PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 11 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Processing of Fruits and Vegetables Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one or two words:

Question 1.
What is the place of India in world for production of fruit? and vegetables?
Answer:
India is second in the world in the production of fruits and vegetables.

Question 2.
What is the area and production of vegetables in Punjab?
Answer:
Vegetable produce is 41.11 lakhs tonnes and area under vegetables is roughly 110 thousand hectare.

Question 3.
What is the area and production of fruits in Punjab?
Answer:
Fruits produce is 15.41 lakh tonnes and area under fruits is roughly 78 thousand hectare.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 4.
Write the amount of salt to be added in lime pickle?
Answer:
20% salt.

Question 5.
Which preservative is used in tomato ketchup (chutney) and how much quantity is used?
Answer:
Sodium benzoate 700 mg in 1 kg.

Question 6.
Which preservative is used in mango squash and how much quantity is used?
Answer:
2.8 gram potassium metabisulphite in 1 kg mango pulp.

Question 7.
Which fruit is produced maximum in Punjab?
Answer:
Production of kinnow is highest among other fruits.

Question 8.
How much percentage of salt is used for dipping in preparation of Amla preserve?
Answer:
2 percent solution of simple salt.

Question 9.
How much annual production of fruits in India?
Answer:
81.285 million metric tonne.

Question 10.
How much annual production of vegetables in India?
Answer:
162.19 million metric tonne.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

(B) Answer in One to Two sentences:

Question 1.
What kind of products can be made from fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Products which can be made from fruits and vegetables are squash, jam, pickle, ketchup etc. e.g. lemon syrup, amla preserve, tomato ketchup, apple jam etc.

Question 2.
How processing of fruits and vegetables is useful for the farmers?
Answer:

  • Produce is damaged and injured during harvesting, storing, grading and transportation etc. This loss can be minimized by processing. This loss can be 30-40%.
  • One can get more income from processed products.

Question 3.
What is the difference between tomato juice and tomato ketchup (chutney)?
Answer:
Tomato juice consists of only tomato, sugar and salt and is dilute. Tomato ketchup contains onion, garlic, chilli and other spices and it is concentrated.

Question 4.
What is the importance of addition of Potassium Meta bisulphite in various food products?
Answer:
Potassium metabisulphite acts as a preservative and processed produce can be stored for a long time duration.

Question 5.
What is the temperature of drying of fruits and vegetables and why these are kept at that temperature?
Answer:
Normally these are dried at 50 to 70° C. Initially temperature is 70°C and finally at 50°C.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 6.
How much quantity of sugar is added in Amla preserve and why?
Answer:
Only one kg sugar is added to one kg of Amla. It creates sweetness and sugar also acts as preservative. Amla preserve can be stored for many months.

Question 7.
Write the recipe of tomato juice.
Answer:
Boil ripened Tomato in aluminium container. Squeeze these boiled tomatoes to get juice. Again boil the juice mixed with 0.7% salt, 4% sugar, 0.02% Sodium Benzoate and 0.1% citric acid. Fill bottles and seal these. Put these hot sealed bottles in water and then put these bottles in boiling water for 30 to 50 minutes and cool by pouring on it cold water in small quantities again and again many times. This juice is used for drinking for making soup and is also used in the preparation of vegetables.

Question 8.
Which preservative is added in lime, mango and barley lime squash/syrup and write the quantity?
Answer:

  • 3.5 gram potassium metabisulphite for 1 kg lemon in lemon syrup.
  • 2.8 gram potassium metabisulphite for 1 kg mango pulp for mango syrup.
  • 3 gram potassium metabisuphite is added in lemon/barley syrup.

Question 9.
What are the important factors for the production for fruits and vegetables in Punjab?
Answer:
Soil of Punjab is very fertile, climate in also suitable for the production of fruits and vegetables.

Question 10.
Write the types of packaging in fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Fruits and vegetables can be packed based on their softness and size in jute sacks, cardboard boxes, plastic crates, bamboo baskets, wooden boxes shrink/cling films etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

(C) Answer in Five or Six sentences:

Question 1
Give comments on production of fruits and vegetables in Punjab?
Answer:
Future of fruits and vegetables production in Punjab is very bright. One can earn for many year by one time investment in orchards. Vegetables can be harvested in very short span of time. According to WHO there is requirement of 300 gram of vegetable and 80 gram of fruits per day per person. But availability is only of fruits is 30 grams and of vegetables is 80 grams per day per person in India. Therefore, there is a need to concetrate on the cultivation of fruits and vegetables.

Question 2.
What is the importance of processing of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Produce is damaged and injured during harvesting, storing, grading and transportation etc. This loss can be minimized by processing. This loss can be 30-40%. Only 2% of the total produce is processed. Therefore to get vegetables and fruits in off-season storing and processing is 1 necessary. This occupation can be adopted at small scale or large scale.
Processed products are squashes, syrups, jam, pickles etc. One can set more income from processed products.

Question 3.
Write a note on production of fruits and vegetables in India?
Answer:
India is at second place in the production of fruits and vegetables in the world. Vegetable crop is ready for harvesting in two to three months and thus 3-4 crops can be taken. Yield is high and income is also high and is on daily basis. For the cultivation of fruits orchards are established which give fruits for many years by little care. Production of vegetables and fruits is very good in India but due to increasing population demand is not fulfilled, therefore there is a need to increase the production of vegetables and fruits.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 4.
What is the status of processing of fruits and vegetables in India?
Answer:
Food processing in India of fruits and vegetables can be done at small scale as well as at commercial level. India is second in the world in the production of vegetables and fruits. But only 2% of the total produce is processed. There is a need to concentrate on processing of fruits and vegetables at individual level as well as at government level. Farmers can earn good income at village level by adopting the business of processing. Farmers can directly make links with big companies for establishing processing units.

Question 5.
What are the reasons of fruits and vegetables spoilage?
Answer:
There can be many reasons behind the spoilage of vegetables and fruits. Produce is damaged and injured during harvesting, storing, grading and transportation etc. This loss can be minimized by processing. This loss can be 30-40%. One can get more income from processed products. Vegetables and fruits are perishable and their spoilage is easy. Some insects, birds etc. can also damage the produce, micro organisms and fungi can also damage the produce. Thus there are many reasons behind the spoilage of vegetables and fruits.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Processing of Fruits and Vegetables Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many weeks are required for mango pickle to be prepared?
Answer:
2-3 weeks.

Question 2.
Should vegetables be dried in Sun or shade?
Answer:
In Shade.

Question 3.
Write a method to preserve apples.
Answer:
Murrabba of Apple, Jam etc.

Question 4.
How much percent of the total produce is processed in India?
Answer:
Only 2%.

Question 5.
What is the function of potassium metabisulphite?
Answer:
This is a preservative.

Question 6.
In how many days lemon pickle is ready?
Answer:
2-3 weeks.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 7.
Which oil is used in mango pickle?
Answer:
Mustard oil.

Question 8.
What is the benefit of food processing?
Answer:
It helps to avoid post-harvest losses of horticultural produce.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How lemon sharbat is prepared?
Answer:
In the on season buy lemons and prepare sharbat. Sharbat can be sold at higher price and profit” can be earned. Cut and squeeze lemons to get their juice in porcelain container. Add 2 kg sugar in one litre of water and heat it so that whole of the sugar dissolves. Now sieve this sugar solution through a fine but clean mulmul cloth. On cooling add to it one litre of lemon juice and 4 gram of essence and 3.5 gram Potassium metabisulphite. Fill in bottles and seal the bottles using wax.

Question 2.
Describe the method of preparation of sharbat of sweet orange (Malta) or Mandrines (Santra).
Answer:
Take good quality of fresh fruits. Get their juice witff the help of a machine. Dissolve 2 kg of sugar and 25-30 gram of citric acid “in one litre of water and heat it. Sieve the solution through a fine and clean cloth, on cooling add to it one litre fruit juice, 2-3 gram essence and 5 gram potassium metabisulphaite. Fill bottles and seal with wax.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 3.
How is Mango sharbat prepared?
Answer:
Take well ripened juicy fruits and collect its pulp with the help of a knife. Crush the pulp and sieve through a fine cloth or using a sieve having very fine holes. Heat 1.4 kg sugar in 1.6 litre of water and sieve this solution through fine and clean cloth. When cooled add to it 1 kg of mango pulp and 20-30 gram citric acid. Also add to it 2-3 gram of potassium metabisulphaite. Fill in bottles and seal with wax.

Question 4.
How is lime and barley sharbat prepared?
Answer:
Cut lemons into two pieces and squeeze to get juice. Sieve this juice using a sieve. Add 0.3 litre of water to 15 grams of fine ground. Barley to get a paste. Heat one litre of water with 50-60 millilitre of paste, sieve it and let it cool. Dissolve 1.7 kg of sugar in remaining water and heat, sieve and cool. Mix paste, sugar solution and one litre lemon juice. Add 3.5 gram potassium metabisulphate also. Fill bottles and seal with wax.

Question 5.
How is mango pickle prepared?
Answer:
Take fully grown, hard and sour mangoes. Wash these and cut each mango into many long pieces, throw away the stones. Dry in the sunlight. Collect all the ingredients 1kg mango pieces, 250 gram salt, 30 gram Kalonji, 50 gram Methe, 25 gram red chilli, 65 gram Saunf l 30 gram turmeric. Mix mango pieces with salt and put these in a glass murtban. Add all other ingredients. Also add to it mustard oil. Oil should cover all the mangoes. Place the murtban in sun and pickle is prepared in 2-3 weeks.

Question 6.
Give method to prepare Amla pickle.
Answer:
Take 1kg fresh Amlas and soak these in water for a night. Dry by putting these on clean cloth. Cook in 100 ml of oil for five minutes, add 100 gram salt, 50 grams turmeric and cook for another 5 minutes. Allow these to cool down pickle is ready. Preserve in clean air tight container.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 7.
Give method to prepare carrot pickle.
Answer:
Wash 1kg of carrot with simple clean water. Peel these. Cut into pieces and let these to dry in sunlight. Cook these pieces in 250 gram of mustard oil for five minutes or so. Add to these cooking pieces 100 gram salt, 20 gram red chilli and remove from flame. When cooled mix 100 gram Raai powder. Pickle is prepared. Preserve in some container.

Question 8.
What do you know about the storage of produce after harvesting?
Answer:
Fruits and vegetables should be stored when in full-season. This way fruits and vegetables can be saved from damaging and on the other hand a good profit can also be earned by selling these in the off season. The fruits and vegetables are stored or preserved in the form of sharbat, pickle, Gel, Murraba, Chutney, Jam etc.

Question 9.
Write in detail the preparation method of pickle of lime.
Answer:
Take clean and ripened lemons wash them and dry with a clean cloth. Take lemon and salt in the ratio 4: 1 for one kg lime pickle. Take 7 gram of Jeera, 2 gram cloves and 20 grams of Ajwain. Make four pieces while keeping it single. Then fill each lemon at cuts with the mixture. The lemons are put in a container called murtban. And the remaining mixture is also added to this murtban. Place the container in sunlight and give jerks to container to move the lemons up and down in the container. Within 2-3 weeks pickle is prepared.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is pickle of lemon, green chilli and Ginger prepared? Answer: Wash chillies, lemons and Ginger in water. Cut two or four pieces of each lemon from 250 gram lemon, Peel off 300 gram ginger and cut into equal sized long thin pieces, give a cut in each chilli of 200 gram chillies. Mix all the three with 250 gram salt. Put in a clean container having wide opening. Squeeze the remaining 250 gram lemons to get juice, mix this juice with the already prepared mixture. Juice should cover all the mixture in the container. Air tight the container and keep in sun for a week. When colour of lemon and chilli is light brown and ginger is pinkish in colour, pickle is ready to use.

Question 2.
How is tomato chutney prepared?
Answer:
Cut ripe tomato into pieces and heat, sieve and get juice. Collect the ingredients. 1 litre of tomato juice, 15 gram of cut onions, cut 2-3 cloves of garlic, 4-5 cloves without head, black pepper 2-3 in number, two cardamom, cumin (1-2 gram), unground Jalvatri (1-2 gram), Dal chintii (broken into pieces), vinegar (40 ml), sugar (30 gram), salt (12-15 gram), red chilli (1-2 gram) or as needed.

Collect all the ingredients in a clean cloth and tie in a mulmul cloth leaving vinegar, sugar and .salt. Add half of sugar in the juice and heat over low flame and place the bundle of ingredient in the juice. Go on heating till the required concentration is not reached. This way only half of juice remains. Remove the bundle, and squeeze it to get any juice in it. Now add sugar, salt and vinegar in it. If on adding vinegar juice gets diluted, heat again. Fill bottles with hot chutney and store.

Question 3.
What do you know about drying of vegetables? Give method of drying for any four vegetables.
Answer:

  • Wash vegetables and cut into pieces.
  • Tie these pieces in a mulmul cloth to make a bundle. Dip this bundle for 2-3 minutes in boiling water.
  • After taking out from boiling water soak these pieces in 0.25% of potassium metabisulphite solution for 10 minutes. This save the vegetables from spoiling. Use one litre solution for one kg vegetables.
  • After taking out from the solution place these pieces on Aluminium trays. There should be no water in the vegetables.
  • Make a uniform layer of these pieces in the tray.
  • Place these trays in the direct sunlight for drying.

Drying Vegetables:

    • Carrot-Peel off and cut one centimetre long pieces of carrot and dry in sun for 3 days.
    • Onion-Peel onion cut into thin long pieces and dry in sun.
    • Garlic-Peel of the garlic cloves and cut in pieces. Dry in sun for 2-3 days.
    • Karela-Cut and remove both ends. Cut the remaining in small pieces.

Blanch in boiling water for 7-8 minutes. Treat with 0.25% of Potassium metabisulphite solution and dry in sunlight for 2 days.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 4.
Write the method of preparation of Murraba preserves of Amla.
Answer:
For preparing Murraba of Amla take cleaned big sized Banarsi type Amlas. Soak Amlas in 2% salt solution for a night. Take out these Amlas from the salt solution and repeat the process with fresh 2% salt solution. Repeat on third day also. Take out Amlas from the solution and wash them with water. Pierce the Amlas with steel forks at various places so that small holes appear on them. Tie these Amlas in clean mulmul cloth. Dissolve 2 gram of alum in one litre of water, boil the amlas in this water so that they become soft.

Take one and half kg sugar for one kg of Amla. Dissolve 750 gram of sugar in water. Boil this and sieve through mulmul cloth. Soak Amlas in this solution for whole night. Take out the sugar solution and boil remaining 750 gram of sugar. Sieve through mulmul cloth. Again soak Amlas in this solution. After two days boil again so that solution gets concentrated. Cool and preserve in a container. .

Question 5.
Write method to prepare lime and barley syrup and tomato. juice.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Processing of Fruits and Vegetables PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • India is second in the production of fruits and vegetables in the world.
  • During 2012-13 India produced 81.285 million metric tonnes of fruits and 162.19 million metric tonnes of vegetable.
  • Kirmow production is highest among other fruits in Punjab.
  • Potato production is highest among other vegetables in Punjab.
  • Only 2% of the fruits and vegetables produced are processed.
  • Fruits and vegetables are processed to obtain various products.
  • Various products are lemon syrup, mango squash, malta squash, lime and barley syrup, tomato juice, lime pickle, mango pickle, amla pickle, carrot pickle, lemon, chilli and ginger pickle, tomato ketchup, amla preserve.
  • Cut pieces of cauliflower, trunip, carrot, potato, bitter gaurd, fenugreek, spinach etc. can be dried and preseved.
  • Solar dryer can be used for drying purpose.
  • More income can be taken by processing fruits and vegetables.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answers in one or two words:

Question 1.
Which instrument is used to measure the firmness of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Pentrometer.

Question 2.
Which parameter is measured with refractometer?
Answer:
Sweetness of fruit.

Question 3.
How much fruits and vegetables are lost before they reach markets?
Answer:
25-30%.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 4.
On which fruit the use of waxing is useful?
Answer:
Citrus fruits (Kinnow), apple and pears.

Question 5.
What is the storage temperature for potato and kinnow?
Answer:
For potato 1 to 2° C and for Kinnow 4 to 6°C

Question 6.
How much should be the relative humidity for storage of onkm?
Answer:
65-70%.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 7.
Which fruits are harvested on the basis of TSS and acid ratio?
Answer:
Grapes and citrus fruits, e.g. organge, Kinnow etc.

Question 8.
What precautions should be taken during transportation of produce?
Answer:
Vehicle should be padded or lined with straw. Heavy weight produce should not be loaded over the soft produce.

Question 9.
Name the harmful chemical used for ripening of fruit
Answer:
Calcium carbide.

Question 10.
Name the internationally acceptable technique used for ripening of fruits.
Answer:
Ripening by ethylene gas.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
On what basis fruits and vegetable are graded?
Answer:
Grading should be done as per the requirement of the market. Grading is done on the basis of size, weight, colour etc. This fetches more profit to the farmer.

Question 2.
Why produce should be cooled after harvest?
Answer:
Produce should be cooled immediately after harvesting. This helps in increasing the shelf life of the horticulture produce. Cold water or cold air can be used for this purpose.

Question 3.
What are the benefits of storage of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Produce is cheap in the season, and earning is less. If produce is preserved and sold in off season, it fetches more profit to the farmer.

Question 4.
What is the use of pentrometer and refractometer?
Answer:
Pentrometer is used to measure the firmness of the fruit and refractometer is used to measure the sweetness of the fruit.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 5.
How fruits and vegetables are graded on commercial scale?
Answer:
Fruits and vegetables are graded on commercial scale with the help of mechanical grader.

Question 6.
Which fruits are ripened with ethylene gas?
Answer:
Ripening by using ethylene is internationally accepted technique. Fruits like, banana, pears, tomato are ripened by this technique.

Question 7.
Which parameters should be taken into consideration for harvesting of tomato?
Answer:
Parameter that should be taken into consideration for harvesting of tomato is colour chart. For the nearby market red matured tomato, for medium distance markets at pink stage and for distant market harvesting at green stage should be done.

Question 8.
Which produce is packed in jute sacks?
Answer:
Potato and onion are packed in jute sacks.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 9.
Which wax is approved by FSSAI?
Answer:
FSSAI has approved shellak wax, camauba wax and bees wax.

Question 10.
What kind of boxes is used for the packaging of high-value produce?
Answer:
Corrugated fibre board boxes are used for the packing of high-value produce like, apple, mango, grapes, kinnow, peach, litchi, plum etc.

(C) Answers in five to six sentences:

Question 1.
What do you mean by waxing of fruits and what are its benefits?
Answer:
During marketing of the produce there is a loss of water contents which affect the natural gloss and quality of the produce. Fruits like, Kinnow, Peach etc. and vegetables like, Brinjal, Capsicum, Tomato, Cucumber etc. are waxed after harvesting. At the time of grading, washing or doing other preserving activities natural wax is removed. Rewaxing with food grade wax is done. Waxing helps in maintaining water content of the produce at the time of marketing. Dry the produce after waxing. Food grade waxes which is approved by FSSAI are shellac wax, bees wax, camauba wax.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on ripening of fruits with ethylene gas.
Answer:
Ripening of fruits at commercial level is done by using ethylene gas which is internationally accepted technique. In this technique fruits are kept in an enclosed chamber where the produce is exposed to 100-150 ppm of ethylene gas for 24 hours. This triggers the ripening process. Temperature should be maintained between 15 to 25 °C and humidity should be 90-95% ethylene gas is produced by using ethylene generator.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 3.
Write a short note on shrink and cling film packing of fruit.
Answer:
Fruits and vegetables are packed in a paper tray and wrapped with shrink or cling film.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 11 Processing of Fruits and Vegetables 1
The produce packed in this way remains visible to the cousumer and quality of the produce is also maintained. High value fruits and vegetables like kinnow, tomato, seedless cucumber etc. are packed using this technique. Farmer can earn good profit using this technique.

Question 4.
What is the importance of packging of fruits in corrugated fibre board boxes?
Answer:
For secure transportation of the fruits and vegetables, packaging proves beneficial, it is necessary to avoid bruising of produce during the transportation. Corrugated fibre board boxes are used for packaging of high value produce; like, apple, mango, grapes, kinnow, litchi, plums, peach etc. paper shreds or pieces of cardboard paper are also used in these boxes so that fruits do not get pressed against each other.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables 2

Question 5.
What precaution should be taken during harvesting of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Fruits and vegetables should be harvested carefully so that least damage to the produce takes place should be done manually with modesty. Take out the produce from the soil using hands use cloth laps open at both ends at the time of harvesting. Save produce from injuries. Use clip, knife and scissors for harvesting fruits. Take care that clipper and knife used are clean and sharp. Kinnow like fruits should be harvested with very small stalk with the fruit. If the stalk is long then at the time of transportation other fruits can get injuries. Use ladder for plucking Kinnow, pears, peach, alucha, ber, mango, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
According to WHO (World Health Organisation) how much fruits and vegetables should be consumed by a person in a day?
Answer:
300 gram vegetables and 80 gram fruits.

Question 2.
In India how much fruits and vegetables are available for a person per day?
Answer:
30 gram fruits and 80 gram vegetables.

Question 3.
How can we loiow about the maturity for harvesting of the tomato, mango, peach etc.?
Answer:
By using color chart.

Question 4.
What is the parameter for maturity of peachy?
Answer:
Turning from green color to yellow.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 5.
What is the parameter for maturity of guava?
Answer:
Turning deep green color to light green color.

Question 6.
What is the parameter for maturity of potato.
Answer:
Vines show sign of senescence (drying).

Question 7.
What is the parameter for maturity of plums?
Answer:
Reddish colour on 1/4 to 1/2 of surface.

Question 8.
What is parameter for maturity of bell Pepper?
Answer:
Fully developed fruit and green shining.

Question 9.
What is parameter for maturity of pea?
Answer:
Pods filled but not faded in colour.

Question 10.
What type of wax is coated on the fruits.
Answer:
Food grade wax like bees wax.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 11.
How is packaging of onion and potato in done?
Answer:
Using jute sacks.

Question 12.
For how many days kinnows can be stored in cold store?
Answer: 1 1/2 to 2 months.

Question 13.
How much moisture content should be in potato and kinnow at the time of storing in cold storage?
Answer:
90-95%.

Question 14.
What are the harmful effects of fruits ripened by calcium carbide?
Answer:
Blisters in mouth, ulcer, acidity in stomach.

Question 15.
For how much time fruits are exposed to ethylene gas in enclosed chamber?
Answer:
24 hours.

Question 16.
Name two fruits on which wax is coated?
Answer:
Kinnow, peach.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 17.
What is the maturity parameter for harvesting of fruits and vegetables.
Answer:
Size and colour- of these.

Question 18.
What instrument is used to measure the firmness of fruits?
Answer:
Pentrometer.

Question 19.
What is the relation between firmness and maturity?
Answer:
Mature fruit is less firm i,e. it becomes soft.

Question 20.
How to make fruits free from bacteria at home?
Answer:
Using bleaching soloution.

Question 21.
Which type of containers are used to store fruits?
Answer:
Containers should have plane inner surfaces.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 22.
What should be done to protect produce from injuries?
Answer:
Produce should be placed between layers of paper or cardboard.

Question 23.
What is the main purpose of canning?
Answer:
Main purpose of canning is to preserve the produce for a long time.

Question 24.
How grapes and Alucha should be cleaned?
Answer:
These should be cleaned using 100-150 ppm chlorine water. This way produce can be protected from diseases.

Question 25.
How grading is done for round shaped produce?
Answer:
These can be graded by using different sizes of rings.

Question 26.
Which chemicals are used to treat the produce after plucking?
Answer:
Calcium chloride, Sodium bisulphate, Potassium sulphate etc.

Question 27.
Name water tolerating crops.
Answer:
Carrot, tomato, turnip.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 28.
Which vegetables should not be washed before packing?
Answer:
Cabbage, Bhindi, peas.

Question 29.
Which fruits are graded on the basis of maturity?
Answer:
Tomato, Banana, Mango etc.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do we know the maturity of fruits? Describe in detail.
Answer:
Size of the fruits is a measure of their maturity. Mango is ready to be for harvesting when a beak appears on the fruit. For checking the ripening of tomato, peach, plums etc. coloured charts are used. For nearby market tomatoes should be red and for a distance market, these should be of pink colour but for very far away market full sized yet green tomatoes should be harvested.

Question 2.
How the hardness index of fruits be determined?
Answer:
Following method is used to determine the hardness index:
With the help of a sharp knife cut a thin slice. Slice is having pulp and skin of the fruit. Place the fruit on a plane hard surface and with the help of a proper sized plunger measure the hardness of the fruit. For this start pressing the fruit on the plunger with uniform speed. Measure the hardness index of the fruit from marks on the plunger.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 3.
What is Refractometer? For which fruits it is used?
Answer:
To measure the sweetness of the fruits refractometer is used. This is used for fruits like grapes, muskmelon etc.

Question 4.
How the acidity of the fruit is measured?
Answer:
When citrus fruits are ripe, there sourness decreases. To know the acidity, one or two drops of phenolphthalein are added to measured volume of fruit juice. In it add 0.1 N of sodium hydroxide solution drop by drop till the colour of juice changes to pink. From the used sodium hydroxide and given volume of juice, acidity of the juice can be measured.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 5.
How is ratio of percentage of sweetness and sourness is measured?
Answer:
By knowing this ratio quality of the fruit is judged. Percentage sweetness and sourness are measured and value of sweetness is divided by value of sourness to know the ratio.

Question 6.
What do you know about preservation to fruits?
Answer:
Every fruit is available in the market in a particular period of time of the year and it is available in plenty and it can be bought for comparatively less price. On these days fruits should be bought and preserved. More income can be earned by selling these in far away markets and by selling in off-season.

Question 7.
Why is it necessary to preserve vegetables?
Answer:
If vegetables are not preserved then more profit can not be earned, when vegetables are cheap in the season, buy and preserve the vegetables. These can be sold in off season and more profit can be earned.

Question 8.
How canning is profitable?
Answer:
By canning or packing, we can avoid the losses which may occur after plucking. This way more profit can be earned.

Question 9.
What is the use of Penetro meter?
Answer:
It is a device which is used to measure the hardness of the fruit.

Question 10.
Why is it necessary to (pluck kinnow with small stalk) keep the stalk short while plucking kinnow?
Answer:
If the stalk is long it can injure the other fruits while transportation. Thus kinnow are plucked or harvested with small stalks.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 11.
What is the importance of quality of crops?
Answer:
If quality is maintained then transportation, storage and marketing can be done for a long span of time and thus, more profit can be earned. This way consumer, exporter and trader all feel satisfied.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the importance of plastic trays in {he preservation (storage) of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Plastic trays are costly, but these can be cleaned easily and used again and again. Air can pass through them because these have holes. These can be stacked over each other. At the time of harvesting, these prove very helpful. These can be used at time of harvesting, for storage, for transportation and for selling in the market. These trays are used for harvesting, storage and transportation of Kinnow, grapes, tomato etc.

Question 2.
What are merits of good quality produce?
Answer:
Following are the merits of good quality produce:

  • This type of produce can be transported, marketed and stored for a longer time.
  • This type of produce gives satisfaction to exporters, traders and consumers.
  • Produce have long life after harvesting.
  • Marketing sphere also grows big.
  • More profit can be earned on selling such a produce.

Question 3.
What do you know about cooling, sorting and cleaning of the produce after harvesting?
Answer:
1. Cooling of the produce:
For long shelf life of the produce, it is allowed to cool down. The method of cooling depends on the type of produce. Different methods of cooling are with blowing cool air, cooling in a room, cooling with cold water. Any of the method can be used.

2. Sorting and cleaning of the produce:
Sorting and grading of the produce is done, injured, diseased and irregular shaped produce is separated out. Then it is cleaned, method of cleaning depends on the type of produce. Apples are cleaned using dry brushes whereas citrus fruits, carrots etc. are washed with water. Whether to use dry brushes or water for cleaning depends on the type of produce and extent of cleanliness, e.g. grapes and aluchas are never to be cleaned wash.

These fruits are made disease free by using 100-150 ppm chlorine water. Before packaging of cabbage and cauliflower etc., non eatable parts should be removed.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Question 4.
What do you know about grading and marketing of fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Grading is done on the basis of size, weight, colour etc. Graded produce can earn more profit. Round fruits like tomato, tinda, apple etc. are graded using different sized rings. More profit can be earned if grading is done on the basis of maturity of produce like tomato, barihna, mango etc. Some type of machines on small scale can also be used for grading.

Fully grown but green tomato, mango etc. can be stored for sometime and when the rates in the market are on rise these can be ripened and sold to earn more profit. Green onion, mint, coriander leaves etc. are packed into bundles of 100 grams and 500 grams. This way these can be transported easily.

Question 5.
What do you know about the treatment of produce after harvesting?
Answer:
If produce is treated after harvesting it can be saved from various types of fungal diseases and many other diseases. Chemicals used for the treatment are potassium sulphate, sodiumbisulphite, calcium chloride etc. Some times produce is treated using hot water and blowing hot wind. This way germs are either killed or become weak and the produce is saved from disease. After the use of hot air or hot water, produce should be cooled down immediately by using showers of cold water or cold wind.

Question 6.
Which precautions should be kept in mind, while canning fruits and vegetables?
Answer:
Following precautions should be kept in mind while canning fruits and vegetables:

  • Do not allow the produce to get injuries.
  • Raw or more ripe fruits should be separated out.
  • Do not wash green vegetables, cabbage, bhindi, tomato etc. before canning.
  • Chlorine used in water should not be more than 100-150 ppm.
  • Water tolerant produce like tomato, carrot, turnip etc. should be collected in water filled tank (chubacha).
  • The table surface on which produce is washed, graded or packed should be made smooth by placing sponge pieces at comers or edges or irregular points.
  • Do not use the restricted chemicals on the produce.
  • Treat the produce after harvesting using proper method like waxing, hot air, water, sulphar dioxide etc.
  • To lessen the damage, produce should be canned in the fields.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables

Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • According to World Health Organisation, every person should take 300 grams of fresh vegetables and 80 grams of fresh fruits per day.
  • In India only 30 gram fruits and 80 gram vegetables are available per person per day.
  • Post harvest handling techniques of fruit and vegetables consists of following sub-heads: harvesting, packaging, storage and transportation of fruits and vegetables.
  • Parameters used to judge the maturity of fruits and vegetables for harvesting are: colour, firmness, size and shape, total soluble solids (TSS) and TSS/acid ratio.
  • Immediately cool the produce after harvesting,
  • To reduce the loss of water from the produce food grade wax is applied on fruits and vegetables.
  • Food safety standard authority of India has approved three types of wax.
  • Wax used can be shellac wax, comauba wax and bees wax.
  • Produce should be graded before marketing.
  • For packaging, wooden baskets, jute sacks, lastic crates, corrugated fibre board (CFB) boxes etc. can be used.
  • While transporting vehicle should be padded or lined with thick layer of straw.
  • For ripening banana and papaya, calcium carbide is used which is harmful for health.
  • Use of ethylene for ripening is internationally accepted technique.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 10 Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
After land cost, the next highest investment by fanners is in which form?
Answer:
In the form of farm machinery.

Question 2.
Who is considered as head of farm machinery?
Answer:
Tractor.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 3.
Name any three machines that are driven by tractors.
Answer:
Cultivation, disc harrow, seed drill.

Question 4.
Which are those machines where the source of power is part of the machine?
Answer:
Tractor, engine, motor etc.

Question 5.
When the tractor should be over-hauled?
Answer:
After using it for 4000 hours.

Question 6.
In which gear the tractor should be stored?
Answer:
Neutral gear.

Question 7.
After proper cleaning of battery terminal of a tractor, it should be coated with which material?
Answer:
With Petroleum jelly.

Question 8.
After proper cleaning and removal of seed and fertilizer from seed sowing machinery, what should be coated to its components?
Answer:
Grease or lubricating oil.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 9.
What should be done to protect soil working tools of tillage machinery from rust?
Answer:
These should be coated with grease or lubricating oil.

Question 10.
Why the spray pump should be operated empty after using it?
Answer:
This helps in draining the water from spray lines.

(B) Answer in One to Two Sentences:

Question 1.
What are the basic categories in which farm machinery can be divided?
Answer:
There are three categories of farm machinery-prime movers (power source); like, tracfor etc., engine operator equipments; like, disc harrow etc., self propelled machine like, combine harvester etc.

Question 2.
After how many hours, the tractor should be serviced?
Answer:
Servicing of the tractor should be done after 10 hours, 50 hours, 125 hours, 250 hours, 500 hours and 1000 hours. Tractor should be got overhauled from a good workshop after using it for 4000 hours.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 3.
What should be done to protect tyres if tractor is to be stored for long term?
Answer:
Jack up the tractor and put it on the wooden blocks and also reduce air pressure in the tyres.

Question 4.
What should be done to protect battery if tractor is to be stored for long term?
Answer:
If tractor is to be stored for long time period then batteries should be disconnected and removed from the tractor but these should be charged occasionally.

Question 5.
What point should be kept in mind for maintenance of exhaust pipe and crank case breather?
Answer:
If mouth of the exhaust pipe and crank case breather is open, cover it with a cloth. This prevents entry of moisture in it.

Question 6.
During season, what should be done for maintenance of axle bearings?
Answer:
During season, after every 4-6 hours of working, lubricate the axle and bushes with oil or grease. If ball bearings are fitted then lubricate them after 3-4 days with grease.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 7.
Why it is important to clean the seed and fertilizer box of a seed drill daily?
Answer:
Fertilizers are chemicals which can damage or corrode these boxes if not cleaned on daily basis.

Question 8.
Why farmer should properly dean grain tank, conveyor, straw walkers and sieves in combine harvesters?
Answer:
If grain tanks, conveyor straw walkers and sieves in combine harvesters are not cleaned properly, rodents make home there and can damage the electric circuits, pipes etc. and thus damage the machinery heavily.

Question 9.
What should be done to protect combine harvester from rust?
Answer:
Moisture is the reason of rusting. Therefore, combine should be stored under a shed and cover it with a plastic sheet. Paint those parts where paint has taken off.

Question 10.
What should be done to avoid contact of machine with soil during storage?
Answer:
Answer: Wash or clean the machines or equipments to dry these. Coat them with grease and oil to prevent from rusting.

(C) Answers in five to six Sentences:

Question 1.
Why there is a need for the maintenance of farm machinery?
Answer:
To get more yield and income from agricultural produce, farm machinery plays an important role. After the cost of land, next highest investment is in farm machinery. If proper maintenance is not done for such costly machines, then we may not be able to get full benefit from the machines. Proper maintenance adds to the working life of farm machines. Repair of damaged machines cost more. Machines should be maintained at the end of the season so that we get a ready machine at the beginning of next season.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 2.
Which points should be kept in mind regarding maintenance of tractors?
Answer:

  • Wash and clean tractor and store it under shed.
  • If there is some sort of leakage from pipes or some repair is required, get it done. Mobile oil should be filled up-to the marked level.
  • All points where greasing is to be done should be washed with diesel. Remove the old grease and fill the new grease.
  • Use hot water to wash the terminals of battery and coat them with petroleum jelly. If tractor is to be stored for a long time remove the battery but keep on charging it from time to time.
  • To keep the tractor ready for any work, it should be started and operated once or twice in a month.
  • For long term storage Jack up the tractor and put it on wooden blocks, reduce the air pressure in tyres.
  • Park the tractor in switched off position, in the neutral gear and by applying parking brakes.
  • Cover the exhaust pipe and crank breather using a cloth to prevent the entry of moisture in it.
  • Air cleaner should be cleaned time to time.

Question 3.
Why repair of machinery should be done before its storage?
Answer:
Machine should be got repaired at the end of the season and before storing it. So that we get a ready machine at the beginning of next season, time is also saved. By the end of season we know about the condition of the machine, we know the parts of the machine which are creating problems, therefore machine should be taken care of, make replacement of the parts which are not working properly or are causing trouble. One can forget these things after long time i.e. at the beginning of new season. Therefore repair of machinery should be done before its storage.

Question 4.
Which points should be kept in mind for maintenance of battery?
Answer:
Tractor should be started and operated once or twice in a month. Clean the terminals of the battery with hot water and coat the terminals with petroleum jelly. If tractor in to be stored for long time duration remove the battery and keep on charging it time to time.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 5.
Which points should be kept in mind regarding maintenance of combine harvesters?
Answer:
Maintenance of combine harvester is similar to the maintenance of tractor. Following points should be kept in mind regarding maintenance of combine harvester.

(i) Clean properly grain tanks, conveyor, straw walkers and sieves in combine harvesters. There should be not dirt, straw, grains, chaff etc. in these otherwise rodent start living there and can damage electric circuits and pipes etc.

(ii) Moisture is the reason of rusting. Therefore, combine should be stored under a shed and cover it with a plastic sheet. Paint those parts where paint has taken off.

(iii) Machine should be got repaired at the end of the season and before storing.it. So that we get a ready machine at the beginning of next season, time is also saved. By the end of season we know about the condition of the machine, we know the parts of the machine which are creating problems, therefore machine should be taken care of, make replacement of the parts which is are not working properly or causing trouble. One can forget these things after long time i.e. at the beginning of new season. Therefore repair of machinery should be done before its storage.

(iv) Remove all the belts and put identification marks and store at a safe place.

(v) Chains should be cleaned with diesel and coat it with thin layer of grease.

(vi) Rubbing parts should be applied with lubricating oils. Eill grease in the greasing points.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery Important Questions and Answers

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the name of machine used for fodder chopping and cutting?
Answer:
Toka.

Question 2.
What is disc harrow in local language?
Answer:
Tavijan.

Question 3.
What is the name of machine used for sowing seeds?
Answer:
Seed drill machine.

Question 4.
What should be the air pressure in the tyres of a tractor?
Answer:
In front tyres 24-26 pounds and in rear tyre 12-18 pounds.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Question 5.
What should be used to clean the spray pump after it is used?
Answer:
Spray pump should be cleaned with fresh water.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the importance of diesel engine?
Answer:
It is a small machine. It is used to run tubewell, to run fodder chopping toka etc. Its operating cost is less than tractor when less power is required diesel engine is used.

Question 2.
Why should seed drill machine be not parked in sunlight?
Answer:
Sun heat may damage the rubber pipes and gears.

Question 3.
What should be done to reduce the slip of tractor?
Answer:
Air pressure in the rear tyres should be lowered.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What is the importance of maintenance of farm machinery and equipments?
Answer:
Now-a-days farms machinery is used for doing nearly all the agricultural activities e.g. sowing, harvesting, hoeing etc. Farm machinery is very costly and sometimes farmers have to get loans. Therefore, it becomes necessary to maintain and taken care of the machines.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery

Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • After the cost of land, next heavy investment is in farm machinery.
  • Proper maintenance of the machinery increases in working life.
  • Farm machines are of three types.
  • First category of machines is of prime movers e.g. tractors, engines, motor etc.
  • Second type of machines is tractor or engine operated equipments, like, cultivators, happy seeder, disc harrows, seed cum fertilizer drill etc.
  • Third type of machines are self-propelled machines, like, combine harvesters, paddy transplanted etc.
  • Tractor is the head of the farm machinery.
  • Servicing of the tractor should be done after 10 hours, 50 hours, 125 hours, 25.0 hours, 500 hours and 1000 hours.
  • Tractor should be got overhauled from a good workshop after using it for 4000 hours.
  • When tractor is not required for long term it should be stored properly.
  • Combine harvester should be maintained and stored like tractor.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 9 Care and Maintenance of Farm Machinery Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Organic Fanning Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in One to Two words:

Question 1.
According to organic farming concept should we feed the soil or plant?
Answer:
Feed the soil not the plant.

Question 2.
Where is National Centre for Organic Fanning situated?
Answer:
In Ghaziabad.

Question 3.
Shallow rooted crops should be rotated with which type of crops?
Answer:
Deep rooted crops.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Question 4.
Is burning of crop residues allowed or not in organic fanning?
Answer:
Burning of crop residue is not allowed.

Question 5.
Can Bt crops be grown in organic fanning?
Answer:
No, Bt crops can not be grown.

Question 6.
Which types of crops are grown as intercrops in organic fanning?
Answer:
Leguminous crops.

Question 7.
Name any one bio-fungicide.
Answer:
Trichoderma.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Question 8.
Name any one bio-insecticide.
Answer:
At trichogramma.

Question 9.
Name the website from where information on organic farming can be obtained.
Answer:
www.apeda.gov.in.

Question 10.
In which year India formulated standards for organic farming?
Answer:
In year 2004.

(B) Answer in One to Two sentences:

Question 1.
Which type of crops should be rotated in field under organic farming?
Answer:
Rotate deep roots crops with shallow rooted crops and legumes with non legumes.

Question 2.
What are the causes of increasing demand of organic products?
Answer:
People have become aware about the adverse effects of modem agricultural practices. Purchasing capacity of the people have also increased. This has led to the increasing demand for organic food products.

Question 3.
Which countries are die major markets for organic products?
Answer:
Countries which are major markets for organic products are America, Japan and European union.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Question 4.
Define organic fanning.
Answer:
Organic farming is a system of farming in which agricultural production is done without harming or damaging natural resources like soil, water and air and also without using chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides and insecticides.

Question 5.
Define organic standards.
Answer:
Organic standards are certain minimum requirements which must be met for organic food production. In India these standards were formulated in year 2004. Which are acceptable by other countries.

Question 6.
Which areas in India are more suitable for organic fanning?
Answer:
Areas which are organic by default or are nearly organic and where rainfall is 68%, organic farming should be promoted in such areas.

Question 7.
Which organic products have higher demand in world food market?
Answer:
There is a huge demand of tea, basmati rice, vegetables, fruits, pulses etc. which are grown by adopting organic farming practices, in the world organic food market.

Question 8.
Which countries have higher demand for organic products?
Answer:
Organic products are in higher demand in countries like, Japan, America, European Union.

Question 9.
What are the organic standards for use of seed in organic fanning?
Answer:
Seed should be taken from organic crop but if such seeds are not available then use untreated conventional seeds.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Question 10.
How weeds can be managed in organic maize?
Answer:
Cow pea is sown in maize rows as inter crop and it is harvested after 35-40 days of sowing. This practice controls weeds in maize and green fodder is also obtained.

(C) Answer in Five to Six sentences:

Question 1.
Why there is need to go in for organic farming?
Answer:
Our country became self-sufficient in grains due to green revolution. But excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides etc. have deteriorated natural resources like soil, air and water to large extent. Due to adopting wheat-rice crop cycle for many years, area under traditional crops like pulses and oil seed crops have decreased.

We forgot the basic principle of rotation of shallow rooted crop with deep rooted crops and of N legumes with non-legumes. Unnecessarily and untimely application of urea reached deep into the soil with the rain water. Pesticide residues have appeared in food products, milk etc. People have become aware about the adverse effects of modem agricultural practices. Purchasing capacity of the people have also increased. This has led to the increasing demand for organic products. To meet this demand organic farming is in need.

Question 2.
How soil fertility is maintained under organic farming?
Answer:
In organic farming, agricultural production is done by maintaining natural balance and without harming natural resources. Soil fertility is maintained by doing following things:

  • Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides are completely prohibited.
  • Cultivation of leguminous crops is must in the crop rotation cycle.
  • Burning of crop residue is not allowed.
  • Contaminated water like sewage water can not be used for irrigation.
  • Use beneficial insects and birds for protecting crops against insects and pests.
  • Genetically modified crops are not allowed.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Question 3.
How insect-pests and diseases are controlled in organic farming?
Answer:
In organic farming chemical fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides etc. are totally prohibited. In this practice insects and diseases are controlled by natural methods. Beneficial insects and birds are used for controlling , pests and insects. Extract of neem and bio-pesticides (Bt trichogramma) are used to control pests and insects. Bio fungicides like trichoderma etc.can be used for disease management. Mixed cropping like wheat and ’ gram help in fighting against diseases and insects and pests.

Question 4.
What is organic certification and who does provide the certification?
Answer:
If organic products are to be sold in market or if these are to be exported to other countries then organic certification is must. Certification guarantees that the organic product is produced as per the organic standards. Government of India has authorized 24 certification agencies.

A farmer has to register his farm with any one of the agencies. Inspectors of the agency visit the farms and check the compliance of organic standards by the farmer. After satisfaction, agency certifies the produce as organic. One can get more information about organic standards and certification at the site www.apeda.gov. in.

Question 5.
What are the advantages of organic farming?
Answer:
Advantages of organic farming are:

  • Fertility of the soil increases.
  • Production cost is reduced.
  • Organic produce is sold at higher price.
  • This is sustainable agricultural practice.
  • It helps in increasing employment.
  • Poisonous residue is not found in environment and food items.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Organic Fanning Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is hoeing done in organic farming?
Answer:
Manually by hands, wheel hoe or by tractor.

Question 2.
Which crops are sown as inter crops in organic farming.
Answer:
Legumes.

Question 3.
To meet nutritional requirement of crops in organic farming which non-edible cake is used?
Answer:
Castor cake.

Question 4.
How many certification agencies have been authorized to do organic certification in India?
Answer:
24 agencies

Question 5.
How much food grains are required by 2020?
Answer:
276 million ton food grains.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give two advantages of organic farming.
Answer:

  • Fertility of the soil is maintained and is increased.
  • More income from organic produce.

Question 2.
Cultivation of which crops is reduced due to green revolution.
Answer:
Area under the cultivation of the traditional crops like pulses and oil seed crops is reduced due to wheat rice crop cycle which helped in bringing green revolution.

Question 3.
Which organic produce is in demand in world market and which countries provide market for these products?
Answer:
Basmati rice, vegetables, fruits, tea, pulses and cotton are in demand in Japan, America and European Union.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Write a note on production of organic crops.
Answer:
Agricultural practices to be followed for the production of organic crops are the same as for conventional crops e.g. seeds, varieties, method, of sowing etc. In organic farming chemicals like, pesticides, weedicides, fungicides etc. are prohibited. Weed control management is done by crop rotation or by some agricultural methods.

In maize rows cowpea is sown which helps in controlling weeds and also provide green fodder. In turmeric fields rice straw mulching is done to control weeds. Legumes help in maintaining the fertility of the soil by fixing nitrogen of the atmosphere in the soil. Nutritional requirements of the crops are met with by using farm yard manure, compost, vermicompost etc. Insects and pests are controlled by beneficial insects and birds and also by using biopesticides like, extract v of neem. Mixed farming system also helps in managing insects and diseases.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning

Organic Fanning PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • Organic farming helps in maintaining natural balance and also in conserving natural resources.
  • Inorganic farming we do not use chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides and insecticides etc.
  • Organic farming is based on the concept that feed the soil and not the plants.
  • Advantages of organic farming are fertility of soil is increased, lower production cost, good income from organic produce, availability of pesticide residue free food etc.
  • Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, burning of rice and wheat straw etc. have deteriorated greatly the soil health and the environment.
  • Due to adoption of Rice-Wheat cropping system for many years, it has reduced the area under the traditional pulse and oil seed crops.
  • There is a huge demand of tea, basmati rice, vegetables, fruits, pulses etc. which are grown by adopting organic farming practices, in the world organic food market.
  • Government of India has established a National Centre for Organic Fanning (NCOF) at Ghaziabad to promote organic farming. Its Regional centre in North India is situated at Panchkula, Haryana.
  • In the year 2004 India has formulated certain organic standards which are also acceptable in other countries.
  • Agricultural practices followed in organic farming are same as that of conventional farming e.g. seeds, sowing method, varieties etc.
  • Nutritional requirements of crops are met by using compost, vermicompost, farmyard manure, bio-fertilizers, non-edible cakes like castor cakes etc.
  • Protection of crops from pests and insects is done by using beneficial insects, birds etc.
  • Extract of neem is also used against pests and insects etc.
  • Organic certification guarantees that organic products are produced as per the organic set standards.
  • Information about organic standards can be obtained from site www.apeda.gov.in.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 8 Organic Fanning Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Crop Diversification Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
Which cropping system is adopted in sub-mountainous region?
Answer:
Rice-Wheat.

Question 2.
Which is the main cropping system in south western region?
Answer:
Cotton-Wheat.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 3.
Give examples of multiple cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-potato-moong, groundnut-potato-bajra.

Question 4.
How much water table is depleting every year in central Punjab due to cultivation of rice crop?
Answer:
Approximately 74 cm per year.

Question 5.
Which bacterium helps in nitrogen fixation?
Answer:
Rhizobium.

Question 6.
Which fertilizer can be saved in Dhaincha-Basmati-wheat cropping system?
Answer:
Nitrogen fertilizer.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 7.
Which crops are imported by India from foreign countries?
Answer:
Pulses, oil seed crops.

Question 8.
How many days before basmati transplanting, green manure should be incorporated in the field?
Answer:
Just before a day.

Question 9.
What percentage of area is under irrigation in Punjab state?
Answer:
98%.

Question 10.
How many tubewells (no.) are there in Punjab?
Answer:
Approximately 14 lakhs.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
What do you mean by crop diversification?
Answer:
Crop diversification refers to cultivation of alternate crops by reducing area under conventional crops like wheat and rice and by increasing area under the crops like-maize, pulses, basmati, sugarcane, potato, oilseed crops, etc.

Question 2.
Which crops can be grown in dry land areas?
Answer:
Oil seed crops can be grown in such land areas.

Question 3.
Enlist maize based cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-potato-summer moong or sunflower, maize-potato or toria- sunflower, maize-potato-onion or mentha and maize-gobhi sarson moong.

Question 4.
Enlist fodder based cropping systems.
Answer:
Maize-Berseem-Bajra, Maize-Berseem-Maize or Cowpea.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 5.
Write significance of intensive cropping system.
Answer:

  • High yield can be taken from small land holding.
  • Climate changes can be tackled.
  • Use of chemical fertilizers is reduced.
  • Balanced nutrition in maintained and employment opportunities are increased.
  • Agro-ecosystem is maintained and it helps in conserving natural resources.

Question 6.
Which enterprises can be adopted in integrated farming system?
Answer:
Following enterprises can be adoped in integrated farming system-

  • Fish farming
  • Cultivation of fruits
  • Cultivation of vegetable
  • Dairy farming
  • Rabbit farming
  • Pig farming
  • Goat farming
  • Bee keeping
  • Poultry farming
  • Agroforestry like poplar.

Question 7.
Write about source of irrigation in Punjab.
Answer:
Approximately 98% of area in Punjab is under irrigation. There are nearly 14 lakhs tubewells in Punjab. Canal irrigation is also adopted.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 8.
Name the alternate crops which can be cultivated in central Punjab over rice-wheat
Answer:
Maize, Potato, Pea, Sugarcane, Basmati, Sunflower, Muskmelon, Chilli and other vegetables.

Question 9.
Write the names of main crops cultivated in sub-mountainous region.
Answer:
Main crops cultivated in sub-mountainous region are-wheat, maize, paddy, basmati, potato, oil seed crops and peas.

Question 10.
Which cropping systems should be adopted in areas having light soils?
Answer:
Groundnut based cropping system can be adoped in light soils, e.g. gsoundnut-potato or toria or wheat, groundnut- potato-bajra (fodder), groundnut- toria or gobhi sarson.

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 1.
What do you mean by crop diversification? Write about its aim and significance?
Answer:
Crop diversification:
Crop diversification refers to cultivation of alternate crops by reducing area under conventional crops; like, wheat and rice and by increasing area under the crops like-maize, pulses, basmati, sugarcane, potato, oilseed crops etc.

Aim: Aims of crop diversification are:

  • Judicious use of natural resources and conserving them for future and for long time.
  • To get more income by investing less on growing crops.
  • To get out of the same crop rotation cycle so that soil and water remain conserved.

Significance:
Rice-wheat cropping cycle requires 215 cm water in a year and out of this water 80% is consumed by rice crop. Cultivation of rice is damaging the physical and chemical properties of the soil. For the last 50 years area under cultivation of rice has increased at the cost of area under groundnut, oil seed crops, cotton, pulses etc. Crop diversification is the reverse of this process and lot of water is saved and soil health is also improved.

Question 2.
Why there is need for crop intensification? Describe in detail with examples?
Answer:
Intensive cropping system means sowing more than two crops in a year. Crops are sown in the time between the harvesting of first crop and sowing of next crop.
Need for crop intensification:

  • High yield can be taken from small land holding.
  • Climate changes can be tackled.
  • Use of chemical fertilizers is reduced.
  • Balanced nutrition is maintained and employment opportunities are increased.
  • Agro-ecosystem is maintained and it helps in conserving natural resources.

Cultivation of leguminous crops help in increasing the soil fertility by fixation of nitrogen with rhizobium. This saves nitrogen fertilizers. Important multiple cropping patterns are –

  • Green manuring based; e.g. Jantar-Maize etc.
  • Maize based; e.g. maize-potato-moong or sunflower.
  • Soyabean based ; e.g. soyabean-wheat-cowpea
  • Groundnut based; e.g. – Groundnut – potato-toriya,.
  • Green fodder based; e.g. – Maize – berseem- bajra.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 3.
Write about the problems related to agriculture in Punjab.
Answer:
Problems related to agriculture in Punjab are as follows:

  • After green revolution Punjab remained stuck in the crop cycle of paddy and wheat. Due to cultivation of these two crops water table is going down and excess use of chemicals like weedicides, pesticides and fertilizers etc. has damaged the health of the soil and also badly affected the chemical and physical properties of the soil.
  • Area under oil seed crops and pulses is reducing.
  • Due to heavy rainfall in south-western zone there exists problem of soil erosion.
  • Water level is going down by 74 cm every year and farmers have to use submersible motor for lifting water,
  • which adds to the cost of cultivation.
  • New species of insectes and weeds are being generated.
  • Biodiversity is decreasing.
  • Climate changes are taking place.

Question 4.
What is integrated farming system? Describe in detail with examples.
Answer:
In Integrated farming system a farmer can adopt one or two additional enterprises other than agriculture. This way farmer can increase his income and his family members can also help in the “’enterprise. (Integrated forming system IFS) helps in meeting the nutritional food requirements of the family. Some of the enterprises which a farmer can adopt from:

  • Fish farming.
  • Cultivation of fruits
  • Cultivation of vegetables
  • Dairy farming
  • Rabbit farming
  • Pig farming
  • Goat farming
  • Bee keeping
  • Poultry farming
  • Agroforestry like, poplar.

Question 5.
What do you mean by inter cropping system? Describe with examples.
Answer:
Intercropping system. Inter cropping is also called mixed cropping system. Inter cropping is done to get high yield from small land holding, get higher income and to fulfil requirements of the population.

Due to increase in factories, expansion of residential areas, land under cultivation is decreasing day by day. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to obtain maximum yield from the available land. For this inter cropping is done e.g. Maize or moong, Arhar or moong, Soyabean or moong, Maize or soyabean, Maize or maize for green fodder or groundnut, Cotton or maize etc. Due to intercropping there is no bad effect on the yield of the main crop. This system helps in maintaining the soil fertility. Problem of weeds is also reduced to large extent.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Crop Diversification Important Questions and Answers

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How much land is under the cultivation of rice?
Answer:
Approximately 28.3 lakhs hectare.

Question 2.
How much land is under the cultivation of wheat?
Answer:
Approximately 35.1 lakhs hectare.

Question 3.
For the last 50 years, at the cost of which crops area under the cultivation of rice has increased?
Answer:
Groundnut, oil seed crops, sugarcane, pulses.

Question 4.
How much water is consumed by rice-wheat crop cycle in a year?
Answer:
215 cm.

Question 5.
How much water is consumed by rice crop out of total water consumed in a year by rice-wheat crop cycle?
Answer:
80%

Question 6.
How much total area in Punjab is under the cultivation of various crops?
Answer:
41.58 lakhs hectare.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 7.
In how many zones has Punjab been divided on agroclimatic basis?
Answer:
Three zones-sub mountainous zone, central zone, south-western zone.

Question 8.
Submountainous zone lies at foothills of which hill?
Answer:
Himalayan foothills.

Question 9.
How much area under sub-mountainous region is covered by Kandi belt?
Answer:
Approximately 9%

Question 10.
Which is the main crop cycle in Punjab?
Answer:
Wheat-rice.

Question 11.
Which crop rotation cycle is adopted in South-Western Zone?
Answer:
Cotton-Wheat.

Question 12.
What is the quality of ground water in south-western zone?
Answer:
Its is saline or saline sodic.

Question 13.
Name the crops used as green manure.
Answer:
Jantar, Rawanh (Cowpea).

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 14.
If maize is to be sown then for how many days before green manure should be ploughed in the fields?
Answer:
8-10 days before sowing maize.

Question 15.
Dried bits of which crop can be used as green manure?
Answer:
Summer moong.

Question 16.
How much protein content is contained in soyabean?
Answer:
35-40%.

Question 17.
Which crop contributed a lot in bringing white revolution?
Answer:
Fodder crops.

Question 18.
How much fodder is given to cows and buffaloes on daily basis for higher milk yield?
Answer:
40 kg green fodder.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 19.
Write vegetable based crop system for villages which are near to city.
Answer:
Cauliflower-tomato-ladyfinger.

Question 20.
Write vegetable based crop system for villages which are far away from city.
Answer:
Potato-ladyfinger-early sown cauliflower.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about Kandi area?
Answer:
It is the nearly 9% area under the sub-mountainous zone.

Question 2.
What is the problem found in central zone of Punjab?
Answer:
The cropping cycle adoped in this zone is of wheat-rice and due to this cycle underground water is going down at the rate of 74 cm per year.

Question 3.
Why is soyabean best alternate for rice crop?
Answer:
Rice yield is decreased due to attack of insects and pests and diseases. Therefore, soyabean is best alternate for rice crop.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Question 4.
What is the advantage of inter cropping system?
Answer:
Inter cropping system is helpful in maintaining the fertility of the soil. Problem of weeds is also decreased to large extent.

Question 5.
Suggest vegetable cropping system for farms which are nearby city.
Answer:

  • Brinjal (long)- late cauliflower-bottle gourd
  • Potato – muskmelon
  • Spinach-knol khol- onion or green chilli or radish.
  • Cauliflower – tomato-ladyfinger.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Suggest maize based and soyabean based cropping systems.
Answer:
1. Maize based cropping system-
Some of the maize based cropping systems are:

  • Maize – Potato – Moong or sunflower.
  • Maize – Potato or toria – sunflower
  • Maize-potato – onion or mentha etc.

These cropping systems help in conserving the natural sources.

2. Soyabean based cropping system-
Soyabean based cropping system is-Soyabean – wheat- rawanh (Cowpea) (fodder)
Rice yield is decreased due to attack of insects and p@6ts and diseases. Therefore soyabean is best alternate for rice crop. Soyabean is a leguminous crop. It helps in fixing nitrogen in the soil and thus helps in maintaining the fertility of the soil. Soyabean is a good source of protein. It contains nearly 35-40% protein content. It is used to prepare soya milk, soya cheese, soyanutri etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification

Crop Diversification PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • Crop diversification is also known as multiple cropping.
  • Crop diversification is to reduce some area under rice-wheat crops and to increase area under alternate crops like maize, pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, potato etc.
  • Crop diversification helps in natural resource sustainability.
  • Main crop rotation in Punjab is wheat-rice.
  • There is a consumption of 215 cm water for wheat-rice cycle in Punjab in a year, but 80% of this water is consumed by rice alone.
  • Punjab is divided into three agroclimatic zones-submountainous zone, central zone and south western zone.
  • Kandi belt is included in sub-mountainous zone.
  • Sub-mountainous zone receive heavy rainfall and their persist problem of soil erosion in this zone.
  • Crops cultivated in, sub-mountainous zones are wheat, maize, paddy, basmati, potato, oil seed etc.
  • Crop cycle in central zone of Punjab is wheat-paddy rotation.
  • Crop cycle in south-western zone is cotton-wheat rotation.
  • Intensive cropping system means growing more than two crops in a year.
  • Green manuring must be done before cultivating Kharif crops like basmati rice and maize.
  • Maize based cropping cycle is: maize-potato-Summer Moong. or sunflower, maize-potato or toria-sunflower etc.
  • Soyabean based cropping system is: soyabean-wheat-cowpea. This cycle helps in maintaining the soil fertility.
  • Groundnut based cropping system is: groundnut-potato or toriya or pea or wheat, groundnut-potato-bajra (fodder), groundnut- toria or gobhi sarson.
  • Fodder based cropping system is: maize-berseem-bajra, maize-berseem-maize or cowpea (rawanh).
  • Vegetable based cropping system: potato-onion-green manure-potato-ladyfinger-early cauliflower, potato (seed)- raddish or carrot (seed)-ladyfinger (seed).

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 7 Crop Diversification Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB BeeKeeping Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
Name two hive bee species.
Answer:
Indian bees, Italian bees.

Question 2.
How many legs a honey bee has?
Answer:
Three pairs.

Question 3.
Name two wild species of honey bees.
Answer:
Rock bee, little bee.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 4.
Which is the most suitable period to start beekeeping in Punjab?
Answer:
February-March and November.

Question 5.
How many days a drone bee takes to complete its life cycle?
Answer:
24 days.

Question 6.
Do you have to pay fee for getting beekeeping training?
Answer:
No.

Question 7.
How many bee frames should be used to start a new colony for higher profit?
Answer:
Eight bee frames.

Question 8.
What material is used by honey bees to seal ripe honey?
Answer:
Bees wax.

Question 9.
After how much period, queen bee in a colony should be replaced?
Answer:
After every year.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 10.
Are the worker bees male or female?
Answer:
Female.

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
Where do rock bees construct their comb?
Answer:
Rock bees construct their comb on projections of water tanks, buildings, rocks, tree branches, etc.

Question 2.
How will you differentiate new and old queen bee?
Answer:
New queen has long firm abdomen and is golden brown in colour. Old queen has dark brown or black adbomen and is sluggish in movement.

Question 3.
From where training on beekeeping may be obtained?
Answer:
Training on beekeeping may be obtained from PAU, Ludhiana, Krishi Vigyan Kendras or Department of agriculture.

Question 4.
How will you shift honey bee colonies to shady place during summer season?
Answer:
To protect bees from heat in summer, colonies should be shifted to the thick shade by 2-3 feet daily. Ventilation should be proper for the hives. There should be a sources of water near the apiary.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 5.
What should be hive to hive and row to row distance of colonies in an apiary?
Answer:
Hive to hive distance should be 6-8 feet and row to row distance should be 10 feet.

Question 6.
What hive products other than honey can be obtained from honey bee colonies?
Answer:
Hive products obtained from colonies other than honey are bees wax, propolis bee venom, royal jelly etc.

Question 7.
Why should not unripe honey be extracted?
Answer:
We should not extract unripe honey because its shelf life is low.

Question 8.
How can honey be filtered?
Answer:
After extracting honey we should remove wax and floating impurities from the extracted-honey for this use double layer muslin cloth for filtering the honey.

Question 9.
What are the equipment’s required for starting beekeeping?
Answer:
Equipment’s required for starting beekeeping are-hive tool, bee veil, smoker and comb foundation etc.

Question 10.
Write a note on honey marketing.
Answer:
There are traders and exporters who procure honey. Several self help groups (SHG) are also involved in the marketing of honey. Bottling of honey in attractive bottles having proper information labels fixed on them add to the profit from honey trading.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

(C) Answer in five to six sentences: 

Question 1.
What care should be taken while purchasing honey bee colonies?
Answer:

  • Start beekeeping at suitable time, in Punjab suitable time for starting bee keeping is February to March and November.
  • For higher productivity starts new colony with eight bee frames.
  • Purchase new colony which have mated new queen, open and sealed brood, pollen and brood but have minimum number of drone brood and drone bees.
  • Shift colonies during late night or early morning with closed gates of the hives.

Question 2.
Explain the process of honey extraction.
Answer:
Honey is ready for extraction, it is indicated from the holes in the frame if 75% of holes are sealed, we can extract honey. Honey should not be extracted unripe, because its shelf life is low and it becomes sour in short duration. Remove bees from the frames by shaking and with the help of bees brush. We can use machines for extracting honey or it can be done manually. Remove wax layer from honey combs by using uncapping knife. After extraction, empty combs should be returned to the colonies. Remove the impurities and filter the honey using double muslin cloth.

Question 3.
How can bees wax be extracted?
Answer:
While extracting honey, wax layer is removed from the comb using uncapping knife. Put this wax, very old, broken or damaged combs or wild bee combs in hot water and filter it using thick cloth. Discard the impurities which remained on the top of the cloth. Allow the molten wax in hot water to settle for a night. Wax floats on the water surface as a harden block. This can be collected easily.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 4.
What are the. subsidy facilities being provided by the Government in Punjab?
Answer:
For encouraging the beekeeping occupation, government is providing subsidy on bee hive and honey bee colonies through National Horticulture Mission. Government also provides subsidy on honey extracting machine, uncapping knife, drip tray, food grade plastic container for honey.

Question 5.
Explain importance of beekeeping.
Answer:
Beekeeping is an important and beneficial agricultural based subsidiary occupation. One can earn good income from this occupation. This can be adopted by women, farmers, students etc. as subsidiary occupation. Italian Honey bees can yield 20 kg of honey per colony per year under stationary beekeeping and 60 kg honey per colony per year can be obtained under migratory beekeeping conditions. Other than honey, we can get bee wax, propolis, pollen, bee venom and royal jelly. These are also source of income, one can earn by selling queen bees and colonies etc. Honey bees also help in increasing the crop yield by pollination of field, crops, fruit and vegetable crops.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide BeeKeeping Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Which species of the bee was reared earlier, in India?
Answer:
Only Indian bees.

Question 2.
Which states were involved in beekeeping in earlier times?
Answer:
Hilly and southern areas.

Question 3.
How much honey can be obtained per colony per year from Italian bees under stationary conditions?
Answer:
20 kg.

Question 4.
How much honey can be obtained per colony per year from Italian bees under migratory conditions?
Answer:
60 kg.

Question 5.
How many body parts are there in bee body?
Answer:
Three parts-head, thorax, abdomen.

Question 6.
Which are male bees? Do they sting?
Answer:
Drone bee, No they do not have sting.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 7.
Does queen bee has sting?
Answer:
Yes, it has.

Question 8.
When does a queen bee use its sting?
Answer:
Against rival queen bee.

Question 9.
Which state is leader in honey production?
Answer:
Punjab.

Question 10.
How many worker bees can be there in a colony of bees?
Answer:
8000 to 80,000 and sometimes more.

Question 11.
Which species of bee is more aggressive?
Answer:
Rock bee.

Question 12.
What is the size of Indian bee?
Answer:
Medium size.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 13.
Which bees are produced from unfertilized eggs?
Answer:
Male bees.

Question 14.
What can be the maximum age of worker bees?
Answer:
One to one and half month i.e. six weeks.

Question 15.
Which season is suitable for starting beekeeping?
Answer:
Spring (February to April).

Question 16.
Name species of bees found in India.
Answer:
Little bee, rock bees, Indian bee, Italian bee.

Question 17.
What is common name of Apis Florea?
Answer:
Little bee.

Question 18.
What is common name of Apis Mellifera?
Answer:
Italian bee.

Question 19.
Which bee species is reared in Punjab?
Answer:
Italian bee.

Question 20.
What is life period for a queen bee?
Answer:
2-4 years.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 21.
What is the function of drones in the colony?
Answer:
They mate with queen bee.

Question 22.
Which bees are produced from fertilized eggs?
Answer:
Worker bees.

Question 23.
In which direction should bee hives face?
Answer:
Facing the sun.

Question 24.
What is the position of Punjab in the production of honey?
Answer:
It is a leading state.

Question 25.
How do bees help us?
Answer:
They help by pollinating crops in the fields, flowers, vegetables etc. and help in increasing the yield.

Question 26.
Name the wild species of bee.
Answer:
Rock bee and Little bee.

Question 27.
Where does the rock bee construct its comb?
Answer:
Projection of water tanks, buildings, rocks and thick branches of trees.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 28.
Where does the little bee construct its comb?
Answer:
In bushes, stacked sticks or thin twigs of trees.

Question 29.
Which species of the bees are reared?
Answer:
Indian and Italian bees.

Question 30.
How many castes of Honey bees are there in a colony?
Answer:
Three-queen, worker, drones.

Question 31.
Describe queen bee.
Answer:
It is long, light brown and shining.

Question 32.
What is difference between abdomen of worker and drone bee?
Answer:
Worker bees have conical abdomen and drones have roundish and hairy adbomen.

Question 33.
Write name of crops which are used by bees for getting nectar and pollen?
Answer:
Sheesham, khair, litchi, ber, cucurbits, peach etc.

Question 34.
Which is the second best season for bee keeping?
Answer:
October-November (Autumn Season).

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 35.
In which season bee activities are slow?
Answer:
Winter season (December to January).

Question 36.
Why should there be water source near the bee live?
Answer:
Bees use water to cool their comb.

Question 37.
What should be distance between boxes?
Answer:
10 feet.

Question 38.
What is Propolis?
Answer:
It is honey gum.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about queen bee?
Answer:
Queen plays the role of laying eggs and maintains the colony. It can lay 1500 to 2000 eggs in a day. It can live for many years but its capacity to lay eggs starts reducing after one year. It have long firm abdomen, light brown in colour, wings of queen bee does not cover its abdoment completely.

Question 2.
How is Italian bee better than other species of bees?
Answer:
Quantity of honey obtained from Italian bee is more than the quantity of honey obtained from other species and it is not aggressive.

Question 3.
What arrangement should be done at bee farm for sunlight and shade?
Answer:
There should be arrangement of sunlight in winter and of shade in summer, plant autumn trees near it.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Question 4.
What are the four stages of honey bee?
Answer:
Egg, larva, pupa, adult.

Question 5.
Write a note on life span of queen and its replacement?
Answer:
Queen honey bee has a life span of 2-4 years. Queen bee is replaced every year with new queen bee.

Question 6.
Write note on life span of worker bee.
Answer:
Worker bee has life span of one to one and half month, but in winter it can live for six months.

Question 7.
Write a note on the body structure male bees?
Answer:
Drones (male bees) are black and big in size than worker bees. They have large compound eyes which unite at top of their head. Tip of abdomen is round and hairy.

Question 8.
Which equipment is required for starting bee keeping?
Answer:
Hive, gloves, hive tool, bee veil, smoker, comb foundation, honey extractor, queen cage, uncapping knife, bee brush, containers etc.

Question 9.
What is the importance of honey in human diet?
Answer:
Honey is a good food. One should take 50 gram honey daily. It contains carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. It contains many antibiotics. It can be used in case of cough. It is also beneficial for eyes and brain.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many species of honey are there? Write about their size and nature.
Answer:
There are four species of honey bees. Little bee, rock bee, Indian bee. Italian bee. Rock bee is larger of all and is very aggressive. Little bee is smallest among them. Rock bee and little bee are wild species. Indian bees and Italian bees can be reared and medium sized. Italian bee is calm in nature.

Question 2.
What do you know about life cycle of honey bee and write about management of colony?
Answer:
Honey bee has four stages in life cycle-egg, larva, pupa, adult. Life cycle of queen bee completes in 16 days, worker bee and drone bee complete their life cycle in 21 days and in 24 days respectively.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping 1
There are three castes of honey bees. Queen, worker and drone (male) bees. There is one queen in a colony. There are thousands of worker bees and drones are few hundreds in number. Worker bees construct the comb, collect pollens and nectar and can sacrifies their life for the betterment of their hive.

Question 3.
How many worker bees are there in a colony? What are the tasks they do?
Answer:
There can be 8000-80,000 worker bees in a colony depending upon in size. These do not lay eggs but perform all other duties. They keep the hive clean, take care of the brood, make hive, collect nectar and pollen and fill in the comb, take care of the live, temperature regulation and guarding the live, feeding young ones and queen.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping

BeeKeeping PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • Earlier, beekeeping was practised mainly in hilly and southern states of India and the reared bee species was
  • Indian honey bee Apis cerana.
  • PAU, Ludhiana successfully introduced Italian honey bee in 1965.
  • We may get 20 kg of Honey per colony per year from stationary bee keeping and 60 kg of Honey per colony per year from migratory bee keeping.
  • Products which are obtained from bee keeping are bee wax, propolis, bee venom, pollen, royal jelly etc.
  • Body of honey can be considered of divided into three parts- head, thorax and abdomen.
  • There are mainly four species of honey bee apis dorsata (rock bee), apis florea (little bee), apis cerana (Indian bee) and apis mellifera (European/Italian bee)
  • Honey bee can lay nearly 2000 eggs in a day.
  • Rock bee and little bee are wild species.
  • Indian bee and Italian bee are hive bees.
  • Rock bee is very aggressive.
  • Italian and Indian bees are reared in boxes.
  • There are three castes of honey bees-queen, drones and worker bees.
  • Life cycle of honey bees have four stages-egg, larva, pupa and adult.
  • Life cycle of queen bee completes in 16 days that of worker in 21 and of drone in 24 days.
  • A colony have nearly 8000 to 80,000 worker bees.
  • Good sources of nectar and pollens for bees are berseem. toria, sarson. arhar. eucalyptus, sheesham. pear etc.
  • Suitable season for starting bee keeping is February-March and November.
  • Honey bees seal the ripe honey with a layer of bees wax.
  • We should not extract unripe honey.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 6 BeeKeeping Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Mushroom Cultivation Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
Name two important commercially grown mushrooms.
Answer:
Button mushroom, Paddy straw mushroom, shiitake mushroom.

Question 2.
Name the health benefits of mushrooms.
Answer:
Mushrooms are rich in proteins, minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium etc. These are also suitable for patients having Sugar and blood pressure.

Question 3.
How many crops of button mushroom can be obtained in the winter season in Punjab?
Answer:
Two crops can be obtained from September to March.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 4.
What is the maximum height of the compost stack during compost preparation for button mushroom?
Answer:
Five feet.

Question 5.
What is the ratio of farm yard manure and sandy soil for preparation of casing soil?
Answer:
FYM and garden soil should be in the ratio of 4:1.

Question 6.
Which insecticide is used for control of insect pests of mushrooms?
Answer:
Nuvan (Dichlorovos).

Question 7.
What is the gap period between spray of insecticide for control of flies and next harvest of mushrooms?
Answer:
48 hours.

Question 8.
What is the amount of spawn required for 3 quintals of straw?
Answer:
300 grams.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 9.
What is the total mushroom production in Punjab presently?
Answer:
Nearly 45000-48000 tones per annum.

Question 10.
How many turnings are given during preparation of compost?
Answer:
Seven turning.

Question 11.
What is the pH of good quality ready compost?
Answer:
7.0 to 8.0 pH.

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
What are the important nutritional attributes of mushrooms?
Answer:
Calcium, phosphorus, iron, potash, minerals and vitamin C etc. are present in mushrooms in ample quantity.

Question 2.
What are the requirements for growing mushrooms?
Answer:
Fresh paddy straw (not older than one year), bamboo sticks and mushroom seed (spawn), Kisan Khad, urea, murate of potash, gypsum,
gamma, B.C. 20E, Furadan, Molasses etc. are required.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 3.
Why is it important to turn the compost stack during compost preparation?
Answer:
By turning the compost stack the original outer portion goes inside and central portion becomes the outer part. This helps in increase in microbial activity.

Question 4.
How is the compost prepared for mushroom growing treated?
Answer:
Before sowing the mushroom seeds, prepared compost is treated with Bavistin 50% soluble 20 mg per litre. 20 gram dust of Bavistin is required for one quintal compost which is enough for four boxes.

Question 5.
What is the significance of casing? How is casing soil prepared?
Answer:
Casing provides proper environment for growth of mushrooms. Casing mixture is obtained by mixing FYM and garden soil in the ratio 4: 1 or spent compost and FYM in the ratio of 1:1.

Question 6.
What are the recommended varieties of mushrooms for cultivation in Punjab and give their technical names?
Answer:
According to environment of Punjab, there are five varieties of mushrooms-Button mushrooms, shiitake mushroom, Chinese mushrooms, Milky, oyster mushrooms.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation 1
Question 7.
Give the turning schedule for preparation of compost and the details of what all is required for compost production.
Answer:
Turning schedule for preparation of compost:

Turning After how many days turning is done after preparing the stack Things to add
First 4 Molasses
Second 8
Third 12 gypsum
Fourth 15
Fifth 18 Furadan
Sixth 21
Seventh 24 Lindane.

Thus seven turnings are done. Initial three turning after even’ four days and the remaining turnings after every three days.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 8.
How is casing soil mixture disinfected before use?
Answer:
Disinfecting soil:
Wet the mix of compost and garden soil. Spray 4-5% of Formalin on it. In addition 20 g Furadan per quintal of casing soil is also added. Treated soil is covered with tarpaulin sheet or Polythene sheets for at least 48 hours. Then it is opened and turned again and again, so that formalin evaporates completely from it.

Question 9.
What are the quality attributed of well prepared compost?
Answer:
Attributes of well prepared compost are its colour, smell and moisture content. When colour of compost is dark brown and there is no smell of ammonia and moisture is 65-72% then the compost is ready for spawning and pH value should be 7.0 to 8.0.

Question 10.
What is the production of mushrooms from one square meter bed area?
Answer:
Production of mushrooms from one square metre bed area is 8-12 kg. mushrooms.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

Question 1.
What is the importance of mushrooms in our diet?
Answer:
Mushrooms are used as food in whole of the world. It contains many nutrients and thus help in keeping the body fit. Mushrooms contain protein in large quantity, which is easily digestible. Mushrooms also contain potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, minerals and vitamin C in large amount. Carbohydrates and fats are present in small amounts. Therefore, mushrooms are beneficial for blood pressure and sugar patients.

Question 2.
Give the procedure for preparation of stack for composting in button mushroom?
Answer:
Spread wheat straw on “pucca” floor and wet it with clean water. Keep this straw as such for 48 hours. Mix bran and fertilizers separately and wet it with water. After 24 hours bran fertilizer mixture is broadcasted on the wetted wheat straw. Prepare stacks of the size 5 feet high, 5 feet broad and 5 feet long on the wooden boards. Height and breadth of the stack should not be more than 5 feet each.

Question 3.
What do you know about the marketing of mushrooms?
Answer:
Do not cut or pull the Mushrooms rather pick them by gentle twisting of the buttons. The mature unopened mushrooms are harvested once a day. This way no harm is done to the small button mushroom. After picking, clean off the straw pieces sticking to the mushrooms. Pack them in perforated polythene bags in 200 g lots. These packed mushrooms are sent for marketing. Mushrooms can be dried in sun or in shade and can be used in off season marketing.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 4.
What is mushroom spawn? How is spawning done in trays for button mushroom?
Answer:
See next questions.

Question 5.
What are the different steps in button mushroom production and briefly discuss each one?
Answer:
Steps in button mushroom production-
1. Ingredient, for compost preparing:
Wheat straw 300 kg., wheat bran 15kg, CAN 9 kg; urea, super phosphate and murate of potash 3 kg each of the three; gypsum 30 kg, gamma BHC (20% E.C.) 60 ml, molasses 5 kg, Furadan (3G) 150 gram.

2. Stack preparation:
Spread the wheat straw on a pucca floor and wet properly with water, leave it open for at least 48 hours. Mix wheat bran/husk powder with fertilizers (separately) mentioned in step 1 and moisten with water. Broadcast wheat bran mixture on the wet wheat straw after 24 hours. Mix using pitchforks. Prepare a stack of 5 x 5 x 5 foot high with the help of 3 wooden boards. Stack should not be higher than 5 feet.

3. Turning the compost stack:
Layer of stack is removed from top and all sides, it is thoroughly mixed and wetted. This way the inner part of the stack forms outer part of the new stack and outer part of the original stack goes inside the new stack. Repeat the same process when needed. Turning is necessary to increase the microbial activity which helps in decomposition. Turn the stack every fourth day and add to it. molasses, gypsum, furadan, lindane dust respectively at first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh turning.

The compost prepared from 300 kg wheat straw is used to fill 20-25 crates of the size 100 x 150 x 18 cm. When color of compost is dark brown and there is no smell of ammonia and moisture content is 65-72% then the compost is ready for spawning and pH should be 7.0 to 8.0.

4. Disinfecting the compost:
Before spawning, prepared compost is mixed with Bavistin 50% soluble 20 mg per litre. 20 gram Bavistin dust is required for one quintal compost which can be filled in four crates or boxes.

5. Filling crates and spawning:
Dismantle the compost stack and let it attain the room temperature. Take out spawn from the bottles and by using two layer growing method, broad cast spawn on the compost and fill in the boxes. Cover it with thick layer of compost. Broadcast the remaining part of spawn on this layer. Cover the boxes with wet newspaper or other papers.

6. Covering crates with soil:
Crates covered with 80-100% mycelium are covered uniformly with FYM and garden soil in the ratio 4:1 or covered with well rotten rice bran- and gobar gas slurry in the ratio 1:1. Before covering, treat it with 4-5% formalin.

7. Disinfecting soil:
Wet the mix of compost and garden soil. Spray 4-5% of Formalin on it..In addition 20g Furadan per quintal of casing soil is also added. Treated soil is covered with tarpaulin sheet or polythene sheets for at least 48 hours. Then it is opened and turned again and again so that formalin evaporates completely from it.

8. Covering of trays:
After 2-3 weeks of spawning remove the news paper and cover the compost covered with mycelium with a l’to 15 inch thick layer of disinfected soil.

9. Arranging containers:
Trays can be stacked and the area under cultivation can be increased. The trays are arranged one above the other in lines and the lines are 2 to 2.5 feet apart up and below. This way adequate working area is available and no harm is done to small pinheads of mushroom. After picking, the lower most part of the stalk of the mushroom is cut off with the help of a knife and clean mushrooms are collected.

10. Packing: Fresh Mushrooms are packed in perforated polythene bags in a lot of 200 grams.

11. Yield: 12 kg Mushrooms are available in one square metre area in one season.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Mushroom Cultivation Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many trays are covered with Mycelium in 2-3 weeks?
Answer:
80-100 percent.

Question 2.
How many grams of Mushrooms are filled in poly bags for marketing?
Answer:
200 grams.

Question 3.
What is name of Mushroom seed?
Answer:
Spawn.

Question 4.
Which nutrients are found in less quantity in Mushrooms?
Answer:
Carbohydrates and fats.

Question 5.
Which variety of Mushroom is grown in summer and how many crops can be obtained?
Answer:
It is paddy straw mushroom. We can obtain four crops from this.

Question 6.
For how many boxes the compost prepared from 300 kg of wheat straw is enough?
Answer:
20-25 boxes of. the size 100 x 150 x 18 cm.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 7.
How will you identify the prepared compost?
Answer:
When color of the compost becomes dark brown and there is no ammonical smell, compost is ready.

Question 8.
Name any disease, which can be cured by taking mushrooms.
Answer:
Blood pressure.

Question 9.
How many crops of mushrooms are obtained in winter?
Answer:
White button mushrooms give two crops in winter.

Question 10.
When the winter mushrooms sown?
Answer:
From October to April.

Question 11.
Which materials are required for Mushroom compost?
Answer:
Molasses, Gypsum, furadan, gamma B.H.C. etc. are required.

Question 12.
How much seed is required for one square metre?
Answer:
300 gram seed is required for one square metre.

Question 13.
What is the yield of Mushrooms obtained from one square metre?
Answer:
In one season 8-12 kg of fresh Mushrooms can be obtained from one metre square.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 14.
How many crops are taken from summer season Mushroom?
Answer:
From milky mushroom three crops can be taken.

Question 15.
How many mushroom growers are there in Punjab?
Answer:
400.

Question 16.
What is the time when we can take crop of button mushroom?
Answer:
September to March two crops.

Question 17.
What is the time when we can take crop of oyster.
Answer:
October to March, one crop.

Question 18.
What is time of taking shiitake Mushroom?
Answer:
One crop September to March.

Question 19.
Which variety of Mushroom is cultivated more in Punjab?
Answer:
Button mushroom.

Question 20.
From where can we get seed of mushroom?
Answer:
Punjab Agricultural University, Department of Micro Biology.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is spawning done in boxes or crates?
Answer:
Dismantle the compost pile and let it attain the room temperature. Take out spawn from the bottles and by using two layer growing method, broad cast spawn on the compost and fill in the boxes. Cover it with thick layer of compost. Broadcast the remaining part of spawn on this layer. Cover the boxes with wet newspaper or other papers.

Question 2.
How will you fill the bags for cultivation of Dhingri (Oyster Mushroom)?
Answer:
Polythene bags are filled up-to 3 level with wheat straw and bits of spawn are broadcast on it. Fill the bag again up-to 2 level with wheat straw and broadcast spawn. Fill the bag with alternate layers of straw and spawn to its full capacity. The upper end of the bag is tied with gunny thread and bottom comers of the bag are given cut to drain off the excess of water. Place these bags in a room with proper facility of light. After 3¬4 weeks of spawning small mushroom primordia appear and at this stage bags are cut open. Water the straw only to keep them moist.

Question 3.
What should be taken care of while picking mushrooms (harvesting)?
Answer:
Do not cut or pull the Mushroom they are picked by gentle twisting of the buttons. The mature unopened mushrooms and harvested once a day.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Question 4.
Which insect is harmful for Mushrooms? How can we control it?
Answer:
Mushroom flies are harmful for Mushrooms, When these are seen in the beds, on the window panes, walls or ceiling then spray 30 millilitre Nuvan 100 EC (WP) per 100 cubic metre. After spray close the doors and windows for at least 2 hours and do not pick the mushrooms for at least 48 hours. Do not spray directly on the beds.

Question 5.
What is done to increase the crop area?
Answer:
Boxes are placed on each other to increase the crop area and Distance between boxes placed in sines is 2 to 2.5 feet and distance between trays placed over each other is one foot.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
How is paddy straw mushrooms cultivated?
Answer:
1. Material required: Fresh paddy straw (not older than one year) bamboo stick, spawn.

2. Method or procedure:
Make bundles weighing 1-1.5 kg from dry paddy straw. Tie its both ends and cut the protruded ends on both sides to make them equal sized. Soak these bundles in clean water for 16 to 20 hours. Place these bundles on sloping surface to drain excess of water. Place five bundles on two bamboo sticks which are kept one foot apart. Spawn is broad casted on these bundles. This way a bed of 22 bundles per square metre is prepared. To get more area under the cultivation, beds are laid on one another. For one bed 300 gram of seed is required.

3. Seed Broadcast (Spawning): 300 gram of seed is required for a bed. Keep uniformity for each layer.

4. Watering: Water after 2-3 days of spawning. Ventilation is not required initially but later on proper ventilation is required.

5. Crop appearance:
After 7-9 days of spawning small plant heads start appearing. Fruit bodies of mushrooms becomes worth harvesting on tenth day. Mushroom continue to appear for 15-20 days in 4 flushes. One crop of this mushroom is over in one month. This way four crops from April to August can be obtained.

6. Packing: Mushrooms are packed in perforated polythene bags in a lot of 200 grams.

7. Yield and cost: 22 kg of dry paddy straw can give a yield of 2.5 to 3 kg of fresh mushrooms.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation

Mushroom Cultivation PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • There are 400 mushroom growing places in Punjab.
  • Annual production of mushrooms is about 45000-48000 tonnes.
  • Nutrients found in mushrooms are Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Potash, Minerals and Vitamin-C.
  • It contains low amounts of fats and carbohydrates. Mushrooms are good for patients of blood pressure and sugar.
  • According to environment of Punjab, there are five varieties of mushrooms-Button mushrooms, shiitake mushroom, Chinese mushrooms, Milky, Oyster mushroom.
  • In winter two crops of Button mushrooms can be taken from September to March.
  • Three crops of oyster mushrooms can be taken from October to March and one crop of shiitake can be taken in September to March.
  • Turn the stack after every fourth day and add molasses, gypsum, Lindane and furadan respectively at first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh turning.
  • Seed rate is 300 gram spawn per square meter.
  • In summer four crops of paddy straw mushroom are taken from April to August and of milky mushroom three crops are taken from April to October.
  • Mix FYM and garden soil in the ratio of 4:1 or spent compost and FYM in the ratio of 1:1 to get casing mixture.
  • Use 4-5% formalin for disinfecting casing mixture.
  • Use dichlorovos as a preventive measure against mushroom flies and do not harvest up-to 48 hours after spraying.
  • Mushroom seeds are known as spawn.
  • Within 2-3 weeks 80-100% of trays are filled with mycellium which is white like cotton.
  • Mushroom yield obtained is 8-12 kg per sq metre.
  • 200 grams of fresh mushrooms are packed in poly bags having small holes in them.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 5 Mushroom Cultivation Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Solar Energy Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer In one to two words:

Question 1.
What is the major benefit of solar water heater?
Answer:
It is used to heat water for temperatures less than 100°C.

Question 2.
Give two examples of renewable sources of energy.
Answer:
Solar energy, Bio-gas.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 3.
Give two examples of non-renewable sources of energy.
Answer:
Coal, Petroleum products etc.

Question 4.
How many types of solar dryers are?
Answer:
There are two types of solar dryer on the basis of their use domestic solar dryer and multi product solar dryer.

Question 5.
Name any two vegetables which are dried in the solar dryer.
Answer:
Spinach, Fenugreek, Chilli etc.

Question 6.
What is the capacity of multiple solar dryer for drying agricultural product?
Answer:
20 to 30 kg agricultural product.

Question 7.
What is the major benefit of solar cooker?
Answer:
It is used to cook food.

Question 8.
What percentage of conventional fuel can be saved by the use of solar cooker?
Answer:
It saves 20% to 50% conventional fuel.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 9.
For how many hours solar lantern can be used?
Answer:
For 3-4 hours.

Question 10.
How many types of solar cooker are there?
Answer:
These are of two types storage cum collector solar water heater and thermosiphon solar water heater.

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
What are the types of energy sources? Give examples.
Answer:
There are two types of energy sources:

  • Renewable
  • Non-renewable.
  • Renewable energy sources: Biogas, solar energy, chemical energy etc. These sources are plenty and less costly.
  • Non-renewable energy sources: Electricity, coal, petrol etc. These are limited in nature.

Question 2.
Name the products which are dried with solar dryer.
Answer:
Spinach, tomato, fenugreek, mustard leaves, potato, turmeric, chilli, plums, peach, grapes etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 3.
What is meant by solar cooker?
Answer:
It is a device used to cook food using solar energy. It can save 20% to 50% of non-renewable fuel.

Question 4.
Briefly discuss solar street light.
Answer:
This light is used after the sun sets to light the street, roads etc. A battery is charged using solar energy which is used to give power to these solar lights. These are automatic lights which are operated automatically when sun sets.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 1

Question 5.
What are the points kept in mind when the cooking is done in solar cooker?
Answer:

  • Pre heat the solar cooker by setting up it in the sun.
  • Add just sufficient water to the container having food ingredients to be cooked in the solar cooker.
  • Vegetables, eggs etc. do not need water for cooking in solar cooker. Cut potatoes and vegetables into small pieces before placing these into the solar cooker for cooking.
  • The container containing ingredients and water should not be filled more than half of its level.

Question 6.
Briefly discuss the solar home lighting system.
Answer:
In this system sunlight is used to charge the inverter battery system. It can be used to light 2 tube lights and two fans up to 5 to 6 hours in case of power cuts.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 2

Question 7.
What is solar water pump?
Answer:
This pump is used to lift water from a level of 35 to 40 feet. It consists of a motor which runs by electricity produced by solar panels.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 3

Question 8.
Briefly discuss solar lantern.
Answer:
This is an emergency light system. It is charged in the sun light and it can be used for 3-4 hours for lighting.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 4

Question 9.
Briefly explain the working of domestic solar dryer.
Answer:
It is a small-sized solar dryer. It can be used to dry 2 to 3 kg fresh products in 2 to 3 days. Products which are dried in this dryer are normally used in powder form in the kitchen e.g. red chillies, onion, garlic, mango powder, ginger, spinach leaves etc.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 5

Question 10.
Briefly discuss the multi-product solar drier.
Answer:
Agricultural products should be dried at low air temperature than the maximum allowed temperature. High temperature may destroy the quality of the food items. This solar drier can be used for drying 20-30 kg of agricultural products per day.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 6

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

Question 1.
Explain the method of cooking in solar cooker.
Answer:

  • Pre heat the’solar cooker by setting up it in the sun.
  • Add just sufficient water to the container having food ingredients to be cooked in the solar cooker.
  • Vegetables, eggs etc. do not need water for cooking in solar cooker. Cut potatoes and vegetables into small pieces before placing-these into the solar cooker for cooking.
  • The container containing ingredients and water should not be filled more than half of its level.
  • Keep the top of solar cooker towards the sun.
  • Do not open the solar cooker again and again. This will delay in cooking.
  • Open the lid carefully after cooking the food, so that steam cannot hurt our body.
    PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 7

Question 2.
Explain the solar water heater in details.
Answer:
Solar water heater is a device used for heating water using solar energy. It consists of tubes, storage tank, tube and fix assembly, glass sheet etc.
PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy 8
Collector tubes are joined to the header of the bottom and top storage tank is insulated and is mounted in such a way that its bottom is above the top of collector by at least 60-70 cm. Front of the tube and fin assembly is covered by a glass sheet and all other sides and back are insulated. The sun rays fall on the tube and fin assembly, as a result water gets heated up, as hot water is lighter than cold water, hot water moves to the upper part of the storage tank.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 3.
Explain two solar dryer in detail.
Answer:
Solar dryer is used to dry vegetables and fruits. These are of two types.
Cabinet dryer:
This is a wooden box which is black from inside. It is covered with a glass sheet. Inside the box. there are perforated trays arranged at different levels, one above the other. Product to be dried is placed in these trays. There are two holes in this dryer, lower hole allows the air to enter and the hole at upper side allows the air to leave, this way air circulation takes place.

Multi product solar dryer:
This device is made up of sheets of wood and iron or of fiber glass. There are many holes at lower part and upper part for circulation of air. An arrangement has been done on the sides for placing and removing the products. There are shining rods for absorbing sunlight. Single glass sheet is fitted on the top of the box. Those trays which are used for drying the products have many holes in them. Trays are 3-4 cm in height. Cut pieces of vegetables and fruits can be dried in these trays. To protect the products from getting direct sunlight shining black plates are fixed. Since this is a solar device and uses sun rays it is placed in sunlight. Its glass top should be towards south.

Question 4.
Briefly discuss the different gadgets of solar energy.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 5.
How the solar energy can be used in different ways?
Answer:
Sun is the ultimate source of energy in the world. Plants make their own food in sunlight and living beings take their food from the plants. Sun is responsible for air – water cycle, but all these things are happening automatically in nature. We can use solar energy in different ways by using different techniques, e.g.

  • We can heat water using solar energy, cook food, produce electricity. We can dry fruits and vegetables using solar energy.
  • Electricity can be produced using solar cells.
  • We can save non-renewable sources of energy by using solar energy.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Solar Energy Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many types of natural energy source are there?
Answer:
Two types.

Question 2.
What type of energy is electricity obtained from burning of coal?
Answer:
Conventional (Non-renewable) energy source.

Question 3.
Which type of energy sources are limited?
Answer:
Non-renewable.

Question 4.
Which type of energy sources are in plenty?
Answer:
Renewable (Non-conventional).

Question 5.
How much fresh product can be dried in domestic level solar dryer and in how many days?
Answer:
2-3 kg fresh products in 2-3 days.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 6.
Can we prepare chapati in solar cooker?
Answer:
No.

Question 7.
In which direction solar water should face?
Answer:
Towards south.

Question 8.
How many fans and lights can be operated using solar home lighting system?
Answer:
2 tubes, 2 fans for 5 to 6 hours.

Question 9.
What is the name of solar water heater.
Answer:
Thermosyphen solar water heater and storage-cum-collector solar water heater.

Question 10.
Name any one conventional source of energy.
Answer:
Coal.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 11.
How much percent of conventional fuel is saved by using solar cooker?
Answer:
20% to 50%.

Question 12.
Frame of trays is made up of which material?
Answer:
G.I. sheets.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the uses of solar energy?
Answer:
Solar energy is used to heat water, for drying fruits and vegetables, for cooking food etc.

Question 2.
What is the disadvantage of drying bruits and vegetables in direct sun light?
Answer:
Insects, birds and dust can harm the fruits and vegetables and their color may change.

Question 3.
What is solar heater?
Answer:
This is a device which absorb solar energy and convert it in heat energy.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Question 4.
Why is it necessary to clean the glass of solar water heater?
Answer:
Dust collects on the glass which hinders the path of sun light and therefore efficiency of the water heater is reduced. It becomes necessary to clean the glass top.

Question 5.
How can solar energy be concentrated?
Answer:
By using various types of lenses and mirrors.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
How much conventional fuel is saved by using solar cooker? What are the types of solar cooker? What are the limitations of solar cooker?
Answer:
By using solar cooker we can save 20% to 50% of conventional fuel which is used to cook food. Solar energy can be concentrated by using various types of lenses, normally these are of two types:

  1. Box type solar cooker
  2. Double reflector solar cooker.

Limitations:
We have to Place solar cooker in such a way that it is always facing The sun light and it has to be set again and again. Solar cooker can not be used to prepare chapaties.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy

Solar Energy PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • The sources of energy in nature are of two types conventional (non-renewable) and non-conventional (renewable).
  • Conventional sources of energy are limited. These are coal, electricity, petroleum etc.
  • Non-conventional sources of energy Biogas solar energy, chemical energy etc.
  • Solar cell can be used to produce electricity using solar cells.
  • Solar dryer is used for drying vegetables, fruits etc.
  • Solar dryers are of two types domestic solar dryer, multi product solar dryer.
  • Solar cooker is used for cooking food using solar energy.
  • Solar water heater is used to heat water using solar energy.
  • Solar water heaters are of two types thermosiphon solar water heater, storage cum collector solar water heater.
  • Solar lantern is emergency light. It is charged using solar energy and it can be used for 3-4 hours.
  • Solar energy is also used to light street lights and house lights.
  • Solar water pump is used to lift water from a depth of 35-40 feet.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 4 Solar Energy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one or two words:

Question 1.
How the land was measured in ancient time?
Answer:
Using a rope.

Question 2.
Which Emperor is called die founder of land reforms?
Answer:
Mughal Emperor Akbar.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 3.
How many acres are there in one hectare?
Answer:
2.5 acre.

Question 4.
How may marlas make one kanal?
Answer:
20 marlas.

Question 5.
In which states of India, Murababandi has been done in a systematic way?
Answer:
Punjab and Haryana.

Question 6.
In which decade, Murababandi was started?
Answer:
In the decade of 1950.

Question 7.
Which site is to be seen for Jammabandi?
Answer:
www.plrs.org.in

Question 8.
How many acres are there in a Muraba according to Murababandi Act?
Answer:
25-25 acre pieces of land.

Question 9.
At what time, Girdawary of Rabi crops is prepared?
Answer:
1 March to 31 March.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 10.
After how many years, new Jammabandi is carried out?
Answer:
Earlier it was after every four years and now after every five years.

(B) Answer in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Who corrects the Girdawary of a disputed land?
Answer:
Girdawary of a disputed land can be got corrected in the court of Tehsildar.

Question 2.
What is Jammabandi?
Answer:
Jammabandi is an important document of Punjab land revenue act regarding the ownership of a land. Particulars which are mentioned in this are khepet number, khatauni, name of village pati, name of person according to his share in ownership, name of person who is existing cultivator and source of irrigation.

Question 3.
What is Intkaal?
Answer:
Transfer of ownership right from one owner of land to another owner is calld intkaal.

Question 4.
What instruments are required for measurement of land?
Answer:
Demarcation of the land on all four sides is called measurement. Patwari or Kanungo use shijra and zareeb to mark the length and breadth of the land according to the Khasra number.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 5.
What is Goshwara?
Answer:
Total of all cultivated crops in the form of a table is called goshwara.

Question 6.
What is Rehan or Mortgage?
Answer:
When owner of a land gives all or part of his land temporarily to another person for cultivation for mutually agreed amount and for fixed time, it is called mortgage.

Question 7.
What is Khraba/loss of crops, how it is assessed?
Answer:
When crop destroyed on large scale due to natural calamities like heavy rians, floods, attack of insects/pests, drought etc. is called Khraba. Loss or Khraba is assessed by assuming that production of crop in the area is 100%.

Question 8.
What is Shijra and what are its other names?
Answer:
Shijra is a piece (of cloth on which map of village is carved, Khasra numbers of all the land of village land are printed on it. It is also known as Kishatvar, Paarcha or Latha.

Question 9.
What is Murababandi and what are its benefits?
Answer:
Scattered pieces of land in the name of an owner are consolidated as one unit at one place, this is called Murababandi or chakbandi. Its
benefit is that every work related to land becomes easier.

Question 10.
What is Zareeb?
Answer:
Zareeb is a chain made up of iron rings and is used to measure land. It is 10 Karams long i.e. 55 feet long.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

Question 1.
What is Girdawary and at what time it is done?
Answer:
It is a survey of the crops. It is called Girdawary or Gardaury. It is done twice in a year. For Rabi crops it is done in the month of March and for Kharif crops it is done in October. Additional Girdawari in also done for Jayad crops in the months of May and December for crops falling between Rabi and Kharif and between Kharif and Rabi season.

Question 2.
Why division of land is essential and how it is done?
Answer:
When there are two or more shareholders of a particular piece of land, then land is divided as per the consent of the shareholders, this is called division of land. After division of land each shareholder is the independent owner of his share of land. Now he can sell the land or mortgage his land. He can take loan against his land.

Question 3.
What is computerization of land record?
Answer:
All the land records have been computerized. The certified copies of Jammabandi and Intkaal can be obtained by paying requisite fee personally from nearby office of Sub-Tehsildar or Tehsildar. The land records can be seen at the site www.plrs.org.in.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 4.
What is Theka or Chakota or renting in or renting out of land?
Answer:
The owner of a land gives his land on rent to some other person for cultivation for fixed time period and fixed amount agreed on by both sides. The time period can be one year or two years or five years etc. This is called Theka Or Chakota.

Question 5.
Write a brief note on land registry.
Answer:
When a person who is owner of a piece of land, house, shop etc. mortgaged or sold the same to some other person, then an agreement is entered with photos with mutual consent of both parties in the register maintained in the office of Tehsildar. This is called registry. Registry Bai, Rehan share, transfer of ownership etc. are various types of registries.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who played important role in the work of measurement of land in the regime of Mughal emperor Akbar?
Answer:
Todar Mai.

Question 2.
Before the year 1580, how did people pay tax to the government?
Answer:
In the form of crop.

Question 3.
After the year 1580, in which form tax was paid to the government?
Answer:
In the form of cash.

Question 4.
What is the length of Zareeb?
Answer:
10 karam or 55 feet.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 5.
What is Musteel?
Answer:
A piece of 25 acre land is called Musteel.

Question 6.
How many columns are there in intkaal?
Answer:
It has 12 columns.

Question 7.
How many columns are there in Jammabandi form?
Answer:
1-12 Columns.

Question 8.
When is Girdawary of Kharif crop done?
Answer:
1 October to 31 October.

Question 9.
When is the Girdawary of Jmd crop done?
Answer:
May and December.

Question 10.
How is the loss of crop assessed?
Answer:
By assuming 100% production of crop.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 11.
1 foot a = …………..
Answer:
12 inches.

Question 12.
1 yard = ……………..
Answer:
3 feet.

Question 13.
1 furlong =…………….
Answer:
220 yards.

Question 14.
1 mile =……….. yard = ………… furlong
Answer:
1760 yard=8 furlong.

Question 15.
1 Karm =……….. inch =…………. foot
Answer:
66 inches=5.5 feet.

Question 16.
1 sq karm=…………. sarsahi
Answer:
1 sarsahi.

Question 17.
1 maria=…………… sarsahian
Answer:
9 sarsahian.

Question 18.
1 maria = ………… sq feet
Answer:
272.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 19.
1 maria = ………… sq yard
Answer:
30.

Question 20.
1 Kanal = ………. maria
Answer:
20.

Question 21.
1 Kanal =……… biswa
Answer:
12.

Question 22.
1 acre = …………. kanal
Answer:
8.

Question 23.
1 acre = ……….
Answer:
4000.

Question 24.
1 acre = ……. maria =……. sq foot
Answer:
160 maria=220 x 198 sq foot.

Question 25.
1 acre=………. sq metre
Answer:
4000.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Question 26.
1 biswa = ………. sq foot
Answer:
50.

Question 27.
1 Muraba/1 Musteel =………. acre
Answer:
25.

Question 28.
1 hectare =………….. acre
Answer:
2.5.

Question 29.
1 hectare =………… sq metre
Answer:
10000.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
At the time of Akbar, how was land tax paid?
Answer:
Earlier land tax was paid in the form of crops and since 1580 the tax was paid in the form of cash.

Question 2.
What are different types of intkaal?
Answer:
Types of intkaal are – Bai, Rehan, exchange, division etc.

Question 3.
Who enters the details in intkaal?
Answer:
Patwari makes enteries in the intkaal, kanungo checks the enteries as per the record. Tehsildar summons both the parties at a specified place and time, Numbardar verifies and Tehsildar approves it.

Question 4.
What type of ownership changes are entered in the Jammabandi?
Answer:
Rehan, Bai, unirrigated to irrigated, rental to crop sharing etc.

Question 5.
What is the reason for loss of crop?
Answer:
There are many reasons of loss or Kaharaba e.g. heavy rains, floods, attack of insects, pests etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write note on Girdawary, land registry.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 2.
Write note on theka, division.
Answer:
Do yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records

Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • In India the measurement of land started in the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar and Todarmal played an important role in this work.
  • Emperor Akbar started receiving tax in cash since 1580 A.D.
  • Land measurement improved after independence and Land consolidation act (Murababandhi act) was one of such reforms.
  • Zareeb is a chain made up of iron rings and is used to measure land.
  • Land is measured in acres, kanal, maria etc.
  • Zareeb is 10 Karms Jong or 5.5 feet long.
  • Shijra/Latha is a piece of cloth on which map of village is carved, Khasra numbers of all land are printed on it.
  • According to Land consolidation act, whole land was divided into pieces each of 25 acres in measurement.
  • Total of all cultivated crops in the form of a table is called Goshwara.
  • Transfer of ownership rights from one owner of land to another owner is called Intkaal.
  • Jammabandi or Fard is an important document of Punjab Land Revenue Act regarding ownership of land.
  • Earlier, Jammabandi was carried out after every four years and now it is carried out after every five years.
  • There are 1-12 columns in Jammabandi Fard. ‘
  • Girdawary or Gardaury is a survey of land and of cultivated land.
  • We can check the records online from the web site: www.plrs.org.in.
  • 1 foot=12 inch, 1 yard=3 feet.
  • 1 Marla=9 Sarsahian=272 square feet.
  • 1 Kanal =20 Marla.
  • 1 Acre = 8 Kanal.
  • Hectare =2.5 acre=20 Kanal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 3 Land Measurement and Documentation of Land Records Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Agriculture Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Agriculture Guide for Class 8 PSEB Nursery Raising Textbook Questions and Answers

(A) Answer in one to two words:

Question 1.
Which fungicide is used for vegetable seed treatment?
Answer:
Captan or thiram.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 2.
What is the optimum time for raising the nursery of tomato?
Answer:
First week of November, first fortnight of July.

Question 3.
When should the Chilli nursery be raised?
Answer:
Last week of October to mid of November.

Question 4.
Write the name of two summer season flowers.
Answer:
Sunflower, Zinnia.

Question 5.
Write the names of two winter season flowers.
Answer:
Gulashrafi, Ice plant.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 6.
What is the optimum time for raising nursery of eucalyptus?
Answer:
February-March or September-October.

Question 7.
What is the length of poplar cutting for nursery raising purpose?
Answer:
20-25 cm.

Question 8.
Write the method through which true to type plants can be produced.
Answer:
Vegetative propagation-cuttings.

Question 9.
What is the seed rate of onion for one acre?
Answer:
4-5 kg per acre.

Question 10.
Write the name of two fruits and flowers which are raised through budding.
Answer:
Mango, Guava, Apple, Pears.

(B) Answer in one to two sentences:

Question 1.
Which vegetables are raised through nursery?
Answer:
Capsicum, Brinjal, Onion, Tomato, Cabbage, Broccoli, Chinese Cabbage, Chills etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 2.
Write the seed rate and time of sowing for nursery raising of tomato.
Answer:
Vegetable Time of sowing of nursery Seed rate per acre Tomato First week of November, first fortnight of July 100 gram

Question 3.
Which are two winter season flowers and when these can be sown?
Answer:
Marigold, Gulashrafi; time of sowing: September to March.

Question 4.
Which fungicide is used against damping off of seedlings of vegetables?
Answer:
Seeds are treated with captan or thiram against damping off.

Question 5.
Which fruit plants are vegetatively propagated?
Answer:
Following fruit plants are vegetatively propagated-Mango, Guava, Plums, Citrus fruits, Peach, Grapes, Pomegranate, Fig, Apple, Pears etc.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 6.
Which fruit plants are grown through seed?
Answer:
Fruit plants whieh are grown through seed are-Papaya, Karonda, Jamun, Falsa etc.

Question 7.
Write ideal method of nursery raising of poplar.
Answer:
Nursery is raised from one year old plants. Cuttings should be 20-25 cm long and 2-3 cm in diameter. Treat the cuttings with ehlorpyriphos and emisan against termite and diseases. Time of nursery raising is mid January to mid February. By keeping one bud above the soil, plant the cuttings in the soil and keep the soil moist till sprouting starts.

Question 8.
How to collect the seed for preparation of Drake nursery?
Answer:
These seeds are collected in winter from healthy, well growing and tall plants. Best time for collecting seeds is from November-December.

Question 9.
Which are the methods for nursery preparation of fruit plants?
Answer:
Nursery raising for fruit plants is done by using seeds as well as by vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation methods are-cuttings, budding, layering, grafting etc.

Question 10.
What are the advantages for preparation of plants through cutting?
Answer:
It is a very cheap method and easy also. Plants developed are uniform and of same heredity qualities.

(C) Answer in five to six sentences:

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 1.
How to develop plants through layering?
Answer:
This is a vegetative propagating method. In this method new plants are developed from mother plant while it remains attached to it. Layered shoots are encouraged to form roots while still attached with the plant. About 30 cm from the shoot tip remove the ring of bark and bury it in the soil keeping the end of shoot exposed. Keep the soil moist, roots will emerge after few weeks. Now separate the plant from the mother plant.

Question 2.
Describe the methods of budding.
Answer:
Budding is a vegetative propagation method. It involves the insertion of a scion on to the stock. A ‘scion’ is detached bud of a plant, while a ‘stock’ is the stem of parent plant. Buds should be taken from healthy plants which are known for their good quality fruits, and are disease free also. Cut in the bark of root stock should precisely match with the size of bud. Tie the bud tightly around the root stock keeping the bud exposed.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 3.
Descrbe briefly about the nursery raising of Sisham.
Answer:
Collect riped pods from healthy and straight trees in December to January. Nursery can be raised in poly bags or in seed beds. Suitable time for nursery raising is mid January-February and July-August. Soak the pods in cool water for 48 hours before sowing. Sow the seed at a depth of 1 to 1.5 cm. Seeds start germinating within 10-15 days after sowing. When plants become 5-10 cm high, thinning should be done and spacing should be 15 x 10 cm. For raising nursery 2-3.5 kg pods per acre are required. Nearly 60,000 plants can be obtained.

Question 4.
Describe the method of nursery raising of flowers.
Answer:
Flower nurseries are prepared on raised seed beds or in pots. Take soil, leaf mould, FYM each in 1: 1: 1 proportion and add 75 g super phosphate, 75 g CAN and 45 g murate of potash per m3 area. Mix all these properly. Thick layer of 2-3 cm of thin mixture is applied on raised seed beds. Sow seeds and cover with the same mixture and sprinkle water on these seed beds. Keep the soil of seed beds moist. It takes 30-40 days for nursery to become ready.

Question 5.
What are the methods for nursery preparation of fruit plants?
Answer:
Nursery can be prepared by two methods for fruit plants.
(1) Using seeds
(2) Vegetative propagation.

1. Nursery raising by seeds:
It is easy and cheap method to raise nursery from seeds. But the plants obtained are not uniform and also have different heredity traits and they may grow big in size. Management of such plants becomes very difficult.

2. Vegetative propagation:
There are four methods to raise nursery by using vegetative propagation.

  • By cuttings
  • Layering
  • Budding
  • Grafting.

Plants produced by this method are uniform and true to type plants. Plants grown by this method bear fruit early.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Guide Nursery Raising Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 1.
What is the future of nursery raising occupation for vegetables with respect to income?
Answer:
It is very profitable occupation.

Question 2.
The land choosen for nursery rasing should get sun shine but for how many hours?
Answer:
At least 8 hours in a day.

Question 3.
Which type of soil is suitable for nursery raising?
Answer:
Sandy Loam or Clayey Loam.

Question 4.
What should be the size of seed bed prepared for nursery raising of vegetables?
Answer:
1.0 to 1.25 m, wide.

Question 5.
How much should be the height of seed bed prepared for nursery rasing of vegetables.
Answer:
15 cm.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 6.
What should be the length of seed bed prepared for nursery raising of vegetables?
Answer:
At least 3-4 m.

Question 7.
Which fungicide is used to treat the soil of seed bed prepared for nursery raising of vegetables?
Answer:
Formalin.

Question 8.
What is used to treat the seeds used for nursery raising?
Answer:
Captan or thiram.

Question 9.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for brinjal?
Answer:
October-November, February-March and July.

Question 10.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for early season cauliflower?
Answer:
May-June.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 11.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for mid season crop of cauliflower?
Answer:
July-August.

Question 12.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for late season crop of cauliflower?
Answer:
September-October.

Question 13.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for rabi onion?
Answer:
Mid October to mid November.

Question 14.
What is the time of sowing of nursery for Kharif onion?
Answer:
Mid March to mid June.

Question 15.
What is seed rate for sowing nursery of brinjal and capsicum?
Answer:
For brinjal seed rate is 400 gram per acre and for capsicum seed rate is 200 gram per acre.

Question 16.
What is seed rate for cauliflower (early season)?
Answer:
500 gram per acre.

Question 17.
What is seed rate for mid season and late season crop of cauliflower?
Answer:
250 gram per acre for both.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 18.
Cultivation of which flowers is profitable?
Answer:
Guldaudi, Dalhia, Seasonal flowers.

Question 19.
In how many days the nursery for flowers is ready?
Answer:
30-40 days.

Question 20.
Which fruit plants are prepared by cutting method of vegetative propagation?
Answer:
Pomegranate, Mango, Pears, Guava.

Question 21.
What should be the spacing between cuttings and what is the number of buds used for nursery raising for fruit plants.
Answer:
Spacing should be 6-8 inches and there should be 3-5 buds.

Question 22.
What is the name given to plant on which scion is fitted?
Answer:
Root stock.

Question 23.
Which type of grafting is done for mango?
Answer:
Side grafting.

Question 24.
Which are the plants for agroforestry?
Answer:
Poplar, Eucalyptus, Drake, Sisham.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 25.
What is the length and diameter of poplar cuttings?
Answer:
20-25 cm long and 2-3 cm diameter.

Question 26.
Which chemical is used to treat cuttings of poplar against termite and diseases?
Answer:
Chloropyriphos and emisan.

Question 27.
What is the suitable time for preparing nursery of poplar?
Answer:
Mid January to mid February.

Question 28.
After how many years poplar plants are ready to transplant in the field?
Answer:
One year.

Question 29.
What is suitable time for preparing nursery of Eucalyptus (Safeda)?
Answer:
February-March or September-October.

Question 30.
When are the seeds of Drake collected?
Answer:
November-December.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 31.
What is time of sowing for Drake?
Answer:
February-March.

Question 32.
How much time is taken by seeds of Drake for germination?
Answer:
Three weeks.

Question 33.
Which tree is state tree of Punjab?
Answer:
Sisham.

Question 34.
For how much time pods of sisham are to be soaked in cool- water before sowing?
Answer:
48 hours.

Question 35.
What is the seed rate for sisham for preparing nursery for one acre?
Answer:
2.0 to 3.5 kg pods.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which type of vegetables can be grown by nursery raising?
Answer:
Those vegetables, which can tolerate the transplanting shock, can be grown successfully by nursery raising.

Question 2.
Which land should be choosen for preparing nursery of vegetables?
Answer:
A land which gets sunshine for at least 8 hours a day. Land should be free from stones. There should be no big trees near the land which may cause shading.

Question 3.
Why sandy loam or clayey loam is best suited for preparing nursery of vegetables?
Answer:
This soil has required proportion of constituents like clay, sand, silt etc.

Question 4.
Write about the size of seed beds for preparing nursery of vegetables?
Answer:
Seed beds should be 1.0 to 1.25 m wide and 15 cm higher than ground level and should be 3-4 m in length.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 5.
After treating the soil, how to eliminate the effect of formalin?
Answer:
The effect can be eliminated by turning the soil in beds once a day for 3-4 days.

Question 6.
What should be the depth for sowing seeds in the nursery and what is row spacing?
Answer:
Seed should be sown at a depth of 1-2 cm and line spacing should be 5 cm.

Question 7.
Give some important points which you keep in mind while transplanting the seedlings?
Answer:

  • When seedlings are 4-6 weeks old, nursery is ready for transplanting.
  • Stop irrigating the nursery before 3-4 days of transplanting.
  • Transplanting should be done in the evening time’
  • Irrigate immediately after transplanting.

Question 8.
Write about fertilizers for preparing nursery of seasonal flowers.
Answer:
Fertilizer requirement for each one cubic metre is 75 gram, super phosphate, 75 gram CAN, 45 gram murate of potash, for equal proportion of soil, leaf mould, and FYM (in the ratio 1:1:1).

Question 9.
What problem may arise for fruit plants prepared from seed?
Answer:
Plants prepared from seed are not uniform, become large in size and it becomes difficult to manage them. They are also not hue to type plants.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Question 10.
Give one advantage of preparing plants by vegetative propagation?
Answer:
The plants prepared by this method are true to type plants and are uniform in size such plants bear fruit early. They bear fruits, which are uniform in size, colour and other characteristics.

Question 11.
Write about cuttings of poplar.
Answer:
Prepare cuttings from one year old plants but not from training and pruning of branches of old plants. Cuttings should be 20-25 cm long and 2-3 cm in diameter.

Question 12.
How will you save cutting of poplar from termite and diseases?
Answer:
Treat the cuttings with 0.5% solution of chloropyriphos 20EC and 0.5% Emisan solution separately against termite and diseases.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give method of taking leaves sample for different fruit plants.
Answer:

Fruit Method to take leaves samples
Mango Take 30 leaves of 5-7 months in March-April. The branch should be bearing flowers or fruits for taking leaves.
Alucha From the branches of the same year take 100 leaves of 3-4 months for mid-May to mid-July.
Peach From the branches of same year take 100 leaves of 3-5 months from mid-May to mid-July.
Guava Take 50-60 leaves from 5-7 months old branches (non-bearing) in August-October.
Citrus family Take 100 leaves 4-8 months old after fruiting is over in July to October.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising
Question 2.
What do you know about grafting of mangoes?
Answer:
Mangoes are propagated through grafting. For this purpose stones of mango are sown in August in well prepared field. Germination takes place in 2 weeks. These seedlings are transplanted to nursery when leaves are still of light colour and are one-fourth of actual size. Seedlings become graftable upto April. Take a healthy scion for grafting. Remove leaves from this scion. In 7-10 days petioles drop and buds become swollen. Scion is ready for grafting. Give two 4 cm sized horizontal cuts separated by 1-2 cm. Give another cut on the stock at 15 cm height from ground level. Bark from this portion of root stock is lifted away.

A slanting cut is given to the scion on the base and remove bark also. Length of scion stick should not be more than 8 cm because chance of breakage are more for a long stick. Prepared scion is inserted under the bark flap of root stock. Bark flap is restored to original position and the graft joint is tied using polythene strips of gauge 150-200 thickness. When scion growth starts the upper part of the root stock is lopped. This method of propagation is used in March to October in Punjab. Success rate is lower during May to October.

Question 3.
What do you know about Nursery raising of Pear, Peach and Alucha?
Answer:
1. Pear:
Rootstock is Kainth or Batank (rootsucker). Tongue grafting is done during January-February where T budding is done in June to August. 1 to 3 years plants are transplanted in mid-February and aged plants are transplanted in end of December.

2. Alucha (Plum):
The plants are transplanted upto mid-January. Plants are in dormant stage. Rootstock used is Kabul green gaze. Basal part of graft 5 to 7.5 cm is dipped in IAA 100 ppm solution for 24 hours.

3. Peach:
These are propagated by budding or grafting. Root stocks are Sharbati and Khurmani. The other variety Florida has lesser seeds thus is not used as rootstock.

PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising

Nursery Raising PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Notes

  • Small land piece is required for nursery raising. It is a remunerative occupation.
  • One can get more income from nursery raising of vegetables, flowers and fruits.
  • Seeds are expensive and can be used efficiently through nursery raising.
  • Farmers having less land can gain more by nursery raising than cultivation of vegetable crops.
  • Nursery of those vegetables can be raised successfully which can tolerate the. transplanting shock.
  • Land in which nursery is raised should get at least 8 hours of sunshine.
  • Seed bed for nursery raising should be 15 cm higher than ground level.
  • Treat the soil with formalin before sowing the seed.
  • Treat the seed with captain or thiram before sowing.
  • Transplant the seedlings in main field after 4-6 weeks of sowing in the nursery.
  • Flowers grown in summer season are-Sunflower, Zinnia, Kochia etc.
  • Flowers grown in winter season are-Marigold, Gulashrafi, Ice plant, Garden pea, Phlox etc.
  • Nursery for seasonal flowers is ready in 30-40 days.
  • Important agroforestry trees are -Poplar, Eucalyptus, Drake, Sisham.
  • Drake nursery is propagated from seeds.
  • Sisham is state tree of Punjab.
  • Treat the cuttings by chloropyriphos and emisan against white ants (termite) and diseases.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Agriculture Book Solutions Chapter 2 Nursery Raising Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.