PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words :

Question 1.
Which incident is known as Sachcha Sauda?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev’s father gave him twenty rupees to start some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent that money in feeding the hungry saints and this incident is famous as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Question 2.
To which place did Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s wife belong? Write the names of his sons.
Answer:
Mata Sulakliani, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, belonged to Batala (District Gurdaspur). Guru Nanak Dev Ji had two sons named Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Das.

Question 3.
What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining Enlightenment? Explain their meaning.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that ‘No’one is a Hindu or Muslim’. These were the first words, which Guru Nanak Dev Ji uttered after attaining enlightenment. The meaning of his message was that all the Hindus and Muslims were equal. It also meant that Hindus and Muslims had forgotten the real message of their respective religions.

Question 4.
What work was done by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur and under whom?
Answer:
At Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji worked as Bhandari (the store accountant) in a Lodhi Khana (government storehouse) of Subedar Daulat Khan Lodhi.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 5.
Name the four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The four main ‘Banis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are: ‘Var Malhar’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’ and ‘Barah Maha’.

Question 6.
What did Guru Nanak Dev Ji preach at Kurukshetra?
Answer:
At Kurukshetra, Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that a person should lay stress more on the purity of his mind and soul than on mere purity of his physical appearance (carnal existence).

Question 7.
What did Guru Ji preach the Sidhas and Yogis at Gorakhmata?
Answer:
The Sidhas and Yogis smeared their bodies with ashes and led strange ways of life. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave them the message that they would not attain salvation by adopting useless customs like smearing their bodies with ashes, holding sticks, shaving heads, giving up social responsibilities, etc.

Question 8.
Explain Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views on God.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the Supreme God was Formless, Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Eternal. He had both the forms of being absolute (Nirguna) and of (Saguna). The word Vanis is also used for Banis.

Question 9.
What type of sacred thread did Guru Nanak Dev Ji want?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted a sacred thread of pure deeds. According to him, such a sacred thread never breaks, nor is stained.

Question 10.
What is the meaning of Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is pious deal or in other words a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji made a pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the saints.

Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words :

Question 1.
Write in brief the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus, could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further teaches that God is Self- Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.

3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.

4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of his grace and greatness.

5. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his Second Udasi (travel)?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There, Guru Sahib visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kulu, Spiti, etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountain and Amarnath Cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.

Question 3.
Describe the Sacred Thread ceremony of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread which was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.

Question 4.
What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.

Question 5.
Write about the places Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited during his first Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places during his first Udasi :

  1. Guru Sahib went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where Guru Sahib made Bhai Lalo his follower.
  2. Then Guru Sahib visited Talumba, Kurukshetra and Panipat. Guru Sahib gave the message of doing the right deeds to the people of those areas.
  3. From Panipat, Guru Sahib reached Haridwar via Delhi. Guru Sahib preached against superstitions at those places.
  4. Then Guru Sahib visited Kedarnath, Badrinath,’ Gorakhmatta, Benaras, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup (Assam) Shillong, Dacca, Jaganath Puri and a number of places in South India. Finally, Guru Sahib came back from Pakpattan to Sultanpur Lodhi via Dipalpur.

Question 6.
Write about the important places visited by Guru Nanak Dev Ji during the third Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan. He visited the following places during this Udasi:

  • Multan,
  • Mecca,
  • Madina,
  • Baghdad,
  • Tehran,
  • Qandhar,
  • Peshawar,
  • Hassan Abdal and
  • Gujrat.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 7.
Give details of the time spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new city on the banks of river Ravi in 1521. The city was called “Kartarpur”, which means ‘a city of God’. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the last eighteen years of his life along with his family members at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan.)

Guru Ji’s work at Kartarpur:

  1. During his stay at Kartarpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed War Malhar’, War Majha’, War Assa\ ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Onkar’, etc.
  2. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the practices of Sangat and Pangat at Kartarpur in a systematic manner. During a session of ‘Sangat’, the followers of the Gui’u (Sikhs) sat together and meditated and recited hymns of the Guru. In the session of a ‘Pangat’ all the followers of the Guru sat together and partook their meals from a common kitchen (langar). This practice is also called Langar system.
  3. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji prepared himself for the final journey of his life, he appointed his most devoted follower,

Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru-gaddi. Bhai Lehna as Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
Write about any six teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in detail.
Answer:
The teachings and life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji served as ideals for all. Guru Sahib was strongly against the narrow views like irrational customs and rites, caste system, racialism, etc. Guru Sahib had deep faith in the True Name and existence of Supreme God and gave this message to all those who sought His grace.

The main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are given as follow :
(A) The Greatness of God . Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God are as given below:
1. Faith in One Supreme God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed that there is one Supreme God. Guru Sahib did not believe in the incarnation of God. Guru Sahib had called ‘Ram’, ‘Krishna’, ‘Buddha’ etc. as supreme beings but did not accept them as incarnations (Avtars) of God.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is Formless. According to him, God is Self-Created, Hence, God should not be worshipped in the form of idols made by man.

3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. God is present in every living being. Everything exists only because of him.

4. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji assured humanity that God was compassionate and generous. God comes whenever he is sought. The person, who attributes all his acts to the will of God, God himself comes to his rescue.

5. The Recitation of True Name (Sat Nam). Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed on the recitation of the True Name. Guru Sahib explained that as a person needed water for washing his body, so he needed the recitation of the true name for the purification of his mind.

6. Importance of Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the grace of Guru as most essential for reaching God. The Guru is like a ship which takes the follower across the sea of life. Guru Sahib said one could not realize God without the blessings of the Guru. The Guru is the ladder or a path to reach God.

(B) The Teachings for Right Conduct.
1. Complete faith in the Principles of Right Conduct (Sat Karma). Guru Nanak Dev Ji told that a person passed through a cycle of births and deaths time and again as a result of the deeds performed by him. A person who did wrong deeds, took birth again and again to pay for his evil deeds. On the other hand, a person who performed pious deeds escaped the cycle of births and deaths and achieved moksha.

2. Stress on the life of a Householder. Guru Nanak Dev Ji favoured the life of a true householder. Guru Sahib gave the message that a person should live a right type of life on this earth and try to become pure. Guru Sahib showed by his personal example that a person could attain salvation while leading the life of a householder. Guru Sahib showed that a person could lead a detached and pure life even as a family man.

3. Faith in Love for Humanity. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in social differences based on colour and race. To him, all the human beings were the creatures of one and the same God, hence they were all equal. They were primarily human beings, Hindus ahd Muslims afterwards. No person is high or low because of his birth. The Guru Sahib emphasised the fundamental unity of mankind and the doctrine of human equality. ‘*

4. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised the caste system. For him, no one was a Hindu, Muslim, low or high. According to him, there was fundamental equality and unity among all the castes and religions.

5. Social Service. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the person who did not love and respect all the creations of God, could never achieve God. Guru Sahib asked his followers to serve the society and love humanity selflessly. For him, love for humanity was love for God.

6. Criticism of Idol Worship. Guru Nanak Dev Ji criticised idol worship in very strong terms. According to him, it was useless to worship God in the form of an idol made by a man. For him, the right way to worship God was to recite His Name with full devotion and to realise His presence all around.

7. Criticism of Yajnas, Sacrifices, and Irrational Ceremonies. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. According to him, superficial presentations to God had no place in the worship of God.

8. Attainment of Supreme Bliss (Sach Khand). According to the Guru Sahib, the main aim of life of a human being is the attainment of Supreme Bliss or Sach Khand. The Sach Khand is that state of mind qnder divine grace wherein all the troubles and fears of a person disappear. A devotee becomes fearless and his troubled mind gets peace. In such a state of mind, the person gets a glimpse of the Supreme Being.

9. Emphasis on Life of Virtue. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message to people to lead a virtuous life. Guru Sahib gave the following principles for an ideal life

  • Speak the truth,
  • Do not steal,
  • Live a life of piety,
  • Never hurt the feelings of fellow beings.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great saint and a social reformer. Guru Sahib created the spirit of human love in the hearts of people by his divine message. Guru Sahib showed the true and prefect path of recitation of name of God. Guru Sahib instilled faith in One Supreme God and saved the misguided humanity from the path of darkness and led it to the true path of God.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Throw light on the childhood of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on April 15,1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.

His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart aince his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven.

Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to leam Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lal with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutbudin.

The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perforin his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.

Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other-worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Dass were born to them. .Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.

Enlightenment: Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every da^ at the time of bath. One morning. Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time. Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.

Question 8.
Describe the time period spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur Lodhi.
Answer:
Sometime between 1486-87, the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Sahib to Sultanpur Lodhi with a hope to divert his attention to worldly affairs. Guru Sahib started staying with Shri Jai Ram, his brother-in-law, and the husband of his sister Bibi Nanaki.

Job with Lodhi Khana. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was well-versed in Persian language and arithmetic. Guru Sahib joined as Bhandari (the store accountant) in Lodhi Khana (storehouse), of a Faujdar under Daulat Khan Lodhi on the recommendation of Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib worked very honestly and sincerely. However, a complaint was lodged against him that he was distributing the store-goods among the saints and wanderers without keeping any record. When the records were verified everything was found in perfect order.

The Life of a Householder and Meditation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also brought his family to Sultanpur Lodhi after sometime. Guru Sahib started living a simple and pure family life. It was his routine that Guru Sahib visited the river Kali Bein on the outskirts of the town to take bath and to meditate on the name of God. He gave a part of his earnings in charity to the needy.

Enlightenment. It is recorded in Janam Sakhis, that one morning, as per his routine. Guru Sahib went to take bath in the river Kali Bein. But Guru Sahib disappeared for the next three days. A rumour spread in the town that he had been drowned in the river. All his relatives and well-wishers started worrying about his well-being. However, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had spent those days in deep meditation. And on attainment of enlightenment, Guru Sahib .planned to spread the divine knowledge during the rest of his life.

After three days, Guru Nanak Dev Ji again returned to Sultanpur Lodhi and kept a mystic silence for some days. When Guru Sahib was persuaded to speak, he uttered his first divine message, “Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Musalman”. Faujdar Daulat Khan, Qazi, and Brahmins sought the explanation of his message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught them that the Hindus as well as the Muslims had forgotten the true tenets of their religions. He said that there was no difference in being a Hindu or Muslim. All were equal before God. Thus, Guru Sahib started preaching his divine teachings with the message of brotherhood and humanity. In order to preach his divine message, Guru Sahib resigned from his worldly job and started his travels.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 4.
Describe the early life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on April 15,1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.

His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart aince his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven.

Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to leam Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lal with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutbudin.

The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perforin his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.

Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other-worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Dass were born to them. .Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.

Enlightenment: Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every da^ at the time of bath. One morning. Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time. Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.

Question 5.
Describe the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled from Kaiiash mountai n in the north to Ramesfiwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca. Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his. life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dev Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and custdTns. Guru Nanak Dev Ji showed them the true religious path.

Question 6.
Explain in detail the concept of God according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The core of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the praise of God (Nirankar). A simple description of the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on God is as follows:
1. There is One God : Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of “Ek Onkar” which means One Supreme God. It was the core of all his teachings. It was the gist of his teachings or Mool Mantar. The gist of all his divine preaching on the idea of God is represented in his main saying (Mool Mantar). Guru Sahib told that there is one God and He can not be divided. This message had a social and religious importance for the contemporary world. The Muslims prayed to God accepting Prophet Muhammad as his prophet. The Hindus worshipped numerous gods and goddesses by accepting each of them as Supreme form. In his teachings, Guru Sahib strongly denied the concept of incarnation of Supreme God. On that account, Guru Sahib did not accept Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Muhammad as the incarnations of Supreme God.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created : Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Formless. It does not have any shape or form (Nirguna) but there are different attributes of God also (Sarguna). Hence, the exact perception of God remains beyond the reach of words. God is Self Created, not by time (Akal Purakh), eternal and timeless (Akal Murat). Hence, it will not help, if Supreme God is worshipped only in the form of an idol created out of the perception of a common man. Guru Sahib rightly claimed that an ignorant man did not have the capacity to perceive the real God and neither has the ability to perceive and represent the Supreme God in the form of an idol or a symbol.

3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent: According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is omnipresent and omnipotent. Guru Sahib said that He is present everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque. One of his couplets when translated, elaborates thus, “Why to seek One that was created and dies. Seek the only one, who is eternal.”

The being, which is created, will die. The being, which is created, is bound by time. It has a beginning. The thing, which has a beginning, has an end also. However, the Supreme God is Self-Created, that is, He was not created and thus will not end with time. He is Akal Murat, that is not bound by time (start and end) and thus timeless (permanent).

4. God is Compassionate (Kind): Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that God is very kind. He helps whenever he is sought. He lives in the hearts of his believers. To Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God was personal and merciful. He helped them who had faith in him in time of trouble and difficulty.

5. God is Supreme and Great: Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Supreme and Great. For-him, it was beyond the capabilities of human beings to understand his Supreme Existence. Only God knows what actually He is. Thus said Guru Nanak Dev Ji, V-iiion qs&i 3n<alk, 3TN”. ‘He, The Great, knows, what can be known on being great.’ Many people had tried to explain the greatness of God but none had been successful in revealing His greatness in words.

6. Importance of His edict (Hukam) : The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were full of praise of “Hukam” (rules ordained by God) of God. According to Guru Sahib, every event in the universe takes place as ordained by God (Hukafn). Guru Sahib suggested that humanity should accept the sweet will of God as revealed in His Hukam. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had devoted the second section of Jupji Sahib in praise of the Hukam. Guru Sahib writes that the person, who humbly accepts the Hukam, he merges himself with God and his ego sublimates and ends. Guru Sahib wrote, “The person who accepts the Hukam, loses his ego.”

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
When and where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom in 1469 at Talwandi, a village 64 kilometres from Lahore.

Question 2.
Why was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to Sultanpur Lodhi?
Answer:
To adopt some profession to earn his living.

Question 3.
Where was a new spirit of Brotherhood promoted by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started preaching his message at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan).

Question 4.
What was the meaning of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The meaning of Udasis is those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook.

Question 5.
Who founded the city of Kartarpur and when?
Answer:
Kartarpur was founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji in about 1521.

Question 6.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thug?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan Thug at Talumba,

Question 7.
Who changed the name Gorakhmatta to Nanakmatta?
Answer:
The Gorakh Panthi Yogis changed the name of Gorakhmatta to Nanakmatta.

Question 8.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend the last years of his life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent his last years at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan).

Question 9.
Write any one teaching of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The blessings of Guru are essential to achieve God.

Question 10.
Give any two views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

  1. God is one.
  2. He is formless.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 11.
Describe any one influence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on the people of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of Punjab started worshipping one God and the Idol worship declined.

Question 12.
Which invasion of Babur was compared to ‘Marriage Party of Sins’ by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The third invasion of Babur on India.

Question 13.
What two institutions were started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji which form the basis of the Sikh religion?
Answer:
Sangat and Pangat.

Question 14.
What were the aims of Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
To help humanity to adopt the right religious path.

Question 15.
At what age did Guru Nanak Dev Ji attain enlightenment?
Answer:
At the age of thirty years.

Question 16.
Where is Gurdwara Panja Sahib?
Answer:
At Hasan Abdal in district Campbell Pur now in Pakistan.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji was born at now called ______________
Answer:
Taiwandi, Nankana Sahib

Question 2.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji established the traditions of and _________________
Answer:
Sangat Pangat

Question 3.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji made a pious deal (Sacha Sauda) by spending twenty rupees on _____________________
Answer:
feeding the beggars and saints

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 4.
The name of Guru Nanak Dey Ji’s father was _________________________
Answer:
Mehta Kalu Ram

Question 5.
Guru Nanak Dey Ji was appointed ____________________________ as his successor.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna (Angad Dey Ji).

Multiple Choice Question :

Question 1.
When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
(a) In 1169
(b) In 1269
(c) In 1369
(d) In 1469.
Answer:
(d) In 1469.

Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Kartarpur (a) Guru Nanak Dey
2. Lodhi Khana (b) Persian
3. God Vishnu (c) Sultanpur
4. Pandit Brij Lai (d) Lord Jagan Nath
5. Manbir Qutbudin (e) Sanskrit.

Answer:
1. (a)
2. (c)
3. (d)
4. (e)
5. (b).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write on the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dey Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dey Ji travelled from Kailash mountain in the north to Ramehwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dey Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and custms. Guru Nanak Dey Ji showed them the true religious path.

Question 2.
Which religious beliefs and traditions were strongly criticised by Guru Nanak Dey Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji gave no importance to religious ceremonies for the spiritual upliftment of the individual. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly criticised the irrational religious practices ind customs. The religious ceremonies which Guru Sahib condemned, were Vedic rites, Yajnas, Idol worship, pilgrimages, and useless ceremonies. Guru Sahib declined to recognise the ascetic yogic way of life.

Guru Sahib criticised the ascetics or yogis on two accounts:

  1. the lack of pure devotion towards God
  2. the neglect of social obligations.

Guru Nanak Dey Ji did not recommend Vaishnav way of Bhakti and also refused to recognise the concépt of incarnation (Avtarvad). Guru Sahib also criticised many practices, beliefs, traditions and activities of the Muslim clergy and society.

Question 3.
What is the social significance of the messages given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The message of Guru Nanak Dey Ji had great social significance. His message is for all. Every man and woman can easily follow and understand his teachings. There is no place for caste system or discrimination on religious basis. His teachings gave a setback to the caste system and developed the feeling of brotherhood among the people. Guru Sahib always identified himself with the common man. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly condemned the oppression, injustice, and corruption of contemporary society. Consequently, his teachings removed many evils of the society.

Question 4.
Describe in brief the main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught us:

  1. There is one God. He is omnipresent and omnipotent.
  2. The caste distinctions are meaningless. The rich, poor, Brahmans, Shudras, all are equal.
  3. The right conduct makes a man great.
  4. God should be worshipped with a pure mind.
  5. Guru Sahib gives much importance to True Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the Guru as essential for the realization of God. According to him, “True Guru acts as a guide in the attainment of the true name of God. Guru is the ladder which enables a man to reach the true goal of his life.”
  6. One should always earn one’s living by right means.
  7. The status of a woman is high. She gives birth to great men. All the women are worthy of highest respect.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the role of Guru Nanak Dey Ji as a teacher and the founder of the Sikh religion.
Answer:
(A) As a Great Teacher:
1. Preacher of Truth : Guru Nanak Dey Ji was a great teacher of humanity. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in the thirtieth year of his life. Guru Sahib travelled widely to spread his message. Guru Sahib spread the gospel of Truth in every nook and corner of the Punjab. Everywhere, people were impressed by his personality and message. Guru Nanak Dey Ji taught to abandon the materialistic dsires, selfishness, and greediness and enjoined upon his followers to lead a pious life. Guru Sahib taught those principles which he himself practised in his personas life.

2. A Guru for the Whole Humanity : The teachings of Guru Sahib were not meant for any particular community, place, or nation, rather they are for the whole world. Prof. K.S. Narang opines that his message was not just for one period of time. It is eternal. Guru Sahib’s teachings were so rational and complete that even modern rationalists cannot find any shortcomings in them. The main aim of his teachings was the welfare of the whole humanity. It was only with the spirit of the welfare of the whole humanity, that Guru Sahib undertook hard journey to Burma, China, Tibet, Arabia, etc.

(B) As the Founder of Sikh Religion : Guru Nanak Dey Ji founded the Sikh religion.
There are some fundamental principles of Sikh religion which are found only in Sikhism but not in Hinduism or Islam. For example, Guru Nanak Dey Ji started the institutions of Sangat and Pangat which were the important features of the new faith. Secondly, Guru Nanak Dey Ji did not appoint his son as successor to Guru-gaddi but gave it to his devotee Bhai Lehna. By this act, the Guru tradition became very significant and the Sikh religion was founded. The Sikh religion continued to develop during the period of next nine Gurus and the Sikh religion established itself as a full-fledged religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings

Question 2.
Write in detail about the first Udasi (travel) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji went first to the east and then to the south on his first journey. He started his journey around 1500 A.D. (Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in 1499 Guru Sahib took along with him an ardent devotee, Mardana on his first journey. Mardana was a good player of Rabab (a stringed musical instrument).

Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the various places which are given below:
1. Sayyidpur. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Sayyidpur from Sultanpur. Lodhi. In the beginning of his journey, Guru Sahib converted a carpenter Bhai Lalo. Guru Sahib refused to partake the food provided by Malik Bhago. Guru Sahib refused to take the food because Malik Bhago followed corrupt means and oppressed the poor to earn money.

2. Talumba. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Talumba in district Multan from Sayyidpur. Sajjan Thug, who pretended to be a religious man, lived there. Sajjan was basically a cunning man. Sajjan planned to play his dirty game with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, when Guru Nanak Dev Ji sang his hymns before going to bed, it deeply touched the heart of Sajjan. He fell at the feet of Guru Sahib and pleaded for forgiveness. Guru Nanak Dev Ji pardoned him and accepted him as his follower. After that, Sajjan stopped cheating the people and adopted the path of spreading the message of True Faith. The historian Teja Singh has rightly said, “The criminal’s den became a temple of God worship.”

3. Kurukshetra. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Kurukshetra from Talumba. He found thousands of Brahmins, Saints, and Hindus gathered there on the occasion of solar eclipse. Guru Nanak Dev Ji addressed the congregation, where Guru Sahib laid stress upon the purity of soul in place of giving more importance to the outer purity or purity of physical existence. Guru Sahib taught them the path of honesty, love, and truth.

4. Panipat. Guru Sahib went to Panipat from Kurukshetra. Guru Sahib met Sufi Sheikh Ikul Kabir. The Sufi saint was highly impressed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and became his follower.

5. Haridwar. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Haridwar from Panipat passing through Delhi on his way. At Haridwar, Guru Nanak Dev Ji observed that the people were throwing water upwards facing the sun saying that they were sending water to their ancestors. In order to help the people to see reason, Guru Sahib started throwing water in the opposite direction. When the people inquired about the aim of his such action, Guru Sahib told them that he was watering his fields in the Punjab. The people tried to mock at his reasoning. Then, Guru Nanak Dev Ji sought to reason by questioning that when they could not accept that he could send water a few hundred miles away, then how could they justify their belief that their water offerings were reaching their ancestors millions of miles away? When no one came up with any answer, they became the followers of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

6. Gorakhmatta. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Joshi Math etc. and finally reached Gorakhmatta. Guru Sahib met the followers of Saint Gorakh Nath. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught that they could not attain moksha by piercing their ears, smearing their bodies with ashes, keeping sticks in their hands and abandoning their social responsibilities. The Yogis of Gorakhmatta were so impressed that they changed the name of the place to Nanakmatta.

7. Benaras. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Benaras from Nanakmatta. Guru Sahib met Pandit Chaturdass in Benaras. The teachings and grace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji overwhelmingly impressed Pandit Chaturdass. He submitted before Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with all his followers and all of them became the devotees of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

8. Gaya. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey from Benaras and reached Gaya, the well-known place of pilgrimage of the Buddhists. Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed numerous people of Gaya with his teachings and they became his followers.

9. Assam: Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled through Bihar and Bengal and reached Assam. At ‘Dhubri’, Guru Sahib met Shankar Dev. Guru Sahib met a beautiful magician woman named Nooran, whom Guru Sahib taught that the real beauty was of a pure character.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey through Guwahati and Shillong and reached Syhlet. Guru Sahib met Sheikh Jalal at Syhlet. Sheikh Jalal was so impressed by his teachings that he became his follower.

10. Dacca, Cuttack and Jaganath Puri. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Dacca from Kamrup. Guru Sahib had an exchange of ideas with numerous religious leaders there. From Dacca, Guru Sahib passed through Cuttack and reached Jagannath Puri in present Orissa. Guru Sahib watched the performance of aarti (worship of an Idol with lamps and cinders) of Idol of Lord Jagannath, the incarnation of God Vishnu, Guru Sahib preached to the people the uselessness of Idol worship. He preached that God is Omnipresent.

11. Journey of South India. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey to South India. Guru Sahib visited Guntur, Kanchipuram, Trincholopoly, Nagapatnam, Rameshvaram, Trivandrum, and Sri Lanka. The’king of Sri Lanka, Shivnabh, was highly impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He became his follower. His Queen and other people accepted him as their Guru. In Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji deputed one of his followers, Jhanda Bedi to continue to spread his message.

The Return Journey. On his return journey from Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited numerous small towns. Finally, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kusali, Bycola, Anumadhyam, Pannar and Pakpattan. At Pakpattan, Guru Sahib met Sheikh Ibrahim, the tenth descendant of Sheikh Farid. Sheikh Ibrahim felt highly elated by listening to the divine talks of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. From Pakpattan, Guru Sahib went to Dipalpur and returned to Sultanpur.

Memory/Route Chart of First Udasi or Travel

  1. Sultanpur-Lodhi (starting point of journey)
  2. Sayyidpur
  3. Talumba
  4. Kurukshetra
  5. Panipat
  6. Delhi
  7. Haridwar
  8. Kedarnath
  9. Badrinath
  10. Joshimath
  11. Gorakhmatta
  12. Benaras
  13. Gaya (Bihar)
  14. Patna
  15. Hajipur (Bengal)
  16. Dhubri
  17. Kamrup
  18. Gawahati
  19. Shillong
  20. Dacca
  21. Cuttack
  22. Jaganathpuri
  23. Guntur
  24. Kanchipurram
  25. Trinchonopoly
  26. Nagapatnam
  27. Rameshwaram
  28. Trivandrum
  29. Sri Lanka
  30. Kusali
  31. Bycola
  32. Anumadhya
  33. Pannar
  34. Pakpattan
  35. Dipalpur, and finally
  36. Sultanpur Lodhi.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Guru Nanak Ji gave the people of the Punjab an ideal which was ultimately to mould his followers into a powerful community.” -Dr. Hari Ram Gupta
  • Parentage. The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu Ram. He was a Patwari (a revenue officer).
  • The Ceremony of Sacred Thread (Janeu). Guru Nanak Dev Ji was strongly opposed to useless ceremonies and empty rituals. He, therefore, refused to wear the thread of cotton, considered as a sacred thread.
  • The Pious Deal (Sachcha Sauda), The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave him
    twenty rupees for starting some business. Guru’Nanak Dev Ji spent this money to serve food to the saints, beggars and the needy and thus made a Pious Deal (Sachcha Sauda). _
  • Enlightenment. Guru Nanak Dev Ji attained enlightenment during his bath at a rivulet called ‘Bein’. One morning, he took a dip in the river and reappeared after three days as an enlightened being.
  • Udasis (Travels), The Udasis refer to those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook as a selfless pious wanderer without any care for his social bindings. The aim of his Udasis or travels was to end the prevalent superstitions and guide the humanity on the path of true faith. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went on three Udasis in different directions.
  • Stay at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan). Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur in 1521. He composed ‘Var Malhar’, ‘Var Manjh’, ‘Var Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Barah Mahan’ etc. at Kartarpur. He also established the traditions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’ there.
  • Teachings about God. The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were that God is Formless, Self-Created, Omnipresent, Omnipotent, Compassionate and Great. He can be easily achieved with the blessings of a True Guru and Self¬Surrender. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the later part of his life preaching the path of true religion at Kartarpur.
  • Guru Sahib Merged with the Supreme God. On September 22, 1539, he merged with Ultimate Supreme God. Before he breathed his last, he had appointed Bhai Lehna as his successor. Bhai Lehna became the second Guru under the name Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • Sangat and Pangat. The congregation of the followers of the Guru is called Sangat. They sit together to learn the real meaning of the Guru and sing in praise of God. According to the Pangat system, all the followers of the Guru sit together on the floor to partake food from a common kitchen (langar).

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 3 Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.