object window consists of two panes. The field Entry pane, located at the top of the window, is used to enter each field’s name, data type, and description. The field properties pane, located at the bottom of the window, is used to specify the field’s properties. The properties available in the Field properties pane depend on the data type assigned.
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To create a table in Design view:

On the create tab, in the Table Design button. A New, blank table opens in the object window in Design view.
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1. In the field name column, type a name for the first field. Field names can be up to 64 characters long. They can include any combination of letters, numbers, spaces, and brackets etc.
2. In the data type column click the down arrow and select a data type from the list).
3. In the description column, type a description for the field.
4. Repeat steps 2 through 4 to add additional fields to the table. After entering the all fields save the table.

Setting a primary key:

A primary key consists of one or more fields that uniquely identify each record in the table there are several advantages to setting a primary key.

To set a primary key follow these steps:
1. Click the row selector of the field you want to designate as the primary key.
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2. In the design tab, in the tools group, click the primary key button. A key icon appears to the left of the field that you specify as the primary key.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Saving tables:

To save a table for the first time:
1. On the quick access toolbar, click the save button. The save as dialog box opens
2. In the table name box, type a name for the table.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 8
Click the ok button. The table appears in the tables list in the navigation pane.

Closing database
To close a database:
Click the file tab, and then click close database.

Exiting access
To exit access 2010:
1. Click the file tab, and then click exit. Or, click the close button in the upper- right corner of the program window.
2. Another option is to exit Access is Press ALT+F4 key together. With this option you will exit from access in very easy way

Forms:

Forms are used for entering, modifying, and viewing records. The reason forms are used so often is that they’re an easy way to guide people into entering data correctly.

Creating forms:

It is always very convenient to work in forms. It is more comfortable easier and popular to enter data by forms that by datasheet view. Forms can be prepared by following two methods.

Create a form to display your data
1. To create a quick screen in MS Access 2010 simply go to the navigation pane and click to highlight the table you wish to base the form on.
2. Now click on the create tab.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 9
3. In the forms section click on the button named ‘Form’.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 10
4. MS Access creates a nice simple form. Click on any of the text boxes to position the cursor and edit the data.
At the bottom you have navigation buttons to move you from record to each record

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Sorting:

1. Result could be sorted by Name or by the marks of the students who were appear in exam
2. Students could be sorted by name or by the roll no.
3. Students could be sorted by class.
You can sort both text and numbers in two ways: in ascending order and descending order. Ascending means going up, so an ascending sort will arrange numbers from smallest to largest and text from A to Z.

Descending means going down, or largest to smallest for numbers and Z to A for text. The default ID number sort that appears in your tables is an ascending sort, which is why the lowest ID numbers appear first.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 11

Steps to sort student table are as follows:
1. Select a field in the cell you want to sort by. In student table, we will sort by student name.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, and locate the Sort & Filter group.
3. Sort the field by selecting the Ascending or Descending command.
(a) Select Ascending to sort text A to Z or to sort numbers from smallest to largest.
(b) Select Descending to sort text Z to A or to sort numbers from largest to smallest.
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The table will now be sorted by the selected field.
To save the new sort, click the Save command on the Quick Access toolbar.

Data Filters:

Filters is the concept in MS-Access which allow you to view only the data you want to see. The filter then searches all of the records in the table, finds the ones that meet your search criteria, and temporarily hides the other data.

Filters are useful because they allow you to look upon on specific records without any distraction by the uninterested data. Viewing this data with a filter would be far more convenient than searching for it in a large table.
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Follow these steps to apply filter:
To create a filter
1. Click the drop-down arrow next to the field you want to filter by.
(A drop-down menu with a checklist will appear. Only checked items will be included in the filtered results. Use the following options to determine which items will be included in your filter)
1. Select and deselect items one at a time by clicking their check boxes.
Here, we will deselect all of the options except for Class .
2. Click Select All to include every item in the filter. Clicking Select All a second time will deselect all items.

2. Click Blank to set the filter to find only the records with no data in the selected field.
Click OK. The filter will be applied.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Reports:

Reports allow you to print assembled data in a custom layout. You can create reports based on tables and/ or queries. There are several methods for creating a report. We will focus on the Reports wizard.

To create a report:
(i) Click on the Create tab and then select Report Wizard from the Reports group.
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1. Click on the down arrow beside the Tables/Queries selection window and choose the table or query you’re basing your report on.

2. Add fields – (All the fields from your selected tables/ queries appear in the Available Fields: window.)
1. To add fields to the Selected Fields window, one-at-a-to move all available fields into the Selected Fields window at once.
2. To remove individual fields from Selected Fields, click on each field and press to remove all fields, press
3. When done, click Next.
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3. When done, click Next.
(You can select a sort order for up to four fields. Click on the down arrow to select a field and then choose ascending or descending order.)
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4. When done, click Next and select layout options.
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5. Click Next and add title to the form.
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6. Click finish to finish the repeat.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access 20

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

First research for DBMS use was held in 1960 which was in the form of small software A U.S. based company N.A. A. (North America Aviation) was created it with the Name of GUAM (Generalize Update Access Method). GUAM was based on small components, different components build it together so it was called a hierarchical structure at that time.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

History of DBMS:

From 1960 to 1970 on the basis hierarchical structure several researches was done and in 1967 Conference on Data System Languages (CODASYL) created Task force with the collaboration of the U.S. government and the big business personalities which was called Database Task Force Group(DBTG).

IN 1971 Network Database was developed and later ones from time to time inventions come into existence after the DBMS innovation was done and now we are easily using DBMS in our todays life.

Terminology used in Databases

In databases many technical terms are used. Some of the important terms are as follows :

  1. Attribute: In a database management system, an attribute refers to a database component, such a table. It also may refer to a database field.
  2. Record: A record is a group of fields within a table that reference one particular object. A record is also known as a tuple.
  3. File: Files in computers fields are very similar in features to that of paper documents used in library and office files.
  4. There are many kind of files such as text files, data files, directory files, binary and graphic files, and these different types of files store different types of information.

Data and Information

Data are small raw materials such as character, numbers, pictures etc. After processing on these raw materials we get meaningful information.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Database

Database is a proper arrangement of information. There is no use of unarranged information. Database is a collection of a large amount of data. Dictionary is the best example of data in which all words are arranged in an alphabetical sequence which makes it easier for any word to search.

Computer database is collection of well-arranged records that is stored in the computer. User can obtain the required information from the database. The decision can be taken on the basis of this information. Software called database management system is used to prepare database.

Necessary instructions for designing a good database.

  1. The data must be accurate ,well arranged and complete so it could be easily fetch when required by someone.
  2. While creating database system we have to keep in mind that whether database application is going to use on any website or any other local area network or on both the result must be able to get very fast and accurate.
  3. The database design should be correct.
  4. Database should be design while thinking about the future problem.

Uses of Database System Application:

  1. In banking sector to look after of the account of the customer.
  2. For airline reservation and making schedule of the information.
  3. In universities to fetch information of the students and about the courses.
  4. To create the monthly statement of an organization.
  5. For telecommunication
  6. In finance to store the information of sales and purchase.
  7. In sales to store the information of customers purchased products.
  8. In Manufacturing management to store the information of warehouses.
  9. In human resource to store the employee’s salary bills, payrolls, taxes etc.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

File Processing System:

In old approach, before to computer, all information’s were stored on papers. But initial days, these records were stored in the form of files. That’s why this system is Called FILE PROCCESING SYSTEM. This is the way we stored data or record in files is similar to papers, in the form of flat files to be simpler, in notepad.

All files were grouped according to their categories; files uses only related information’s and each file is named properly.

Drawbacks of file processing system

  1. Data Mapping and Access: Although all the related information’s are grouped and stored in different files, there is no mapping between any two files.
  2. Data Redundancy: There were no methods to validate the insertion of duplicate data in file system. Any user can enter any data.
  3. Data Dependence: In the files, data are stored in specific format, say tab, comma or semicolon. If the format of any of the file is changed, then the program for processing this file needs to be changed.
  4. Data inconsistency: This has occurred here, because there is no proper listing of files which has same copies of data.
  5. Security: Each file on computer can be password protected. This is very difficult in the file system.
  6. Integrity: If There is no direct checking facility in the file system. Hence these kinds of integrity checks are not easy in file system.
  7. Concurrent Access: Accessing the same data from the same file is called concurrent access. In the file processing system, concurrent access leads to incorrect data.

DBMS:

The full name of DBMS is data management system. A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases. The DBMS provides users and programmers a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Advantages of DBMS:

  1. When the same data is duplicated and changes are made at one site, which is not propagated to the other site.
  2. Redundancy is controlled in DBMS.
  3. Data is shared by multiple applications or by multiple users in DBMS.
  4. In DBMS there is Restricting unauthorized access to the database.
  5. DBMS Providing Backup and Recovery.
  6. DBMS Solves Enterprise Requirement than Individual Requirement.
  7. DBMS systems provide mechanisms to provide concurrent access of data to multiple users.
  8. In DBMS ,Data Model can be developed.
  9. DBMS is a central system.

Disadvantages of DBMS:

  1. You must have to get training to use the database.
  2. However, the DBMS is written to be more general, to cater for many applications rather than just one. The effect is that some applications may not run as fast as they used to.
  3. Higher impact of a failure so there is every possibility of damaging the data.
  4. An extra hardware is needed.
  5. Conversion, cost is very high of the DBMS, its not easy to move it here and there.
  6. The complexity and breadth of functionality makes the DBMS an extremely large piece of software, occupying many megabytes of disk space.
  7. The cost of DBMS varies significantly, depending on the environment and functionality provided. There is also the recurrent annual maintenance cost.

DBA:

DBA stands for database administrator. DBA should be a person or bunch of persons. Database administrator (DBA) directs or performs all activities related to maintaining a successful database environment. Responsibilities include designing, implementing, and maintaining the database system; establishing policies and procedures pertaining to the management, security, maintenance, and use of the database management system.

Different types of DBA’s according to their responsibilities are as follows:

  1. Administrative DBA
  2. Development DBA
  3. Architect DBA
  4. Data Warehouse DBA

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Main Responsibilities of DBA are the following:

  1. DBA has to take care of the Database design and implementation.
  2. DBA will Implement and maintain database security.
  3. DBA is responsible for the Database and application tuning and performance monitoring too.
  4. DBA is responsible to Setup and maintain documentation and standards.
  5. DBA will look upon the plan growth and changes.
  6. DBA have to establish and maintain sound backup and recovery policies and procedures.
  7. DBA decides about which kind of hardware will be in use.
  8. DBA have right to change data according to the needs of user.
  9. DBA fix data validation for the users.

Redundancy:

A very large amount of duplicate data stores frequently in database in duplicate form again and again . This is called data redundancy.
Types of Entities:
In DBMS types of Entities are as follows:
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1. Weak entity: Weak entity is that type of Entity that cannot be identified separately by its attribute. Thus, We can say that this Entity is not caused primary key.
2. Strong entity: The entity in which Primary key is used that entity is called strong entity by this data comes distinctiveness.

Entity-Relationship Diagram:

Entity-Relationship Diagram is a way which will help us to we identifying with attributes of an entity we can show it logically. There are several ways to ‘make ER Diagram Two them are as follows of which are used mostly.
1. Dr. Peter Chen
2. James Martin and Clive Finekelstein

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Keys in DBMS:

Keys are very important part of database management system.
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  1. Super Key: Super key is defined as a set of attributes within a table that uniquely identifies each record within a table. Super Key is a superset of Candidate key.
  2. Candidate Key: Candidate keys are defined as the set of fields from which primary key can be selected.
  3. Primary Key: Primary key is a candidate key that is most appropriate to become main key of the table. It is a key that uniquely identify each record in a table.
  4. Composite Key: Composite Key is the key which consists of two or more attributes that uniquely identify an entity occurrence is called Composite key.
  5. Foreign key: Foreign key is the key in rational database that provide link between two tables because it references the primary key of the another table and it established a link between them.

Normalization:

Normalization is a scientific way in which difficult table is make quite simple in terms of understandable by user. To reduce Redundancy from tables and to reduce database Inconsistency or to remove and to make database strong.

  1. There should be an identifier in each table.
  2. In each table single type of entity should be stored Null.
  3. Value should store at minimum.
  4. Same Values that should take place use less frequently in database.

Normalization Concept: To implement Normalization concept various normal forms are used. Commonly used Normal forms are written as follows:

  1. First Normal Form (INF)
  2. Second Normal Form (2NF)
  3. Third Normal Form (3NF)
  4. Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
  5. Boyce Coded Normal Form

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Relationships:

Relationship allow relational database to split and store data in different tables.
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Types of relationship are as under

  1. One-to-One: One to one is implemented using single table by establishing relationship between same type of column in table.
  2. One-to-many: One to many is implemented while using two tables with primary and foreign key relationship.
  3. Many-to-Many: Many to Many implemented using a junction table. The keys from both the tables from composite primary key of the junction table.

What is Oracle.

Oracle is world’s larges4 software company, it was founded in 1977 with the name of Relational Software Corporation, and This Company developed first Relational Database Management Software (RDBMS) Oracle in the world.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

SQL:

Structure query language is a high level language which is used to store, control and amend the database.

SQL Advantages:

  1. SQL is not only a high level language even we have to use it for maintain the data, update data and controlling the data.
  2. SQL provides the facility to a user to do work simultaneously in different databases
  3. Program build in SQL is portable means it is very easy to a user to move it anywhere
  4. SQL is an easy and simple language to learn and it use to make tough programs.

DB2:

DB2 is a database product which was design by IBM. It is a relational database management System. DB2 is developed to store, to find to look and to get accurate data from database.

Data Models:

Data model is a way to give us information about the structure of database.
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1. Object Oriented logically model: It is used to describe data line by line. It is of five type:

  1. Binary model
  2. Functional Model
  3. Entity relationship model
  4. Object oriented model
  5. Symantic data model

2. Record Base Logical Model: It is also used to describe data line by line but a format is used in it permanently. It is of three types:

  1. Network model
  2. Relational Model
  3. Heirachical Model
    PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS 5

3. Physical Data Model: It has been used to describe data at lowest level of the database. Some parts of it are as follows:
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  1. Entity: Tells about different kind of entities of the database.
  2. Attributes: It tells about the entity of users Name, Address etc.
  3. Entity set: It is the mixture of entity and attributes. Different kind of entity and attributes are store here.
  4. Relationship: It describes about the relationship of the entity which we are using.
  5. Relationship set: Many kind of relationships are used in database but when same kind of relationship bring together at a place it is called relationship set.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

In networking the computers are connected to each other to share data with each other.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Networking:

A network is the group of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources exchange files, or allow communications.
The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 1

Need for Networking:

The ability to exchange data and communicate efficiently is the main purpose of networking computers. Some of common factors for Networking are:

Networks are used to:
1. Facilitate communication via chat email, video conferencing, instant messaging, etc.
2. Enable multiple users to share a single hardware device.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 2
3. Enable file sharing across the network.
4. Allow for the sharing of software or operating programs.
5. Make information easier to access.
6. Allow Multi users to work together from different locations.
7. Allow Multi users to access the Internet simultaneously
8. Store data centrally for ease of access and back-up.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Network:

Advantages of Network:

  1. Sharing files, data and information: We can share data program and different resources with it. It is only possible because all the files are stored on server
  2. Sharing Hardware and software: We can share hardware and software within network easily.
  3. Communication Media: Network provides a very fast communication media
  4. Data Integrity: File integrity remains continuous due to network. It saves much time. Network helps in fast saving and sharing of files.
  5. Cost-effective: We can share costly input and output devices like printer with network . It reduces the cost of system.
  6. Reliability: Network ensures use of many resource to us e.g. when hardware fails, information can be recovered from other computer with the help of network.
  7. Flexibility: It provides more flexibility because in it there is a possibility of connecting devices of different businessmen.
  8. Backup: We can take backup over network.
  9. Security: Network provides security to us.
  10. Speed: Sharing and transferring files within networks is very rapid as compared to mannual transfer.

Disadvantages of Network:

  1. Management: Management of whole network is tough.
  2. Network Failure: All the central facilities may fail due to network failure.
  3. Expensive to Build: Building a network is a serious business in many occasions, especially for
  4. Security: Danger of security is always present on network. Data can be misused on network.
  5. Large scale organizations: Cables and other hardware are very pricey to buy and replace.

Parts of Computer Network:

The purpose of a network is to join computers together. The computers will also need to include software that enables them to connect to the network.

There are two types of computers which are used for networking:
1. Client or Node: Client/Node is the normal computer system which is connected to network for sharing of resources.
2. Server: It is a powerful computer. It helps in sharing of resources or information. It controls all other nodes.
3. NIC: A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 3
It should be fitted in each client and server computer. Every client linked to network interface card has its own specific number is called node address.
There are two types of network cards: wired and wireless!
4. HUB/Switch: A networking hub/Switch is a device that allows you to connect multiple computers to a single network device.
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5. Router: A router is hardware device designed to receive, analyze and forward incoming data within a network or to another network.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 5

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Networks Topologies:

The term Topology refers to the way in which the various nodes or computers of a network are linked together. It describes the actual layout of the computer network hardware.

It may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network.

The following factors are considered while selecting a topology:

  1. Cost
  2. Reliability
  3. Scalability
  4. Bandwidth capacity
  5. Ease of installation
  6. Ease of troubleshooting
  7. Delay from one node to another.

Topologies:

While making a selection of a particular topology we consider the relative status of different devices that are to be linked.

The nodes in a network can have following two relationships:
1. Peer to Peer: In this relationship, all the devices in the network have equal status in sharing the link.
2. Client-Server (Primary-Secondary): In this, one device controls the traffic and all other devices transmit through primary device.

Types of Network Topologies:

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1. Bus Topology: Bus Topology is the simplest of network topologies. In this type of topology, all the nodes (computers as well as servers) are connected to the single cable (called bus), by the help of T- connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as Bus (thus the name). A signal from the source is broadcasted and it travels to all workstations connected to bus cable.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Advantages of Bus Topology:

1. Any new computer can be attached easily.
2. It is a cheaper topology.
3. If one computer fails, others are not affected.
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4. Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
5. Used in small networks.
6. It is easy to understand & connect

Disadvantages of Bus Topology:

  1. More wire is needed to connect more nodes,
  2. If the main central line fails the entire network collapses.
  3. The efficiency of network is reduced with the increase in number of computers.
  4. Cable has limited length.
  5. It is slower than the ring topology. .
  6. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable
  7. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

2. Ring Topology:

In it all the computers are logically linked in the form of a ring. In it each node is connected to two other nodes. Rings can be unidirectional, with all traffic travelling either clockwise or anticlockwise around the ring.
There are two kinds of ring topologies :
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1. Single Ring
2. Dual Ring

Advantages of Ring Topology:

  1. Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit
  2. Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load
  3. Does not require a central node to manage the connectivity between the computers
  4. It is easier to locate the problems with device and cable i.e. fault isolation is simplified. If one device does not receive a signal within a specified time, it can issue an alarm.

Disadvantages of Ring Topology:

  1. Failure of one computer can affect the total network
  2. Difficult to troubleshoot
  3. Adding or removing Computers disrupts the network
  4. A ring network requires more cable than a bus network.

3. Star Topology:

In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a hub, a router or a switch. This hub/switch is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node. The computers present in star topology cannot have a direct relation with each other.
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Advantages of Star Topology:

  1. It is easily to prepare and connect.
  2. It is easier to find faults in network.
  3. More nodes can be connected in it. With it propagation delay does not increase.
  4. Easy to setup and modify.
  5. Easy to troubleshoot.
  6. Failure of one computer does not effect the other.

Disadvantages of Star Topology:

  1. Performance and as well number of nodes which can be added in such topology is depended on capacity of central device.
  2. Cost of installation is high
  3. Failure of hub results in failure of complete network.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

4. Mesh Topology:

1. In mesh topology, each node is connected to every other node in the network.
2. A mesh topology can be a full mesh topology or a partially connected mesh topology.
3. In a full mesh topology, every computer in the network has a connection to each of the other computers in that network.
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4. In a partially connected mesh topology, at least two of the computers in the network have connections to multiple other computers in that network.

Advantages of Mesh Topology:

  1. In the event that one of those nodes fails, network traffic can be directed to any of the other nodes.
  2. Even if one of the components fails there is always an alternative present. So data transfer doesn’t get affected.
  3. Data can be transmitted from different devices simultaneously. This topology can withstand high traffic.
  4. Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:

1. Installation and configuration is difficult.
2. Cabling cost is more.

5. Tree Topology:

A tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together which involve a variety of single nodes connected to a central node.

Advantages of Tree Topology:

1. It is an extension of Star and bus Topologies, tree topology is the best alternative.
2. Expansion of Network is possible and easy.
3. The whole network can be easily managed and maintained.
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4. Error detection and correction is easy.
5. If one segment is damaged, other segments are not effected.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Disadvantages of Tree Topology:

  1. Tree topology, relies heavily on the main bus cable.
  2. Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used.
  3. As more and more nodes and segments are added, the maintenance becomes difficult.
  4. It has higher cabling cost in setting up a tree structure.

6. Hybrid Topology:

A hybrid topology is a type of network topology that uses two or more other network topologies, including bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology, and tree topology. It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies.

Advantages of Hybrid Topology:

1. Reliable as Error detecting and troubleshooting is easy.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 12
2. Effective.
3. Scalable as size can be increased easily.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology:

1. Complex in design.
2. Costly.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Data Communication:

Data communication is exchange of data between two or more computers with the help of communication medium. The device that transmits the data is known as sender and the device that receives the transmitted data is known as receiver.
Data communication must fulfil/obey following three conditions:
1. Delivery: Network should deliver the data at proper place.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 13
2. Accuracy: Data communication should be free from fault.
3. Time limit: Data should reach destination without any delay.

Components of Data Communication

  1. Sender: Sender prepares information (data) and sends it.
  2. Medium: It carriers the information from sender to receiver.
  3. Receivers: Receiver receives the information.
  4. Protocol: There are rules under which data transmission takes place between sender and receiver.

Methods of data transmission:

Three methods of data transmission are given below:
1. Simplex: In it communication is one direction. The message source works as the transmitter. It sends the message over the data channel to the receiver. The receiver is the destination of the message.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 14

2. Half duplex: In it information can flow in both directions but not at the same time. In other words if information is sent by one system then second can only receive it or vice versa
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 15

3. Full duplex: In it information can move in both directions at same time. It provides fast communication.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking Notes 16

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking

Communication Channel:

Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared).

Types of Networks:

Network may be small or large based on it size, complexity and Distribution area. On the basis of its area of distribution, network is divided into three parts :

  1. PAN(Personal Area Network)
  2. LAN (Local Area Network)
  3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  4. WAN (Wide Area network)

1. Personal Area Network: A personal area network, or PAN, is a computer network organized around an individual person. This could be inside a small office or residence. Personal area networks can be constructed with cables or be wireless. It refers to the interconnection of information technology devices or gadgets (include laptop computers, PDAs, cellphones, printers) within the environment of an individual user (typically within 10 meters).
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2. Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among computer devices, usually within an office building or home. LAN’s enable the sharing of resources. Such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users. It Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters, and no more than a mile.

It Requires little wiring, typically a single cable connecting to each device. It has lower cost compared to MAN’s or WAN’s. LAN’s can be either wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fiber optic cable can be used in wired LAN’s. It is suitable to bus, ring or star topology. In it generally coaxial Cable, twisted pair and optical fiber etc. transmission media is used.
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3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): It is distributed to a city or large area. In it many LANs are connected. A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. .A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organization. A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resources, A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 and 50 km diameter.
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4. Wide Area Network (WAN): WAN covers a large geographic area such as country, continent or even whole of the world. WAN can contain multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or MANs. In this network telephone lines, satellite, microwave etc. media are used. These transmission media are linked with Router.
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This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 3 Networking will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

A chart is a tool that is used to communicate data graphically. A chart can allow to know the meaning behind data.

Charts:

Excel has various types of charts, so we can choose one that most effectively represents our data.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Types of Chart:

  1. Pie Chart
  2. Column Chart
  3. Line Chart
  4. Bar Chart
  5. Area Chart
  6. Scatter Chart.

Create a Chart

To create a line chart, the steps are as follows:
1. Type the data in our excel worksheet.
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2. Select the range.
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3. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, choose Line, and select Line with Markers.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Change a chart type

We can easily change a chart type at any time. Following are the steps to change a chart type:
1. Select the chart.
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2. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, choose Column, and select Clustered Column.
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Switch Row/Column

1. Select the chart. Chart Tools contextual tab is activated.
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2. On the Design tab, click Switch Row/ Column.
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Add chart Title

1. Select the chart.
2. On the Layout tab, click Chart Title, Above Chart.
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3. We will see a caption (Chart Title) above our chart. Enter our desired title.
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Elements of a Chart

  1. Chart area: A chart area contains everything inside the chart window, including all parts of the chart.
  2. Data marker: A data marker is a symbol on the chart that represents a single value in the worksheet. A data marker can be a bar in a bar chart, a pie in a pie chart, or a line on a line chart.
  3. Data series: It is a group of related values such as all the values in a single row in the chart.
  4. Axis: It is a line that is used as a major reference for plotting data in a chart.
  5. Tick mark: It is a small line intersecting an axis. A tick mark indicates a category, scale, or chart data series.
  6. Plot area: It is the area where our data is plotted and it includes the axes and all markers that represent data points.
  7. Gridlines: These are the optional lines extending from the tick marks across the plot area.
  8. Chart text: It is a label8- or title that we add to our chart. Attached text is a title or label that is linked to an axis such as the Chart Title.
  9. Legend: It is a key that identifies patterns, colors, or symbols associated with the markers of a chart data series. The legend shows the data series name corresponding to each data marker

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Equations and Symbols

How to insert equations, symbols and special characters in excel:

Excel makes it easy to enter symbols, such as foreign currency marks, as well as special characters, like trademark and copyright symbols, into cells. These symbols are available in the Symbol dialog box.
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1. Click the Insert tab and then click the Symbol button in the Symbols group. The Symbol dialog box appears.
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2. Select the desired symbol on the Symbols tab; or click the Special Characters tab and select the desired character.
3. Click Insert to insert the symbol or character.
4. Click close when we’re done adding symbols and special characters. The inserted symbols or characters appear in the worksheet.
5. Press Enter to complete the cell entry.

Pivot Table:

Insert Pivot Table

The data in a worksheet can be easily managed by using PivotTables. We can summarize the data. Pivot Table allows us to manipulate it in various ways. PivotTables are very helpful tool when we have to deal with large and complex spreadsheets.
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A PivotTable is very helpful in doing these calculations. We can do calculations and summarize the data in a way that’s not only easy to read but also easy to manipulate.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

How to create a PivotTable:

1. Select the table or cells – including column headers – containing the data we want to use.
2. From the Insert tab, click the PivotTable command.
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3. The Create PivotTable dialog box will appear. Click OK.
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Add fields to the Pivot Table:

1. Before using Pivot Table, first of all we’ll need to decide which fields to add to the PivotTable. Each field is a column header from the source data.
2. In the Field List, place a check mark next to each field we want to add.
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3. The selected fields will be added to one of the four areas below the Field List.
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4. The PivotTable now shows the change.

Data Tools:

Data Tools are simply tools which make it easy to manipulate data. Some of them are used to save our time by extracting or joining data and others perform complex calculations on data.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Convert Text to Columns:

Steps are as follows:
1. Type the data in our worksheet as:
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2. Select the range with full names.
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3. On the Data tab, click Text to Columns.
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4. Choose Delimited and click Next.
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5. Clear all the check boxes under Delimiters except for the Comma and Space check box.
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6. Click Finish.

Data Validation:

Data validation is a powerful feature that is used to set up certain rules to dictate what can be entered into a cell.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

How to Create Data Validation Rule:

To create a data validation rule, the steps are as follows:
1. Type the data in our excel worksheet.
2. Select cell D2.
3. On the Data tab, click Data Validation.
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1. In the Allow list, click Whole number.
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2. In the Data list, click between.
3. Enter the Minimum and Maximum values.
Input Message: Input messages appear when the user selects the cell and tell the user what to enter.

On the Input Message tabas below do the following:
1. Check ‘Show input message when cell is selected’.
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2. Enter a title.
3. Enter an input message.

Error Alert:

If users ignore the input message and enter a number that is not valid, we can show them an error alert.
On the Error Alert tab do the following:
1. Check ‘Show error alert after invalid data is entered1.
2. Enter a title.
3. Enter an error message.
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4. Click OK.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Data Validation Result:

To check our Data Validation result follows the steps as below:
1. Select cell C2.
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2. Try to enter a number higher than 10.

What-If Analysis:

What-If Analysis in Excel allows us to try out different values (scenarios) for formulas. In MS Excel a scenario is a set of values that saves and can substitute automatically on our worksheet.
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1. On the Data tab, click What-If Analysis and select Scenario Manager from the list.
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2. The Scenario Manager Dialog box appears.
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3. Type a name, select cell and click on OK.
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4. Enter the corresponding value and click on OK again.
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5. Next, add 4 other scenarios.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Scenario Summary:

After creating your required Scenarios, to easily compare the results of these scenarios following are the steps below:
1. Click the Summary button in the Scenario Manager.
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2. Next, select cell for the result cell and click on OK.
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Goal Seek?

The goal seek function is a part of what-if analysis tool set. It allows a user to use the desired result of a formula to find the possible input value necessary to achieve that result.
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3. Type a name, select cell and click on OK.
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4. Enter the corresponding value and click on OK again.
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5. Next, add 4 other scenarios.
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Scenario Summary: After creating your required Scenarios, to easily compare the results of these scenarios following are the steps below:
1. Click the Summary button in the Scenario Manager.
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2. Next, select cell for the result cell and click on OK.
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Goal Seek?
The goal seek function is a part of what-if analysis tool set. It allows a user to use the desired result of a formula to find the possible input value necessary to achieve that result.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Protection:

In simple words Protection means to keep our stuff safe from misuse from an authorised person. In Excel we can protect our workbook/worksheet.

Protect Worksheet

Steps to Protect Worksheet:
1. Right click a worksheet tab
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2. Click Protect Sheet.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II 47

Protect Workbook

A workbook can be protected easily as we have protected a worksheet. A workbook can be protected such as:
Structure: If we protect the workbook structure, users cannot insert, delete, rename, move, copy, hide or unhide worksheets anymore.
Windows: If we protect the workbook windows, we cannot move, change the size and close windows anymore.
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1. Open a workbook.
2. On the Review tab, click Protect Workbook.
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3. Check Windows enter a password and click OK.
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4. Re-enter the password and click on OK.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

View Tab

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Split

In Excel we can split the worksheet window into separate panes and scroll the worksheet in each pane so that we can easily compare data from two separate worksheet locations. We can make the panes in a workbook window disappear by double-clicking anywhere on the split bar that divides the window.
1. Click the split box above the vertical scroll bar.
2. Notice the two vertical scroll bars.
3. To remove the split, double click the horizontal split bar that divides the panes (or drag it up).
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Freeze

Freeze option is very useful in some cases when we have a long table and want to see all. We need to scroll it while looking all the data. We will see that the table headings are also scrolled during scrolling, so it becomes difficult to understand the meaning of data without having its heading name hidden.

Freeze Top Row: To freeze the top row, execute the following steps.
1. On view tab, click Freeze Panes and then Freeze
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2. Scroll down to the rest of the worksheet.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

How to Unfreeze Panes of your worksheet

To unlock all rows and columns, execute the following steps.
1. On the View tab, click Freeze Panes, Unfreeze Panes.
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How to Freeze Panes of a Worksheet

To freeze panes, execute the following steps.
1. Select row.
2. On the View tab, click Freeze Panes, Freeze Panes.
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3. Scroll down to the rest of the worksheet.

Hide/Unhide Columns, Rows and Sheets:

Hiding Rows:

In desired spreadsheet select the rows (for multiple selection hold Ctrl key and keep selecting) we want to hide and navigate to Home tab.
From Cells group, click Format button. Now from Hide & Unhide options, click Hide Rows.
Upon click it will automatically hide the selected rows.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Hiding Columns:

For hiding the columns in specific sheet, following are the steps:
1. Select the columns we want to handle.
2. Now click on Format button in Cells group. Now Click on Hide & Unhide options then click Hide Columns.
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How to Hide Worksheets

Following are the steps to do so:
1. Select the sheet which we want to hide.
2. Now Click Hide Sheet from Hide & Unhide options from Cell group in Home Tab.
3. Click on Hinde Sheet Option from Hide and Unhide.
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Macro:

A macro is a series of commands that is grouped together so that we can run whenever we need to perform the specific task. We can use macros in Excel to save time by automating tasks that we perform frequently.

The easiest method for creating many macros is to use macro recorder. When we record a macro Excel stores the information about each step you take as you perform a series of commands. We then run the macro to repeat or playback the set of commands.
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The macro recorder records every action we complete. So before we start the process of recording it is very important to plan macro- that what steps we need to record. To display the Developer tab, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab and then click Options. The Excel Options dialog box
appears.
2. Click Customize Ribbon in the left pane, and then select the Developer check box under Main Tabs on the right side of the dialog box.
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3. Click OK. The Developer tab appears in the Ribbon.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

How to Record a macro:

Follow these steps to record a macro:
1. Choose Record Macro in the Code group of the Developer tab. The Record Macro dialog box appears.
2. Type a name for the macro in the Macro Name text box.
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3. Assign a Shortcut Key.
4. From the Store Macro In drop-down list, select where we want to store the macro:

  • This Workbook: Save the macro in the current workbook file.
  • New Workbook: Create macros that we can run in any new workbooks created during the current Excel session.
  • Personal Macro Workbook: Choose this-option if you want the macro to be available whenever we use Excel, regardless of which worksheet we’re using.
  • Type a description of the macro in the Description text box.
  • Click OK. The Record Macro option on the Developer tab changes to Stop Recording.
  • Perform the actions you want to record.
  • Choose Stop recording in the Code group of the Developer tab.
  • The macro recorder stops recording keystrokes and the macro is complete.

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Excel is Product of Microsoft:

An Excel Workbook consists of many worksheets to perform these calculations. A worksheet is made up of Rows and columns. Intersection of a Row and Column generate a cell.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Formatting Cells:

Each cell in a worksheet can be formatted. Changing the format of a cell doesn’t affect the cell value.
There are six tabs in the “Format Cells” window. All formatting options may be found on these tabs. Multiple cells can be formatted in one step by first selecting the cells and applying formatting.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 1The “Format Cells” window can be opened in from the right-click menu. Formatting options are available on the Home Tab on the Font, Alignment, and Number groups.

Merge and Centre

Merging cells is used when a text is to be centered over a particular section of a spreadsheet. When a group of cells is merged, then the text of this cell is merged as per selection and aligned center.
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Following are the steps:

  1. Type your data in your worksheet.
  2. Highlight or select a range of cells.
  3. Right-click on the highlighted cells and select Format Cells. Format Cells dialog box will open.
  4. Click the Alignment tab of Format the checkbox labeled Merge cells as

To merge a group of cells and center the text, we can also use the Merge and Center button on the Excel tool bar.
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Steps:
1. Highlight or select a range of cells. Click the Merge and Center button on the toolbar.
Clicking this button will automatically merge our highlighted cells and center the cell value.
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PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Numbers Group

A number format does not affect the actual cell value that Excel uses to perform calculations. The actual value is displayed in the formula bar. By applying different number formats, we can display numbers as percentages, dates, currency, and so on.

Number Formats available in MS Excel:

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Styles in MS Excel:

A style is just a set of cell formatting settings. All cells to which a style has been applied look the same according to formatting. When we change a part of a style, all cells to which that style has been applied also change their formatting accordingly to new style.

Conditional Formatting

Conditional Formatting is a tool in MS Excel that allows applying formats to a cell or range of cells. It also allows formatting change depending on the value of the cell or the value of a formula.

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Formatting as Table

Tables can help to organize our content and make it easier for us to find the information we need.
To format information as a table:
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1. Type the data in worksheet:

A B C D E
1. Code Name Colour Unit Price Unit Cost
2. ABC123 Widget Red 10.15 7.18
3. ABC124 Widget Green 10.9 6.981
4. ABC125 Widget Blue 10.56 7.31
5. ABC 126 Gadget Red 12.45 8.22
6. ABC 127 Gadget Green 13.61 8.91

2. Select the cells we want to format as a table.
3. Click the Format as Table command in the Styles group on the Home tab.
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4. A list of predefined table styles will appear. Click a table style to select it.
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5. A dialog box will appear confirming the range of cells we have selected for our table. The cells will appear selected in the spreadsheet and the range will appear in the dialog box.
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6. If necessary, change the range by selecting a new range of cells directly on your spreadsheet.
7. If our table has headers check the box next to My table has headers.
8. Click OK. The data will be formatted as a table.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Cell Styles:

When we want to format cells in Microsoft Excel, we can do it manually either by selecting fonts, font color and size, background colors and borders, or we can do the formatting quickly and automatically using styles.

Microsoft Office Excel has several built-in cell styles that we can apply or modify. We can also modify or duplicate a cell style to create our own such as custom cell style.
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Cell styles are based on the document theme that is applied to the whole workbook.

Applying a cell style:

1. Type the data in our worksheet
2. Select the cells that we want to format.
3. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click Cell Styles.
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Click the cell style that we want to apply. Our data will be changed according to our selected style.
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Cell Group:

To insert new cells, rows, or columns in an Excel worksheet, follow these steps:
1. Select the cells, rows, or columns where we want the new blank cells to appear.
2. Click the drop-down arrow attached to the Insert button in the Cells group of the Home tab.
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4. Click Delete Cells on the drop-down menu.
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The Delete dialog box opens, showing these options for filling in the gaps:

How to Insert New Worksheets?

As we can add new cells/row/columns in our existing worksheet, we can also add a new worksheet in our current workbook.
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How To Delete Worksheets/worksheet?

A Single Worksheet or Worksheets can be deleted from a workbook, including those containing data.
1. Select the worksheet/worksheets we want to delete.
2. Right-click one of the selected worksheets. (The worksheet menu appears)
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3. Select Delete. The selected worksheets will be deleted from our workbook.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Cell Size:

We can modify size of cells according to our requirement. We will learn how to change row height and column width.

How to modify column width?

1. Place our mouse over the column line in the column heading so the white cross becomes a double arrow.
2. Click and drag the column to the right to increase column width or to the left to decrease column width.
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3. Release the mouse. The column width will be changed in your spreadsheet.

How to set column width with a specific measurement?

1. Select the columns we want to modify.
2. Click the Format command on the Home tab. The format drop-down menu appears.
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3. Select Column Width.
4. The Column Width dialog box appears. Enter our specific measurement.
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5. Click OK. The width of each selected column will be changed in our worksheet.

How to modify row height?

1. Place the cursor over the row line so the white cross becomes a double arrow.
2. Release the mouse. The height of each selected row will be changed in our worksheet.
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How to set row height with a specific measurement?

1. Select the rows we want to modify.
2. Click the Format command on the Home tab. The format drop-down menu appears.
3. Select Row Height.
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4. The Row Height dialog box appears. Enter a specific measurement.
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5. Click OK.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Formulas & Functions:

To maximize the capabilities of Excel, it is important to understand how to create simple formulas.
Creating simple formulas:
Excel uses standard operators for equations, such as a plus sign for addition (+), minus sign for subtraction (-), asterisk for multiplication (*), forward slash for division (/), and caret (A) for exponents. All formulas must begin with an equals sign (=).

To create a simple formula in Excel:
1. Select the cell where the answer will appear.
2. Type the equals sign (=).
3. Type in the formula we want Excel to calculate.
4. Press Enter. The formula will be calculated, and the value will be displayed in the cell.

Creating formulas with cell references:

When a formula contains a cell address, it is called a cell reference. Creating a formula with cell references is useful because you can update data in our worksheet without having to rewrite the values in the formula.

To create a formula using cell references :

  1. Select the cell where the answer will appear.
  2. Type the equals sign (=).
  3. Type the cell address that contains the first number in the equation.
  4. Type the operator we need for our formula. For example, type the addition sign (+).
  5. Type the cell address that contains the second number in the equation.
  6. Press Enter. The formula will be calculated, and the value will be displayed in the cell.

Edit a Formula:

A formula in excel can be edited as per requirement.

  1. Click the cell we want to edit.
  2. Insert the cursor in the formula bar and edit the formula as desired. We can also double-click the cell to view and edit the formula directly from the cell or press F2 key.
  3. When we’re done, press Enter or select the Enter command.

Cell Reference:

Cell Reference is termed to calculate important calculations by using a cell or a range of cells for a formula to calculate the result of the formula in a worksheet. We can use a cell reference for a single formula or for multiple formulas.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Types of Cell Reference

  1. Relative Reference.
  2. Absolute Reference.
  3. Mixed Reference.

1. Relative Reference:

In Excel Relative reference is used by default. When it is copied to multiple cells then it changes according to cell position.
1. Type data in a worksheet.
2. Now type our formula in cell B1 = A1 * 10.
3. Drag the fill handle of cell Bl, we will see that the formula becomes in celi B2 = A2 * 10.
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2. Absolute Reference:

Sometimes we want that during copying a formula from, one cell to another, its cell reference should not be changed. In this case Absolute Reference is used. Dollar($) sign is used during typing a formula using Absolute Reference. Dollar($) sign can be used either for a row or a column. We can also use it for both together.
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1. Type data in a worksheet.
2. Now type our formula in cell B1=$A$1 + 5
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3. Drag the fill handle of cell C1, we will see that the formula becomes in cell B2 = $A$1 + 5.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 29

3. Mixed Reference:

Mixed Reference is the combination of both Relative and Absolute Reference. In Mixed Reference a Dollar($) sign is used either to a Row or Column.
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Basic functions:

A function is a predefined formula that performs calculations using specific values in a particular order. They can save our time because we do not have to write the formula yourself. Excel has hundreds of functions to assist with our calculations.

The parts of a function

The order in which we insert a function is important. Each function has a specific order – called syntax – which must be followed in order for the function to work correctly.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 31
1. First of all equal to (=) sign is written.
2. After this the function name is written.
3. After this argument is written. Arguments contain the information we want the formula to calculate, such as a range of cell references.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Working with arguments:

Arguments are a vital-part of a Function.
1. Arguments must be enclosed in parentheses.
2. If there are Individual values or cell references inside the parentheses are separated by either colons or commas. Commas separate individual values, cell references, and cell ranges in parentheses.
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3. If there is a ceil range in argument then it is written with colon in braces. Colons create a reference to a range of cells.

To create a basic function in Excel

1. Select the cell where the answer will appear (J3, for example).
2. Type the equals sign (=), then enter the function name (SUM, for example).
3. Enter the cells for the argument inside the parentheses.
4. Press Enter, and the result will appear.

Using AutoSum to select common functions

The AutoSum command allows us to automatically return the results for a range of cells for common functions like SUM and AVERAGE.
1. Select the cell where the answer will appear.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. In the Editing group, click the AutoSum drop-down arrow and select the function we want.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 33
4. A formula will appear the selected cell.
5. Press Enter, and the result will appear.

1. Text Functions:

  • Clean: This Function removes all non-printable characters from asupplied text string.
  • Trim: This Function removes duplicate spaces, and spaces at thestart and end of a text string
  • Concatenate: This Function Joins together two or more text strings
  • Left: This Function returns a specified number of characters fromthe start of a supplied text string
  • Mid: This Function Returns a specified numberfrom the middle of a supplied text string
  • Right: This Function Returns a specified numberfrom the end of a supplied text string

2. Logical Functions:

IF: This Function tests a user-defined condition and returns one result if the condition is TRUE, and another result if the condition is FALSE

3. Date and Time Functions:

  • Date: This Function returns a date, from a user-supplied year,month and day
  • Time: This Function returns a time, from a user-supplied hour, minute and second
  • Now: This Function returns the current date & time
  • Today: This Function returns today’s date

The Function Library:

To insert a function from the Function Library:
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 34
1. Type data in our worksheet.
2. Select the cell where the answer will appear.
3. Click the Formulas tab.
4. From the Function Library group, select the function category we want. In this example, we’ll choose Date & Time.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 35
5. Select the desired function from the Date & Time drop-down menu
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6. The Function Arguments dialog box will appear.
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7. Click OK, and the result will appear.

Date Ordered Date Received
12-Sep 17-Sep 5

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Sorting:

Sorting data in Excel basically means that we can arrange the data according to some specific criteria. We can even arrange data alphabetically:
To sort in alphabetical order:
1. Type data in our worksheet.
2. Select a cell in the column we want to sort by.
3. Select the Data tab, then locate the Sort and Filter group.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I 38
4. Click the ascending command to Sort A to Z or the descending command to Sort Z to A.
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5. The data in the spreadsheet will be organized alphabetically.
Filtering data: Filter is a tool in MS Excel that is used to get the information according to our requirement. When we need to find special information from a list, then we use Filter. Filters can be applied in different ways to improve the performance of our worksheet. We can filter text, dates, and numbers. We can even use more than one filter to further narrow our results.

Steps:

1. Type the data in a worksheet.
2. Select the Data tab, and then locate the Sort & Filter group.
3. Click the Filter command.
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4. Drop-down arrows will appear in the header of each column.
5. Click the drop-down arrow for the column we want to filter.
6. The Filter menu appears.
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7. Uncheck the boxes next to the data we don’t want to view, or uncheck the box next to Select All to quickly uncheck all.
8. Check the boxes next to the data we do want to view.
9. Click OK.
To clear a filter: We can clear a filter very easily.
1. Click the drop-down arrow in the column from which we want to clear the filter.
2. Choose Clear Filter From.
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3. The filter will be cleared from the column. The data that was previously hidden will be on display once again.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

Find and Replace

Excel Find and Replace feature are powerful tools that we can use for special criteria such as to Find a text and to Replace it with our new text.

How to use Find Option:

Following are the steps to locate data in a worksheet:
1. Choose Find & Select in the Editing group on the Home tab, and then select Find (or press Ctrl+F).The Find and Replace dialog box appears with the Find tab on top.
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2. In the Find What box, enter the data we want to locate.
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3. Click the Options button to expand the dialog box.
1. Within: It searches just the current worksheet or the entire workbook.
2. Search: It selects whether to search first across the rows or down the columns.
3. Look In: It selects whether we want to search through the values or formula results, through the actual formulas, or if we want to look in the comments.
4. Match Case: It checks this box if we want our search to be case-specific.
List only the items that exactly match our search criteria.
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3. Click Find Next.
Excel jumps to the first occurrence of the match.
4. Click Close when we’ve located the entry we want.
Using Replacing data Option: Replace option is used to change data according to our requirement. We can change each entry of a cell while typing on, but it require more time and labour so we can do it easily using Replace option.
1. Choose Find & Select in the Editing group on the Home tab, and then select Replace (or press Ctrl+H).The Find and Replace dialog box appears with the Replace tab on top.
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2. In the Find What box, enter the data we want to locate.
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3. In the Replace With box, enter the data with which we want to replace the found data.
4. Click the Options button and specify any desired options.
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Click Find Next to locate the first occurrence or click Find All to display a list of all occurrences.
Click OK in the alert box and then click Close.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-I

This PSEB 9th Class Computer Notes Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Advertisements:

Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing program that is part of the Microsoft Office suite. With Microsoft Publisher, you can create many professional-quality custom publications such as brochures, greeting cards and signs. Publisher also allows you to create items that are larger than standard printer paper sizes, such as banners, by making them on multiple sheets of paper you can print and assemble.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Brochure:

A brochure is an informative paper document often used for advertising that can be folded into a template, pamphlet or leaflet. Brochures are promotional documents, primarily used to introduce a company, organization, products or services to the public. Brochures are distributed inside newspapers, handed out personally or placed in brochure racks in high traffic locations. They may be considered as grey literature.

Now day’s brochures are also available in electronic format and are called e- brochures. They have the added benefit of having unlimited distribution and cost savings when compared to traditional paper brochures.

The most common types of single-sheet brochures are the bi-fold (a single sheet printed on both sides and folded into halves) and the tri-fold (the same, but folded into thirds). A bi-fold brochure results in four panels (two panels on each side), while a tri- fold results in six panels (three panels on each side).

Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most often saddle stitched stapled on the creased edge, or perfect bound like a paperback book, and result in eight or more panels.

How to Create a Banner in Microsoft Publisher:

Microsoft Publisher is a tool that enables users at home to create professional looking publications, banners, and flyers. Real estate professionals use Publisher to create banners and flyers for homes they are trying to sell. Banners can be made for special occasion parties, or advertising and marketing products. Save time and money by creating your own wonderful banner.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II Notes 1
Following are steps that are used to create a banner in Microsoft Publisher:
1. In the Publication Types list, click Banners.
2. In the Banners gallery, do one of the following:

  • Click the banner design that you want – for example, Apartment for Rent.
  • Click View templates from Microsoft Office Online, click the banner design that you want to download, and then go to step 4.

3. Under Customize and Options, select any options .that you want.
4. Click Create.
5. In the Format Publication task pane, do any of the following:

  • To change the width and height of the banner, click Change Page Size in the task pane, and then choose the page size, or click Create custom page size.
  • To change the banner’s color scheme, click Color Schemes in the task pane, and then choose the scheme that you want.
  • To change the banner’s font scheme, click Font Schemes in the task pane, and then choose the scheme that you want.

6. In your banner, replace the placeholder text and pictures with the text and pictures or other objects that you want.
7. On the File menu, click Save As.
8. In the Save in box, click the folder where you want to save the new banner publication.
9. In the File name box, type a name for your banner publication.
10. In the Save as type box, click Publisher Files.
11. Click Save.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

How to Create a Newsletter in Microsoft Publisher:

Newsletters are a great way to share information with family, friends and customers. Microsoft Publisher’s newsletter function provides complete design and layout flexibility. Use the program to select a design layout and color scheme, format text and insert images quickly and easily to create a custom newsletter.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II Notes 2
Following are steps that are used to create a newsletter in Microsoft Publisher:
1. Choose a newsletter design. On the main menu click “File” and then “New” to open the Catalog Window. Click the “Newsletters” option on the Wizards menu, select the desired design from the options and then click “Start Wizard.” Enter your contact information in the window prompt. Delete the sample text in the field to leave a field blank. Click “Include color scheme in this set” and select the desired colors. Click “Update” when finished. Complete the steps in the Wizard or click “Finish” to exit the Newsletter wizard.

2. Enter the text. Place the mouse inside the desired text box and click once. Type the text or cut and paste from a Word document. Format the font style, size and appearance by using the main menu at the top of the screen. Place the mouse over the border until the word “Resize” appears. Click and drag the border to the desired size.

3. Insert images by clicking “Insert” and then “Picture.” Select from clip art or photos stored on your computer. Resize the image. Click and drag the mouse diagonally towards the center of the photo until the photo reaches the desired size.

4. Edit the text box-and image layouts as needed. Create a new text box by , clicking the text frame tool (“A”). Place the mouse in the desired location, then click and drag to create the desired box size. Place the mouse over the item until the word “Move” appears. Click and hold down the mouse and drag to the desired location. Place the mouse inside the box and click once, on the main menu click “Edit” and then “Delete Object” if you need to delete a text box.

5. Change the number of pages in the newsletter as needed. Click “Insert” and then “Page” and follow the instructions in the pop up window. Click the desired page number at the page display on the bottom of the screen and click “Edit” and then “Delete Page” to remove pages.

6. Finalize the newsletter. Proofread and spell check. Print the document on paper and place the pages in order to ensure the page numbers line up properly before copying. This is helpful if you plan to copy two-sided or convert to 11 × 17 inch paper.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

How to create a Poster in Microsoft Publisher:

To create a poster in Publisher, create a banner, and then change the page size to the poster size that you want. Given ahead are steps that are used to create a poster in Microsoft Publisher:
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II Notes 3
1. In the Publication Types task pane, click Banners, do one of the following:

  • Under Banners, click Blank Sizes.
  • Click View templates from Microsoft Office Online, click the poster design that you want to download, and then go to step 3.

2. Under Blank Sizes, click the paper size thafyou want, or click Create custom.
3. Page size and create a custom page size.
4. Click Create.
5. In the Format Publication task pane, do any of the following:

  • To change the color scheme, click Color Schemes in the task pane, and then choose the scheme that you want.
  • To change the font scheme, click Font Schemes in the task pane, and then choose the scheme that you want.

6. On the File menu, click Save As.
7. In the Save in box, click the folder where you want to save the new publication.
8. In the File name box, type a name for your publication.
9. In the Save as type box, click Publisher Files.
10. Click Save.

How to Make a Decorative Envelope Using Microsoft Publisher:

Special occasion cards get piled away with the rest of the mail when they are in plain envelopes with no special decal or design to separate them from others. Design a special envelope using Microsoft Publisher for a single use birthday card envelope or to use on all your mailings, so that people will see your envelopes and know that they are from you. Relatives and close friends will also appreciate the time you took to make their envelope special.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II Notes 4
Following are steps that are used to create an envelope in Microsoft Publisher:

1. Launch Microsoft Publisher and click “Publications for Print.” A list of options will appear underneath this section. You can choose from several pre-made envelopes. These envelope designs are for several different types of businesses.

2. Delete any option or area of the envelope you do not need for your purpose. Select the area by left-clicking on the area once and it will bring up a border around the box. Right-click on the selection and choose “Delete.”

3. Move any of the pre-selected fields by dragging it to where you would prefer it. Select the area; move the mouse pointer till it becomes a four arrowed figure. Left click and hold the mouse button and drag the box to where you want it.

4. Fill in the address fields by highlighting and entering in the correct information.

5. Insert pictures and designs to the envelope to make it more personal. Click “Insert” and “Clipart”, “Object” or “Textbox.” Recipients of your letters will love having designs on the envelopes that display your personality.

6. Choose to make your own envelope from scratch by selecting “Blank Print Publication” from under the New section on the left-hand side of the Microsoft Publisher screen. Select “File”, “Page Setup” and a new window will appear. Hit “Envelope” from under the Publication Type and adjust any height and width dimensions you may need. This is easy, just measure your envelope.

7. Insert and edit till your message is clear from the design on your envelope. Try printing in grayscale and on regular paper before printing on any envelopes. This will save money and trees.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Greeting Card/ Invitation Card/ Compliment Card:

A greeting card/ Invitation card/ compliment card is a piece of card or high quality paper expressing friendship or any other sentiment. Although these cards are usually given on special occasions such as Birthdays, Anniversary, Christmas, Diwali or other holidays, they are also sent to convey thanks or express other feelings. These cards are usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles. There are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies. These can also be designed with the help of MS Publisher.

Award Certificates:

  1. An award is something given to a person, a group of people, or an organization in recognition of their excellence in a certain field. An award may be accompanied by trophy, title, certificate, medal, badge, pin, or ribbon.
  2. Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, assessment, or audit.
  3. Certificates of achievement, merit, and honor can be powerful tools when used at the right time and presented in the right way.
  4. Receiving an award certificate gives a person the warm glow of knowing someone took the time to acknowledge them. And being the person who motivates others can be rewarding, too.
  5. Award certificates may include: Community Service Award, Great Job, Good Behavior or Course Completion. MS Publisher provides many templates for creating Award Certificates.

Envelops:

An envelope is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material. It is a flat paper container with a sealable flap designed to enclose a flat object, such as a letter, card or document. Traditional envelopes are made from sheets of paper. They are most commonly used for enclosing and sending mail (letters) through a prepaid-postage postal system. We can create envelop with MS publisher. After selecting the required envelop design, edit the color scheme and click on Create button. Now we can edit the envelop information and save it as a publication.

Labels:

A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or product. Information printed directly on a container or item can also be considered labeling. Labels have many uses, including providing information on a product’s origin, manufacturer (e.g., brand name), use, shelf- life and disposal etc. Many hazardous products such as poisons or flammable liquids must have a warning label.

Labels can be used for:

  1. Products. Permanent product labels need to remain secure throughout the life of the product. For example, a food label must.be secure until the food has been used.
  2. Packaging. Packaging may have labeling attached to or integral with the package. These may carry pricing, barcodes, UPC (Universal Product Code) identification, usage guidance, addresses, advertising, recipes, and so on.
  3. Assets: In industrial or military environments, asset labeling is used to clearly identify assets for maintenance and operational purposes. Such labels are frequently made of engraved Trifoliate or a similar material.
  4. Textiles. Garments normally cany separate care/treatment labels which typically indicate how the item should be washed for e.g. machine washed or diy cleaned. Textile labels may be woven into the garment or attached, and may be heat resistant, colorfast, washable. Printed labels are an alternative to woven labels.
  5. Mailing. Mailing labels identify the addressee, the sender and any other information which may be useful in transit.
  6. Security Labels. They are used for authentication, theft reduction, and protection against counterfeit and are commonly used on ID cards, credit cards, packaging, and products from CDs to electronics to clothing.
  7. Labels may be used for any combination of identification, information, and warning, instructions for use, environmental advice or advertising. They may be stickers, permanent or temporary labels or printed packaging.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Letterhead:

It is stationery with a printed heading. The heading usually consists of a name and an address, a logo or corporate design, and sometimes a background pattern. The term “letterhead” is often used to refer to the whole sheet imprinted with such a heading. Many companies and individuals prefer to create a letterhead template in a word processor or other software application. This generally includes the same information as pre-printed stationery, but at lower cost. Letterhead can then be printed on stationery or plain paper as needed or sent electronically.

Calendar:

A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. Calendars are also used to help people manage their personal schedules, time and activities.

Calendars are also used as part of a complete timekeeping system: date and time of day together to specify a moment in time.

Resumes:

A resume provides a summary of our education, work history, credentials, and other accomplishments and skills. There are also optional sections, including a resume objective and career summary statement. Resumes are the most common document requested of applicants in job applications. A resume should be as concise as possible. Typically, a resume is one page long, although sometimes it can be as long as two pages. Often resumes include bulleted lists to keep information concise.

Curriculum vitae(CV)

Like resume, a curriculum vitaE (CV) provides a summary of one’s experience and skills. Typically, CVs are longer than resumes – at least two or three pages. CVs include information on one’s academic background, including teaching experience, degrees, research, awards, publications, presentations, and other achievements. CVs are thus much longer than resumes, and include more information, particularly related to academic background. We can create CVs with the help of MS Publisher in same way we have created Resumes above.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II

Menus:

In a restaurant, there is a menu of food and beverage offerings. A menu may be a list from which guests use to choose options available. Basically Menu is the main way to give or take order from guest. Guest may order properly to see the menu and be aware about our food and price. MS Publisher provides many templates for creating a Menu.

Signs:

A sign is a piece of paper, clothe, wood or any other material which is painted with pictures or words and which gives some information about a particular place, product, or event. We can create any of these sign using publisher.

Paper Folding Projects:

The paper folding templates include patterns for paper airplanes and origami projects alike. They include pages (that may require trimming) with “fold- lines” and others with instructions to create our paper masterpieces. We can enjoy these Paper Folding Projects in our leisure time and can make some creative things.

Microsoft Publisher offers templates for kids. These templates.consist of different paper folding projects like airplanes, boats, cups, and more.

This PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 8 Microsoft Publishers-II will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft. It is an entry-level application, differing from Microsoft Word in that the emphasis is placed on page layout and design rather than text composition and proofing. The current version is Microsoft Publisher 2010 for Windows, there is no version for other operating systems like Linux andUnix.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Microsoft Publisher:

Microsoft Publisher is differing from Microsoft Word in that the emphasis is placed on page layout and design rather than text composition and proofing.

Microsoft Publisher is a business desktop publishing program that enables users to easily create professional-looking marketing materials. The Microsoft Publisher offers more design options with over 2,000 professionally designed publication templates and hundreds of design elements for users to mix and match within their publications.

A flexible wizard model allows users to work the way they want, and automated design expertise helps them achieve professional results without design expertise. Stronger office integration and a complete print-to-web publishing solution enable users to deliver professional-looking results.

Differences between Word and Publisher:

The differences in Word and Publisher are as follows:

Word Publisher
1. Word is an example of Word Processing Software 1. Publisher is an example of DTP software
2. Word Document has extension .doc 2. Publisher document has extension of .pub
3. Word is mostly used of common typing purpose 3. Publisher is used for designing professional objects.

How to Start Publisher:

Microsoft Publisher is a great tool to create posters for personal or professional events.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I Notes 1PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Creating a Publication:

We can create new publication by following methods:

  1. By using blank layout.
  2. By using installed templates.
  3. By using online templates.

Creating a publication using blank layout:

Following are the steps to start with a blank publication:

  1. Click the File menu, and then click New.
  2. Under Available Templates, click a blank publication template, and then click Create.
  3. Now, we can create a publication with our own specifications in publication. We can also add the objects to the blank layout like text, picture, word art, and auto shapes etc.
  4. After creating publication, save the publication by clicking on save option in File menu. The Save As dialog box appears, type a name for bur publication, select the folder in which you want to save it, and then click save button. The publication is saved with a .pub extension.
  5. Close the publication by clicking close button in File menu. A dialog box appears, if we want to save the changes, then click yes button, otherwise click no.
  6. Before exiting Publisher, we should close all the publications, then Click Exit in File menu or click cross button on title bar.

Components of publisher window:

There are three most important components that we should remember as we work within Publisher 2010. These are:
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I Notes 2

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Components of Publisher Window:

1. Quick Access Toolbar:

The quick access toolbar is a customizable toolbar that contains commands that we may want to use. We can place the quick access toolbar above or below the ribbon. To change the location of the quick access toolbar, click on the arrow at the end of the toolbar and click Show below the Ribbon. We can also add items to the quick access toolbar, simply click on any item and if will be added to our toolbar.

2. Ribbon:

The ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document it has six tabs: Home, Insert, Page Design, Mailings, R9eview, and View. Each tab is divided into groups

3. File Window:

When we click on the File menu, we are brought to the Info screen. It looks like that our document is gone, but it is not. As we click on the options in the File menu, the screen will change accordingly.

  1. Save: Save the file as a 2010 file.
  2. Save As: Allows you to choose a different file type (i.e. PDF, Word).
  3. Open: Browse to a Publisher file.
  4. Close: Closes the file but keeps Publisher running.
  5. Info: Edit Business information, use Design Checker, and set Commercial Print Information.
  6. Recent: List of our recently used Publisher files.
  7. New: New Publication Screen.
  8. Print: Print Options.
  9. Save & Send: Options for saving e mailing the file.
  10. Help. Microsoft Help.
  11. Options. Set default options.
  12. Exit. Closes Publisher (file and program).

Working in Publication:

1. Adding Text:

  1. From the Home or Insert Tab, select Draw Text Box.
  2. Place the cursor on the page where we want to draw a text box. _
  3. Click and drag the cursor across the page to the desired size. The size of the text box can be changed after we have drawn it.
  4. When we let go of the left click on the mouse, we are brought to the format tab which gives us more options for the text box.
  5. Type the text in text box.

2. Editing Text:

1. Highlight the text you want to edit.
2. If you are not brought to the Text Box Tools Format Tab, then select it.
3. Text Group Options.
(a) Text Fit! Defines how the text will fit in the text box: Best Fit, Shrink Text on Overflow, Grow Text Box to Fit, Do Not Auto-Fit.
(b) Text Direction. Changes direction to horizontal or vertical.
(c) Hyphenation. Changes hyphenation behavior of selected text.
4. Font Group Options. Style, Font Size, Bold, Italics, Underline, Text Spacing, & Color.
5. Alignment Group Options. Text Box Alignment, Columns, Margins.
6. Effects Group Options. Shadow, Outline, Engrave, Emboss.

3. Change Style of Text Box:

  1. Click on Text box.
  2. Click on Drawing tools on Format tab.
  3. Use shape style group options to change style, shape fill, shape outline, or shape change options.
  4. Use arrange group options to change Wrap Text, Bring Forward or Backward, Rotate.

4. Inserting Clip Art:

To insert the clip art follow these steps:

  1. Click on the Insert Tab.
  2. Click Clip Art. The Clip Art window appears on the right side of the screen.
  3. Type in a keyword.
  4. Click Go.
  5. Browse through the results.
  6. When we find clipart, click on the thumbnail from the Clip Art Window.
  7. The Clip Art image will then appear on our page.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

5. Inserting a Picture:

To insert a picture follow these steps:

  1. Click on the Home or Insert tab.
  2. Click on Picture.
  3. Browse to the location of the picture we have saved on our computer.
  4. Select the picture and click Insert.

6. Insert a Shape:

To insert a shape follow the steps:

  1. Click on the Home or Insert tab.
  2. Click on Shapes.
  3. Select a shapeirom the drop down menu.
  4. On the page, click and drag to create the shape.
  5. The shape appears on the page, and we are brought to the Drawing Tools.
  6. Format tab. From this tab, we can edit the style, fill, outline, and more.

7. Text Wrapping:

Text wrapping is the way our object is set on the page in reference to the text. To do text wrapping following are the steps:

  1. Select the object.
  2. Click on the Format tab (Text Box, Drawing or Picture Format).
  3. In the arrange group, click on Wrap Text. This will determine how text will be arranged around the object.

8. Resizing Objects:

Resizing enables us to resize our objects :
1. Click on the object.
2. Click and drag the handles to resize.
(a) The corner handles will resize the object proportionally.
(b) The handles centered on the lines of the box will stretch the object vertically and horizontally.
The green handle allows us to rotate the object.

9. Moving Objects:

  1. Click on the object.
  2. Place our cursor over the solid line so that we see the crosshairs.
  3. Click and drag the object to the desired location.

10. Deleting Objects:

We can also delete any object, if do not require it in our publication.
1. Click on the object.
2. Press Delete button on the keyboard.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Frame:

Most publications are divided into several different areas called frames. A frame can contain a variety of objects such as graphics, tables, or text boxes. Frames can be resized, moved and manipulated to suit your needs.

Working with Frames:

Each publication is composed of different frames, such as text frames, picture frames, table frames, and shape/object frames. Click on different areas of the publication to identify the different frames. Handles, little circles on the corners and sides of the frame will appear. The handles help us to show which frame we have selected. These are also used in resizing frames.

Handles:

When we click on a frame, small circles appear around the edge of the frame. These are called handles. We can click and drag on the handles to resize our frame. To move a Picture Frame:
1. Click on the picture.
2. When our cursor turns into a four directional arrow, click and drag the picture frame to the desired location.

To move a Text Frame:
1. Click on the text frame.
2. Rest our cursor near the border of the text frame. When our cursor turns into a four directional arrow, click and drag the text frame to the desired location.

Resizing Frames:

To resize a picture frame:

1. Click on the picture.
2. Rest our cursor on a corner handle. When our cursor turns into a diagonal line with arrows on the ends, click and drag inwards at a diagonal to make it smaller or outwards at a diagonal to make it larger. Using comer handles to resize pictures allows us to keep the picture’s proportions.

To resize a Text Frame:

1. Click on the text frame.
2. Rest your cursor on one of the handles. When your cursor turns into a line with arrows on the ends, click and drag inwards or outwards to resize the text area.

Deleting Frames:

Right-click on the frame that we would like to delete. Select Delete Object from the list of choices. .

Inserting Additional Text Frames

1. Click on Text box from the Insert Tab.
2. Click and drag over an area of the publication.
3. Type the text ypu want to appear.

Viewing Pages in Our Publication:

There are three ways to view pages in a publication:
1. Click on the thumbnails of the pages in the publication from the Page Navigation Window on the left hand side of the screen.
2. From the View tab, we can switch from, single page to two-page spread view as well as choose other viewing options.

Template:

A Template is a tool used in Publisher to help us easily create basic publications. The template has a set of prechosen design styles that we can use as it is or customize as we see fit.

Each template is customizable. Click on a template from the center. On the right side of the screen, we can change the template colors, fonts, and more. Once we have found a template and customized it, click Create. After we click create, we can edit the text boxes, images, and shapes that have been set up by the template as needed.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Customizing a Template

1. Changing the Design of a Template
To change the design template follow the following steps:
1. Click on the Page Design tab.
2. To change the entire template, click Change Template.

  • Choose a template from the pop-up window. If we are currently working in a template and changing to a different template, the information we have entered will conform to the new template.

3. To change the color scheme, browse through the color schemes available in the Schemes group.

  • However the mouse over the color scheme to preview.
  • To select a color scheme, click on it.

4. To change the font scheme, click on Fonts in the Schemes group.

  • Browse through the available font schemes.
  • However the mouse over the font scheme to preview.
  • To select a font scheme, click on it.
  • If we want to create our own font scheme, click.

Page Design:

1. Click the tab Page Design if needed, to change templates, adjust page margins, apply ruler guides, or apply built-in color schemes to the chosen template.
2. We can use the Built-in Ruler Guide templates to help in aligning text boxes, pictures, or other objects. To apply a Built-in Ruler Guide template click on the command Guides in the group Layout, and then choose a template.
3. To add a vertical or horizontal ruler guide repeat the above step, then click on Add Vertical or Horizontal Ruler Guide.
4. To add additional guides, move the mouse pointer oyer the vertical or horizontal ruler, drag the guide in the desired direction when the pointer changes to a two headed arrow.

Creating a publication with Templates:

We can create a publication in Publisher by using template.
Available Publication Types: Publisher 2010 allows us:
1. To apply built-in templates.
2. To apply our own custom templates.
3. To search from a variety of templates available on Office.com. Office.com provides a wide selection of popular Publisher templates, including newsletters and flyers.

To find and apply a template in Publisher 2010, dp the following:
1. On the File tab, click New.
2. Under Available Templates, do one of the following:

  • To use a template that we already have installed, click My Templates, click the template that we want, and then click Create.
  • To use one of the pre-built templates installed in Publisher, under Most Popular or More Templates, click the category that we want, click the template that we want, and then click Create.
  • To find and apply a template on Office.com, under Most Popular or More Templates, click the category that we want, click the template that we want, and then click Download.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Creating Publication with Installed Templates:

We can create any publication easily with the help of the installed templates available in Publisher. We can use pre designed templates in publisher and create so many publications like Brochures, Business Cards, Calendars, Greeting Cards, Labels, Newsletters, Postcards, Advertisements, Award Certificates, Banners, Business Forms, Catalogs, E-mail, Envelops, Flyers, Gift certificates, Invitation cards, Letterhead, menus, resumes and so many quick publications.

Creating Publication with Online Templates:

We can create any publication easily with the help of the internet because we have also a option to create publication using online templates. For online templates, internet facility is available in our system. To find and apply a template on online Templates, click the category that we want, click the template that we want, and then click Download, and then apply that template.

Saving Your Publication:

There are two basic ways to save our publication. First one is to Point and click on the save icon on our toolbar.
Or
Follow these steps:

  1. Click on the File menu and Save As.
  2. When the Save As Dialogue Box appears Click Browse and find the location on computer where we want the file saved.
  3. Type the name of our publication in the File Name field.
  4. Click on the Save button.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I

Printing Your Publication:

There are two basic ways to print your publication.
First one is to click on the print icon on toolbar. This will print one copy of our publication with the default print options.
Or

  1. Click on the File menu and click Print.
  2. When the print window appears, select the desired number of copies.
  3. Choose any other Print Settings- All Pages, Selection, Current Page or Custom Range Manually enter page numbers we want to print How many pages print per sheet of paper Paper Size 1-sided or 2-sided printing Click Print.

This PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 7 Microsoft Publishers-I will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

An operating system is an integrated collections of programs that acts as an interface between user program and computer hardware. It takes control over the operation of the computer to the extent of being able to allow a number of programs to be run on the computer without user intervention.

Operating system provides an environment in which a user may execute programs. The primary goal of an operating system is to make computer system convenient to use. It controls execution of processes and handles interrupts so that user can easily proceed.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Definitions of Operating System:

According to Rouse , “An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially Iqaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer.”

According to Computer Dictionary, “An operating system, or “OS,” is software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run.” 1

According to Dictionary.com, “Operating system is the collection of software that directs a computer’s operations,controlling and scheduling the execution df other programs, andmanaging storage, input/output, and communication resources.”
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems Notes 1PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems Notes 1

Services Provided by Operating System

An Operating System provides services to both the users and to the programs.

  • It provides programs an environment to execute.
  • It provides users the services to execute the programs in a convenient manner.

Following are a few common services provided by an operating system :

Program Execution

Operating systems handle many kinds of activities from user programs to system programs like printer spooler, name servers, file server, etc. Each of these activities is encapsulated as a process.A process includes the complete execution context (code to execute, data to manipulate, registers, OS resources in use).
Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to program management:

  1. Loads a program into memory.
  2. Executes the program.
  3. Handles program’s execution.
  4. Provides a mechanism for process synchronization.
  5. Provides a mechanism for process communication.
  6. Provides a mechanism for deadlock handling.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

I/O Operation:

An I/O subsystem comprises of I/O devices and their corresponding driver software. Drivers hide the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from the users.
An Operating System manages the communication between user and device drivers. .
1. I/O operation means read or write operation with any file or any specific I/O device.
2. Operating system provides the access to the required I/O device when required.

File System Manipulation:

File manipulation refers to wide variety of operations which are available and allow us to delete ,copy, move. As we know a file represents a collection of related information. Computers can store files on the disk (secondary storage), for longterm storage purpose. Examples of storage media include magnetic tape, magnetic disk and optical disk drives like CD, DVD.

Each of these media has its own properties like speed, capacity, data transfer rate and data access methods. A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions.
Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to file management:
Program needs to read a file or write a file.

  1. The operating system gives the permission to the program for operation on file.
  2. Permission varies from read-only, read-write, denied and so on.
  3. Operating System provides an interface to the user to create/delete files.
  4. Operating System provides an interface to the user to create/ delete directories.
  5. Operating System provides an interface to create the backup of file system.

Communication:

In case of distributed systems which are a collection of processors that do not share memory, peripheral devices, or a clock, the operating system manages communications between all the processes. Multiple processes communicate with one another through communication lines in the network. The OS handles routing and connection strategies, and the problems of contention and security.

Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to communication:
Two processes often require data to be transferred between them:
1. Both the processes can be on one computer or on different computers, but are connected through a computer network.
2. Communication may be implemented by two methods, either by Shared Memory or by Message Passing.

Error Detection:

Errors can occur anytime and anywhere. An error may occur in CPU, in I/O devices or in the memory hardware.
Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to error detection:
1. The OS constantly checks for possible errors.
2. The OS takes an appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Resource Management

In case of multi-user or multi-tasking environment, resources such as main memory, CPU cycles and files storage are to be allocated to each user or job.
Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to resource management :
1. CPU scheduling algorithms are used for better utilization of CPU.
2. It acts like a resource manager. The OS manages all kinds of resources using schedulers.

Protection:

Considering a computer system having multiple users and concurrent execution of multiple processes, the various processes must be protected from each other’s activities.Protection refers to a mechanism or a way to control the access of programs, processes, or users to the resources defined by a computer system.

Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to protection:
1. The OS ensures that all access to system resources is controlled.
2. The OS ensures that external I/O devices are protected from invalid access attempts.
3. The OS provides authentication features for each user by means of passwords.

Types of Operating Systems:

An operating system may be single user or multi user. There are mainly five types of operating systems:

Batch Processing

Batch processing is one of the oldest method’s of running programs that are being used by many data processing centers for processing their jobs. It is based on the idea of automatic job-to-job transaction facility provided by almost all operating systems. In a batch mode, each user prepares his program off-line and submits it to the computer center.

A computer operator collects the program which have been punched on cards and stacks one program or job on top of another. When a batch of programs have been collected, the operator loads this batch of program into the computer. At one time they are executed one after another. Finally the operator retrieves the printed outputs of all these jobs and return them to the concerned users.

An operating system does the following activities related to batch processing:
1. The OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.
2. The OS keeps a number a jobs in memory and executes them without any manual information.
3. Jobs are processed in the order of submission, i.e., first come first served fashion.
4. When a job completes its execution, its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing.
PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems Notes 2

Advantages:
1. Batch processing takes much of the work of the operator to the computer.
2. Increased performance as a new job get started as soon as the previous job is finished, without any manual intervention.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Disadvantages:

  • Difficult to debug program.
  • A job could enter an infinite loop.
  • Due to lack of protection scheme, one batch job can affect pending jobs.

Time-Sharing:

A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time. So in this method, the response time is very less as compared to online processing.

Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data. A real-time operating system must have well-defined, fixed time constraints, otherwise the system will fail.

Distributed Operating System

Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly.The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred as sites, nodes, computers, and so on. The advantages of distributed systems are as follows:

  1. With resource sharing facility, a user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another.
  2. Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail.
  3. If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating.
  4. Better service to the customers.
  5. Reduction of the load on the host computer.
  6. Reduction of delays in data processing.

Network Operating System:

A Network Operating System runs on a server arid provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks.
Examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare and BSD.

The advantages of network operating systems are as follows:

  1. Centralized servers are highly stable.
  2. Security is server-managed.
  3. Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
  4. Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems.

The disadvantages of network operating systems are as follows:

  1. High cost of buying and running a server.
  2. Dependency on a central location(server) for most operations.
  3. Regular maintenance and updates are required.

Multi Programming. Multi Programming Operating System is the name given to the interleaved execution of two or more different and independent programs by the same computer. Interleaving of programs mean chain of programs that are either in running phase, ready or blocked phase. It is an efficient way to improve the system performance.

Multi programming approach permits more than one job to utilize the CPU time at any moment by applying the scheduling techniques like first come first serve, shortest job first etc . The more the number of programs requesting for system resources, resource utilization would be better. The operating system picks up any of the programs as scheduled and starts execution.

An OS does the following activities related to multiprogramming.

  1. The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time, This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool.
  2. The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the memory.
  3. Multiprogramming operating systems monitor the state of all active programs and system resources using memory management programs to ensure that the CPU is never idle, unless there are no jobs to process.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Advantages:

High and efficient CPU utilization.
User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost simultaneously.

Disadvantages:

CPU scheduling is required.
To accommodate many jobs in memory, memory management is required.

Real-Time Processing:

It is a form of operating system that are used in environments where a large number of events mostly external to computer systems,- must be accomplished and proceed in a short time or within certain deadline. Processing method is one that controls the environment by receiving the data, processing them and taking action or returning results sufficiently quickly to affect the functioning of the environment at that time. The term real time refers to the technique of updating files with the transaction data immediately after the event that it relates. It is quite different from batch processing that processors related data in batches at predefined periods of time.

Real time systems are basically on-line systems with one specialty in inquiry processing. The response of the system to the inquiry itself is used to control the activity. An on line production data collection system that simply accepts input and utilizes it for payroll and costing purposes cannot be terminated as real time but on the other hand, the system is designed to provide immediate information to monitor the production processes.

Differences Between Dos and Windows:

The differences between DOS and Windows are as follows:

DOS Windows
1. It is single User operating system 1. It is multi User operating system
2. It is single-tasking operating system 2. It is Multi-tasking operating system
3. It does not time-sharing 3. It uses time-sharing
4. Keyboard is main input device 4. Keyboard and Mouse are mainly used.
5. It is character user interface 5. It is graphical user interface
6. It is light software. 6. It is heavy software
7. It doesn’t support multimedia 7. It supports multimedia.
8. It is mainly used to manage files 8. It is used for many purposes.
9. It can be stored on floppy disk 9. It cannot be stored on floppy disk.
10. Its production is slopped. 10. It is still developed by Microsoft.
11. It can connect to internet 11. It cannot connect to internet
12. It cannot use mouse 12. It can use mouse for input.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

LINUX:

Just like Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Mac OS X, Linux is an operating system. An operating system is software that manages all of the hardware resources associated with your desktop or laptop. To put it simply – the operating system manages the communication between your software and your hardware. Without the operating system (often referred to as the “OS”), the software wouldn’t function.

Linux is one of popular version of UNIX operating System. It is open source as its source code is freely available. It is free to use. Linux was designed considering UNIX compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of UNIX.

Basic Features

Following are some of the important features of Linux Operating System:

  • Portable: Portability means softwares can works on different types of hardwares in same way. Linux kernel and application programs supports their installation on any kind of hardware platform,
  • Open Source: Linux source code is freely available and it is community based development project. Multiple teams works in collaboration to enhance the capability of Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving.
  • Multi-User: Linux is a multiuser system means multiple users can access system resources like memory/ ram/ application programs at same time.
  • Multi Programming: Linux is a multiprogramming system means multiple applications can run at same time.
  • Hierarchical File System: Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files/ user files are arranged.
  • Shell: Linux provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs etc.
  • Security: Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection/ controlled access to specific files/ encryption of data. Components of Linux System

Linux Operating System has primarily three components

  • Kernel: KemeHs the core part of Linux. It is responsible for all major activities of this operating system. It consists of various modules and it interacts directly with the underlying hardware. Kernel provides the required abstraction to hide low level hardware details to system gr application programs.
  • System Library: System libraries are special functions or programs using which application programs or system utilities accesses Kernel’s features. These libraries implement most of the functionalities of the operating’system and do not requires kernel module’s code access rights.
  • System Utility: System utility programs are responsible to do specialized, individual-level tasks.

Computer Security:

Computer Security is the process of detecting and preventing any unauthorized use of your laptop/computer. It involves the process of safeguarding against trespassers from i jing your personal or office based computer resources with malicious intent or for their own gains, or even for gaining any access to them accidentally.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Install Antivirus Protection:

Antivirus and anti-malware software are essentials in your arsenal of online security weapons as well.

Anti Spyware Software:

Spyware are different from viruses. Because they do not destroy our hardware or software. They get installed in the system and send senstive information like passwords, credit card information etc. to server. We need latest Anti spyware software to identify and remove spywares.

Use Strong Passwords:

Strong passwords are vital to good online security. Make your password difficult to guess by:

  • using a combination of capital and lower-case letters, numbers and symbols
  • making it between eight and 12 characters long
  • avoiding the use of personal data
  • changing it regularly
  • never using it for multiple accounts
  • using two-factor authentication.

Create a password policy for your business to help staff follow security best practice. Look into different technology solutions to enforce your password policy, e.g., scheduled password reset.

Update Programs and Systems Regularly:

Updates contain vital security upgrades that help protect against known bugs and vulnerabilities. Make sure that you keep your software and devices up-to-date to avoid falling prey to criminals.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Put Up a Firewall:

Firewalls are effectively gatekeepers between your computer and the internet, and one of the major barriers to cyber threats such as viruses and malware. Make sure that you set up your firewall devices properly; otherwise they may not be fully effective.

This PSEB 10th Class Computer Notes Chapter 6 Operating Systems will help you in revision during exams.