PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 7 E-Governance

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB E-Governance Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. G2C stands for ……………
(a) Government to cooperation
(b) Grievances to cooperation
(c) Government to citizen
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Government to citizen

2. G2G stands for …………………
(a) Government to Government
(b) Get to Go
(c) Gather to Go
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Government to Government

3. G2E stands for ……………..
(a) Grievance to employee
(b) Government to an employee
(c) Government to environment
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Government to an employee

4. G2B stands for ……………..
(a) Government to Banks
(b) Government to Businessmen
(c) Government to Business
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Government to Businessmen

5. IRCTC stands for ………………..
(a) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Cooperation ltd.
(b) Indian Runway Catering and tourism Cooperation ltd.
(c) Indian Railway Catering and travelling Cooperation ltd.
(d) Indian Railway Cargo and tourism Cooperation ltd
Answer:
(a) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Cooperation ltd.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is E-governance?
Answer:
Governance is a framework that is developed with a combination of man and machine. The implementation of any e-governance services requires advanced technology infrastructure like web-based applications that require a dedicated server and user-friendly web interface.

Question 2.
What are the two main objectives of e-governance?
Answer:
1. To satisfactorily fulfil the public’s needs and expectations by simplifying their interaction with various online services.
2. To facilitate a speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and effective process for performing government administration activities.

Question 3.
Write the area of E-governance in urban.
Answer:
The area of E-Governance in urban are in transportation, railway, Information and public relation key services, roads and traffic management etc.

Question 4.
Write the area of E-governance in rural.
Answer:
E-Governance in rural areas are in the field of Agriculture, Local information, Disaster management, Land record management and Panchayat etc.

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the main characteristics of Good Governance.
Answer:
1. Good governance is transparent which means that people are able to clearly see how and why a decision was made.
2. Good governance follows the rule of law.
3. Good governance is responsive which means that government always tries to serve the needs of the entire community timely and appropriately.

Question 2.
Explain the four pillars of E-Governance.
Answer:
Fundamentally, e-Government projects would stand on four key pillars – People, Process, Technology and Resource (PPTR), Figure below. Each of the components needs to be addressed carefully and in a holistic manner, to achieve the desired results of the project, figure below :
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance Img 1

1. PEOPLE: As e-government projects are rolled out across the country people within and outside the government will play an increasingly important role in ensuring the success of these projects. The scale of transformation is huge and enormous resources not only in terms of money but also the expertise, skills and commitment of the people will be required.

2. PROCESS: E-Government is not just about the automation of manual records and existing processes, with all their inefficiencies. Rather, it is about transforming government processes and creating new relationships between the government and its citizens and businesses. Hence, a fresh set of process parameters and related workflow should be created, without creating unmanageable and chaotic changes, to maintain the consistency and sustainability of the process.

3. TECHNOLOGY: The Technology Challenges relate to lack of overall architecture and a road map for e-Government, lack of standards, poor IT Infrastructure, especially the poor communication networks, and, above all, adoption of the hardware approach rather than service-approach in the design and implementation of e-Gov projects. These challenges, if not addressed adequately and in time, result in an ad-hoc approach to e-Gov implementation. A few projects get implemented in isolation with big questions on their sustainability and scalability.

4. RESOURCES: New technologies demand new types of implementation models. Adopting conventional procurement methods would not take us far on the path of e-government. In the conventional approach, the project ownership lies with the public sector itself along with the responsibility for funding it and bearing the entire risk.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 3.
Explain the four models of e-governance.
Answer:
The followings are the four models of e-governance :

1. Government to citizens (G2C)
This model of e-governance refers to the government services which are shared by citizens. In this model, citizens visit the links of services that they want to use. This model strengthens the bond between the government and its citizen. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Payment of online bills such as electricity, water, telephone bills, etc.
  2. Online registration of applications.
  3. Copies of land record.
  4. Online filling of complaints.
  5. Availability of any kind of online information.

2. Government to government (G2G)
This model refers to the services which are shared between the governments. There is lots of information that need to be shared between various government agencies, department and organizations. These types of services or information areas :

  1. Sharing of information between police departments of various states.
  2. Government document exchange which includes preparation, approval, distribution, and storage of all governmental documents, is also done through e-governance.
  3. Most of the finance and budget works are also done through e-governance.

3. Government to businessmen (G2B)
Through this model, the bond between the private sector and the government is strengthened. It is used by businessmen to communicate to the government. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-

  1. Rejection and approval of patent are done by this model.
  2. Payment of all kinds of bills and penalties.
  3. Sharing of all kinds of information, rules, and data.
  4. Complaints or any kind of dissatisfaction can be shown by this.

4. Government to employees (G2E)
This model increases the transparency between the government and its employee. Here, employees can keep a check on the functioning and working of the government and the government can keep track of its employees. Information that can be shared by this model:

  1. All kinds of data submission (attendance record, employee record, etc.) from various government offices is done by this model.
  2. An employee can file all kinds of complaints and dissatisfaction with this model.
  3. All kinds of rules- regulations,s, and information for employees can be shared by this.

Question 4.
Write about E-GOVERNANCE IN HEALTH and EDUCATION.
Answer:
E-Governance provides many services in the health sector also. With the help of EGovemance, people can online check the availability of medicines, health camps, and other facilities. The following are the projects under the health area are Hospital OPD Appointment: It is the system of welfare measures started by the Chandigarh Government to make the life of citizens simpler and comfortable. HEALING: This project is started by the Kerala Government for Medical Health and Family Welfare Department,

E-Governance in the education sector is helpful in providing basic education and education facilities to children. Its aim is to provide computer education to children and online results for various classes. The following are the projects under the education field are Online Scholarship Management System: Its purpose is the distribution of scholarships and fees among brilliant and needy students. AISES (All India School Education Survey): The aim of this project is to survey the number of schools in the district which helps in the Census. This project was started by Assam Government.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 5.
Describe the history and development of E-governance.
Answer:
Among developing countries, India has been an early adopter of e-governance. The first wave can be considered to have evolved bottom-up. Some social entrepreneurs convinced district-level officials of the wonders of new ICTs, especially in providing convergent services to remote areas and improving transparency and oversight in this regard. The Gyandoot project in Dhar district, which begun in 2000, is considered the forerunner of what was to be a rash. of projects that built a front-end in many village communities which were supposed to be serviced by a back-end mostly in the district collectorate. The idea and the effort were to create pressure from the community front-end for the digitization of back-end departmental processes.

The latter was largely a localized effort, mostly dependent on the initiative and energy of the concerned district collector, often with some very spirited support of the district National Informatics Centre (NIC) staff. Perhaps the most organized and successful effort in this first phase of e-governance in India, roughly between 2000-05, was Rural e-Seva in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. As for community-level front-end development two initiatives, N-Logue and Drishti stand out, each of which at one time claimed to be running thousands of community telecentres across the country that could deliver e-governance services.

There is a general tendency to classify these early efforts as failures. Indeed, around 2005-06, N-Logue closed down and Drishti moved out of e-governance services. Rural e-Seva also was never scaled up. However, what is noteworthy is that in a relatively short time, these early projects created a lasting impression of new ICTs as a possible means to bring governance close to the people, and perhaps, also make it more transparent and accountable. To that extent, they had a very significant impact,

even if these initiatives themselves could not survive, due to a variety of reasons which we cannot discuss in greater detail, here. (However, if we compare this situation with the burst of the dot-com bubble in the early part of the last decade, one can see some common factors.) They created the context for the very ambitious National E-Governance Plan (NeGP), especially its flagship project, the Common Service Centres, which was inaugurated by the Government of India in 2006.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide E-Governance Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks

1. ………………… means the government to employees.
(a) G2L
(b) G2G
(c) G2E
(d) G2B
Answer:
(c) G2E

2. E-governance has ………………… main objectives.
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(a) 2

3. ………………….. do work of e-governance in urban areas.
(a) Transportation
(b) Municipal Corporation
(c) Road Safety
(d) All of above
Answer:
(b) Municipal Corporation

4. ………………….. do work of e-governance in a rural areas.
(a) Health
(b) Panchayat
(c) Agriculture
(d) Municipal Corporation
Answer:
(b) Panchayat

True or False

1. E-governance do not work in education.
Answer:
False

2. E-governance has four models.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is e-Government?
Answer:
The term e-Government is understood differently across the world. E- Govemment or Electronic Government is the delivery of more convenient, customer-oriented, and cost-effective public services and sharing of information through electronic media. Specifically, e-Government harnesses information and communication technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

Question 2.
What is the difference between e-Government and e-Governance?
Answer:
E-Govemment is the transformation of internal and external public sector relationships, through Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in order to optimize government service delivery and citizen participation. Digital society is a society or community that is well advanced in the adoption and integration of digital technology into daily life at home, work and play. E-Governance is the development, deployment, and enforcement of the policies, laws, and regulations necessary to support the functioning of a Knowledge Society as well as of e-Government.

Question 3.
What are the objectives of e-Governance?
Answer:
The strategic objective of e-Governance is to support and simplify governance for government, citizens, and businesses. The use of ICT can connect all three parties and support processes and activities. Other objectives are to make government administration more transparent, speedy and accountable while addressing the society’s needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between the people, businesses and government.

Question 4.
what are the benefits of e-Governance?
Answer:
E-Governance offers many benefits and advantages for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves the performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
List the various services of E-governance for urban.
Ans. The followings are the various services of e-governances for urban :

1. Transportation: There are many services which are provided by e-governance in transportation like provision of booking facility of interstate transport, plans for regional transportation, time table of buses and transportation improvement program etc. The following are the projects under e-governance in transportation such as:OSRTC- The Orissa State Road Transport Corporation project was started to provide online facilities in the transportation department.HRTC- The Himachal Road Transport Corporation project provides many facilities like online booking, availability and cancellation of seats and buses etc.

2. Online payment of bills and taxes: E-Governance also provides online transactions,payment of bills, EMIs and taxes etc. The project under e-governance in online payment is FRIENDS which is started by Kerala Government to make onlinepayments of fees, water and electricity bills etc.

3. Municipal services: The services provided by municipal sector are house taxes, issuethe death certificates, maintain records of property and approval for site plans etc.The following are the projects under municipal services are:SDO Suite: This project was started by Assam Government. It provides manyfacilities by issuing certificates like permission for land sale, birth and death reportetc.

4. Rural Digital Services: It gives many social security services such as old agepension, widow and freedom fighter pension.

5. Roads and. traffic management: The services provided by road and trafficmanagement are construction and maintenance of roads, traffic management andpollution control schemes. The project under e-govemance in road and trafficmanagement is CFST (Citizen Friendly Services of Transport) which is started by Andhra Pradesh Government. It checks the pollution control level, road safety andsafety of people. ’

Question 2.
List the various services of E-governance for rural.
Answer:
The followings are the various services of e-governances for rural:

1. Agriculture: The farmers rely on the information provided by the govemmentthrough e-governance. Governments are working on many projects used in agriculture like MARKET which is approved by the Department of Marketing and inspection (DMI), Ministry of Agriculture and Government of India. ‘

2. Local information: Government provides many local information such as prices of seeds, loan rates etc. The project under e-governance in local information is EJanSamparkwhich is started by Chandigarh Government to help people access the local information in their locality to fulfil their needs.

3. Land record management: With the help of this management, huge number of land records can be maintained in a very small time. The following are the projects under land record management are : Bhooftii: It was started by Karnataka Government and known as the first E-Governanceland records management projects.Land Records Management System State Government of Punjab.

4. Panchayat: Panchayat provides many services such as issuing the birth and death certificates, various schemes for poor people and water supply and sanitation etc.

Question 3.
List the various E-Governance Services from Government To Government.
Answer:
E-Governance Services from Government to Government (G2G): It is also known as E-Administration. In this model, services are being shared between many governments. Information are shared among various government agencies, organizations and departments. The following arethe services discussed in the G2G model:

E-Secretariat: E-Secretariat provides huge, valuable and functional information of the state. In E-Secretariat,multiple departments are linked together on internet and exchange the information of various components. Italso links all the governmental departments with their headquarters and state capitals. .

E-Police: E-Police helps everyone to feel safe and secure. For this purpose, E- Police maintain two databases.First database is of police personnel which provide records (current and previous posting etc.) of persons working in police. This database helps people to find the specialization of policemen according to geographical regions and skills. Second database is of criminal records. This database provides full detail of any criminal byjust typing the name of criminal. This database also provide the past activities and area of operation of anycriminal.

E-Court: E-Court will bring a revolution in the Indian pending court cases. In India, there are a number of pending cases that produce frustration in people and will bring the system to a halt. Both consumers and the system need the change. If the system w3ill work in the same manner in future, than one day it will collapse. In E- Court, IT transforms the system into databases of cases having zero level dependency. In such systems, Judges can consider the appeals from intranet, give their decisions online by considering recorded facts of case and reduce the backlog of cases.
The success of G2G model is based on some important aspects like expenditure, the establishment of the network, planning, monitoring and controlling the performance of process resources like human and financial.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance

Question 4.
What are the various stages of E-governance?
Answer:
Stages of e-Governance :
It is apparent in various research studies that e-Governance is fundamentally linked with the development of computer technology, networking of computers and communication systems. In developing nations, such technologies and systems became available with an observable time lag as compared to developed nations. When appraising the e-governance model in India, it is established that with the liberalization of the economy from the early 1990s onwards, there has been a convergence in the availability of progressive technologies and opportunities in this field. The inception of e-Governance proceeded through four stages in India.

1. Computerization: In the first stage, with the availability of personal computers, the majority of Government offices are well equipped with computers. The use of computers begem with word processing, quickly followed by data processing.

2. Networking: In this stage, some units of a few government organizations are connected through a hub leading to sharing of information and flow of data between different government entities.

3. On-line presence: In the third stage, with increasing internet connectivity, a need was felt for maintaining a presence on the web. This resulted in the maintenance of websites by government departments and other entities. Generally, these web pages/websites contained information about the organizational structure, contact details, reports and publications, objectives and vision statements of the respective government entities.

4. On-line interactivity: A natural significance of online presence was opening up of communication channels between government entities and the citizens, civil society organizations etc. The main objective of this stage was to lessen the scope of personal interface with government entities by providing downloadable Forms, Instructions, Acts, and Rules.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 7 E-Governance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Internet Applications Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ‘Gmail’ is a free email service provided by …………………
(a) Yahoo
(b) Google
(c) Rediffmail
(d) Hotmail
Answer:
(b) Google

2. Every machine on the Internet has a unique number assigned to it, called an ……………
(a) Address
(b) E-mail
(c) ID
(d) Unique IP Address
Answer:
(d) Unique IP Address

3. A …………… is a type of test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
(a) CAPTCHA
(b) DERTSA
(c) HEPTCHA
(d) NEPHCA
Answer:
(a) CAPTCHA

4. ………………. is a type of malware designed to provide unauthorized, remote access to a user’s computer.
(a) Spyware
(b) Trojan
(c) Malware
(d) Horse
Answer:
(c) Malware

5. TV and radio on the Internet are examples of …………….. media.
(a) Streaming
(b) Limited
(c) Online
(d) Offline
Answer:
(a) Streaming

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

2. True/False

1. Spyware is an e-mail fraud method in which the wrongdoer sends out legitimate-looking emails in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from recipients.
Answer:
True

2. Google Drive does not allow us to store and share files online.
Answer:
False

3. The best way to deal with the threat of a computer virus is to use antivirus software.
Answer:
True

4. In BCC we type the addresses of people we want to send a copy of the mail to, without the other recipients knowing.
Answer:
True

5. Digital signatures are created and verified by means of biography.
Answer:
False

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a CAPTCHA code?
Answer:
Short for completely automated public hiring test to tell computers and humans apart, a technique used by a computer to tell if it is interacting with a human or another computer. Because computing is becoming pervasive, and computerized tasks and services are commonplace, the need for increased levels of security has led to the development of this way for computers to ensure that they are dealing with humans in situations where human interaction is essential to security. Activities such as online commerce transactions, search engine submissions, Web polls, Web registrations, free e-mail service registration, and other automated services are subject to software programs, or bots, that mimic the behavior of humans in order to skew the results of the automated task or perform malicious activities, such as gathering e-mail addresses for spamming or ordering hundreds of tickets to a concert.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Google Apps?
Answer:
Google Apps is a package of cloud-based services that can provide your company or school with a whole new way to work together online—not just using email and chat, but over video conferences, social media, real-time document collaborations, and more. .

Question 3.
What is Digital Signature?
Answer:
Digital signatures are the public-key primitives of message authentication. In the physical world, it is common to use handwritten signatures on handwritten or typed messages.

Question 4.
Write the process of sending an e-mail.
Answer:
Different steps to send and receive mail are :

  1. Open your Gmail account by clicking on the Gmail link on the Google search page.
  2. Click the button labeled ‘Compose’.
  3. Go to the To: box. In the To: box type in the email address of the person you would like to send an email to. If there are multiple people you want to send it to, click on the Add Cc and Add Bcc buttons.
  4. Type the email subject. The subject lets people know what the email is going to be about.
  5. Type your message in the big box below the subject box.
  6. Click the Send button below the message box.
  7. Wait until the person you sent the email replies.

Question 5.
Write the basic steps of downloading.
Answer:
Follow these steps for downloading software, games, or any other files from the Internet if you use a PC running Windows XP, Vista, or Windows 7.

  1. If you don’t already have one, create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer, highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive), then selecting File/New/Folder. When the folder appears, name it Temp files.
  2. Once you locate the software you want to download, click on the link to begin the download process.
  3. First, you will be asked if you want to save the file. Click the Save button, then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. Next, click the Save button.
  4. You can watch the file as it downloads.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 6.
What is cloud printing?
Answer:
cloud printing. Printing from a computer or mobile device to a remote printer via the Internet (the cloud). For example, users can snap photos on a smartphone and send them to a printer at their home or office. Cloud printing apps are available for smartphones and tablets that work with almost any printer. Printing to the cloud. It refers to scanning a photo or document on an Internet-connected multifunction printer and sending it directly from the device to a photo or document sharing service on the Internet.

Question 7.
Name four anti-virus software.
Answer:
Four anti-viruses are:
a. AVG
b. McAfee
c. Norton
d. Kaspersky

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is IP Address? Explain.
Answer:
Unique IP Address
A Unique IP is an IP address that is specific to your domain. When you add hosting to a domain/subdomain, it’s assigned an IP on the Apache server which is shared with other sites. This shared IP address is most often the only IP you’ll need. However, certain applications may require you to add a Unique IP to your site. You can add a Unique IP to any Fully Hosted domain/subdomain hosted at DreamHost on the page.

Need of a Unique IP
Unique IPs are most commonly used with domains that have secure hosting enabled. While it is possible to use secure hosting without a Unique IP, some older browsers which do not support Server Name Indication display a certificate warning when viewing your site. While not a comprehensive list, this includes :

  • Windows XP versions of Internet Explorer.
  • The default browser in Android 2.4 is “Gingerbread” and earlier. (4.0 “Ice Cream Sandwich” and later will work correctly.)
  • Various older mobile browsers, including BlackBerry, Symbian OS, and older versions of Opera Mobile.

If you expect a significant number of the visitors to your secure site to be using these browsers, you will need a Unique IP.

Benefits of a Unique IP Address :
There are a lot of reasons why it is recommended to use a Dedicated IP address for a website, hosted on a Shared server, but we shall look through the main ones here:

  • It provides higher stability
  • It grants access to your website anytime you need
  • It is beneficial for the email sender’s reputation
  • It is good for a business identity
  • It is required for particular third-party applications/ scripts

Question 2.
Explain any three Google Apps.
Answer:
Google Docs
Google Docs is an online word processor that lets you create and format text documents and collaborate with other people in real-time. Here’s what you can do with Google Docs:

  • Upload a Word document and convert it to a Google document
  • Add flair and formatting to your documents by adjusting margins, spacing, fonts, and colors — all that fun stuff
  • Invite other people to collaborate on a document with you, giving them edit, comment, or view access
  • Collaborate online in real-time and chat with other collaborators — right from inside the document „
  • View your document’s revision history and roll back to any previous version
  • Download a Google document to your desktop as a Word, Open Office, RTF, PDF, HTML, or zip file
  • Translate a document to a different language ‘
  • Email your documents to other people as attachments

Google Sheets
Google Sheets is an online spreadsheet app that lets you create and format spreadsheets and simultaneously work with other people. Here’s what you can do with Google Sheets :

  • Import and convert Excel, .csv, .txt, and .ods formatted data to a Google spreadsheet
  • Export Excel, .csv, .txt and .ods formatted data, as well as PDF and HTML files
  • Use formula editing to perform calculations on your data, and use formatting to make it look the way you’d like
  • Chat in real-time with others who are editing your spreadsheet
  • Create charts with your data
  • Embed a spreadsheet — or individual sheets of your spreadsheet — on your blog or website

Google Slides
Google Slides is an online presentations app that allows you to show off your work in a visual way. Here’s what you can do with Google Slides:

  • Create and edit presentations
  • Edit a presentation with friends or coworkers, and share it with others effortlessly
  • Import .pptx and .pps files and convert them to Google presentations
  • Download your presentations as a .pdf, .ppt, .svg, .jpg, or .txt file
  • Insert images and videos into your presentation
  • Publish and embed your presentations on a website

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 3.
Explain the process of creating an e-mail account in Gmail.
Answer:
Follow these step-by-step instructions to create a Gmail account

Step 1: Open up your internet browser and go to the Google home page.

Step 2: Click on Gmail at the top right comer of the page.

Step 3: You’ll now be in the ‘Sign in’ section. As you don’t have a Google account yet, you need to create one. Click Create an account.

Step 4: To set up your new account, Google needs some information about you – first, your first, and last names. The ‘choose your username’ is the unique email address that you wish to use, which will be placed before ‘@gmail.com’. Because it needs to be unique, Google may have to check the vail ability of any name that you decide on to make sure that no one already has it. Type an email name into the ‘choose your username’ box and then fill out the rest of your information. You will need to ensure that the ‘I agree to the Google terms of service and Privacy Policy’ is ticked. Then click next step.

Question 4.
What are the benefits of google drive?
Answer:
Google Drive is one of the most popular cloud storage services available today, offering 15 gigabytes (15GB) of free storage space. If you’ve never used a cloud-based storage service like Google Drive before, take a moment to consider the advantages of keeping your files online. Because files can be accessed from any computer with an Internet connection, Drive eliminates the need to email or save a file to a USB drive. And because Drive allows you to share files, working with others becomes much easier.

There are no. benefits for creating and sharing different files on Google Drive which are:

  • Documents: For composing letters, flyers, essays, and other text-based files (similar to Microsoft Word documents)
  • Spreadsheets: For storing and organizing information (similar to Microsoft Excel Workbooks) .
  • presentations: For creating slideshows (similar to Microsoft PowerPoint presentations)
  • Forms: For collecting and organizing data
  • Drawings: For creating simple vector graphics or diagrams.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Internet Applications Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks

1. Gmail, yahoo mail, Hotmail, etc. are …………………….
(a) google
(b) Microsoft
(c) e-mail
(d) Skymail
Answer:
(c) e-mail

2. play store is a product of ……………….
(a) Microsoft
(b) Play store
(c) Play
(d) Google
Answer:
(d) Google

3. Files can be shared with ………………
(a) Hotmail
(b) Play store
(c) Google Drive
(d) Virus
Answer:
(c) Google Drive

4. …………………. cures ………………….
(a) Antivirus, virus
(b) Google, Yahoo
(c) E-mail, virus
(d) Antivirus, server.
Answer:
(a) Antivirus, virus

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

True or False

1. Gmail is a product of Microsoft.
Answer:
False

2. We can share files on the internet.
Answer:
True

3. Data is not destroyed on Google Drive.
Answer:
True

4. Cloud means Air clouds in computer terminology.
Answer:
False

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is E-mail?
Answer:
E-mail stands for electronic mail. Most networks support some form of an email. The most popular, of course, is Internet email. E-mail allows you to send a text (such as a letter) to another person on another computer. In order to send an email, you have to know the email address of the recipient.

Question 2.
How often is the imagery in Google Earth updated?
Answer:
Google Earth displays the best available imagery, most of which is one to three years old. The information in Google Earth is collected over time and is not in real-time. It is not possible to see live changes in images. We add data to our Primary Database on a regular basis.

Question 3.
Why do I see blurry imagery in Google Earth?
Answer:
Google Earth combines data of different resolutions to offer a seamless viewing experience, so some locations look a bit blurry. We offer high-resolution imagery (greater than 1-meter) for thousands of cities and more are on the way.

Question 4.
What is an IP address?
Answer:
An IP address is a network layer protocol address for a host in a TCP/IP network.

Question 5.
What is the use of an IP address?
Answer:
The IP address is used to uniquely identify each host in a network. The IP address is needed in order to communicate with other hosts in the network using the TCP/IP suite of protocols.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications

Question 6.
Which version of IP is covered by this document?
Answer:
This document covers IP version 4.

Question 7.
How does a host determine its IP address?
Answer:
A host determines its IP address during the boot-up process either from a configuration file stored in the local hard disk of the system or using a network protocol like RARP, DHCP, BOOTP from the servers in the network.

Question 8.
Is there any relation between the MAC address and the IP address of a host?
Answer:
No. There is no relation between the MAC address and the IP address of a host.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on email.
Answer:
Short for electronic mail, e-mail or email is information stored on a computer that is exchanged between two users over telecommunications. More plainly, e-mail is a message that may contain text, files, images, or other attachments sent through a network to a specified individual or group of individuals. The first e-mail was sent by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. By 1996, more electronic mail was being sent than postal mail.

Question 2.
Write the various steps for writing an email.
Answer:
Writing an e-mail
When writing an e-mail message, it should look something like the example window below. As you can see, several fields are required when sending an e-mail:

  • The To field is where you type the e-mail address of the person who is the recipient of your message.
  • The From field should contain your e-mail address.
  • If you are replying to a message, the To and From fields are automatically filled out; if it’s a new message, you’ll need to enter them manually.
  • The CC or Carbon Copy field allows you to send a copy of the message to another e-mail address but is not mandatory.
  • The Subject Line, although not required, should consist of a few words describing the e-mail’s contents.
  • Finally, the Message Body is the location you type your main message. It often contains your signature at the bottom; similar to a hand-written letter.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 6 Internet Applications Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Introduction to MS-Access Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ………………. is a relational database management system.
(a) Excel
(b) Word
(c) Powerpoint
(d) Access
Answer:
(d) Access

2. ………………… is the main part of the database.
(a) Query
(b) Table
(c) Form
(d) Module
Answer:
(b) Table

3. One field is the collection set of ………………..
(a) Database
(b) Tables
(c) Data items
(d) Forms
Answer:
(c) Data items

4. Queries are used for tables to convert, …………….., ………………… and ………………..
(a) Store, Forms, Update
(b) For delete, Create table, Update
(c) For Store, Paste, Copy
(d) Copy Queries, Make modules, create reports
Answer:
(b) For delete, Create table, Update

5. Important setting for a field is called ………………..
(a) Database
(b) Macro
(c) Data types
(d) Reports
Answer:
(c) Data types

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the name of components of MS-Access.
Answer:
M-S Access has various components. All of the components along with their descriptions are shown below :
Table. Access 2010 Program Window Elements

Name Description
Title bar Appears at the top of the program window and displays the name of the database and the program. The buttons on the right side of the Title bar are used to minimize, maximize, restore, and close the program window.
Quick Access toolbar Appears on the left side of the Title bar and contains frequently used commands that are independent of the tab displayed on the Ribbon.
Ribbon Extends Extends across the top of the program window, directly below the Title bar, and consists of a set of tabs, each of which contains groups of related commands.
Navigation pane Appears on the left side of the program window and displays a list of all the objects in a database.
Object window Appears below the Ribbon and displays open database objects.
Status bar Appears at the bottom of the program window and displays information about the database and provides access to certain program functions.

Question 2.
Write data types that are used in MS-Access.
Answer:
Data is stored in the computer according to its type. MS-Access supports various data types which are :
Text. The field can contain any characters. The Field Size property defines the maximum number of characters. The maximum cannot be above 255 characters.
Memo. Like a text field, but the maximum number of characters is 65,535. Access takes more time to process a memo field, so use text fields if adequate.
Number. The field can contain a number. The Field Size property defines what kind of number. ,,
Integer. A small integer. It must be in the range -32,768 to +32,767 (a 16-bit integer).

  1. Long Integer. It must be in the range of around -2,140 million to +2,140 million (a 32-bit integer).
  2. Single. A decimal number in the range from -3.4*1038 to +3.4*1038 with an accuracy of 6 or 7 significant digits (a 32-bit floating-point number).
  3. Double. A decimal number in the range from -1.8*10308 to +1.8*10308 with 14 significant digits (a 64-bit floating-point number).
  4. Decimal. A very long integer with a decimal point placed somewhere. Intended for monetary calculations where rounding must be strictly controlled. In the book, we use Single or Double instead.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 3.
What are the advantages of MS-Access?
Answer:
Various advantages of using MS Access are :
1. Easy to install and use —Access gives data managers a fully functional, relational database management system in minutes. Like many other Microsoft applications, Access contains Wizards that walk you through each step of the way. The user interface is intuitive; accelerating data information retrieval.

2. Ease to integrate—Access works well with many of the developing software programs based in Windows. It also can be used in the front-end as back-end tables with products like Microsoft SQL Server and non-Microsoft products like Oracle and Sybase.

3. NET-friendly—Access is a go-to choice for users who plan to develop software using .NET; linking to Access database. Its graphical user interface also offers easy functionality and setup.

4. Widely popular—Microsoft Access is the most popular desktop database system in the world.

Question 4.
What do you mean by record?
Answer:
A record is sometimes referred to as a row, while a field is also known as a column. There are several ways to delete, add or edit records in a table using Microsoft Access. Users can directly manipulate records in Datasheet view. A query can be created and designed to edit and view records by simply running the query. Alternatively, a form can also be designed and created based on a database query or table then used to manipulate records.

Question 5.
What is table 7-Name the different ways to create a table?
Answer:
A table is a database object that you define and use to store data. Each table contains information about a particular subject (such as customers). A table consists of records and fields. Each record contains data about one instance of the table subject (such as a particular customer). Each record consists of one or more fields. Each field contains data about one aspect of the table subject (such as a customer’s first name or email address). Because other database objects depend so heavily on tables, you should always start your design of a database by creating all of its tables, and then creating any other objects. In Datasheet view, a table is similar in appearance to an Excel worksheet in that data is stored in rows (records) and columns (fields). The first row contains column headers (field names). In this format, the table is often simply referred to as a datasheet.

There are two ways to create a table in MS Access which are:

  • Creating Tables in Datasheet View
  • Creating Tables in Design View

Question 6.
What do you mean by Form?
Answer:
A Form is a database object which allows you to view the data one record at a time, unlike a Table where you can view the data as a continuous list of records. A Form is a convenient tool for data entry purposes because it allows the user to see all the Field entries in a single record at one time, unlike the Table view (the Datasheet View) which will often be unable to show all the data fields of a single record across the screen.

Question 7.
What is the report?
Answer:
A report is an object in Microsoft Access that is used to display and print your data in an organized manner. The Navigation Pane is where you can find all of the saved reports in the database. To view your reports, make sure that all objects are visible in the Navigation Pane. To do this, click on the Navigation Pane menu and select “Object Type” from the popup menu. Click on the Navigation Pane menu one more time and select “All Access Objects” from the popup menu. Now the Navigation Pane should display all of the tables, queries, forms, reports, and modules that are in your database. You should now be able to see all of your report objects.

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the instructions to design the database? Explain it.
Answer:
Various instructions to create a Database are :
The rule of thumb that should guide you, when planning a database, is that it becomes increasingly difficult to make changes the further along you go in the process of building a new database. If you think about it, this is true of anything you create. Here, then, are some words of wisdom that you should bear in mind when designing a database.

Taking your time upfront saves time later on:
The database you create will have a long, useful life if you take the time to plan it carefully. After you have decided on the fields to include with each record, and before you create the database, you should still invest time designing layouts for reports. Thinking about reports will cause you to think about what data you plan to put in the database.

Teamwork helps:
During the planning stage, run your ideas by others who are familiar with the kind of database you have in mind. Network among your friends. Tell them what you have in mind. Ask them to review your design. You’ll be surprised how many valuable ideas they’ll come up with that may have escaped you if you had relied on your own resources. Another good idea is to involve your students in the design. This will help them learn skills that will benefit them throughout their lives.

Keep fields simple:
The more “atomic” your fields the more flexible will be your database. Atomic here means “reduced to its simplest form.” For example, in a database of names and addresses, you would keep each part of the person’s name as a separate field. The first name should be stored by itself; the same for the middle name and last name. That way you can sort the names by first or last name. You can print a listing last name first or first name last, with or without the middle name, and so on. You will have choices. Lumping the whole name under one field limits your options.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 2.
Write steps to make table through datasheet view.
Answer:
Creating Tables in Datasheet View: In the Datasheet view, you can enter data into a new table without first defining the table’s structure.

To create a table in Datasheet view :
On the Create tab, in the Tables group, click the Table button. A new, blank table opens in the Object window in Datasheet view.
Adding Fields by Entering Data. You can add a new field to the table by entering data in the Click to Add column (the last column) of the datasheet; Access will automatically assign a data type based on the data that you enter.
To add a field by entering data :

1. Click in the first cell in the Click to Add column, enter the first item of data for the new record, and then press the Tab or Enter key to move to the first cell in the column to the right. Access assigns the value 1 to the ID field, assigns the name Field to the second field, and moves the Click to Add label to the third column. The icon on the row selector changes to a pencil to indicate that the record has been changed, but has not yet been saved, and the asterisk (*) icon moves to the row selector of the next row.

2. Click the pencil icon in the row selector. This saves the first record with the value 1 assigned to the ID field; subsequent records will be numbered sequentially.

3. Continue entering items of data in consecutive cells, and pressing the Tab or Enter key.

4. When you finish entering all the data for the first record, click anywhere in the row below to save the record. After you complete the first record of a new table, you should change the default field names to something more meaningful. For instructions, see the Renaming Field section of this handout. After you enter several rows of data, it is a good idea to save the table. For instructions, see the Saving Table section of this handout.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 3.
How does the table create in design view? Write steps.
Answer:
To create a table in Design view various steps are:

1. On the Create tab, in the Tables group, click the Table Design button. A new, blank table opens in the Object window in Design view.

To define fields various steps are:

  1. In the Field Name column, type a name for the first field.
  2. In the Data Type column, click the down arrow and select a data type from the list (see Figure). The Field Properties pane displays the available properties for the selected data type.
  3. In the Description column, type a description for the field.
  4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 to add additional fields to the table. After you add all of your fields, you must save the table before you can add any data.

Question 4.
What are the filters? Write steps to implement it.
Answer:
Filters allow you to view only the data you want to see. When you create a filter, you set criteria for the data you want to display. The filter then searches all of the records in the table, finds the ones that meet your search criteria, and temporarily hides the ones that don’t. Filters are useful because they allow you to focus on specific records without being distracted by the data you’re uninterested in. For instance, if you had a database that included customer and order information, you could create a filter to display only customers living within a certain city or only orders that contain a certain product. Viewing this data with a filter won11 be far more convenient than searching for it in a large table.

Steps to create a filler
1. Click the drop-down arrow next to the field you want to filter by. We will filter by city because we want to see a list of customers who live in a certain city.
2. A drop-down menu with a checklist will appear. Only checked items will be included in the filtered results. Use the following options to determine which items will be included in your filter :

  • Select and deselect items one at a time by clicking their checkboxes. Here, we will deselect all of the options except for Cary.
  • Click Select All to include every item in the filter. Clicking Select All a second time will deselect all items.
  • Click Blank to set the filter to find only the records with no data in the selected field.

3. Click OK.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 5.
What is sorting? How do you implement it on your document?
Answer:
Sorting is the tool in MS Access that lets you organize your data. When you sort data, you are putting it in some order. When you sort records, you are putting them into a logical order, with similar data grouped together. For example, the information in a database belonging to a bakery could be Sorted in a number of ways:

  • Orders could be sorted by order date or by the last name of the customers who placed the orders.
  • Customers could be sorted by name or by the city or zip. code where they live.
  • Products could be sorted by name, category (like pies, cakes, and cupcakes), or price.

You can sort both text and numbers in two ways: in ascending order and descending order. Ascending means going up, so an ascending sort will arrange numbers from smallest to largest and text from A to Z. Descending means going down, or largest to smallest for numbers and Z to A for text. First, you have to move to the column on which the sort is to be based:

  1. Press <Tab> to move to the Surname field
  2. Click on [Ascending] in the Sort & Filter group on the Home tab of the Ribbon. The names of the students are now in alphabetical order. Note that only the screen display is sorted – the records are still stored in the order in which they were typed, and they always will be.
  3. Use the [Remove Sort] button to reset the data to its original unsorted order.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Introduction to MS-Access Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the Blanks

1. ………………… is the main file of the database.
(a) Table
(b) Field
(c) Database
(d) Record
Answer:
(c) Database

2. ………………. provides facility to store data.
(a) Row
(b) Column
(c) Table
(d) Field
Answer:
(c) Table

3. ………………… is the special setting of the field.
(a) Data
(b) Database
(c) Data type
(d) Data field
Answer:
(c) Data type

4. …………….. is a unique Key.
(a) Secondary
(b) Candidate
(c) Foreign
(d) Primary
Answer:
(d) Primary

True or False

1. Access is a product of Microsoft company
Answer:
True

2. Forms are used to view data.
Answer:
False

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Query?
Answer:
A query allows the user to view, change, and analyze data in different ways like combining data from two different tables (Customers and Orders) to create a user’s own custom view (London Orders for April). Can also be used as the source of records for forms, reports, and data access pages.

Question 2.
Define form and report in Ms access.
Answer:
Form: A form allows a user to enter/change/update data to the table(s)
Report: A report is an effective way to output your data in a printed format in the way you want it

Question 3.
Explain how you can import data from other sources into the Access database?
Answer:
To import data into the Access database :

  • In the main menu, click on EXTERNAL DATA, in the Import and Link group
  • Choose the type of file you want to import
  • To know which type of file can be imported or link the Access database, follow the instruction in the Get External Data wizard

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 4.
Explain what is the size limitation for an Access database?
Answer:
The Access 2.0 database has a size limitation of 1 gigabyte.

Question 5.
Between different data’s what are types of relationships can be formed?
Answer:
The table contains your data can build three types of relationships:

  • One-to-one relationships: A single piece of data in one table is linked with a single data in another table.
  • One-to-many relationship: A single piece of data in a table is linked to several data’s in another table
  • Many-to-many relationship: Where several data’s in one table is related to several other data’s in another table

Question 6.
Explain how you can build a relationship between the different databases in Access?
Answer:
When you establish a relationship between two data, the first table for your data is referred to as the primary key while the new field in another data is called a foreign key.

Question 7.
Name some of the file extensions for MS Access.
Answer:
One of the file extensions for MS Access is

  • Access database.accdb
  • Access project.adp
  • Access project.mdw .
  • Access blank project template.adn
  • Access workgroup.mdw
  • Protected access database.accde

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain how you can create a form in Microsoft Access 2013?
Answer:
Forms allow inserting data across multiple tables. There are different methods for creating forms but with the Form Wizard method, you can always modify the form later using Design View. To create a form

  • From the main menu, click on CREATE and then choose the FORM option
  • It will create a new form in Layout view, based on the fields in the Customer table
  • Scroll the drop-down arrow under the View icon and select Form View. This is how the user will see the form.
  • On the form, you will see fields like Customer, First Name, Last Name, and Date Created
  • After filling in all details in the form, you can see the newly created record with data in the table
  • Once you completed filling the field in the form, confirm that you click on the save button on the top of the ribbon

Question 2.
In MS Access 2013 what are the different ways you can enter data?
Answer:
Different methods you can enter data in MS Access are

  • Datasheet View
  • Form
  • SQL View
  • Import from External Data (XML, Data Services, HTML, etc.)

Question 3.
How do you import data from another access database?
Answer:
The process of importing data from another Access database follows these general steps they are. % Preparing the document for import operation and make sure that extensions are not in .mde or .accde because in that extension you can import only tables. % Source should be closed automatically when the process is completed % Make sure that you have permission to reading and write.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access

Question 4.
What types of applications can we build with Microsoft Access?
Answer:
There really is no limit on the types of applications that can be built with Microsoft Access. Accounting, order management, inventory, contact management, estimating, and project management are just a few types. For example, some companies find that available accounting software packages do not give them the flexibility they need to capture their accounting information and choose to build a custom Access application designed specifically for their business needs. The same holds true for order and inventory management.

Microsoft makes available many Microsoft Access templates for common needs such as contact management, inventory, etc. which can be customized further to meet a particular business need. These templates are available on the Microsoft.com website. Regardless of whether an existing template exists, Microsoft Access can Be used to design powerful, multi-user applications that can drive extraordinary efficiencies in your business.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 5 Introduction to MS-Access Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Introduction to DBMS Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………… is the full name of DBMS.
(a) Database manager system
(b) Database managing system
(c) Database management System
(d) Database Messenger Software.
Answer:
(c) Database management System

2. To control the Database ………………… is responsible.
(a) Data master
(b) Database administrator
(c) User
(d) Common man
Answer:
(b) Database administrator

3. After processing data is Convert into …………………..
(a) Database
(b) Information
(c) Entity
(d) Software
Answer:
(b) Information

4. Information associate with each other makes………………..
(a) Database
(b) DBMS
(c) DBA
(d) File Processing System
Answer:
(a) Database

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

5. To store the same data again and again in a database is called …………………
(a) Integrity
(b) Redundancy
(c) Object
(d) Foreign key
Answer:
(b) Redundancy

6. …………………. is a unique key.
(a) Primary key
(b) Foreign key
(c) Electronic key
(d) Database key
Answer:
(a) Primary key

2. Full Forms

1. DBA
Answer:
Database administrator.

2. DBMS
Answer:
Database management System.

3. SQL
Answer:
Structured query language.

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a database?
Answer:
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.

Question 2.
What are the different types of relationships?
Answer:
One-to-One Relationships
One-to-Many Relationships
Many-to-Many Relationships
Self-Referencing Relationships

Question 3.
Write the names of different DBA’s.
Answer:
Administrative DBA
Development DBA
Data Architect
Data Warehouse DBA

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 4.
What is SQL?
Answer:
SQL is a Structured Query Language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data stored in a relational database. SQL is the standard language for Relation Database Systems. All relational database management systems like MySQL, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres, and SQL Server use SQL as standard database language.

Question 5.
Name the different types of keys.
Answer:

  1. Primary key
  2. Foreign key
  3. Composite key
  4. Natural key
  5. Surrogate key
  6. Candidate key
  7. Compound key

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe Normalization. How many types of Normalization?
Answer:
Normalization is a process of organizing the data in the database to avoid data redundancy, insertion anomaly, update anomaly & deletion anomaly.
Here are the most commonly used normal forms :

  • First normal form(1NF)
  • Second normal form(2NF)
  • Third normal form(3NF)

First normal form (1NF)
As per the rule of the first normal form, an attribute (column) of a table cannot hold multiple values. It should hold only atomic values.

Second normal form (2NF)
A table is said to be in 2NF if both the following conditions hold :
The table is in INF (First normal form)
No non-prime attribute is dependent on the proper subset of any candidate key of the table. An attribute that is not part of any candidate key is known as a non-prime attribute.

Third Normal form (3NF)
A table design is said to be in 3NF if both the following conditions hold:
The table must be in 2NF
Transitive functional dependency of non-prime attribute on any super key should be removed. An attribute that is not part of any candidate key is known as a non-prime attribute.

In other words, 3NF can be explained like this: A table is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for each functional dependency X-> Y at least one of the following conditions hold :
X is a super key of the table
Y is a prime attribute of the table
An attribute that is a part of one of the candidate keys is known as a prime attribute.

Question 2.
What is a file processing system? What are the disadvantages of the file processing system?
Answer:
A file processing system is a collection of files and programs that access/ modify these files. Typically, new files and programs are added over time (by different programmers) as new information needs to be stored and new ways to access information are needed. A File can store records and we can extract these records using different applications programs.
Disadvantages of File Processing System.
The conventional file processing system suffers from the following shortcomings :

1. Data Redundancy – Data Redundancy means the same information is duplicated in several files. This makes data redundant.

2. Data Inconsistency – Data Inconsistency means different copies of the same data are not matching. That means different versions of the same basic data are existing. This occurs as the result of update operations that are not updating the same data stored at different places. Example: Address Information of a customer is recorded differently in different files.

3. Difficulty in Accessing Data – It is not easy to retrieve information using a conventional file processing system. Convenient and efficient information retrieval is almost impossible using a conventional file processing system.

4. Data Isolation – Data are scattered in various files, and the files may be in different formats, writing a new application program to retrieve data is difficult.

5. Integrity Problems – The data values may need to satisfy some integrity constraints. For example, the balance field Value must be greater than 5000. We have to handle this through program code in file processing systems. But in the database, we can declare the integrity constraints along with the definition itself.

6. Atomicity Problem – It is difficult to ensure atomicity in the file processing system. For example, transferring $100 from Account A to account B. If a failure occurs during execution there could be a situation like $100 is deducted from Account A and not credited in Account B.

7. Concurrent Access anomalies – If multiple users are updating the same data simultaneously it will result in an inconsistent data state. In a file processing system, it is very difficult to handle this using program code. This results in concurrent access anomalies.

8. Security Problems – Enforcing Security Constraints in the file processing system is very difficult as the application programs are added to the system in an ad-hoc manner.

9. Observations and Conclusions – Data Redundancy may lead to Data inconsistency if redundant data are not updated simultaneously. Data inconsistency leads the system into an inconsistent state since the operations based on inconsistent data results in more inconsistency.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 3.
What do you mean by DBMS? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS.
Answer:
A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.
The DBMS has a number of advantages as compared to the traditional computer file processing approach. The DBA must keep in mind these benefits or capabilities during designing databases, coordinating and monitoring the DBMS.

The major advantages of DBMS are described below :

  • Controlling Data Redundancy
  • Data Consistency
  • Data Sharing
  • Data Integration
  • Integrity Constraints

Disadvantages of Database Management System (DBMS):
Although there are many advantages the DBMS may also have some minor disadvantages. These are :

  • Cost of Hardware & Software
  • Cost of Data Conversion
  • Cost of Staff Training
  • Appointing Technical Staff

Question 4.
What is an entity? Write the types of entities in DBMS.
Answer:
An entity can be a real-world object, either animate or inanimate, that can be easily identifiable. For example, in a school database, students, teachers, classes, and courses offered can be considered entities. All these entities have some attributes or properties that give them their identity. An entity set is a collection of similar types of entities. An entity set may contain entities with attributes sharing similar values. For example, a Student set may contain all the students of a school; likewise, a Teachers’ set may contain all the teachers of a school from all faculties. Entity sets need not be disjoint.

The Entity-Relationship (ER) model consists of different types of entities. The existence of an entity may depend on the existence of one or more other entities, such an entity is said to be existence dependent. Entities whose existence not depending on any other entities are termed as not existence dependent. Entities based on their characteristics are classified as follows.

  • Strong Entities
  • Weak Entities
  • Recursive Entities
  • Composite Entities

Strong Entity Vs Weak Entity
An entity set that has a primary key is termed a strong entity set. An entity set that does not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key is termed a weak entity set. A weak entity is existence-dependent. That is the existence of a weak entity depends on the existence of an identifying entity set. The discriminator (or partial key) is used to identify other attributes of a weak entity set. The primary key of a weak entity set is formed by the primary key of identifying the entity set and the discriminator of the weak entity set. The existence of a weak entity is indicated by a double rectangle in the ER diagram. We underline the discriminator of a weak entity set with a dashed line in the ER diagram.

Recursive Entity
A recursive entity is one in which a relationship can exist between occurrences of the same entity set. This occurs in a unary relationship.

Composite Entities
If Many too Many relationships exist we must create* a bridge entity to convert it into 1 to Many. Bridge entity composed of the primary keys of each of the entities to be connected. The bridging entity is known as a composite entity.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 5.
What do you mean by data models? Write the parts of it.
Answer:
Data Models are fundamental entities to introduce abstraction in a DBMS. Data models define how data is connected to each other and how they are processed and stored inside the system. The very first data model could be a flat data model, where all the data used are to be kept in the same plane A data model organizes data elements and standardizes how the data elements relate to one another. Since data elements document real-life people, places, and things and the events between them, the data model represents reality, for example, a house has many windows or a cat has two eyes. Computers are used for the accounting of these real-life things and events and therefore the data model is a necessary standard to ensure exact communication between human beings.

A data model consists of two parts as shown in the figure:

DDL – Data definition language
DML – Data manipulation language
i.e. Data Model = DDL + DML
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS Img 1

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Introduction to DBMS Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………….. is a set of one or more attributes taken collectively to uniquely identify a record.
Answer:
Super Key

2. ……………….. attribute can be taken as a primary key.
Answer:
Id

3. A ………………… is a property of the entire relation, rather than of the individual tuples in which each tuple is unique.
Answer:
Key

4. …………………… cannot be taken as a primary key?
Answer:
Street.

True or False

1. Processed data is called information.
Answer:
True

2. Database is secure and reliable.
Answer:
True

3. DBA has no responsibility to manage DBMS.
Answer:
False

4. Related data items are called records.
Answer:
True

5. Collection of related data items is called a file.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

6. Meaningful data is called information.
Answer:
False

7. Ordering meaningful data is called a database.
Answer:
True

8. Meaningful data items are called files.
Answer:
False

9. Collection of related records is called data.
Answer:
False

10. DBA controls database system
Answer:
True

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define Database.
Answer:
A prearranged collection of figures known as data is called a database.

Question 2.
What is DBMS?
Answer:
Database Management Systems (DBMS) are applications designed especially which enable user interaction with other applications.

Question 3.
What are the various kinds of interactions catered by DBMS?
Answer:
The various kind of interactions catered by DBMS are :

  • Data definition
  • Update
  • Retrieval
  • Administration

Question 4.
Segregate database technology’s development.
Answer:
The development of database technology is divided into :

  • Structure or data model
  • Navigational model
  • SQL/ relational model

Question 5.
Who proposed the relational model?
Answer:
Edgar F. Codd proposed the relational model in 1970.

Question 6.
What are the features of Database language?
Answer:
A database language may also incorporate features like DBMS-specific Configuration and management of storage engine Computations to modification of query results by computations, like summing, counting, averaging, grouping, sorting, and cross-referencing Constraint enforcement Application Programming Interface.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 7.
What do database languages do?
Answer:
As special-purpose languages, they have :

  • Data definition language
  • Data manipulation language
  • Query language

Question 8.
Define database model.
Answer:
A data model determining fundamentally how data can be stored, manipulated, and organized and the structure of the database logically is called a database model.

Question 9.
What is SQL?
Answer:
Structured Query Language (SQL) being ANSI standard language updates database and commands for accessing.

Question 10.
Enlist the various relationships of the database.
Answer:
Tire various relationships of the database are :

  • One-to-one: Single table having drawn relationship with another table having similar kind of columns.
  • One-to-many: Two tables having primary and foreign key relations.
  • Many-to-many: Junction table having many tables related to many tables.

Question 11.
Define Normalization.
Answer:
Organized data void of inconsistent dependency and redundancy within a database is called normalization.

Question 12.
Enlist the advantages of normalizing the database.
Answer:
Advantages of the normalizing database are :

  • No duplicate entries
  • Saves storage space
  • Boasts the query performances.

Question 13.
Define Denormalization.
Answer:
Boosting up database performance, adding redundant data which in turn helps rid of complex data is called denormalization.

Question 14.
Define DDL and DML.
Answer:
Managing properties and attributes of a database are called Data Definition Language (DD L). Manipulating data in a database such as inserting, updating, deleting is defined as Data Manipulation Language. (DML)

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 15.
Define Object-oriented model.
Answer:
Compilations of objects make up this model in which values are stored within instance variables that are inside the object. The object itself comprises bodies of objects for its operation which are called methods. Objects containing the same kind of variables and methods are called classes.

Question 16.
Define Entity.
Answer:
It can be defined as being a ‘thing’ with an independent existence in the real world. –

Question 17.
What do you mean by Entity type?
Answer:
A set of entries having similar attributes are entity types.

Question 18.
Define Entity Set.
Answer:
Compilation of all entries of any particular type of entry in the database is called Entity Set.

Question 19.
What do you mean by Entity type extension?
Answer:
Compilation of similar entity types into one particular type which is grouped together as an entity set.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Enlist the disadvantages of the query.
Answer:
The disadvantages of the query are :

  • No indexes
  • Stored procedures are excessively compiled.
  • Triggers and procedures are without SET NOCOUNT ON.
  • Complicated joins making up inadequately written queries.
  • Cursors and temporary tables showcase a bad presentation.

Question 2.
What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?
Answer:
The first normal form or INF is the first and the simplest type of normalization that can be implemented in a database. The main aims of INF are to :

  • 1. Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.
  • 2. Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column (the primary key).

Question 3.
What is Data?
Answer:
Data is a plural of datum, which is originally a Latin noun meaning “something given.” Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning “facts or pieces of information” and as a singular mass noun meaning “information”. In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. Relative to today’s computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 4.
Define Database.
Answer:
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses.

Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Typically, a database manager provides users the capabilities of controlling read/ write access, specifying report generation, and analyzing usage.

Question 5.
What is DBMS (Database Management System)?
Answer:
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows organizations to place control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of an integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.

Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, users can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also provides the ability to logically present database information to users.

Question 6.
What is the need for DBMS?
Answer:
A database management system (DBMS) can help address the employee count scenario and a range of even more complex situations related to cost, order status, or inventory management by presenting the same data to everyone in the business at the same time. A DBMS also eliminates the frustrating hunt for the right version of the right spreadsheet on a vast and disorganized network drive.

  1. As businesses grow, the volume of data they accumulate grows exponentially. Managing this data deluge becomes increasingly difficult just at the moment when superior data management becomes more important to business success.
  2. As businesses expand, more sophisticated tools are needed to manage data. Tools that serve start-ups well are overwhelmed by the demands faced by larger businesses,
  3. A database management system (DBMS) is a powerful tool used to store data, secure it, protect it and make it quickly available to people who need it.
  4. A DBMS enables a business to squeeze more value from the data it collects for improved decision-making.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 7.
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of DBMS?
Answer:
The advantages and disadvantages of DBMS are as follows :

Advantages :

  • Reduced data redundancy
  • Reduced updating errors and increased consistency
  • Greater data integrity and independence from applications programs
  • Improved data access to users through the use of host and query languages
  • Improved data security
  • Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs
  • Facilitated development of new applications program

Disadvantages :

  • Database systems are complex, difficult, and time-consuming to design
  • Substantial hardware and software start-up costs
  • Damage to database affects virtually all applications programs
  • Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system
  • Initial training is required for all programmers and users.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

PSEB 9th Class Computer Science Chapter 3 Networking

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Networking Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………………………. is a group of two or more computers.
(a) Network
(b) Internet
(c) Wireless
(d) Topology
Answer:
(a) Network

2. ………………………………. is the normal computer system that is connected to the network for sharing of resources.
(a) Server
(b) Client/Node
(c) LAN
(d) WAN.
Answer:
(b) Client/Node

3. …………………………. is a device that allows you to connect multiple computers to a single network device
(a) HUB
(b) BUS
(c) Ring
(d) Star.
Answer:
(a) HUB

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

4. In ………………………… network, a single cable is shared by all the devices and data travel only in one direction.
(a) Single Ring
(b) Dual ring
(c) MAN
(d) LAN.
Answer:
(a) Single Ring

5. ………………………… prepares information and sends it.
(a) Protocol
(b) Receiver
(c) Sender
(d) Hub.
Answer:
(c) Sender

2. True/False

1. LAN covers a large geographic area.
Answer:
False

2. In full-duplex, information can move in both directions.
Answer:
True

3. Protocols are rules under which data transmission takes place.
Answer:
True

4. The network does not provide security to us.
Answer:
False

5. The efficiency of the network is increased with the increase of computers.
Answer:
False.

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name any four Network topologies.
Answer:
The main types of Network Topologies are as under:

  1. Bus topology
  2. Ring topology
  3. Star topology
  4. Tree topology
  5. Mesh
  6. Hybrid topology

Question 2.
Define the computer that is used for networking.
Answer:
A computer network is an interconnected collection of a group of two or more autonomous computers that are linked together to share information and resources. Here autonomous means, there is no master and slave relationship and all computers are equal and free to act independently. The computer network enables to share the resources. Basically, the computer network is a collection of computers, printers, and other equipment, which are connected together so that they can communicate with each other. The components in a network system are normally connected together through a cable, however, the connection may be wireless.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Question 3.
Write a short note on Routers.
Answer:
A Router is a* network device that typically operates at the network layer of the OSI model. A Router performs its job by examining the network layer data packet (Ethernet Frame) and forwarding the packet to other devices based on IP Addresses. Both switches and bridges function using the addressing system, also known as MAC addresses. Each port of a network switch is in a separate collision domain and therefore Switches are used to divide a big collision domain into multiple smaller collision domains

Question 4.
Write a note on Hub.
Answer:
Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers. Hubs were the common network infrastructure devices used for Local Area Network (LAN) connectivity. Hubs function as the central connection point for Local Area Network (LAN). Hubs are designed to work with Twisted pair cabling and normally use an RJ45 jack to connect the devices. Network devices (Servers, Workstations, Printers, Scanners, etc) are attached to the hub by individual network cables. Hubs usually come in different shapes and different numbers of ports.

Question 5.
What are the two types of ring topologies?
Answer:
In a ring topology, all computers are connected via a cable that loops in a ring or circle. A ring topology is a circle that has no start and no end and terminators are not necessary for a ring topology. Signals travel in one direction on a ring while they pass from one computer to the next, with each computer regenerating the signal so that it may travel the distance required.

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Network? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the network.
Answer:
Computer networking is the practice of interfacing two or more computing devices with each other for the purpose of sharing data. Computer networks are built with a combination of hardware and software components.

Advantages of Network :

  1. File Sharing. The major advantage of a computer network is that it allows file sharing and remote file access.
  2. Resource Sharing. Resource sharing is another important benefit of a computer network.
  3. Inexpensive Set-Up. Shared resources mean a reduction in hardware costs. Shared files mean a reduction in memory requirement, which indirectly means a reduction in file storage expenses.

Disadvantages of Network :

  1. Security Difficulties. Since there is already a huge number of people who are using computer networking in sharing some of their files and resources, your security would be always at risk.
  2. Presence of Computer Viruses and Other Malware. There are instances that the stored file you have in your gadget is already destroyed because there are already viruses that corrupt your file.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Question 2.
Write information about the parts of computer networks.
Answer:
A Data Communication system has the following components :

  1. Message: It is the information or data to be communicated. It can consist of text, numbers, pictures, sound or video, or any combination of these.
  2. Sender: It is the device/computer that generates and sends that message.
  3. Receiver: It is the device or computer that receives the message. The location of the receiver computer is generally different from the sender’s computer. The distance between sender and receiver depends upon the types of networks used in between.
  4. Medium: It is the channel or physical path through which the message is carried from the sender to the receiver. The medium can be wired like twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, or wireless like a laser, radio waves, and microwaves.
  5. Protocol: It is a set of rules that govern the communication between the devices. Both sender and receiver follow the same protocols to communicate with each other.

Question 3.
Write about the types of networks.
Answer:
Ahead are the types of computer networks :

Local Area Network (LAN)
This is one of the original categories of network, and one of the simplest. LAN networks connect computers together over relatively small distances, such as within a single building or within a small group of buildings.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Img 1

Wide Area Network (WAN)
This is another of the original categories of network, and slightly more complex in nature. WAN networks connect computers together over large physical distances, remotely connecting them over one huge network and allowing them to communicate even when far apart. The Internet is a WAN and connects computers all around the world together.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Img 2

Metropolitan Area Network
This is a network that is larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN and incorporates elements of both. It typically spans a town or city and is owned by a single person or company, such as a local council or a large company.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Question 4.
What are the methods of data transmission?
Answer:
The way in which data is transmitted from one place to another is called data transmission mode. It is also called the data communication mode. It indicates the direction of the flow of information. Sometimes, data transmission modes are also called directional modes.

Types of Data Transmission Modes
Different types of data transmission modes are as follows :

  1. Simplex mode
  2. Half-duplex mode
  3. Full-duplex mode

1. Simplex Mode. In simplex mode, data can flow in only one direction. In this mode, a sender can only send data and cannot receive it. Similarly, a receiver can only receive data but cannot send it. Data sent from computer to printer is an example of simplex mode.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Img 3

2. Half-Duplex Mode. In half-duplex mode, data can flow in both directions but only in one direction at a time. In this mode, data is sent and received alternatively. It is like a one-lane bridge where two-way traffic must give way in order to cross the other.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Img 4

3. Full-Duplex Mode. In full-duplex mode, data can flow in both directions at the same time. It is the fastest directional mode of data communication. The telephone communication system is an example of a full-duplex communication mode. Two persons can talk at the same time. Another example of the fully-duplex mode in daily life is automobile traffic on a two-lane road. The traffic can move in both directions at the same time.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Img 5

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Networking Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks

1. Process of error for data communication is called …………………………………..
(a) Delivery
(b) Accuracy
(c) Protection
(d) Protocol.
Answer:
(b) Accuracy

2. …………………………. receive information.
(a) Sender
(b) Receiver
(c) Protocol
(d) Medium.
Answer:
(b) Receiver

3. Graphical representation of Network devices is called.
(a) Topology
(b) Network
(c) Ring
(d) Cable.
Answer:
(a) Topology

4. …………………. Topology uses common wire.
(a) Ring
(b) Star
(c) Bus
(d) Tree.
Answer:
(c) Bus

True or False

1. A node is a workstation that is connected to a computer.
Answer:
True

2. MAN is a network that spreads in a city.
Answer:
True

3. Data transfer rate is in Giga Bytes per second.
Answer:
False

4. NIC connects servers and workstations.
Answer:
True

5. URL means Uniform resource locator in the network.
Answer:
True

6. 1 GBPS = 1,000,000,00
Answer:
False

7. Air has an unguided transmission medium.
Answer:
True

8. A hub helps you to connect to a network.
Answer:
True

9. Bandwidth is the capacity to transfer signals.
Answer:
True

10. Available copy of a file can be used in a computer network, in case of availability of multiple copies.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define Network.
Answer:
A network is a set of devices connected by physical media links. A network is recursively is a connection of two or more nodes by a physical link or two or more networks connected by one or more nodes.

Question 2.
What is a LAN?
Answer:
LAN is short for Local Area Network. It refers to the connection between computers and other network devices that are located within a small physical location.

Question 3.
What is a node?
Answer:
A node refers to a point or joint where a connection takes place. It can be a computer or device that is part of a network. Two or more nodes are needed in order to form a network connection.

Question 4.
Describe Network Topology.
Answer:
Network Topology refers to the layout of a computer network. It shows how devices and cables are physically laid out, as well as how they connect to one another.

Question 5.
How does a network topology affect your decision in setting up a network?
Answer:
Network topology dictates what media you must use to interconnect defaces. It also serves as the basis on what materials, connector, and terminations that is applicable for the setup.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Question 6.
What is WAN?
Answer:
WAN stands for Wide Area Network. It is an interconnection of computers and devices that are geographically dispersed. It connects networks that are located in different regions and countries.

Question 7.
Define star topology.
Answer:
Star topology consists of a central hub that connects to nodes. This is one of the easiest to set up and maintain.

Question 8.
What advantages does fiber optics have over other media?
Answer:
One major advantage of fiber optics is that is it less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be transmitted and received. Signal degrading is also very minimal over long distances.

Question 9.
What is the difference between a hub and a switch?
Answer:
A hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it would not be able to efficiently manage the volume of traffic that passes through it. A switch provides a better alternative that can improve the performance especially when high traffic volume is expected across all ports.

Question 10.
Define networking.
Answer:
Networking refers to the interconnection between computers and peripherals for data communication. Networking can be done using wired cabling or through wireless links.

Question 11.
What is mesh topology?
Answer:
Mesh topology is a setup wherein each device is connected directly to every other device on the network. Consequently, it requires that each device have at least two network connections.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 3 Networking

Question 12.
What is the difference between logical and physical topology?
Answer:
Logical topology: The logical topology defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. It is used to describe the arrangement of devices on a network and how they communicate with one another. It is also referred to as Signal Topology.

Physical topology: The physical topology defines the actual layout of the wire i.e. media. It is concerned with the physical layout of the network; how the cables are arranged; and how the computers are connected. The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is physical, and wireless media used in networking?
Answer:
Physical media:

  • Twisted pair cable – consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around each other
  • Coaxial cable – consists of an insulated center wire grounded by a shield of braided wire Fiber optic cable – contains hundreds of clear fiberglass or plastic fibers
  • ISDN line – a special digital telephone line that transmits and receives information at very high speeds

Wireless media:

  • Microwave system – transmits data via high-frequency radio signals through the atmosphere
  • Satellite system – receive signals from the earth, amplify them, and then transmit back these signals to the appropriate locations on the earth.
  • Cellular technology – uses antennae resembling telephone towers to pick up radio signals within a specific area.

Question 2.
What are the various disadvantages of networking?
Answer:
Disadvantages of computer networks :
Computer networks are very helpful when it comes to sharing resources and saving time and money but this technology has some disadvantages too. The most common disadvantages of computer networks are as follows :

1. Expensive: The first and foremost disadvantage of computer networks is that they are expensive to purchase and maintain. The cabling and installation of a large-sized computer network are very costly.

2. Data Security: Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they shouldn’t have access to. The proper permissions must be issued to various users according to their nature of work. The proper password validation check must be applied for the authorization and authentication of the user.

3. Manager dependence: The complex networks require a network manager to keep it running. The major problem with networks is that their efficiency is very dependent on the skill of the network manager. A badly managed network may operate less efficiently than non-networked computers. Also, a badly run network may allow external users into it with little protection against them causing damage.

4. Vulnerable to hackers and viruses: Computer networks are very vulnerable to hackers and viruses. For example, if the network is poorly implemented, improper communication may take place. This may lead to the situation in which the private or important mails can be seen by other users or hackers and this may result in loss of privacy or corrupt information system. Secondly, the virus on one system in a network can affect the whole computer network and could prove fatal for the organization.

5. Social problems: Computer networks pose social problems when people post offensive views about sensitive issues like religion, sex, and politics. The newsgroup or bulletin boards allow people«to exchange messages freely on the network. This could lead to a problem because” they are not restricted to post materials on any subject including deeply offensive views regarding religion, caste or creed, etc.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 3 Networking Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB MS Excel Part-II Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1 …………….. contains everything inside the chart window.
(a) Data markers
(b) Axis
(c) Chart area
(d) None of these.
Answer:
Chart area

2. …………….. feature allows you to set up certain rules.
(a) Data validation
(b) Pivot Table
(c) Char
(d) None of these.
Answer:
Data validation

3. …………….. in Excel allows you to try out different scenarios.
(a) Data validation
(b) Pivot Table
(c) Chart
(d) What if analysis.
Answer:
What if analysis

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 4.
We can …………….. the worksheet window into separate panes.
(a) Hide
(b) Split
(c) Arrange
(d) None of these.
Answer:
Split

Questions 5.
By using …………….. you can keep rows or columns visible while scrolling.
(a) Hide
(b) Split
(c) Freeze Panes
(d) None of these.
Answer:
Freeze Panes

Question 6.
…………….. is a set of commands grouped together that you can run.
(a) Goal seek
(b) Macro
(c) What if analysis
(d) None of these.
Answer:
Macro

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a Chart in MS Excel?
Answer:
Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. To create a chart in Excel, you start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. Then you can plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Insert tab, in the Charts group.

Question 2.
Write down types of Charts in MS Excel.
Answer:
The list of charts in MS Excel

  • Column charts
  • Line charts
  • Pie charts
  • Bar charts
  • Area charts
  • XY (scatter) charts
  • Stock charts
  • Surface charts
  • Doughnut charts
  • Bubble charts
  • Radar charts

Question 3.
What is a Pivot Table?
Answer:
Pivot tables are one of Excel’s most powerful features. A pivot table allows you to extract the significance from a large, detailed data set. An Excel pivot table can summarize the data in the above spreadsheet, to show the number entries or the sums of the values in any data column. For example, the pivot table on the right shows the total sum of all sales, for each of the four salespeople, for the first quarter of 2016.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 4.
What is Data Tools?
Answer:
In Microsoft Excel Data Tools are simply tools that make it easy to manipulate data. Some of them are used to save your time by extracting or joining data and others perform complex calculations on data.

Question 5.
Define What-if analysis?
Answer:
What-if analysis is the process of changing the values in cells to see how those changes will affect the outcome of formulas on the worksheet.
Three kinds of what-if analysis tools come with Excel: scenarios, data tables, and Goal Seek. Scenarios and data tables take sets of input values and determine possible results. A data table works only with one or two variables, but it can accept many- different values for those variables. A scenario can have multiple variables, but it can accommodate only up to 32 values. Goal Seek works differently from scenarios and data tables in that it takes a result and determines possible input values that produce that result.

Question 6.
What is Goal Seek?
Answer:
The goal seeks function, part of Excel’s what-if analysis toolset, allows the user to use the desired result of a formula to find the possible input value necessary to achieve that result. Other commands in the what-if analysis toolset are the scenario manager and the ability to create data tables. This guide will focus on the goal seek command.

Question 7.
What is Macro?
Answer:
It allows you to perform multiple operations just by clicking a simple button or changing a cell value or opening a workbook etc. It enables you to work in a smart and efficient way. In terms of productivity, it is very productive as it reduces lots of manual work and gets things done very fast.

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a Chart? Write down the steps to create a chart in MS Excel.
Answer:
A simple chart in Excel can say more than a sheet full of numbers.
The followings are the steps to create charts in MS Excel

  • Click the Insert tab.
  • Click the chart type from the Charts section of the ribbon. The sub-type menu displays.
  • Click the desired chart sub-type. The chart appears on the worksheet.
  • If you want to create a second chart, click somewhere in the worksheet to “deselect” the current chart first, or the new chart will replace the current chart.

Question 2.
Write down the Elements of a Chart.
Answer:
Basic Elements of Excel Charts
The above chart is the basic charts in Excel, We can customize the charts by dealing with different Chart Element Objects and their properties. In this session we will focus on different elements of charts objects: Here is an examples Column Chart for the same data shown above :
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II Img 1

And here I have marked the basic chart elements in Excel each element with different clor for understanding purpose. Most of the time we generally deal with Chart Area, Plot Area, Chart Title, Legends, X-Axis, Y-Axis, Data Labels Data Series, and Gridlines. Here is the pictorial representation of Chart Elements or Chart Objects in Excel:
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II Img 2

Now will see each element of the Excel Chart in detail :

Chart Area
Chart area in Excel Charts is the largest element (portion) of the Chart. We can format the Chart Area and change its border and background colors to make the charts look more cleaner. Legends, Chart Titles, and Plot Areas are the three major child elements of Chart Area. Generally, we do not change the background color of the charts to make them look more professional. Charts look more cleaner with white or default background color. However, we can change the background color to suit the other parts of the excel sheets to make them consistent.

Basic Elements of Excel Charts – Plot Area
Plot Area is the second-largest element (portion) in Excel Charts. It covers the actual chart data area. We can access the Plot Area and Format it to suit our needs. It is the same as Chart Area, if your project needs different background color then we change it. Otherwise default background color (white) looks more cleaner.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 3.
What is Convert Text to Columns? Write down the steps to convert Text to columns.
Answer:
Sometimes we need to separate the contents of one Excel cell into separate columns. For this, you can use the ‘Convert Text to Columns Wizard’.

  1. Open the worksheet that contains the text you would like to convert to columns.
  2. Select the cells that you would like to convert.
  3. On the Data tab, click Text to Columns in the Data Tools group.
  4. Choose the format of your current data. Select Delimited if the text contains a character such as a comma, tab, space, or semi-colon to separate the various fields. Otherwise, select Fixed Width if there are a certain number of spaces between each field.
  5. A preview of the data in columns appears below, according to the delimiter selected. Click Next.
  6. You now need to choose the format for each of the columns. Select the column heading in the Data preview and then select a data type from the column data format options.
  7. A preview of your selected data appears below. Click Next.
  8. Select the type of character that separates the various fields. You can select as many as are applicable. If you would like to include your own characters that aren’t listed, select the Other checkbox and enter the specific character in the field provided.
  9. Once you have selected the data type for each column, click Finish.
  10. Your text will now appear in several columns, depending on the number of delimiters in the original list.

Question 4.
What is Data Validation? How to create a Data Validation Rule?
Answer:
Data validation allows you to control exactly what a user can enter into a cell. In our example, we can use data validation to ensure that the user chooses one of the three possible shipping options. To make things even easier, we can insert a drop-down list of the possible options. This kind of data validation allows you to build a powerful, fool-proof spreadsheet. Since users won’t have to type in data manually, the spreadsheet will be faster to use, and there’s a much lower chance that someone can introduce an error.

Data validation in Excel
Since we already have a list of shipping options in the Shipping worksheet, we’re going to tell Excel to use the data in that list to control which values a user can select. But before we do this, we actually need to name the cell range first. Naming cell ranges is one way to keep track of important cell ranges in your spreadsheet.
To create a data validation drop-down list:
Select the cell where you want the drop-down list to appear. In our example, that’s cell E6 on the Invoice worksheet.

  1. On the Data tab, click the Data Validation command.
  2. A dialog box will appear. In the Allow: field, select List.
  3. In the Source: field, type the equals sign (=) and the name of your range, and then click OK. In our example, we’ll type =ShipRange.
  4. A drop-down arrow will appear next to the selected cell. Click the arrow to select the desired option. In our example, we’ll select Standard. Alternatively, you can type the shipping option, but Excel will only accept it if it is spelled correctly.
  5. The selected value will appear in the cell. Now that we’re searching for the exact name of a shipping option, our VLOOKUP function is working correctly again.

Question 5.
What is Protection? Write down the steps to protect a Worksheet.
Answer:
To prevent a user from accidentally or deliberately changing, moving, or deleting important data from a worksheet or workbook, you can protect Certain worksheet or workbook elements, with or without a password. You can remove the protection from a worksheet as needed.
Protect worksheet elements

1. Select the worksheet that you want to protect.
2. To unlock any cells or ranges that you want other users to be able to change, do the following:

  • Select each cell or range that you want to unlock.
  • On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then click Format Cells.
  • On the Protection tab, clear the Locked check box, and then click OK.

3. To hide any formulas that you do not want to be visible, do the following:

  • In the worksheet, select the cells that contain the formulas that you want to hide.
  • On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then click Format Cells.
  • On the Protection tab, select the Hidden check box, and then click OK.

4. To unlock any graphic objects (such as pictures, clip art, shapes, or Smart Art graphics) that you want users to be able to change, do the following:

  • Hold down CTRL and then click each graphic object that you want to unlock. This displays the Picture Tools or Drawing Tools, adding the Format tab.

5. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Protect Sheet.
6. In the Allow all users of this worksheet to list, select the elements that you want users to be able to change.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 6.
What is Split Worksheet? Write down the steps to split a worksheet.
Answer:
Split your worksheet to view multiple distant parts of your worksheet at once. To split your worksheet (window) into upper and lower parts (pane), execute the following steps.

  1. Click the split box above the vertical scroll bar.
  2. Drag it down to split your window.
  3. Notice the two vertical scroll bars. For example, use the lower vertical scroll bar to move to row 49. As you can see, the first 6 rows remain visible.
  4. To remove the split, double click the horizontal split bar that divides the panes (or drag it up),

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide MS Excel Part-II Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the Blanks

1. …………….. means to stabilize an object.
(a) Hide
(b) View
(c) Freeze
(d) Pivot
Answer:
(c) Freeze

2. …………….. is a sequence of commands.
(a) Pivot
(b) Macro
(c) Tree
(d) Record.
Answer:
(b) Macro

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do I put the password to protect my entire Spreadsheet so data cannot be changed?
Answer:
Perform the followings steps :
1. Click Tools 2. Scroll down to Protection, then Protect Sheet 3. Enter a password, Click OK 4. Re-enter password, Click OK

Question 2.
What is the shortcut to put the filter on data in Microsoft Excel 2013?
Answer:
Ctrl+Shift+L is the shortcut key to s it the filter in data.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 3.
What are Freeze Panes and how do I do it?
Answer:
The followings are the steps to perform:
1. Row – Select the row below where you want the split to appear 2. Column – Select the column to the right of where you want the split to appear 3. Go to the Menu Bar 4. Click Windows and then click Freeze Panes.

Question 4.
How do I combine different chart types into my Excel spreadsheet?
Answer:
To combine chart types, follow these steps: 1. If the Chart toolbar isn’t already displayed, right-click any Toolbar and select Chart. 2. On the chart, click the series you want to change. 3. On the Chart toolbar, click the arrow next to the Chart Type button and then select the new chart type for the series (in our example, a line chart).

Question 5.
What is the Ribbon?
Answer:
The ribbon is an area that runs along the top of the application that contains menu items and toolbars available in Excel. The ribbon has various tabs that contain groups of commands for use in the application. The ribbon can be minimized or maximized by pressing CNTRL FI.

Question 6.
What is a Macro in Excel and how would you create an Excel Macro?
Answer:
Excel Macros as sets of instructions that a user records for repetition purposes. Users create macros for repetitive instructions and functions they perform on a regular, basis. To record an Excel macro, you need to select record macro from the developer’s tab and then record the instructions used in the worksheet. Macros can be triggered via a keyboard shortcut.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 7.
What is Chart in MS-Excel? Why is it important to you an appropriate chart?
Answer:
The chart is a medium to present the data in graphical visualization, and it is the most important insight of the data. To present the data with perfect visualization and appropriate information, we should always pre-decide on the information to be presented.

As appropriate charts lead to the right decision, it’s necessary to use relevant charts. Refer to the below process chart for appropriate charts :
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II Img 3

Question 8.
What is a Dashboard and what are the important things we should keep in mind while creating a dashboard?
Answer:
The dashboard is a technique used to present important information through graphical representation. It is helpful in presenting huge data on a single computer screen so it can be monitored with a glance. There are few things that should be taken care of while preparing the dashboards:

  1. Minimum distraction
  2. Simple, easy to communicate
  3. Important data
  4. Few Colors
  5. Relevant graphs
  6. The dashboard should be on a single computer screen.

Question 9.
How can you format a cell? What are the options?
Answer:
We can format a cell by using the “Format Cells” option and there are 6 options :

  1. Number
  2. Alignment
  3. Font
  4. Border
  5. Fill
  6. Protection

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Is it possible to make Pivot Table using multiple sources of data? How?
Answer:
Yes, this is possible by using the data modeling technique.
Start with collecting data from various sources :

  • Import from a relational database, like Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, or Microsoft Access. You can import multiple tables at the same time.
  • Import multiple tables from other data sources including text files, data feeds, Excel worksheet data, and more. You can add these tables to the Data Model in Excel, create relationships between them, and then use the Data Model to create your Pivot Table.

Question 2.
How to use Data Modeling for creating Pivot Table?
Answer:
After creating relationships between tables, make use of the data for analysis.

  • Click any cell on the worksheet
  • Click Insert > Pivot Table
  • In the Create PivotTable dialog box, under Choose the data that you want to analyze, click Use an external data source
  • Click Choose Connection.
  • On the Tables tab, in This Workbook Data Model, select Tables in Workbook Data Model.
  • Click Open, and then click OK to show a Field List containing all the tables in the Data Model.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II

Question 3.
What is the IF function in Microsoft Excel?
Answer:
‘If function’ is one of the logical functions in Excel. We use this function to check the logical condition and specify the value whether it’s true or false. ‘If function’ has three arguments but only the first argument is mandatory and the other two are optional.

Question 4.
How can we merge multiple cells’ text strings in a cell?
Answer:
We can merge multiple cells text strings by using the Concatenate function and “&” function.
Example: We have three names: First Name, Middle name, Last name in 3 columns. To merge the names and make it a full name, follow the steps below :
Concatenate Function

  • Enter the formula in cell D2
  • =CONCATENATE(A2,” “,B2,” “,C2)

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 2 MS Excel Part-II Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB MS Excel Part-I Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. An Excel Workbook consists of ………………………
(a) Worksheets
(b) Rows
(c) Columns
(d) Formulas
Answer:
Worksheets

2. The actual value of a cell is displayed in …………………….. bar.
(a) Title
(b) Menu
(c) Formula
(d) None of these
Answer:
Formula

3. …………………….. Formatting applies one or more rules to any cells you want.
(a) Formula
(b) Function
(c) Conditional
(d) None of these
Answer:
Conditional

4. Format Command is available on ………………… Tab.
(a) Home
(b) Insert
(c) Data
(d) Formulas
Answer:
Home

5. All Formulas must begin with an ………………………… sign.
(a) Sigma
(b) Plus
(c) Equal
(d) None of these
Answer:
Equal

6. A data in your worksheet can be arranged in an order using ………………………
(a) Formula
(b) Function
(c) Filter
(d) Sorting
Answer:
Sorting

7. Sort & Filter command is available on ……………………Tab.
(a) Home
(b) Insert
(c) Data
(d) Formulas
Answer:
Data

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

2. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Formatting?
Answer:
Formats are changes that are made to Excel worksheets in order to enhance their appearance and/or to focus attention on specific data in the worksheet. Formatting changes the appearance of data but does not change the actual data in the cell, which can be important if that data is used in calculations. For example, formatting numbers to display only two decimal places does not shorten or round values with more than two decimal places. To actually alter the numbers in this way, the data would need to be rounded using one of Excel’s rounding functions.

Question 2.
Define Number Format in Excel.
Answer:
By applying different number formats, you can change the appearance of a number without changing the number itself. A number format does not affect the actual cell value that Excel uses to perform calculations. The actual value is displayed in the formula bar. By applying different number formats, you can display numbers as percentages, dates, currency, and so on.

Question 3.
What are the standard operators used in simple formulas?
Answer:
Excel uses standard operators for formulas, such as a plus sign for addition (+), a minus sign for subtraction (-), an asterisk for multiplication (*), a forward slash for division (/), and a caret (Λ) for exponents.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 1
All formulas in Excel must begin with an equals sign (=). This is because the cell contains, or is equal to, the formula and the value it calculates.

Question 4.
What is a cell reference?
Answer:
A cell reference refers to a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and can be used in a formula so that Microsoft Office Excel can find the values or data that you want that formula to calculate.
In one or several formulas, you can use a cell reference to refer to :

  • Data from one cell on the worksheet.
  • Data is contained in different areas of a worksheet.
  • Data in cells on other worksheets in the same workbook.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Question 5.
What are the parts of a Function?
Answer:
The order in which you insert a function is important. Each function has a specific order—called syntax — which must be followed in order for the function to work correctly. The basic syntax to create a formula with a function is to insert an equals sign (=), function name (SUM, for example, is the function name for addition), and argument. Arguments contain the information you want the formula to calculate, such as a range of cell references.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 2

Question 6.
Define Sorting.
Answer:
Sorting is a common spreadsheet task that allows you to easily reorder your data. The most common type of sorting is alphabetical ordering, which you can do in ascending or descending order.
To sort in alphabetical order :

  • Select a cell in the column you want to sort (In this example, we choose a cell in column A).
  • Click the Sort & Filter command in the Editing group on the Home tab.
  • Select Sort A fo Z. NOWT the information in the Category column is organized in alphabetical order.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 3

You can sort in reverse alphabetical order by choosing Sort Z to A in the list.

Question 7.
Define Filter.
Answer:
The basic Excel filter (also known as the Excel Autofilter) allows you to view specific rows in an Excel spreadsheet while hiding the other rows in the worksheet. When a filter is added to the header row of a spreadsheet, a drop-down menu appears on each cell of the header row. This provides you with a number of filter options that can be used to specify which rows of the spreadsheet are to be displayed.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

3. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are Merge and Centre? Write down the steps to merge a group of cells.
Answer:
If you go to the Home menu in the ribbon and look in the Alignment grouping of commands, you will see a small icon in the lower, right-hand corner called Merge and Center. This command does just what it implies. It not only merges the cells into one larger cell, but it also centers the text. Merge and Center improves the appearance of a title or header by centering the text over a particular section of the spreadsheet. If you click on the More icon to the Merge and Center command, you will see other Merge options.

  • The first one is Merge Across. This will merge multiple cells and more than one row at the same time. The text will remain left-justified.
  • Then there are Merge Cells. This will merge multiple cells on one row and will keep the text left-justified.
  • Finally, you have Unmerge Cells, which will undo the merged cells.

Let’s take a look at an example using the Merge and Center command. Imagine you are a painting contractor for residential homes. You created a spreadsheet to include several different costs for work requested by a new client. You have everything formatted nicely. The title, which includes the name of the client, the estimated number, and street address has been entered into cell Al. It would be nice if we could quickly and easily center the title across the top of the spreadsheet. Here are the steps.

  1. Highlight the cells you want to merge. (In our example, Al through FI),
  2. Go to the Home menu in the ribbon.
  3. Look in the Alignment grouping of commands.
  4. Click on Merge and Center.

Just like that, your title is centered and the cells have been merged into one larger cell. The benefit? Well, besides it looks better, you can make changes to the cells below and the title will remain centered: For instance, you can add a column (or delete one) and your title will not be affected. One important note about the Merge command: merging cells can delete data. Only the data in the upper-left cell will be kept once the cells have merged. Do not place data in every cell if you plan on merging multiple cells into one larger cell.

Question 2.
What is Conditional Formatting? Write down the steps to create a conditional formatting rule.
Answer:
Conditional formatting in Excel enables you to highlight cells with a certain color, depending on the cell’s value.
Highlight Cells Rules
To highlight cells that are greater than a value, execute the following steps.
1. Select the range A1:A10.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 4

2. On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting, Highlight Cells Rules, Greater Than…
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 5

3. Enter the value 80 and select a formatting style.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 6

4. Click OK.
Result. Excel highlights the cells that are greater than 80.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 7

5. Change the value of cell A1 to 81.
Result. Excel changes the format of cell A1 automatically.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 8

Question 3.
What is a cell? How can we insert a new cell in our current worksheet?
Answer:
A cell is an intersection between a row and a column on a spreadsheet that starts with cell Al. Below is an illustrated example of a highlighted cell in Microsoft Excel; the cell address, cell name, or cell pointer “D8” (column D, row 8) is the selected cell and the location of what is being modified.
Insert Cells into an Excel Worksheet
Having to insert extra cells to an Excel worksheet from time to time is a common practice: data gets forgotten and must be added, space must be made for new data, or existing data gets moved about when the sheet is reorganized.
Whatever the reason, there is, as is the case with all Microsoft programs, more than one way to accomplish the task of inserting cells to an Excel worksheet.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 9

Question 4.
What is a Formula? Write down the steps to create a simple Formula in Excel.
Answer:
A formula is an expression that calculates the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formulas and are already available in Excel. For example, cell A3 below contains a formula that adds the value of cell A2 to the value of cell A1.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 10

Steps to create a simple formula in MS Excel
You can create a simple formula to add, subtract, multiply or divide values in your worksheet. Simple formulas always start with an equal sign (=), followed by constants that are numeric values and calculation operators such as plus (+), minus (-), an asterisk(*), or forward-slash (/) signs.
For example, when you enter the formula =5+2*3, Excel multiplies the last two numbers and adds the first number to the result. Following the standard order of mathematical operations, multiplication is performed before addition.

  1. On the worksheet, click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
  2. Type the = (equal sign) followed by the constants and operators that you want to use in the calculation.

You can enter as many constants and operators in a formula as you need, up to 8192 characters.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Question 5.
What is a Function? Write down the steps to create a basic Function in Excel.
Answer:
In Excel, a function is a preset formula used for calculations. Like formulas, functions begin with the equal sign ( = ) followed by the function’s name and its arguments. The function name tells Excel what calculation to perform. The arguments are contained inside round brackets. For example, the most used function in Excel is the function, which is used to add together the data in selected cells.

The SUM function is written as –
= SUM (D1: D6 )
Here the function adds the contents of cell range D1 to D6 and displays the answer in cell D7.

The parts of a function :
The order in which you insert a function is important. Each function has a specific order called syntax—which must be followed in order for the function to work correctly. The basic syntax to create a formula with a function is to insert an equals sign (=), function name (SUM, for example, is the function name for addition), and argument. Arguments contain the information you want the formula to calculate, such as a range of cell references.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 11

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide MS Excel Part-I Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the Blanks

1. Format Cell window contains …………………… Labs.
(a) 5
(b) 6
(c) 7
(d) 8
Answer:
(b) 6

2. Excel has ……………………. Number formats.
(a) 6
(b) 8
(c) 10
(d) 12
Answer:
(d) 12

3. Insert/Delete dialog box has ………………. options.
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7
Answer:
(a) 4

4. Workbook contains sheets by default.
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(b) 3

5. Arranged data in ascending or descending order is called …………………
(a) Formatting
(b) Splitting
(c) Sorting
(d) Replacing
Answer:
(c) Sorting

6. Cell address used in the formula is called ……………………………………..
(a) Function
(b) Formula
(c) Address
(d) Reference
Answer:
(d) Reference

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Microsoft Excel?
Answer:
Microsoft Excel is an electronic worksheet developed by Microsoft, to be used for organizing, storing, and manipulating.

Question 2.
What is a ribbon?
Answer:
The ribbon runs on the top of the application and is the replacement for the toolbars and menus. The ribbons have various tabs on the top, and each tab has its own group of commands.

Question 3.
How can I hide or show the ribbon?
Answer:
Use the CTRL and FI key to toggle & show or hide the ribbon.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Question 4.
How can you wrap the text within a cell?
Answer:
You have to select the text you want to wrap, and then click wrap text from the home tab and you can wrap the text within a cell.
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I Img 12

Question 5.
Is it possible to prevent someone from copying the cell from your worksheet?
Answer:
Yes, it is possible. In order to protect your worksheet from getting copied, you need to go into Menu bar >Review > Protect sheet > Password. By entering the password, you can secure your worksheet from getting copied by others.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Question 6.
How you can sum up the Roi4p and Column number quickly in the excel sheet?
Answer:
By using the SUM function you can get the total sum of the rows arid columns, in an excel worksheet.

Question 7.
How you can add a new excel worksheet?
Answer:
To add a new Excel worksheet you have to insert a worksheet tab at the bottom of the screen.

Question 8.
How you can resize the column?
Answer:
To resize the column you have to change the width of one column and then drag the boundary on the right side of the column heading to the width you want. The other way of doing it is to select the Format from the home tab, and in Format, you have to select AUTOFIT COLUMN WIDTH under the cell section. On clicking on this the cell size will get formatted.

Question 9.
What are three report formats that are available in Excel?
Answer:
The three report formats in Excel are :

  • Compact
  • Report
  • Tabular

Question 10.
How would, you provide a Dynamic range in the “Data Source” of Pivot Tables?
Answer:
To provide a dynamic range in the “Data Source” of Pivot tables, first, create a named range using offset function and base the pivot table using a named range created in the first step.

Question 11.
Is it possible to make a Pivot table using multiple sources of data?
Answer:
If the multiple sources are different worksheets, from the same workbook/then it is possible to make a Pivot table using multiple sources of data.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do you create formulas in Excel?
Answer:
Create a simple formula in Excel with constants and calculation operators.
To create a simple calculation, click the cell in which you wish to enter the formula and type an equal sign. Enter the constants and operators that you wish to use in the calculation within the cell. Use the plus sign for addition, a minus sign for subtraction, the backslash for division, and the asterisk for multiplication. For instance, to add ten and ten in a cell, enter “=10+10” within the desired cell and press the Enter key.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 1 MS Excel Part-I

Question 2.
Write the various steps for inserting a single cell into a worksheet.
Ans. The first example will insert a single cell to column A in order to make room for the month of March. To do this April will be shifted downward to cell A4.

  1. Click on cell A3 to make it the active cell
  2. Right-click on cell A3 to open the right-click menu
  3. Click on Insert in the right-click menu to open the Insert cells dialog box
  4. Click on the Shift cells down option in the dialog box
  5. Click OK to add the one cell to the worksheet and to close the dialog box
  6. Cell A3 should now be blank and April should be located in cell A4
  7. Type March into cell A3

Question 3.
Write the various steps for inserting multiple cells into a worksheet.
Answer:
The second example will insert two additional cells to row two in order to make room for February and June in cells A2 and B2. In the process, October will be shifted to cell C3.

  1. Drag select cells A2 and B2 in the worksheet to highlight them
  2. Right-click on cells B2 to open the right-click menu
  3. Click on Insert in the right-click menu to open the Insert cells dialog box
  4. Click on the Shift cells right option in the dialog box
  5. Click OK to add the two cells to the worksheet and to close the dialog box
  6. Cells A2 and B2 should now be blank and October should be located in cell C3
  7. Type February into cell A2 and June into cell B2.

Question 4.
Discuss the cell reference in Excel.
Answer:
For many spreadsheets, you won’t want to go back to the original formula to change all the information you’re working with. This is where cell references come in handy. By entering a reference to another cell on the worksheet, you can tell the formula to work its calculation with whatever number is placed in that cell. The formula can then be changed quickly by trying out different numbers in the reference cell.

To reference a cell, simply enter the location of the call as designated by its column and row; for example, A1 is the cell in the top left corner of the spreadsheet. To reference a cell on another worksheet within the same workbook, type the name of the worksheet followed by an exclamation point, then the location of the cell. So Sheet !A1 would refer to the A1 cell on the worksheet titled “Sheet.” If you want to reference a range of cells, use a colon between the first and last cell of the range. The formula =SUM(A1:A12) will calculate the total sum of all the figures in the range from A1 down to A12.

Question 5.
Demonstrate the use of AutoSum in Excel.
Answer:
Using AutoSum to select common functions
The AutoSum command allows you to automatically return the results for a range of cells for common functions like SUM and AVERAGE.

  1. Select the cell where the answer will appear (E24, for example).
  2. Click the Home tab.
  3. In the Editing group, click the AutoSum drop-down arrow and select the function you want (Average, for example).

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