Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 9 Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom
SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:
Which cantonments of Punjab revolted at the time of the War of Independence of 1857 A.D.?
The revolt took place at Lahore, Ferozepur, Peshawar, Ambala, and Mianwali in Punjab at the time of the War of Independence of 1857.
What was the contribution of Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal to the freedom struggle?
Sardar Ahmed Kharal rose against the English asking, the people not to pay land revenue to the British. At many places, he had to fight against the British. At last, Ahmed Khan was killed near Pakpattan while fighting with the British.
How did Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji show non-cooperation with the British Government?
Baba Ram Singh Ji was opposed to the foreign government, foreign institutions and foreign goods. So he preached non-cooperation with the English. He boycotted government postal system, foreign clothes and government courts.
Why was the Ghadar Movement founded?
The Ghadar movement was organised by the Indian emigrants in the U.S.A. to work for the liberation of their motherland. Its aim could be achieved by an armed national revolution in India. The Hindustan Ghadar Party was established in the U.S.A. Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna was elected its President and Hardayal as its Secretary.
Write the two causes of emergence of the Akali Movement.
Following were the two main causes for the rise of the Akali Movement:
- To free the Gurudwaras from the corrupt Mahants.
- To bring about reforms in the management of the Gurudwaras.
Why was the Key Morcha organised?
The keys of the treasury of Sri fiarmandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Shiromani Committee demanded the keys from it but it refused to hand over the keys to it. So the Sikhs launched the Morcha to secure the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Write the causes of Guru Ka Bagh Morcha.
Gurudwara Guru Ka Bagh near Amritsar was under the charge of Mahant Sunder Dass who was a characterless fellow. The Akalis asked him to mend his ways but he paid no heed to it. So the Akalis sent Jathas to launch the Morcha of Guru Ka Bagh.
When did Simon Commission come to India and why was it boycotted?
The Simon Commission came to India in 1927. It was boycotted by all the political parties because no member of the commission was Indian.
Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:
Which activities of Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji in 1857 frightened the Britishers?
- Whenever Baba Ram Singh went from one place to another, his horsemen accompanied him. This made the English Government think that the Namdharis were preparing for a revolt.
- The English watched the postal system of BabarRam Singh with doubt and suspicion.
- Baba Ram Singh divided the Punjab into 22 Subas to preach his ideas. The incharge of each Suba was the Subedar. At this, the English got frightened.
- A Kuka Regiment was raised with the help of the Raja of Jammu. The Raja’arranged for the military training of the Kukas.
Describe the tragedy that occurred between the Namdharis and the Britishers at Malerkotla.
The Namdharis started carrying weapons. As a result, they had a direct confrontation with the English. At that time, many Christian missionaries were preaching against the Sikhs. Even cow-slaughter was openly allowed by the English. The Namdhari Sikhs could not tolerate all these activities. They attacked the slaughter house at Raikot and killed several cow-slaughterers. The Namdharis also attacked Malerkotla to loot the treasury of the Nawab and to punish cow-slaughterers there. The British forces reached Malerkotla and captured about 70 Namdharis. The British forces killed 49 Namdharis by cannon fire by the orders of the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana. Baba Ram Singh was exiled and sent to Rangoon where he left for his heavenly abode in 1885. Even afterwards, some Namdharis continued their religious and social activities.
Describe the work done by the Arya Samaj in the Punjab.
The Arya Samaj did the following work in the Punjab:
- The Arya Samaj helped in awakening a spirit of national consciousness in the Punjab.
- Lala Lajpat Rai, Sardar Ajit Singh, Shardhanand, Bhai Parmanand and Lala Hardyal were the products of the Arya Samaj Movement.
- It also encouraged the Swadeshi Movement in the Punjab.
- It opened a large number of schools and colleges in the Punjab.
Describe the efforts made by the Ghadar Party in the Punjab.
Following efforts were made by the Ghadar Party in the Punjab for the independence:
- Thousands of volunteers were enrolled in the party. Ras Bihari Bose sent many volunteers to Lahore, Ferozepur, Meerut, Ambala, Multan, Peshawar and many other cantonments in Punjab. They incited the soldiers to rise in revolt.
- Sardar Kartar Singh Sarabha sought the help of Lala Ramsaran Dass of Kapurthala to bring out a newspaper called Ghadar. But he could not succeed in doing so. Later, Ghadar Goonj was published.
- In February 1915, Sarabha tried to begin an armed revolt at Ferozepur. But because of the treachery of Kirpal Singh, he could not succeed in doing so.
What work was done by Baba Gurdit Singh for the people going to Canada?
The people of the Punjab wanted to migrate to Canada to earn their living. But because of anti-Indian policies of the Canadian Government, no ship was ready to take them to Canada. In 1913 A.D. Baba Gurdit Singh of Amritsar district chartered a Japanese ship named Kamagata Maru by which the Indian migrants could be taken to Canada straight away. The ship was named Nanak Jahaz. In it, he tried to take the people who wanted to migrate to Canada. But when they reached there, they were ordered by the Canadian government to go back. ®
What were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Following were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy:
- Rowlatt Act. The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British Government to crush the national movement. People called it Black Act. According to it, any person could be arrested without any warrants.
- Arrest of Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. Hartals were organised at many places in Punjab to protest against the Rowlatt Act. Violent incidents also occurred. So the Government arrested two popular leaders of the Punjabis at Amritsar. They were Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. At this people were enraged.
- Murder of Englishmen. The police opened fire on the excited people at Amritsar. In return, the people killed five Englishmen. So the administration of Amritsar city was handed over to General Dyer.
How did Sardar Udham Singh take revenge of Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Udham Singh was a great patriot of India, who sacrificed his life for the sake of his motherland. In 1940 A.D., he killed in England Michael O’ Dwyer, who had been the Governor of the Punjab at the time of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Udham Singh was sentenced to death. He died on the gallows in June 1940 A.D.
Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.
The Khilafat Movement was started by the Muslims against the English after the First World War. Turkey was defeated in the First World War and the victorious nations wanted to disintegrate the Turkish Empire. The Indian Muslims were much disappointed and were sympathetic towards Turkey.
They considered Khalifa of Turkey as their religious leader. They could not tolerate his disrespect and they raised their voice against the British Government. The Muslims started the Khilafat movement to protest against the British action. This movement became a part of the national movement of India and many leaders of the Congress also joined it. They helped in spreading it in the whole country.
The most eminent leaders of the Khilafat Movement were Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
Write the activities of the Babbars.
The aim of the Babbar Akalis was to kill the enemies of their religion and the supporters of the English rule. They called it Reformation. They were in dire need of arms. They wanted money to purchase arms. So they plundered many rich people and snatched arms from them. They appealed to the Punjabi soldiers to achieve independence with the help of arms. They also brought out a newspaper named Babbar Akali Doab. They killed many supporters of the Government. They taught the Punjabis the lesson of sacrifice and the way of fighting for the attainment of independence.
Write a note on Naujawan Sabha.
Sardar Bhagat Singh formed the Naujawan Sabha in 1925-26. The main objective of this Sabha was to develop a spirit of patriotism among the people. Sardar Bhagat Singh was the General Secretary of this Sabha. It received the support of extremist group of the Congress. Soon it became the main centre of the revolutionaries. From time to time, its meetings were held at Lahore to discuss the ideology of Lenin and Karl Marx. It also discussed the revolutionary events which took place in other countries.
Write a note on the Simon Commission.
In 1927, the British Government appointed a Commission. Its chairman was Sir John Simon. So, this Commission is known as Simon Commission. This Commission reached India in 1928. There was no Indian member in this Commission. Therefore, wherever this Commission went, it was greeted with black flags. Slogans of ‘Simon Commission go back’ were raised at many places. These peaceful demonstrations were suppressed by the Government cruelly. Lala Lajpat Rai was beaten with lathis at Lahore. He died of the injuries received by him a few days later. All the political parties condemned this policy of the Government.
Describe the work of Praja Mandal.
The achievements of the Punjab Praja Mandal and the Riasti Praja Mandal under the presidentship of Sardar Sewa Singh Thikriwala were as under:
- The Praja Mandal held its meetings to discuss the problems of the common people and the peasants.
- It raised voice against the atrocities committed on the people of Patiala by its ruler.
- It sought the help of Baba Hira Singh Bhattal, Teja Singh Swatantar, Sunder Singh etc. and opposed the State Government and the English rule.
Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words:
What efforts were made by Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji for the freedom of India?
Baba Ram Singh was a great patriot. After the death of Baba Balak Singh, he led the Kuka Movement. In 1857, he baptised many people and reorganised the Namdhari Movement. The main objective of this movement was to work for religious and social reforms. Besides, it also opposed the English rule and followed a policy of non-cooperation with it.
Activities of Baba Ram Singh Ji
- Whenever Baba Ram Singh went from one place to another, his horsemen accompanied him. This made the English Government think that the Namdharis were preparing for a revolt.
- The English watched the postal system of Baba Ram Singh with suspicion.
- Baba Ram Singh divided the Punjab into 22 Subas to propagate his faith. The in charge of each Suba was called the Subedar. At this, the English were alarmed.
- A Kuka Regiment was raised with the help of the Raja of Jammu. The Raja arranged for the military training of the Kukas.
- During the British rule, cow slaughter continued openly in the cities of the Punjab. This greatly agitated the Namdharis. They were ready to make any sacrifice for the protection of the cow. They began to kill butchers. In 1871, they attacked the slaughterhouses at Amritsar and Raikot and killed many butchers.
- A Kuka conference was held at Bhaini Saheb on 13th January 1872. The Kukas came to know here that cow slaughter was going on in the Muslim state of Malerkotla. A band of 150 followers of the Kuka Movement enthusiastically took a spot decision that they will punish the Muslim butchers of Malerkotla, despite the fact that Baba Ram Singh did not approve of such acts. The Kukas marched in a procession and suddenly attacked the palace and treasury of the Nawab of Malerkotla.
Many Kukas and the soldiers of Nawab were killed in this skirmish. But the Kuka followers were subdued and contained when fresh reinforcements arrived from Patiala and Nabha. The battle fought in the state of Patiala, resulted in the arrest of 68 Kukas and they were sent back to Malerkotla. Forty nine Kukas were blown off by the cannons by the orders of Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana.
After a trial, sixteen Kukas were sentenced to death. Baba Ram Singh was deported to Rangoon.
The truth is that the Namdharis under the command of Baba Ram Singh struck to their resolution and did not even care for their lives.
What was the contribution of Arya Samaj to the freedom movement in Punjab?
Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883) was the founder of the Arya Samaj. It was founded by him at Bombay in 1875 A.D. A branch of Arya Samaj was established at Lahore in 1877 A.D.
Its role in the freedom movement. Arya Samaj not only worked for religious and social reforms but also played a great role in the freedom movement. Its contribution to independence movement may be studied as under:
1. Aroused feelings of nationalism. The forceful assertion of Swami Dayanand that the ancient Aryan race and the ancient Indian culture were the most superior in the world, created the feelings of nationalism and self-respect among the people.
2. Provided leaders to the National Movement. The prominent Arya Samaj leaders welcomed the establishment of the branches of the Congress in Punjab and joined them. Again, it was Arya Samaj which produced such prominent leaders as Lala Lajpat Rai, Sardar Ajit Singh and Shardhanand, who infused a burning desire for freedom in the hearts of the Punjabis. Bhai Parmanand and Lala Hardayal were prominent Arya Samajists, whereas the great revolutionary Sardar Bhagat Singh was a student of D.A.V. College, Lahore.
3. Role in the Non-Cooperation Movement. This institution took an active part in the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji. It opened many schools and colleges and supported the Swadeshi Movement.
4. Suffered atrocities of the Government. On watching these activities of the Arya Samaj, the British attitude towards it hardened and the members of Arya Samaj were harassed. The members of Arya Samaj who were in government service were suspected and considered as untrustworthy. They were denied promotions in the services. Even then they firmly followed their -path.
5. Split in the Arya Samaj. In 1892 A.D., the Arya Samaj was divided into two parts — the College Party and the Gurukul Party. Lala Lajpat Rai and Mahatma Hans Raj were the leaders of the College Party. They were in favour of education in English literature and Western Sciences. As a result, the gulf between the English Government and the Arya Samaj was soon removed. Even then the Arya Samaj continued extending cooperation to the freedom fighters. The newspapers of the Punjab belonging to Arya Samaj remained in the forefront in the freedom movement.
What efforts were made by the Ghadar Party for the attainment of freedom?
In the last decade of the 19th century, some Punjabi farmers, the majority of them being the Sikhs, migrated to other countries with the desire of better standard of living. In the beginning, they went to such countries as Burma, Malaya, Hong Kong, Singapore and China. But as soon as they came to know that the labourers received better wages in America and Canada, they decided to migrate to these countries. They became economically very well off but they were not treated well and were discriminated in these countries. They started efforts to make their country free from the foreign rule and established the Ghadar Party. The American continent was the main centre of this movement. The news of the national movement being carried on in India made them believe that India will soon win freedom.
Establishment of the Ghadar Party. In March 1913 A.D. nearly 200 immigrants took part in a conference in Washington and ‘Hindi Association’ was formed which was given a final shape on 1st November 1913 in San Francisco. It was also decided there that a weekly newspaper ‘Ghadar’ should be published in the memory of the Revolt of 1857 A.D. This newspaper was published in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi. Accordingly, the ‘Hindi Association’ was renamed as the ‘Ghadar Party’.
Aims of the Ghadar Party. A resolution was passed at the foundation ceremony of the Ghadar Party which stated its aims and objects:
- The object of the party will be to root out the British rule from India.
- This object could only be achieved by means of an armed revolution.
The Ghadar Newspaper suggested the following methods to achieve the aims of the party:
- To spread discontentment among the Indian soldiers.
- To kill the henchmen of the British.
- To raise the banner of revolt.
- To break prisons.
- To loot the government treasuries and the thanas.
- To publish rebellious literature.
- To forge alliances with the powers opposed to Britain.
- To commit dacoities.
- To procure arms.
- To make bombs.
- To set up secret organisations.
- To destroy the Railways and the Telegraph System.
- To enlist the youth for rebellious acts.
Organization of the Ghadar Party. The head office of the party was named as ‘Yugantar Ashram’ which was situated at 436 Hill Street, San Francisco.
Baba Sohan Singh Bhakana was elected the president and Lala Hardyal was elected the secretary of the party. Many State Committees were set up in Astoria, Marys Ville, Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno, Bakersfield, Los Angeles and Imperial Valley. These state committees sent their two elected representatives to the central council. The central council was formed in order to prepare the action plan and the programme.
The party chose its slogan ‘Vande Matram’ and accepted the tricolour composed of red, yellow and green colours as their flag.
Efforts for the attainment of independence.
In the opinion of the leaders of the Ghadar Party, the proper time for an armed revolt in India had come. The Ghadarites like Ramchander had instilled in the party men a spirit of sacrificing their everything for the freedom of their motherland. The incident of Kamagata Maru had enraged the Sikhs and other immigrants and they determined to root out the British rule from India. They hoped that as soon as they step on the soil of India, the movement for revolt will begin.
Nonetheless, the revolutionary sentiments of the Ghadarites were enough to excite the people to side with them. They organised many raids on the British officers to loot and plunder them.
They communicated with other revolutionaries in the other parts of India also. Ras Bihari Bose visited India in January 1915. He planned to incite the soldiers to revolt. The revolutionaries of the Ghadar Party infilterated in the army but the British officers got wind of this conspiracy beforehand. Consequently, many persons were arrested and most of them were hanged. The regiments involved in the conspiracy were disarmed. In order to control the activities of the Ghadar leaders, Defence of India Act was passed. Under this Act, any suspected person could be prevented from entering any area.
Gradually, the British completely controlled the situation and the movement completely fizzled out by 1915 A.D. The cases of sedition were instituted against many leaders of the Ghadar Party and were punished.
Work done by the Ghadar Party for Freedom. (Imp.) Following efforts were made by the Ghadar Party for the independence of the country.
- Thousands of volunteers were enrolled in the party. Ras Bihari Bose sent many volunteers to Lahore, Ferozepur, Meerut, Ambala, Multan, Peshawar and many other cantonments in the Punjab. They incited the soldiers to rise in revolt.
- Sardar Kartar Singh Sarabha sought the help of Lala Ramsaran Dass of Kapurthala to bring out a newspaper called Ghadar. But he could not succeed in doing so. Later, Ghadar Goonj was published.
- In February 1915, Sarabha tried to begin an armed revolt at Ferozepur. But because of the treachery of Kirpal Singh, he could not succeed in doing so.
- The Ghadar Party prepared a flag for the free India. Kartar Singh Sarabha distributed these flags everywhere in Punjab.
The Failure of the Ghadar Party. There were many causes of the failure of the Ghadar Party which can be described as under:
- No other leader was able enough to lead the Movement after Lala Hardyal went to Switzerland.
- The headquarters of the Ghadar movement were in Berlin from where huge monetary and other help was being received. But all these resources and help were used unlawfully.
- Mutual bickerings and some times, communal feelings also adversely affected the movement.
- The scarcity of weapons and ammunition also led to the failure of the Ghadar Movement.
- The leaders of fhe Ghadar Party did not prepare any plan to attract the common people. Their programme was quite limited and there was no incentive for the common man to act.
- The intelligence department of the British government was very efficient and as soon as the revolutionaries of the Ghadar Party reached India, they were made prisoners. The British intelligence infilterated in almost every level of the organisation. For example, a person named Kirpal Singh became the member of the innermost circle of the party and had informed the British officers about the armed revolt to be started by the Indian soldiers in the army.
- Most of the workers were discouraged by the harsh measures taken by the government. The chief leaders were either hanged, interned or deported and were also heavily fined.
Describe the Kamagattamaru Incident.
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the economic situation in India, especially in the Punjab, was very critical. The chances of employment were insufficient and the wages were very low. This was the reason that the people of the Punjab, particularly the Sikhs, migrated to other parts of the British empire to earn their living. Most of them settled in Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore and Thailand. There were many opportunities for them to get employment in Canada and America due to rapid industrial development there. In reality, the then governments of the U.S.A. and Canada welcomed the labourers from abroad with open arms. Consequently, about ten thousand people, from the Punjab, majority of them being Sikhs, settled at Vancouver in Canada. Due to continuous migration of the Black people, the Canadian government became suspicious.
The Canadian government issued two ordinances in this respect. According to the first ordinance, there should be at least 200 dollars with the emigrant who desired to disembark at the Canadian shore and according to the second ordinance, it was compulsory for such a person to reach Canada on a single ticket by a single ship directly from his place of birth or from that country of which he was a citizen. According to these two ordinances, even the dependent children of the Indian immigrants who had settled in Canada much long ago could not migrate to Canada because they could not reach Canada directly travelling by a foreign country’s ship. It looks as if the Indian British Government was in league with the Canadian Government in this matter.
Efforts made by Baba Gurdit Singh. Baba Gurdit Singh, Sarhali, a wealthy trader of Singapore, thought of a strange plan, He floated a ship-navigation Co. in Hong Kong in 1913 A.D. and chartered a Japanese ship named ‘Kamagata Maru’ by which the Indian migrants could be taken to Canada straight away. He collected 370 passengers and the ship sailed for Canada from Singapore on 14th April, 1914. It reached the port of Vancouver on 23 May, 1914. Though these migrants fulfilled the conditions laid down in both the ordinances issued by the Canadian government yet they were not allowed to disembark.
First of all the passengers refused to return to India but when the government threatened to open fire on the ship, only then they gave in. They did not get permission to disembark at any harbour during their return journey and the ship reached a port known Budge-Budge situated near Calcutta (Kolkata) on 29th September, 1914.
They were ordered to. board a special train in order to send them to the Punjab where they had to be imprisoned under a recently promulgated ordinance known as Ingress into India Ordinance. These passengers were thoroughly searched and no weapons or arms were found. Most of the passengers did not wish to go to the Punjab. The passengers then marched in a procession towards Calcutta (Kolkata). A company of British soldiers overtook them on the way and compelled them to return to the railway station. In the conflict, the soldiers opened fire and nineteen persons were killed. Six soldiers were also killed.
The police arrested many persons whereas others„evaded arrest by taking to their heels. Baba Gurdit Singh managed to escape. The police could not trace him for seven years. At last, he produced himself for arrest at Nankana Sahib on the birthday of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1921 A.D.
Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
On April 13, 1919 A.D., the Baisakhi day, about 20000. people assembled for a peaceful meeting in the Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar to protest against the arrest of their leaders Dr. Saif-ud-Din Kitchlu and Dr. Satya Pal and also against the Rowlatt Act. A large number of people who had come to visit Sri Harmandir Sahib also joined the meeting. Brigadier-General Dyer was seeking an opportunity to teach a lesson to the Indians for flouting the Government orders. He arrived at the Jallianwala Bagh with 500 troops who were ordered to open fire without giving the people a warning to disperse. About 400 innocent people were killed and nearly 1200 were injured. The tragedy is known as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
General Dyer had hoped that his action would cool down disturbances not only in the Punjab but also in the whole of India. But his hopes were belied. A wave of horror and anger swept the country from one end to another. The great poet Rabindra Nath Tagore surrendered his title of “SIR” as a measure of protest. The people lost faith in the professions of goodwill by the British Government. After the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy, Martial Law was imposed in the whole of the Punjab. The people were tortured by the police. Such actions of the Government increased bitterness between the British and the Indians. The people were not frightened and were not prepared to surrender before the British. On the other hand, their determination to fight against the foreign rule became stronger.
What was the contribution of the Babbar Akali Movement to the freedom struggle?
The Akali Movement gave birth to the Babbar Akali Movement. Kishan Singh Garhgajj was its founder. At the time of its birth, the movement aimed to free the Gurudwaras from the corrupt and characterless Mahants. The supporters of the British Government were at the back of these Mahants. So the aim of the Babbar Akalis was to kill the enemies of their religion and the supporters of the English rule. They formed their first Jatha which was called Chakkarwarti Jatha.
This movement was called the Babbar Akali Movement.
Role in the freedom movement. The Babbar Akalis planned to kill the informers and the supporters of the government. They called it Reformation. They believed that with the end of the supporters of the English, the British Government could fail and leave India forever.
Following is the description of their activities:
1. Collection of arms. To achieve their aim, the Babbar Akalis were in dire need of arms. They also tried to manufacture weapons. They wanted money to purchase arms and weapons. So they began to plunder the rich. They also snatched arms from them.
2. Appeal to the soldiers. The Babbars appealed to the Punjabi soldiers to take up their arms and work for the freedom movement.
3. Press Propaganda. The Babbars also brought out their newspaper named Babbar Akali Dal with a cyclostyle machine. It was resolved by the Babbars that the man who read this newspaper, would make the other five persons read it. This was the only subscription of this newspaper.
4. Killing of government supporters. The Babbars published a list of 179 persons in their newspaper whom they wanted to kill or reform. They informed such persons through the newspaper. Two or three Babbars went to the villages of such persons and killed them. They publicly took the responsibility of such killings on their shoulders. They had also encountered with the police.
5. Atrocities by the Government. The Government also resolved to kill the Babbars. Some of them were arrested and some were killed. More than a hundred Babbars were tried in the courts. On February 27, 1926, Jathedar Kishan Singh, Baba Santa Singh, Dharam Singh Hyatpura and some other Babbars were sentenced to death by hanging.
Though the Babbar Movement could not succeed in achieving its aims yet it played an important role in the freedom movement of India.
Describe Jaito Morcha.
The Morcha of Jaito was launched in 1923 A.D. Following is the description of its causes and events:
Causes. Sardar Ripudaman Singh, the Maharaja of Nabha was a great well-wisher of the Sikhs. When he became the member of the Council of Governor-General, he got the Anand Marriage Bill passed. He became very popular not only with the Sikhs but also with the people of the country. But the English did not like it. So the British Government wanted to insult him on one pretext or the other. During the First World War, it got the opportunity to do so when the Maharaja refused to send his armies on the side of the English. On the other hand, there arose a dispute between Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala and Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha. The English got many cases registered against the Maharaja of Nabha through the Maharaja of Patiala. As a result, Maharaja Ripudaman Singh was dethroned.
Events. The Sikhs got enraged and criticized this act of the government. The Shiromani Committee took up the case in its hands. Under its leadership, the Sikhs resolved to hold protest meetings. In this connection, Dewans were arranged at many places. All the patriotic Sikhs held a big religious gathering in Gurudwara Gangsar (Jaito) to protest against the British Government. But the police arrested many Sikh leaders and captured the Gurudwara Gangsar Sahib. At this time, Akhand Path was going on there. But it was interrupted because of police activities. The Sikhs got enraged and launched a Morcha for an encounter with the English.
On September 15, 1923 A.D. a Jatha of twenty-five Sikhs was sent to Jaito. During the next six months, Jathas of 25 Sikhs each were continuously sent to Jaito. The Government committed atrocities on the Jathas. The Shiromani Committee resolved to send the Jathas, each consisting of five hundred Sikhs. The first Jatha of 500 Sikhs under the leadership of Jathedar Udham Singh Nagoke left for Jaito. On the way, thousands of people of Majha and Malwa joined it. It faced the British army at Nabha. The Sikhs were unarmed. Consequently, more than 150 Sikhs were martyred and about 200 were injured.
The Morcha of Jaito continued for two years. Jathas of 500 Sikhs each were regularly sent to Jaito to court arrest. Jathas from Calcutta (Kolkata), Canada, Shanghai and Hong-Kong also reached Jaito. At last, the Sikhs compelled the Government to accept their demand. The Punjab Government passed the Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1925. According to it, the control of the(Gurudwaras came into the hands of the Sikhs.
Write a detailed note on the Indian National Army.
Establishment of Azad Hind Fauj. A prominent revolutionary Ras Bihari Bose had organised Indian National Army (Azad Hind*Fauj) in Japan. During the Second World War Japan defeated the British army, at many places and made the soldiers prisoners. Most of the prisoners were Indians. So with the help of captain Mohan Singh, Ras Bihari Bose organised Azad Hind Fauj.
Ras Bihari Bose wanted to hand over the command of the Azad Hind Fauj to Subhash Chander Bose. Subhash Chander Bose was in Germany at that time. So Ras Bihari Bose asked him to come to Japan. Reaching Japan, Subhash Chander Bose took over the command of the Azad Hind Fauj. Since then he came to be known as Neta Ji.
Role of Azad Hind Fauj in the Struggle for Freedom. On October 21, 1943 A.D. Neta Ji formed Azad Hind Government in Singapore. He said to the Indians, “Give me blood, I will give you freedom.” Soon he declared war against America and England.
- In November 1943, Japan captured Andaman Nicobar islands of India and handed over them to Azad Hind Fauj. Neta Ji named these islands as Shaheed and Swaraj respectively.
- In 1944 the Azad Hind Fauj captured Maudank Chowki in Assam. Thus it touched its motherland and it unfurled the flag of the Azad Hind Sarkar there.
- After this, it captured the Kohima Chowki in Assam.
- Now, it tried to capture the important Chowki of Imphal. But due to adverse circumstances, it could not succeed.
Failure of the Azad Hind Fauj:
The main reasons for the defeat of Indian National Army were as follows:
- Its strength was very small as compared to the British forces.
- Japan was defeated in the second world war. So it could no more give any help to the Azad Hind Fauj.
- After the death of Subhash Chander Bose in an air accident, the I.N.A. had no capable leader who could command the Indian National Army.
Arrest of officers of Azad Hind Fauj and their trial. Three officers of Indian National Army (Shah Nawaz, Prem Sehgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon) were tried by a Court Martial in the Red Fort on the charge of sedition or revolt against the king. The court gave its verdict that the three officers were guilty and sentenced them to death, but the government was disturbed to see the enthusiasm of the public. The government was afraid that if they were executed there would be so much bloodshed in the country that it would be difficult to control the situation. Therefore, the government set them free. It was a great victory of nationalism of India.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Punjab’s Contribution towards Struggle for Freedom Important Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in one line or in one word:
Who was the leader (President) of the Ghadar Party?
Sohan Singh Bhakna.
Give the names of three martyrs in Punjab in 19th February, 1916 movement.
Kartar Singh Sarabha, Banta Singh and Arur Singh.
In which year the Akali movement was started?
The Akali movement in Punjab was started in 1921.
When was ‘Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee’ established?
The Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee was established in 1920.
Which ‘Gurudwara Act’ was passed in 1925? Did Sikhs accept it?
In 1925, The Sikh Gurudwara Act was passed which was accepted by the Sikhs.
What was the policy of Babbar Akalis?
The policy of Babbar Akalis was to kill enemies of the Sikhs and become fearless.
What was the Khilafat Movement?
The Khilafat Movement was started by the Muslims against the British policy towards Turkey.
What was the Rowlatt Act? What was it called by the people?
The Rowlatt Act was passed to crush the freedom movement. People called it Black Act.
When did the Simon Commission come to India?
The Simon Commission came to India in 1928.
Who was the founder of the Namdhari Movement?
Baba Balak Singh was the founder of the Namdhari Movement.
When did the Namdharis attack Malerkotla? What punishment was given to them?
A band of Namdharis attacked Malerkotla in 1872 A.D. and were executed.
When was the resolution of Complete Independence or “Poorna Swaraj” passed?
It was passed in the Congress Session at Lahore in 1929.
Write one social cause of the Revolt of 1857.
Why was Rowlatt Act passed?
To suppress the revolutionary activities in the country and to suppress the national movement.
Write one result of 1857.
End of the rule of the British East India Company.
Tell any two administrative causes of the Revolt of 1857.
- Denial of high jobs to the Indians.
- Ill-treatment of Indians by the British officers.
By whom and when was independent Indian Army established?
The Indian National Army was established by Subhash Chander Bose in Singapore in 1943.
When did Simon Commission come to India?
In 1928 A.D.
When and where was ‘Guru Ka Bagh Morcha’ held?
Guru Ka Bagh moracha was held on 23rd August, 1921 at Ajnala near Amritsar.
Fill in the blanks:
The main centres of Revolt of 1857 in the Punjab were _____________
Lahore, Ferozepure, Peshawar and Mianwali
The founder of the Kuka Movement was_____________
Baba Ram Singh Ji
Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in____________at.
Sardar Bhagat Singh founded the _____________ in _____________
Naujawan Bharat Sabha, 1925-26
Akali Movement was started to bring about reforms in the management of the _____________ and to free the Gurdwaras from the corrupt _____________
The Simon Commission was boycotted by all the _____________ because no member of the commission was _____________
Political parties, Indian.
True or False:
Henry Lawrence was appointed the chairman of the Board of Administration.
Kharak Singh was a very powerful ruler.
Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of India in 1849.
The Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849.
There was no dispute between the British and the Lahore Kingdom over the treasure of Suchet Singh.
Match the following:
|1. Ghadar Party||(a) Ship|
|2. Kamagatamaru||(b) San Francisco|
|3. Rowlatt Act||(c) Jallianwala Bagh|
|4. Udham Singh||(d) Michael O’Dwyer|
Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the incident of ‘Kamagatamaru’ or “Nanak Jahaz”.
‘Kamagatamaru was the name of a ship which was chartered by a Punjabi Baba Gurdit Singh. Some other Indians along with Baba Gurdit Singh boarded this ship and reached Canada. But they were neither allowed to step down there nor were allowed to leave the ship at some other ports like Hongkong, Shanghai, Singapore, etc. on their return journey. On reaching Calcutta (Kolkata), the passengers took out a procession. The police fired on the procession. Consequently, 18 persons were killed arid 25 injured. The revolutionaries were now convinced that the British could be turned out of the country only by an armed rebellion. They, therefore established a party named the Ghadar party and started the revolutionary movement.
Describe the contribution of Ras Bihtfri Bose to the Ghadar Movement.
The members of the Ghadar Movement were asked to reach Punjab. Other revolutionaries also reached Punjab. Among them was also Ras Bihari Bose. He himself controlled the Ghadar Movement in Punjab. The government came to know’about the revolution day announced by him. Many leaders of the revolutionaries were captured by the police. Some were sentenced to death. Ras Bihari Bose escaped and reached Japan. He organised the Indian National Army in Japan in 1941.
What were the effects of the Ghadar Party on the Indian National Movement?
Although the government suppressed the Ghadar Movement harshly, yet it deeply influenced the national movement. Due to the efforts of the Ghadar movement, the two groups of the Congress were united. The Congress and the Muslim League came closer and signed the Lucknow Pact in 1916 A.D. In addition to it, this movement compelled the government to think about the Indian problem sympathetically. In 1917 the Secretary of State for India, Lord Montague announced the policy of England regarding India, in which he stressed on the increasing participation of Indians in every branch of administration.
Write a note on the conflict between the British and the Sikhs on the issue of control over the Sikh Gurudwaras.
The English were the supporters of Mahants of Gurudwaras. This attitude of the British was disliked by the Sikhs. The Mahants had entered the Gurudwaras as servants (Sewadars). But during the British rule, they became their permanent owners. They considered Gurudwaras as their personal property. The Mahants received the support of the British government. So they believed that their position was safe. They, therefore, started living a life of luxury. The Sikhs could not tolerate this.
When and how did the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occur? Write a short note on it.
The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy occurred on the Baisakhi Day at Amritsar in 1919. On this day, the people of Amritsar were holding a meeting in Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer ordered firing on this peaceful gathering without giving any warning. Hundreds of innocent people were killed and many persons were injured. Consequently, discontent spread throughout the country and the freedom struggle took a new turn. Now it became the struggle of the masses.
How the incident of Jallianwala Bagh gave a new turn to Independence Struggle of India?
Because of the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh (13th April, 1919) about 400 persons were killed and about 1200 were injured. The massacre in this incident gave a new turn to the independence struggle of India. Formerly, this struggle was limited only to a few people. Now it became the struggle of the masses. The labourers, farmers, students, all joined it. As a result of this tragedy, the freedom struggle became more powerful.
How did the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee and the Shiromani Akali Dal come into existence?
Till 1920 A.D., die Gurudwaras in the Punjab were in the hands of characterless and corrupt Mahants. The Sikhs wanted to free their Gurudwaras from these corrupt Mahants. So they started Gurudwara Reform Movement. In this matter, they also wanted to get help from the British government but failed. In November 1920, it was resolved by the Sikhs to form a committee of the Sikh representatives to look after the management of the Gurudwaras. As a result, the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee came into being and on December 14, 1920, the Shiromani Akali Dal was established.
Write a note on ‘All India Peasants’ Association’.
‘All India Peasants’ Association’ was established on 11th April, 1936 at Lucknow (U.P.). In 1937, the branches of this organisation were set up in other parts of the country. Its president was Swami Sehjanand.
Its main objects were:
(a) To save peasants from economic exploitation.
(b) To end Zimindari and Talukedari systems. To achieve these goals, it put up these demands:
- The peasants should be given economic security,
- Land revenue should be reduced.
- The loans of the peasants should be remitted.
- Better arrangement for the irrigation of the land should be made,
- The minimum wages of farm labourers should be fixed. In 1937-38, the Kisan Sabha started a movement named ‘self land of farming which was called ‘Bakasat’. In it, disinheritance of peasants from land by landlords was opposed. In this struggle, 600 farmers were arrested and the movement was suppressed.
Write a short note on the new social classes that came into being.
Due to the spread of education during British rule, an educated middle class emerged in India. It included lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc. These were enlightened people. Though in the beginning, they were supporters of the British rule, they took active part in the freedom movement of the country. With the growth of industries a new class of capitalists emerged. They invested their capital in large industries. Growth of industries also gave rise to working class. There was always a clash between the capitalists and the working class. The working class was in a miserable condition. The workers were given low wages and they had to work for long hours in insanitary conditions in the factories.
Write a note on the development of Indian literature.
In modern times, all the branches of literature in India made much progress. Besides Hindi and Urdu, all regional languages of the country have progressed and literature in these languages has been produced on a large scale. Some of the important writers of this period were Rabindernath Tagore, Munshi Prem Chand, Sarat Chander Chatterjee, Sir Mohammad Iqbal, Sahir Ludhianvi, Sumitra Nanadan Pant, Amrita Pritam, Raj Kumar Verma, etc.
Write a note on Swadeshi and Boycott Movements.
Swadeshi and Boycott Movements. The Swadeshi and Boycott movements were the products of the partition of Bengal. On July 20, 1905, Lord Curzon issued an order dividing the province of Bengal into two parts. The nationalists viewed the act of partition as a challenge to the Indian nationalism and opposed it firmly. They felt that mere demonstrations, public meetings and resolutions were not likely to have much effect on the rulers. More positive action was needed to reveal the intensity of popular feeling. The answer was Swadeshi Movement and Boycott. Use of Indian goods and boycott of British goods was proclaimed. Several leaders, by moving about from place to place, propagated Swadeshi. Therefore, the people started using Indian goods in larger and larger numbers and stopped purchasing foreign goods. Consequently, great impetus was given to native industries. In this movement, the students and women played an admirable role. Some of the Muslim leaders also joined it. In Bombay, Madras and in many parts of Northern India, this movement was propagated on a large scale.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe in detail the activities of Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
The establishment of Naujawan Bharat Sabha took place in Lahore in 1925-26. Its founder members were Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Sukhdev, Principal Chabil Dass, Yashpal, etc.
Main Objects. The main objects of this organisation were as follow:
- Spread of the spirit of fraternity among the people.
- Stress on simple life.
- To develop the spirit of sacrifice.
- To promote feelings of patriotism among the people.
- To propagate revolutionary ideas among the masses.
Membership. All the men and women between 18 years and 35 years could join this association. Only those persons could become its members who had faith in its programme. Many women and men of Punjab extended co-operation to this association. Durga Devi Vohra, Sushil Mohan, Amar Kaur, Parvati Devi and Leelavati were members of this association.
Activities. The members of this association were active at the time of visit of Simon Commission. In Punjab, under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai, the revolutionaries took out a procession against Simon Commission in Lahore. The English government lathi-charged the procession. In this Lala Lajpat Rai was badly injured. He died on 17th November, 1928. During this period, all the revolutionaries set up their central organisation which was named as Hindustan Socialist Republic Association. Members of Naujawan Bharat Sabha also started working in collaboration with this association.
Assembly Bomb Case. On 8th April, 1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly and surrendered.
The police arrested Sukhdev and Rajguru, two other great revolutionaries. These revolutionaries were implicated in the second Lahore Conspiracy case and tried.
On 23rd March, 1931 Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged to death in Borstal Jail at Lahore. The pieces of their dead bodies were put in bags and were thrown half-burnt near Hussaniwala in Ferozepur on the bank of river Sutlej. A memorial has been built at Hussaniwala in the memory of these great martyrs.
It is true that Sardar Bhagat Singh, the gem of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, set such an example of martyrdom of which the coming generations will always feel proud of.
Why did the’Akali Movement begin? Describe its main Morchas.
The Akali Movement was started in the Punjab after the Ghadar Movement in 1921 and continued upto 1925. Following were its main causes:
- The management of the Gurudwaras was in the hands of the Mahants. They were squandering away the income of the Gurudwaras in luxurious living. The Sikhs did not like this.
- The English were backing the Mahants. The English had committed several atrocities on the members of the Ghadar Party, 93% of whom were the Sikhs. It had a deep effect on the minds of the Sikhs.
- The Sikhs were dissatisfied with the Act of 1919. Whatever was given to them by this Act was much less than their expectations.
Main Events Or Main Morchas:
1. Nankana Sahib incident. The Mahant of Nankana Sahib Gurudwara was a very characterless person. A peaceful jatha of the Sikhs was sent on 20th February, 1921 to oust him from the Gurudwara. The Mahant meted out a very harsh treatment to the jatha. His vagabonds attacked the Jatha. Bhai Lakshman Das, the leader of the Jatha and his companions were burnt alive.
2. Problem of the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib. The keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee demanded the keys from the government but it refused to hand over the keys. The Sikhs made demonstrations against this act of the government. It made many Sikhs prisoners. The Congress and the Khilafat Committee also supported the Sikhs. At last, the government was forced to hand over the keys to the Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee.
3. ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ Morcha. Gurudwara ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ is situated in Amritsar district. This Gurudwara was in the hands of a characterless person named Mahant Sunder Das. Shiromani Committee sent a jatha under Dan Singh on 23rd August, 1921 to take over the control of the Gurudwara. The police arrested the members of this Jatha. This incident enraged the Sikhs all the more. They began to send more and more Jathas. These Jathas were badly treated. Their members were beaten with lathis and were dragged by their hair.
4. Panja Sahib incident. The Sikhs decided to send a Jatha by train to participate in Guru Ka Bagh Morcha. The Sikhs of the Panja Sahib (Hasan Abdal) (now in Pakistan) requested the Government to stop the train at Panja Sahib so that the members of the Jatha might be served food. The government turned down the request of the Sikhs. At this, two Sikhs named Bhai Karam Singh and Bhai Partap Singh laid down before the train and sacrificed their lives.
5. Babbar Akali Dal. The Sikhs established Babbar Akali Dal in August, 1922 to fight against the British rule. The most prominent leader of this Dal was Jathedar Kishan Singh. His violent acts created a wave of terror in Punjab. The Government succeeded in capturing many Babbar Akalis with the help of the army and 91 Babbar Akalis were tried. Babbar Akalis like Kishan Singh, Dharam Singh, Dalip Singh, etc. were sentenced to death.
6. Jaito Ka Morcha. The British Government dethroned Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha without any faulf of his in July, 1923. Shiromani Akali Dal and all the patriotic Sikhs decided to hold a meeting in Gurudwara Gangsar (Jaito) against the Government. A Jatha of 500 Akalis set out for Gangsar on 21st February, 1924. It faced the British army at Nabha. The Sikhs were unarmed. Consequently, more than 100 Sikhs were martyred and about 200 Sikhs were injured.
7. The Sikh Gurudwara Act. The Punjab Government passed the Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1925. According to it, the task of administration and care of the Gurdwaras came into the hands of the Sikhs. Gradually, all the Sikh prisoners were released.
Thus the Sikhs made great sacrifices in the Akali Movement. On the one hand, they freed the Gurudwaras from the clutches of the Mahants who were the puppets in the hands of the English. On the other hand, they lighted such a fire against the English which continued burning upto the attainment of independence by India.
Explain the achievements of Brahmo Samaj.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the founder of Brahmo Samaj. He was a great social reformer. He not only ended the evil practices prevailing in Hindu Society but also saved it from the influence of Christianity. First of all, he started, ‘Atamey Sabha’. After that in 1830 A.D., he founded ‘Brahmo Samaj’. It preached against social evils like Sati, child marriage, female infanticide, etc. It opposed idol worship and caste system. It asked the people tq study the Vedas and Upanishads and advised people to follow the path shown by the Vedas.
Brahmo Samaj was divided into two separate groups after the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The first group was led by Davendra Nath Tagore. The second group was led by Keshab Chander.
The achievements of Brahmo Samaj or Raja Ram Mohan Roy were as under:
1. Social Reforms:
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy preached against the practice of “Sati”. He was able to get Sati practice declared illegal by Governor-General William Bentinck in 1829 A.D.
- He also raised a voice of protest against caste system, untouchability, human sacrifices and other social evils.
- He gave special attention to the improvement of the condition of women.
2. Religious Reforms:
- Brahmo Samaj strongly condemned idol worship and superstitions.
- It encouraged people to believe in one God.
- It advised people to remain away from sins and to do good deeds. According to it, ‘God Worship’ was the only way to achieve salvation.
3. Cultural Awakening. Raja Ram Mohan Roy laid stress on the spread of western education and western culture. He said that with the spread of western ideas, social evils will come to an end. He established an English school in 1817 A.D. at Kolkata. Brahmo Samaj established a Vedant College in 1825 A.D. where education was imparted by western methods.
Thus Raja Ram Mohan Roy made great efforts to free Indian society from many evils. That is why, he is called “an advance ambassador of new era” and “father of Indian nationalism”.
Describe in detail the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 A.D. A resolution to begin this movement was passed by the Congress in its session at Calcutta (Kolkata). In those days, Muslims had also started Khilafat movement against the British government. So the Hindus and the-Muslims jointly opposed the government.
Programme. In order to give a proper shape to the movement, a detailed programme was prepared. According to it, the students stopped going to government schools and colleges. Lawyers stopped attending courts. Some people boycotted English cloth and started wearing hancf woven cloth. They also boycotted government jobs and law courts.
Gandhiji wanted to carry on this movement peacefully but in 1922 A.D. a police station in a village named Chauri-Chaura in Uttar Pradesh was burnt down along with one police inspector and 27 constables by the people. Gandhiji was very much perturbed over this incident and withdrew the agitation. Gandhiji was arrested and was imprisoned for six years.
Describe in detail the ‘Quit India Movement’.
Quit India Movement was the most significant movement in the freedom struggle. This was started by Gandhiji in August 1942 A.D. By this .’time, Indian leaders had completely lost faith in the British government. The British government, without asking Indians, declared India’s participation in the Second World War. Congress declared that Indians will themselves protect their country and the British should, therefore, quit India. The Government determined to crush the movement. Gandhiji and all the members of the Working Committee of Congress were arrested early in the morning on 9th August, 1942 A.D. The Congress was declared an illegal organisation.
Beginning of the movement and its progress. The news regarding the arrest of Gandhiji spread in whole of the country. Strikes, protest meetings and processions took place in all the cities of the country. People raised slogans like ‘Britishers Quit India’, ‘Release Mahatma Gandhi’, ‘British Government Murdabad’.
The British Government followed the policy of suppression for crushing the movement. Police committed many atrocities on the public. Peaceful processionists were fired at and cane-charged. Consequently, thousands of people were killed and injured. More than one lakh men and women were arrested.
Enraged by the government’s atrocities, Indian public also adopted violent means. They burnt many government buildings, post offices and railway trains. The Government held Congress responsible for these incidents. Gandhiji was very much disturbed by these allegations. On 10th February 1943, A.D., Mahatma Gandhi started fast for 21 days in the jail as a protest. Gandhiji was released on 6th May, 1944 A.D. Quit India Movement had ended by that time.
Effects. This movement strengthened the freedom struggle. Now it became a movement of the people. The British also understood that it would not be easy for them to rule in India any longer.
Write a detailed note on the establishment and functions of the Indian National Congress. (Pb. 2003 E)
The Indian National Congress was established on December 28, 1885. Mr. A. O. Hume, a retired English officer, was its founder.
Following were the aims of the Congress in the beginning.
- It aimed to gather the patriotic leaders all over India at one platform.
- It aimed to remove the differences of caste, religion and regions and promote national integration.
- It aimed at making efforts for the social, economic and political upliftment of India.
Role of Congress during its earlier phase. The earlier phase of Congress was called a moderate or liberal period. It extended from 1885 to 1905. It played the following role during the moderate period.
- The Congress believed in constitutional and peaceful methods during this period. They presented their demands to the government through petitions, protest meetings and speeches. Although they were not able to influence the British administration much, yet they played a great role in creating political awakening among the masses of India by their activities.
- They raised the demands for reducing the defence expenditure, holding the civil services examination in India, raising the age for appearing in. the Indian civil services examination, seeking representation in the legislative and administrative work.
- Leaders like Dadabhai Naurojee and Gokhale exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British administration.
- During this period, the Congress leaders believed that the English people believed injustice. They regarded their rule a boon for the Indians. They believed that the English Government would fulfill their demands.
- The passing of the Indian Council Act of 1892 was one of the earlier achievements of their struggle for political rights. Overall, they were not considered to have achieved much. However, they were definitely successful in increasing political awakening among the Indians.
What were the causes of the rise of national consciousness in India?
The causes of the emergence of the spirit of national consciousness among the people of India were as under:
1. Impact of the Revolt of 1857. The great rising of 1857 had created among the Indians a feeling of national awakening. It gave birth to the movement for the liberation of the country.
2. Exploitation of Indians by the British. The British exploited India economically. Due to their commercial policy, India’s a trade and industry were destroyed. The educated Indians were also discontented with the British policy of denying high government jobs to them. They felt the need to organize themselves to struggle for their rights.
3. Western Culture and Education. Western education created in the minds of Indians the ideas of liberty, equality, and brotherhood. The educated Indians began to think of achieving freedom from the foreign rule.
4. Press and Vernacular Literature. The Indian newspapers and literature also helped in the growth of a new spirit in Indian politics. The well-known newspapers like Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Indian Mirror, The Hindu, The Kesri, The Bengali, etc. propagated the views of national leaders and exposed the evils of the British rule which awakened the national feelings among the Indians.
5. Effects of International Events. During this period, revolutions took place in France, America, and some other countries. The people of these countries changed the governments by sacrificing their lives. The Indians also drew inspiration from these revolutions and started thinking of fighting against British Imperialism.
6. British Policy of Racial Discrimination. The passing of the Vernacular Press Act and denying high posts to the Indians created bitterness against the British in the minds of Indians. It brought a political awakening to the country.
7. Modern means of Transport and Communication. The development of modern means of transport and communication like railways, roads, post and telegraph services also helped in the growth of the national movement. They linked villages and towns. They encouraged social contacts among the people. This promoted national unity and the cause of nationalism.