## PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The word Punjab is derived from two-Persian words, Panj (five) and Aab (water or river). Thus Punjab is the region of five waters. These five rivers are Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. The Punjab is situated on the North West of India. In 1947, After the partition of India, Punjab was partitioned into two parts. The western part of Punjab was transfered to Pakistan and eastern part of Punjab became North Western Province of Independent Republic of India. In Pakistani Punjab, which is called Western Punjab, three rivers are flowing namely Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. In Indian Punjab which is called East Punjab only two rivers are flowing namely Beas and Satluj. The name Punjab is so much popular that the residents of both the Bunjabs called their Punjab as only Punjab instead of west or east-. We will study in this book about medieval ancient Punjab between Yamuna and Sind rivers.
(а) Name the words and language from which the word Punjab has been derived. Write its meaning also.
The world Punjab is combination of two Persian words Panj and Aab which means region of five waters or five rivers.

(b) After Partition of India, why the Word Punjab had not remained so appropriate?
Before partition, Punjab was region of five rivers. But due to partition, its three rivers became the part of Pakistan and the remaining the Beas and Satluj remained in Present Punjab.

(c) Write briefly about any three Doabs.

1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. This part is not much fertile.
2. Chhaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. The Important cities of this Doab are Gujrat, Bhera and Shahpur.
3. Rachna Doab. It is the region between rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the Important towns of this Doab.

Question 2.
The Afghan Chiefs were annoyed at Stiff attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. To show their discontentment, they made a plan to declare Alam Khan as ruler of Delhi. They decided to take help of Babur for this. But in 1524 A.D., After managing his victorious areas Babar had just reached the Kabul that Daullat Khan Lodhi after gathering his army seized Lahore from Abdul Aziz. After this, he vacated Sultanpur from Dilawar Khan and also defeated Alam Khan in Dipalpur.
Alam Khan went to Kabul in Babur’s Asylum. Then Daultat Khan Lodhi attacked Sialkot but failed. In order to supress the rising power of Daulat Khan and to eradicate Babur’s army from Punjab, Ibrahim Lodhi again deployed his army. Daulat Khan Lodhi gave crushing defeat to the army. As a result of which independent rule of Daulat Khan was established in central Punjab.
(а) Describe any two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.

1. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to understand the nature and habits of the Afghans.
2. He tried to discipline the Afghans but failed miserably in his policy.

(b) Why Dilawar Khan Lodhi went to Delhi? How Ibrahim Lodhi treated him?
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position
regarding his relations with his father. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severly punish his father for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture which were inflicted on the rebels and after word he was imprisoned. Somehow, he managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi. On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts, the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.

Question 3.
Before Guru Nanak Devi Ji, Punjab was ruled by Muslims. That is why Muslims could get high position in government. They were treated with respect. Judiciary was in favour of them.

At that time, Muslim society was divided into four sections—Amir and Sardars, Ulema and Sayyad, Middle class and slave.
Women did not enjoy a respectable position in the muslim society. There were harems of women in havelis of Amirs and Sardars (Nobles). The women belonging to Amir and Sardars lived in harems. The Slaves and concubines were provided- to serve them. The Purdah system preveiled at that time. The women of the families of common muslim lived in separate part of the house partitioned by purdah. Their portion was called. ‘Janan Khana’. -They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Purdah. This system was not strictly observed in the rural areas. ‘
(а) Define the Classes into which the Muslim Society was divided.
At the end of fifteen century, Muslim society was divided into three classes

1. Amirs (Nobles) high ranking commanders and Sardars
3. Middle class and the slaves.

(b) Mention the position of women in the Muslim Society.
A description of condition of Muslim women is as given below:

1. (i) Women did not enjoy respectable position in the Muslim society.
2. (ii) The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
3. The Purdah System was prevalent in the society. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rural areas.
4. The women of the families of the common people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called ‘Janan Khana’. They could come out from here only after wearing Burka.

Question 4.
After enlightenment, when Guru Nanak Dev ji returned to Sultanpur Lodhi, he was silent. When he was compeled to speak, then he said only this, “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. When Daulat Khan, Brahman and Kazis asked the meaning of this phrase, then Guru Sahib said that Hindus and Muslims both had forgotten the real principles of their respective religions. The meaning of these words were also that there is no difference between Hindus and Muslims and both are equal. He started giving his message in these importnat words. Guru Ji spent his remaining life in spreading this message. After resigning from his job, Guru ji started long udasis.
(а) What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining enlightenment and explain their meaning?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. The meaning of his message was that Hindus and Mulsims both had distraced from the path of their respecitve religions.

(b) Describe briefly the views of Guru Nanak Dev ji about God.

1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev ji gave the message that there is one God and could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
2. God is Formless and Self Created. Guru Nanak Dev ji preached that the Supreme Godis formless, without attributes and absolute. Even then the Supreme God has attributes which cannot be explained in words. Guru Nanak Sahib further taught that god is Self-Created and not bounded by the laws of time. Hence, he cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of the temple or mosque.
4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji-, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of his grace and greatness.
5. God is Compassionate (kind). According to Guru Nanak Dev ji, God is compassionate. He helps to his true seekers whenever they need them.

Question 5.
To see the indifferent attitude of Guru Nanak Dev ji towards worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu ji remained sad. In order to change his thinking, Mehta Kalu ji had given him duty of grazing buffalos. Guru ji took the animals towards fields but did not pay attention to them. They remained involved in meditation of God. Buffalos used to destroy the crops. Mehta Kalu ji had to bear many complaints about this. After hearing these complaints, Mehta ji gave the work of farming to Guru ji. Mehta ji gave twenty rupees to him and advised him to spend this in market for true and profitable deal. But due to his young age, Mehta ji sent Bhai Balaji with him. On the way, they met with the group of Saints. Guru ji spent that money in feeding hungry Saints. Mehta Ji was very disappointed when Guru ji returned empty handed. When he demanded the detail of twenty rupees, then guru ji explained the truth. This incident is called Sachha Sauda.
What is the meaning of Sachha Sauda?
The meaning of Sachha Sauda is pious deal or in other words, a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev ji made pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the hungry Saints.

(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev ji adopt in his early life?
Guru Nanak Dev ji had started showing his disinterest in education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest in worldy affairs. While on cattle grazing round, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into the fields of other people. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in the business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev ji spent all the money in feeding the hungry Saints. This incident of his life is popular as Sachha Sauda or the Pious Deal.

Question 6.
Guru Angad Dev ji continued Langar System, which was started by Guru Nanak Dev ji. This sy stem continued even at the time of Guru Amar Dass ji.
Guru Ji had made a rule according to which nobody would come in his presence without first partaking food. Mughal emperor Akbar and king of Haripur also had to partake food before meeting Guru Sahib, So this system proved to be powerful aid in propaganda work.
(а) Define Langar System.
The Langar system or Pangat System refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food.

(b) What is the meaning of Manji System and Why was it started?
Manji system was started by Guru Amar Dass ji. The no. of his Sikh followers had increased immensly by the time of Guru Amar Dass ji, However, Guru Amar Dass ji was very old and It was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees. The Manji System had great significance in the history of Sikh religion. Dr. Gokal Chand Narang says that this work of Guru Sahib consolidated the foundation of Sikh religion and helped to spread Guru’s teachings in the all parts of the country.

Question 7.
Guru Arjan Dev ji raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ in 1588 A.D. It is considered that Sufi Fakir Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without distinction. Bhai Budda Singh ji and Bhai Gurdas ji supervised the v. ork of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and was completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harminder Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

The construction work of Sri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar was an important task to firmly strengthen the Sikh religion. With this, Sikhs need not visit Hindu pilgrimage. Amritsar had become Mecca and Ganga Benaras of Sikhs.
(а) When and who laid the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
The foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib was laid in 1589 A.D. by the renowned Sufi Saint of his times Mian Mir.

(b) Write about Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Guru Arjan Dev ji had raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ after the final union of Guru Ram Dass Ji with the Divine Power. Sufi Fakir, Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without any distinction. Bhai Budda ji supervised the work of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and got it completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Harmandir Sahib soon became Mecca and Ganga—Benaras or main centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

Question 8.
Two Mughal Emperors, Akbar and Jahangir were contemporary to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Since the aim of preaches of gurus was to constitute a society where there will be no privilege given to caste, post, blind faith and strong religious beliefs. For this, Akbar used to like gurus. But Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. He was troubled by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji. After sometime, Prince Khusro revolted against his father Jahangir. When Royal army chased Khusro, then he ran away and came to Punjab and met Guru ji. On this, Jahangir who was already against Guru ji, fined Guru ji Rs. two lakh for helping rebilious Khusro. Guru ji refused to pay this fine considering it as an unappropriate. For this Guru ji was sentenced to death by giving physical torture in 1606 A.D.
(а) Why did Jahangir want to kill Guru Arjan Dev ji?
The Mughal Emperor Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. Jahangir was perturbed (troubled) by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were also coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji.

(b) Write a note on the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev ji.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar had very cordial relations with Pancham Padshah (Sikh Guru) Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, Jahangir, the next Mughal’emperor abondoned the policy of toleration after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was on the look out for an opportunity to give mortal blow to Sikh religion. In the meantime, Prince Khusro, the son of Jahangir, revolted against his father. After getting defeat at the hands of his father, Khusro came to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Guru Sahib blessed him. Jahangir imposed a fine of two lakh rupees on Guru Sahib on the charge of helping rebellious Khusro. Guru Sahib refused to pay the fine. As a result, Guru Sahib was detained and subjected to severe torture. It infuriated the Sikhs. The Sikhs learned that the only course then left with them was to rise in arms for the protection of their religion.

Question 9.
Guru Gobind Singh ji was the tenth and the last guru of Sikhs. Guru Nanak Dev ji founded Sikh religion. His successors spread Sikh religion. The work was completed by Guru Gobind Singh ji.
He gave final shape to Sikh religion by establishing Khalsa in 1699 A.D. He developed the spirit of heriosm, courage and unity among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave a strong reply to the opression of Mughals with limited resources and lesser number of Sikh soldiers. Before his final union with divine power, he ended the guru system and gave his divine power to Granth Sahib Ji and Khalsa. For this, he had qualities of a spiritual leader, supreme organiser, general by birth, impressive scholar and best reformer at the same time. ”
(а) When and where Guru Gobind Rai ji was born? Write the names of his parents.
Guru Gobind Rai Ji was born on 22nd December 1666 A.D. at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Teg Bahadur ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujari ji.

(b) Describe the personality of Guru Gobind Singh ji as a General.
Guru Gobind Singh was a successful military commander and a brave soldier. Guru Sahib fought every battle courageously and established himself as a successful General. Guru Sahib had complete mastery over sword play, archery and horse riding. Guru Sahib had all the qualities of a commander of high calibre. Guru Sahib had made the Mughals and hill chiefs to lick dust even with the lesser number of soldiers and limited resources. During the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib had hardly forty Sikhs in his army. But under his command, they displayed such a spectacular fighting skill that the Mughal army of thousands, failed to defeat him.

Question 10.
In 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi, Guru Gobind Rai ji convened a assembly of Sikh followers at Anandpur Sahib. On that day, his nearly 80,000 Sikh followers gathered there. When all the people had settled down, then Guru Sahib brandished his sword and gave a call. “Is there any true Sikh of mine, who is ready to die for Dharma.” Guru Sahib repeated these words thrice. Third time, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and bowed before Guru Sahib. Guru ji took him to nearby tent and returned after sometime with a sword with blood dropping from it. Guru ji repeated his call. This time Dharam Dass jat of Delhi offered himself. Guru Sahib also took him to the tent. In this way, Guru Ji demanded five heads and five men, Bhai Mohkam Chand (Washerman of Dwarka), Bhai Sahib Chand (Barber of Bidar) and Bhai Himmat Rai (Kahar of Jagan Nath Puri) besides Bhai Daya Ram and Bhai Dharam Dass offered their heads to Guru ji. After some time, Guru ji brought that five men before gathering, wearing saff and colored beautiful clothes.

At that time, Guru ji himself had worn saffron coloured clothes. People were surprised to see that five men. Guru ji blessed them with title of ‘Panj Pyare’ collectively.
(а) When and where was Khalsa created?
In Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi.

(b) Describe the principles of Khalsa.
Guru Gobind Singh ji created Khalsa in 1699 A.D. Guru Sahib made the following rules for the Khalsa.

1. Every Sikh would add ‘Singh’ (lion) after his name. Every Sikh woman would add word ‘Kaur’ after her name.
2. Before becoming Khalsa, every person has to drink Khande-ke-Pahaul. Only after that he will be declared Khalsa.
3. Every Sikh must wear five Ks. which are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (the iron bangle), Kirpan (dagger) and Kachchera (a pair of shorts).
4. Every Sikh shall recite the five prayers after taking bath every morning, which are recited when the Khande ka Pahul is prepared.

Question 11.
(a) What were the orders, given by Guru Gobind Singh ji to the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnamas?
Guru Gobind Singh ji instructed the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnama to consider Banda Bahadur as their leader in their struggle against the Mughals.

(b) Describe battles of Chhapparchiri and Sirhind.
The Subedar of Sirhand Wazir Khan had troubled Guru Gobind Singh ji throughout his stay in Punjab. Besides, the two young Sahibzadas were bricked alive in a wall on his orders. So Banda Bahadur wanted to avenge the heinous crimes committed by Wazir Khan. As he marched towards Sirhind, many people rallied under his flag. A nephew of Sucha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhand administration, also joined the Sikh army along with his thousand soldiers. However, later he deserted the Sikh army. On the otherside, Wazir Khan had twenty thousand soldiers at his disposal. On May 22, 1710 A.D. a fierce battle between two armies took place at Chapparchiri, a place 16 kilometers away from Sirhind, Wazir Khan was slain in this battle. The enemy army became the victim of the swords of Sikhs in large numbers. The dead body of Wazir Khan was hanged from a tree. Suchha Nand, who had master minded the attrocities on Sikhs, his nose was pierced and was paraded, in the town.

Question 12.
In 1837 A.D., The Governor-General of India, General, Lord Auckland was feared at the increasing influence of Russia in Afghanistan. He also felt that Dost Mohammad was establishing friendly relations with Russia, a enemy of British. In these situations, Lord Auckland wanted to make ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja (Former ruler of Afghanistan who lived on Pension from British) instead of Dost Mohammad. For this, on 26th June 1838 A.D. with the permission of British Government, there was Treaty between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja which is called Tripartite Treaty. According to this treaty Shah Shuja would be the ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja accepted the right over all areas (Kashmir, Multan, Peshawar, Attuck, Derafat etc.) conquered by Maharaja from Afghans. Maharaja did not accept one term of the treaty that during Afghan war, he would let the English forces pass from his area. On this, the relations between Maharaja and British bittered. Maharaja died on June 1839 A.D.
(а) When was Ranjit Singh born? What was his father’s name?
Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 A.D. His father’s name was Mahan Singh.

(b) What was the Tripartite Treaty?
The Tripartite Treaty was signed between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja in 1838 A.D. The terms of this treaty were as under :

1. The territories conquered by Ranjit Singh would not be included in the Kingdom of Shah Shuja.
2. No party would help any foreign power.
3. Ranjit Singh would be allowed to control that-part of Sindh which he had quite recently conquered.
4. Enemy of one would be considered as the enemy of other two signatories of the treaty.
5. Whatever decision the British and Ranjit Singh would take in the matter of Sindh, would be accepable to Shah Shuja.
6. Shah Shuja would not establish relations with any country without the consent of Ranjit Singh and British.

Question 13.
Although, Lord Hardinge, after defeating Sikhs did not include Punjab in British empire, but he certainly weakened the Lahore Government. British occupied southern areas of Satluj of Lahore state. He occupied fertile areas of Doab Bist Jalandhar. Kashmir, Kangra. Hilly states of Hazara were freed from Lahore. Army of Lahore state was reduced. A large amount of money was recovered from Lahore state. Punjab was weakened so much on economic and army front that when the english desired, they could occupy.
(а) Who was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

(b) What were the terms of second treaty of Lahore?
The second Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British and Sikhs on 11th March, 1846 A.D. The terms of the treaty were as under.

1. British Government will keep large force in Lahore in the security of Maharaja Dalip Singh and inhabitants of Lahore. These forces would remain there upto 1846 A.D.
2. Lahore city and fort would remain in control of British.
3. Lahore government signed a treaty on 9 March 1846 A.D. by which it was decided that Lahore government will respect the jagirdars and officials of the area given to the English.
4. Lahore government will have no right to seize the cannons, property, treasury from the forts given to English.

Question 14.
On January, 1848, Lord Dalhousie became the Governor-General of India in place of Lord Hardinge. He believed in expansion of Brisith empire in India. First of all he decided to include Punjab in British Empire. British got the opportunity to fight with Sikhs on revolt by Mool Raj of Multan and Chattar Singh of Hazara and his son Sher Singh. After the defeat of Sikhs in Second Anglo Sikh War the work of real shape of already decided was given to foreign secreatary Henery Elliot. He compeled the members of Council of Regency to sign a treaty. According to that treaty, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned. British occupied the whole property of Punjab. Kohinoor Diamond was sent to Queen of England (Victoria) A pension of Rs. 4 Lakh-5 Lakh was settled for Dalip Singh. On that day, Henry Elliot narrated a declaration paper written by Lord Dalhousie in Lahore Darbar. In this declaration, the decision of inclusion of Punjab in British Empire was justified.
(а) When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire? Who was the Governor-General of India at that time?
Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849 A,D. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.

(b) What do you know about Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Punjab (Lahore State). He was minor at the time of First Anglo-Sikh war. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal of 1846 A.D., a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration of the Lahore Darbar. It was to run the administration till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh. But the Sikh forces lost the Second Anglo-Sikh war. As a result of it, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and given a pension of 4-5 lakhs annually. Punjab became the part of British Empire.

Question 15.
Many cow slaughterers were killed by attacking on slaughterhouses of Amritsar and Raikot. Many in Kukas were openly hanged but they did not get back from their objectives. On January 1872 A.D., a group of 150 Kukas reached Malerkotla to punish cow slaughterers. On 15 January 1872, there was great fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many people were killed on both sides. British government sent forces in Malerkotla to take action against Kukas. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by the cannons on 17th January 1872 A.D. Other 16 Kukas were also blown off by cannons fire on 18th January 1872 A.D. after a trial. Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was deported to Rangoon. Many Namdharis were sent to Kala Pani. Many were drowned to death in a sea. Properties of many Kukas was confiscated. In this way, British government did many attrocites. But this wave continued up till 15th August 1947 A.D. untill India became independent.
(а) Why did Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji show non-cooperation with the British Government?
Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was opposed to the foreign government, foreign administration and foreign goods.

(b) Describe the tragedy that occured between the Namdharis and Britishers in Malerkotla.
Namdharis had started the work of protection of cows. For the protection of cows, they began to kill butchers. In January 1872 A.D. a group of 150 Kukas (Namdharis) reached Malerkotla to punish Cow slaughterers, On 15th January, there was a staff fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many peoples were killed on both sides. British government sent his special force to Malerkotla. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by cannon on 17th January 1872 A.D. After a trial, other 16 Kukas were also killed by cannon on 18th January 1872 A.D.

Question 16.
In an atmosphere of unrest and anger, about 20,(TOO people from Amritsar and nearby villages assembled at Jallianwala Bagh on Baisakhi day 13th April 1919. General Dyer declared these type of meetings illegal on that day at 9.30 A.M. But people did not know about it. That is why the meeting was continuing.
General Dyer got an opportunity to avenge the massacre -of the five Britishers. He arrived at the entrance gate of Jallianwala Bagh with 150 soldiers. There was only one narrow street to reach the garden. General Dyer standing on that street, ordered the people to get out within three minutes. But it was not possible. After three minutes, General Dyer gave shoot order. About 1000 people were killed and more than 3000 were injured. After the incident of Jallianwala Bagh, the country’s independence wave got new direction. The revenge of this incident was taken by Sardar Udham Singh after 21 years by shooting dead Sir Michel O’Dyer (who was Lieutenant governor at the time of incident).
(а) Who took the revenge of Jallinwala Bagh Massacre and How?
Shaheed Udham Singh took revenge of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Twenty-one years after the massacre, he shot dead Michel O’ Dwyer in England.

(b) What were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Following were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.

1. Rowlatt Acts. In 1919 A.D., the British Government passed the Rowlatt Act. According to which police was given special powers to crush the people. So the people oppossed it.
2. Arrest of Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. Strikes were called at many places in Punjab to protest against the Rowlatt Act. Violent incidents occurs in some cities. So the Government arrested two popular leaders of Punjab Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. This enraged the people.
3. Murder of some Britishers. Police opened fire on the excited people at Amritsar. In return, people killed five Englishmen. So the administration of Amritsar was handed over to General Dyer.
To express anger against these incidents, a meeting was being held at Jallianwala Bagh Amritsar, where tragedy occured.

Question 17.
Group of Akalis started vacating gurdwaras from corrupt Mahants. They got vacated Gurudwara Punja Sahib situated at Hasan Abdal, Gurudwara Sachha Sauda of District Shaikhupura and Gurudwara Chola Sahib of Amritsar District. Akalis fought with Mahants at Tarantaran. Similar incidents happened at Gurudwara Baba Ki Ber at Sialkot and Gurdwara Gajra at District Layalpur (Faislabad). Even then, Akalis remained in struggle to vacate Gurudwaras. There occured incident at Gurdwara Nankana Sahib on 20th February 1921 when group of Akali gathered at gurdwara peacefully. There Mahant Narayan Dass of thfit Gurdwara got massacred 30 Akalis. British Government did not show any sympathy to Akalis. But Muslims and Hindus of Sarparant showed sympathy to Akalis.
(a) Why was the key Morcha Organised?
The keys of the treasury of Sri Harnaandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Sikhs launched the Morcha to secure the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

(b) Describe the incident of Guru Ka Bagh.
Gurudwara ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ is situated 13 KM away from Amritsar at Ajnala Tehsil. This Gurudwara was in the hands of a corrupt person named Mahant Sunder Dass. The Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee sent a Jatha under the leadership of Dan Singh on 23rd August, 1921 A.D. to take over the charge of the Gurudwara in its hands. The Englishmen arrested the members of this Jatha.

This incident further enraged the Sikhs. Sikhs sent more and more Jathas. These Jathas were badly treated and tortured by the Englishmen. All the political parties of the country criticised this action of the British. In the end, Akalis won the ‘Guru Ka Bagh Morcha’ in peaceful manner.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.

## PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
At the time of calculation of National Income, good and services are multiplied by their prices. If the quantity of national product is multiplied by the current prices we call it national income at current price or monetary income. Conversely, if the quantity of national product is multiplied with the price of some fixed period i.e. base year, the result obtained is called National Income at constant prices or Real National Income. Prices keep on changing. As a result of it National Income is subject to increase or decrease without any change in the quantity of goods and services. In order to estimate the real economic progress of a country, the national income of different years should be measured at the prices of some particular period of a year an account of constant prices, real income will only changes with the change in quantity of goods and services.
(a) What do you mean by National Income?
National income is the net factor income earned by normal residents of a
country in the form of wages, rent, interest and profit in one year. This is the sum of domestic factor income and net factor income.

(b) State the difference between Gross national income and net national income.

• When depreciation is included in the national income of a country it is known as gross national income. Conversely when depreciation is deducted. It is known as net national income. In fact,
• National income + depreciation = Gross national income
• National income – depreciation = Net national income
• Gross is broader concept as compare to ‘Net’.

Question 2.
The word consumption is used in two senses. In the first sense as a process and in the second as an expenditure. In the sense of a noun it is the activity which satisfies human wants directly like the use of water for quenching thirst and the use of food for the satisfaction of hunger etc. Thus consumption is that process by which a person uses the utility of a good in order to satisfy his wants.
In the expenditure, sense consumption means that total expenditure which is incurred on the consumption goods.
Under national income whatever many people spend on the purchase of goods and services for the direct satisfaction of their wants is called consumption or total consumption expenditure.
(а) What is consumption? What are the factors that affect it?

• Consumption means expenditure made on consumption during one year in an economy.
• Consumption depends on many factors like income, price of commodity, fashion etc.
• Thus it can be said that consumption is a function of many factors, means it depends on many factors.
• Income has the most effect on consumption. Generally with the rise in income consumption also increase but increase in consumption is less than that of income.

(b) What is propensity to consume? State its types.
As schedule showing the various amounts of consumption which correspond to different levels of income is known as the propensity to consume.

• Average Propensity to Consume. The ratio of total consumption to total income is called average propensity to consume. This implies that people will spend how much part of their income on consumption and how much part they save. This is obtained by dividing the consumption by the income, or
APC = $$\frac{\mathrm{C}}{\mathrm{Y}}$$
• Marginal Propensity to Consume. The ratio of change in consumption to change in income is called marginal propensity to consume, i.e.,
MPC = $$\frac{\Delta \mathrm{C}}{\Delta \mathrm{Y}}$$

Question 3.
Public Finance is the combination of two words, i.e., Public + Finance. Public means group of people who are represented by the government and finance means monetary factor. Thus public finance means the financial sources of the government i.e. revenue and expenditures. That portion of economics in which the problems of revenue and expenditure are discussed is called public finance. Thus Public finance is the study of the problems of government institutions concerning central, state, and local governments. Public finance includes revenue of government i.e. tax, interest, profit etc. Public expenditure includes defense, administration, education, health industries, agriculture etc. Public debts are also studied under public finance.

The economic activities of the government of the country have also increasd with the passage of time. The area of public finance has also been widened. It studies not only the revenue and expenditure of the government but it also studies all economic activities of the government concerning special economic objectives like full employment, economic development, income and equal distribution of wealth, price stability, etc.
(а) What are the main sources of Government Income?
The main sources of income of the government are taxes which are of two types.

1. Direct taxes
2. Indirect taxes

1. Direct taxes. Direct tax is that which is paid by the same person on whom tax has been imposed legally. For example income tax, gift tax, corporate tax, wealth tax etc.

2. Indirect taxes. Indirect tax is defined as that form of taxes which are imposed on goods and services. These taxes are imposed indirectly on Public. Examples of indirect taxes are sale tax, excise duty, entertainment tax, export, import duty, GST etc.

(b) State the main objectives of Public Finance.
Following are the main objectives of Public Finance.

1. Price Stabilization. Public Finance maintains stability in the prices of goods and services thereby, preventing constant fluctuations and inflation and deflation that tend to destabilize the economy of a country.
2. Equitable Distribution of Wealth. Public Finance is also concerned with equitable distribution of income and wealth among individuals and various sections of the country. „
3. Satisfaction of Needs. The satisfaction of collective needs is another main objective of Public Finance.
4. Allocation of Resources. Public Finance performs the function of allocating resources among public and private sectors.
5. Provision of full employment. Provision of full employment opportunities to citizens of a country is another aim to public finance.

Question 4.
In every underdeveloped country there is a need and availability of infrastructure in a sufficient quantity. Lack of Infrastructure facilities will create hurdles in the development of industries and agriculture sector as a result of it their rate of growth will come down. For example, we daily feel that the industrial and agriculture sector suffer a lot on account of shortage of power. Similarly, if there is a lack of transport facilities then industries will not be able to get raw-material and their finished goods will also not reach the market in time. Thus, insufficient of economic infrastructure will bring down the rate of growth of production sectors like industries and agriculture etc. On the contrary, the sufficient availability of economic infrastructure will be helpful in acceleration of their development.
(a) What is meant by infrastructure?
The part of the capital stock of the economy which is necessary from the viewpoint of providing various kinds of services is called infrastructure in short, infrastructure means those activities, facilities and services which are helpful in the operation and development of other sectors.

(b) State the meaning of economic infrastructure? What are its kinds?
Economic infrastructure refers to that capital stock which offers various types of productive services directly to the producers. For example, a country’s transportation system like Railways, Road Airways provides services to the one part of the production and distribution system only. Similarly Banking system, money and capital market provide services to the other part of industries and agriculture.

Following are the main components of economic infrastructure.

• Transport and Communication
• Electric Power
• Irrigation
• Banking and other financial institutions.

Question 5.
The modern era is an era of consumerism. A variety of hew goods are supplied in the market daily for the utility and comfortability of the consumer^. New food products, new fashion garments, decorative items, household gadgets, new means of transport, modern means of entertainment like-coloured television, video etc. ate being invent and produced continuously. Advertisement and publicity are being used at large scale to introduce or to make available these1 goods to the coneuthers. Now a days a consumer chooses his consumption material on the basis of attractive advertisements and publicity of different producers. In this way, they are exploited in many ways. To protect the consumers from such type of exploitation,” consumer protection measures have been started.
(a) What is Consumer Protection?
Consumer protection means the protection of the buyers of consumers goods from the exploitation of the unfair trade practices of the producers.

(b) What is Consumer Education?
To protect the intersects of the consumers, it is very much essential to educate
them. It is with this view that the consumer’s week is celebrated throughout the country between March 15 and March 21 every year. During these days more stress is given on awareness among the consumers regarding their rights. The occassion is mai’ked by various exhibitions, seminars and street plays. Consumers are apprised of the possible unfair trade malpractice^ of short weights and measures, adulteration and the dike.

Question 6.
India is considered to be an agrarian economy because 68% of its population is still dependent on agriculture for livelihood. After independence Indian inherited a backward agricultural economy from the Britishers. Mahatma Gandhi considered agriculture as “Soul of India”. Iri this context Nehru had also said, “Agriculture needs utmost priorities.” Emphasising thb importance of agriculture Dr. V.K.R.V. Rao said, “If the vast mountain of development is to be crossed under five year plans, then the targets fixed for agriculture will have to be achieved. In the words of eminent Indian scholar Dantewala, “For the economic development of Indian economy. Success in the field of agriculture leads the country to the path of economic progress.”
(a) What is agriculture?
The term “Agriculture” in the English language is derived from two words, “Agri means field and ‘culture’ means cultivatioin in other words, “Agriculture is the art or science of production of crops and livestock on a farm.”

(b) State the importance of agriculture in Indian economy.
Following are the main importances of Agriculture in Indian economy.

1. Contribution in National Income. About 40% of national income of India comes from primary sector like agriculture and forestry etc. During the period of planning share of agriculture in the national income has been ranging between 51% and 29%.
2. Agriculture and Employment. In Indian economy, maximum employment opportunities are available in the agriculture sector.
3. Transport. Agriculture in India offers a crucial support to the transport industry. Both railways and roadways are the bulk carriers of farm products in India.
4. Wealth of Nation. A significant component of the country’s wealth belongs to the agricultural sector. In terms of fixed assets, land occupies the highest rank in India.
5. Contribution to Domestic trade. Agriculture also plays a significant role in the country’s domestic trade. This is borne art by the fact that huge expenditure in India is incurred on the purchase of farm products needed by more than a billion people in the country.

Question 7.
The term “Green Revolution is a combination of two words—“Green” and “Revolution”. Green stand for greenery. Revolution means so sudden and fast changes that the spectators were wonder-struck. This term has been used for the progress of agricultural production. Because of the severe agricultural reforms initiated during the period of first three plans in India, in 1967-68, the production of foodgrains increased by about 25% as compared to the last year i.e., 1966-67. Such a tremendous increase in the production of foodgrains in any one year was nothing short of revolution. That is why, the economists gave this spectacular increase in foodgrains products the name of Open Revolution.
(a) State the effects of Green-revolution.

1. Effects on Prices. During the third five-year plan, prices, especially prices of agricultural commodities had a sharp rise. However, due to Green Revolution, the pace of price rise showed down.
2. Prosperity of the Farmers. The Green revolution has very much improved the economic condition of the farmers. Their standard of living has gone up very much than before.
3. Plaughing Back of Profits. The one good effect of the Green Revolution is that now the farmers are also included to invest large part of their income on the development of agriculture.
4. Change in Thinking. Green revolution has completely revolutionized the thinking of the Indian rural people. Now they are convinced that with the help of science they can change that misfortune into fortunes.
5. Effect on Consumers. Poor Indians spend about 80% at their income on agricultural commodities. The green revolution has helped them to balance their budget and raise their standard of living.

(b) What is Green-revolution? State its features.
Green Revolution refers to an extraordinary increase in agricultural production especially in wheat and Rice, which was made possible due to the adoption of new techniques of High Yielding varieties of seeds.

Features:

• The year 1968 was the initial year of Green Revolution.
• Pant Agricultural University, Pant Nagar (U.P.) made an appreciable contribution to it by envolving a new variety of seeds.
• Indian Agricultural Research Institute (I.A.R.I.) New Delhi has also made lot of contributon in regard in bringing the Green Revolution.
• Credit of bringing Green Revolution in India goes to Dr. Norman E. Borlaugh and Dr. M.N. Swami Nathan.

Question 8.
For economic progress of Underdeveloped countries like India, industrialization occupied important place. Only through Industrial development by increasing the rate of production and employment the rate of growth of Indian economy can be increased. Prior to independence, industrial development was very low in India, but after independence, government laid great emphasis on the industrial development of the country. As a result of it, many new industries were established in the country and production capacity and the efficiency of the existing industries were also enchanced. Under the five year plans, the industries development has also been given much importance.
(a) State the importance of Industrial development

1. Employment. Through industrialisation, new industries are established. As a result of it, the millions of unemployed persons get work in these industries and it solve the unemployment problem of the country.
2. Self Dependence. Industrial development makes provision for the production of essential goods in the country. As a result there will be less dependence on other countries and our country will become self-sufficient in the production of large number of goods.
3. Increase in National Income. In India, industrialization will bring better and proper utilisation of natural resources. It will increase total production, employment national income and per capita income of the country.
4. Essential for National Defence. Through industrialization many industries like Iron, steel, aeroplane, defense, production etc. can be established which are very important for the security of the country, because these industries manufacture large quantity of war material.
5. Production of Socially Useful Goods. Through industrialization, the production of essential goods like cloth, cycles, goods, paper, oil etc. has become possible.

(b) How Industries helps in the Balanced growth of an economy?
Indian Economy is an unbalanced economy because the bulk of working population and. capital of the country is engaged in agriculture. There is uncertainty in agriculture. Industrialisation will make the economy a balanced one and it will reduce the dependence on agriculture.

Question 9.
“Cottage industries are those industries which are completely or partially run by the members of a family either as a whole-time business or as a part time business.” Mostly these type of industries are run by the artisans in their homes. Machines are rarely used. Usually these industries fulfil the local requirements. These industries are run by the members of the family. Workers on labour basis are rarely used. They need very less capital. Since these industries are mainly situated in villages, so these are known as “village or rural industries.”
(a) State the difference between cottage and small industries.

1. Cottage industries are normally set up in villages and they are spread throughout the country, whereas small scale industries are mostly set up in cities.
2. In cottage industries, only family members work whereas in small scale industries, work is done through hired workers.
3. Cottage industries normally fulfil the local needs where as small-scale industries produce goods for cities and semi-urban areas. So their production market is very large.
4. In cottage industries, production is done with the help of simple tools and very less capital is required. Whereas small-scale industries are run with power and more working capital is also required.
5. In cottage industries, traditional goods like khadi mats and shoes etc. are produced whereas in small scale industries modem goods like Radio, Television, Electrical and Electronics goods etc. are produced.

(b) What are the problems of cottage industries?

1. Problem of Raw Material and Power. These industries do not get raw material in sufficient quantity and whatever material they get it is of poor quality and for it they have to play high prices.
2. Problem of Finance. In India credit is not available to these industries in sufficient quantity. They have to depend on moneylenders for finance who charge very high rate of interest.
3. Old Method of Production. In there industries mostly old methods of production are used. Old tools like oil press for oil expelling or handlooms for weaving clothes are used. As a result of it the number of production decreases and poor qualities of products are manufactured. Their demand in the market goes down.
4. Problem of Marketing. The entrepreneurs of the industries face many problems in selling their products at fair price and quantity because the outward look of the product produced by these industries is not good.

Question 10.
The role of large scale industries is very important for the economic development of India. The major share of fixed capital investment in industries has been invested in big Industries. A large portion of the total industrial production is received from these industries.
(а) Classified the large scale industries.

1. Basic Industries. Basic industries are those industries which provide necessary inputs to agriculture and industries. The examples are steel, Iron, Good Chemical Fertizlers Aluminium and Electricity.
2. Capital Goods Industries. Capital Goods Industries are those industries which produce machinery and instruments for agriculture and industries. These include machines, mechanical instruments, tractors truck etc.
3. Intermediate Goods Industries. Intermediate goods industries are those industries which produce those goods which are used for the production of other goods. Examples of there are tyres, mobile oil etc.
4. Consumer Goods Industries. Consumer goods industries are those industries which produce consumer goods. These include sugar, cloth, paper industries etc.

(b) State the importance of large scale industries in Industrialisation of a country.

1. Production of Capitalistic and Basic goods. For the industrialisation of a country, capital goods like machines, instruments and basic goods like steel, Iron, chemicals are of great importance. The production of these capital and basic goods is possible only by large scale industries. ,
2. Economic Infrastructure. Economic infrastructure like means of transport, electricity, communication facilities etc. are very much required for industrialisation. Only big industries can produce mean of transport like railways engines and wagons, trucks, motors, planes, etc.
3. Research and High Technique. For industrialization of any country, research and high techniques are of very much important. A lot al money are able researches are required for this purpose. Only large scale industries can arrange required money for research and able researcher.
4. Increase in Productivity. Because of large investment in big industries, per unit capital is more. Per unit productivity increases a lot. because of it.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers.

## PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Due to this vastness, India is called as an Indian sub-continent. The sub-continent is a large and independent region. The boundaries of whose terrain are drawn by various natural features which distinguish it from the surrounding areas. India also crosses the Agil, Muzigh, Kunlun and Karakoram, Hindukush and Jaskar mountain ranges from Tibet across the Himalayas in the north, from Pak, Jal Damru in the south and Gulf of Mannar from Sri Lanka, east. In the direction Arakan separates Yoma from Myanmar (Burma) and in the western direction from the vast Dhar desert, Pakistan. Due to such a vast area of India many cultural, economic and social variations are found. But despite this unity is found in climate, culture etc. in the country.
(a) Why is India called the sub-continent?
India is given the status of sub-continent due to its expansion and position. The sub-continent is a vast and independent landmass whose boundaries are formed by different topography. These topographies separate it from its surrounding areas. Agill across the Himalayas in the the north of India. The mountain ranges of Mugtgh, Kunlun, Karakoram, Hindukush etc. distinguish it from the north-western parts of Asia. In the South, the Pak strait of central and the gulf of Mannar separate it from Sri Lanka. Formerly Arakan Yoma separates it form Myanmar. The Thar Desert separates it from a very large part of Pakistan. Despite this, we cannot call present day India a sub¬continent. The Indian sub-continent is formed by the combination of undivided India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

(b) Which elements contribute to maintaining unity in the diversity of the country?
India is a country of diversity. Yet a distinct unity appears in our society. The main elements that provide unity to Indian society are the following:
1. Monsoon Season. The monsoon winds make most of the rainfall in summer. This affects the agriculture of the country as well as other business. Monsoon winds make the power supply reliable by raining the mountainous regions. Infact, monsoon rainfall is the basis of the entire country’s economy.

2. Religious Culture. There are two things in favor of religious culture. One is that religious places have united the people of the country in one sutra. Secondly, religious saints have instilled a sense of brotherhood through their teachings. People from all parts of the country come and worship at Tirupati, Jagannathpuri, Amamath, Ajmer, Harimandir Sahib, Patna, Hemkunt Sahib and other pilgrimage places. The saints have also tried to create religious harmony.

3. Language and Art. Almost all the northern India. Vedas were propogated in Sanskrit language. Urdu was born in the middle age of this language. English is the contact language and Hindi is the national language. Together, these have provided an opportunity to understand each other closely. Siinlarly, folk songs and folk arts have also created an opportunity for people to express similar feelings.

4. Traffic and means of communication. Railways and roads have played an important role in bringing people of different areas closer. The means of communication like Doordarshan and newspapers have also connected the national stream by giving the national thinking of the people.

5. Migration. Many people from villages have started coming to the cities. Despite their racial differences, they have come to understand each other and thus they have come closer to each other. The truth is that many natural and cultural elements have given unity to our country.

Question 2.
The vast northern plains along the Himalayas provide habitat and livelihood to 40% of the country’s population. Their fortile soil, suitable climate, flat surface have contributed significantly in the spread and development of rivers, canals, roads, railways and cities and in the development of agriculture. Therefore, this plain region has the distinction of being the granary of the country. These plains have built a special kind of civilization and society since the Aryans. People from all over the country consider Ganga to be a holy river and the Rishikesh, Haridwar, Mathura, Prayag, Ayodhya, Kanshi etc. places in its valley have been the center of attraction for sufi saints and religious people living in different parts of the country. Later in these plains, great men like Sikh Guru, Mahatma Buddha, Mahavir Jain were born and different religious were established. Its deep impact can be seen in the Himalayan mountains and also in South India.
(a) Name the major landforms created by the rivers in the vast plains of the north.
The landforms formed by the rivers in the northern plains are alluvial fins, alluvial cones, sepentine turns, hilly staircases, natural dams and floodplains.

(b) Describe the huge northern plains contribute to the development of the country.
The Himalayan regions have the following contribution to the development of the country.

1. Rain. The monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean hit the Himalayan mountains and rain heavily. Thus, it donates rain to the northern plain. There is enough rainfall in this ground.
2. Useful Rivers. All the major rivers flowing in northern India originate from the Himalayan mountains like Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, etc. These rivers flow throughout the year. In the dry season, Himalayan ice burns these rivers.
3. Fruit and Tea. The slopes of the Himalayas are very useful for tea cultivation. Apart from these, fruits are also grown on the mountain slopes.
4. Useful Wood. Dense forests are found on the Himalayan Mountains. These forests are our wealth. Many industries in India depend on the wood derived from them. This wood is also used in building works.
5. Good Pastures. Beautiful and green pastures are found on the Himalayas. Animals are fed in them.
6. Mineral Substances. Many types of mineral substances are found in these mountains.

Question 3.
The word ‘climate’ or ‘wind water’ refers to the long-term seasonal conditions in a place, in which the temperature of that place is the amount of water in the air flowing from there. These conditions are mainly determined by important elements such as surface variation of the place, distance from the coastline and distance from the equator. It has a profound effect on human and human activities. India is a vast country. Its vast sin-face units, the peninsular position and the tropic of cancer passing through it have a profound effect on its climate. Due to the largest surface variations of temperature, rainfall, winds and clouds etc.
(a) Describe the (two) elements affecting the climate of India.
The main elements influencing the climate of India are :

• Distance from the equator.
• Surface Pattern.
• Air pressure system
• Seasonal winds and
• Proximity to Indian Ocean.

(b) What are the regional variations of Indian climate?
The regional variations of Indian climate are as follows:
1. In winter the temperature reaches – 45°C in the Kargil regions of the Himalayan mountain but at the same time it is more than 20°C in Chennai (Madras) metropolis in Tamil Nadu. Similarly in summer the western direction of the Aravali mountains is crossed 50° centigrade, while the Srinagar is less than 20° centigrade. There is a temperature of 204 centimeters in Srinagar.

2. The annual rainfall is located in the mountain range of Mawsymaram, 1141 cm. Annual rainfall in Jaisalmer is less than 10 cm. in the year.

3. In Barner and Jaisalmer are carved clouds, but the whole year is the same as the same year throughout the year.

4. Due to the effect of the sea in Mumbai and other coastal cities, the temperature ramains almost same of the year. In contrast, the National area is found to be huge difference in the cold and hot temperature in the area and surrounding areas.

Question 4.
The economy, the relief and social development is deeply influenced the economic progress. In the social development, the area can be applied to the development of economic progress there. Indian agriculture, almost completely dependent on. agriculture (aggregated). In which development of the monsoon has given significant contributions to providing a major and strong basis. Monsoon is called a pivotal point of the country. Apart from agriculture, the entire production is dependent oh agricultural production, If monsoon rainfall is in appropirate amount, the agricultural production increases. But because of the failure of monsoon, the crops dried. The country goes dry and the grains are reduced in the stores.
(a) Discuss the important features of the monsoon.
In India rainfall is mainly in July to September. This is the period of southwest monsoons blowing from sea to land. There are three important features of the monsoon rainfall.

1. Erratic. Rainfall is not reliable in India. It is not necessary that rain continues to be same. Due to this erratic situation of rain, the situation of starvation and famine is arranged. This erratic situation of rainfall is more in the inner parts of the country and in Rajasthan.
2. Uneven Distribution. There is uneven distribution of rainfall in India. Western slopes of western ghats and Meghalaya or in the hills of Assam. There is more than 250 cm. rainfall. In contrast Rajasthan, West Gujarat, North Kashmir etc., the rainfall is less than 25 cm.
3. Uncertainty. The amount of rainfall in India is not certain. Sometimes monsoon winds reached before time, It rains a lot. But sometimes the rainfall is low or sometimes ends up before a time. As a result the situation of drying is generated in the country.

(b) Why the Indian Economy (budget) is called gambling of monsoon winds?
Indian monsoon is a gambling of monsoon winds. This sentence reveals that the advancement of India’s economy depends on that how much appropriate time of any year, distribution and quantity.
If the rain comes on time and its quantity is also suitable, a good crop of agriculture can be expected.

For example-crops are good due to good monsoon, so three things happen.

1. Fair raw materials available for factories. The industry-related factors of cotton, jute, oil seeds etc. are flourishing.
2. When the agriculture and industires are strengthened from good monsoon, the
productivity increases. On one hand, the export is promoted. On the other hand international trade is flourishing. Wealth grows in the country and people’s standard of living improves.
3. Due to good monsoon, there is an increase in water in the rivers, the water level of the dams rises high. Where this water helps in the production of hydropower, the irrigation system improves. This creates a stir in economic activities in the country. There is no doubt that today due to the advancement of science, we can grow a good crop even in the absence of monsoon, but we have to think about whether all farmers can benefit from lack of rainfall or unequal distribution of rainfall. A good monsoon affects every section and every region of the country. If the monsoon is suitable, the country’s economic development is assured. Therefore, it is fair to call the Indian economy a gamble of monsoon winds.

Question 5.
Agriculture has an important role in the Indian economy. The agricultural sector employs about two-thirds of the country’s workforce. The region derives 29.0 percent of the total national income and agricultural products a1 so have an important place in foreign exports. Many products of agriculture are used as raw materials in our factories. Due to the progress in the field of agriculture, the achievement of food grains per person, which was 395 grams in the 1950’s has increased to 510 grams per person per day in 1991.
India also ranks fourth in the world in the use of chemical fertilizers. The area under pulses in our country is the highest in the world. In the field of cotton products, India is the first country in the world, where the first efforts were made to produce improved varieties of cotton. The country has made significant achievements in the preparation of prawn fish and pest culture technological development.
(a) What percentage of land is cultivable in India?
51% of the land in India is cultivable.

(b) Why is agriculture called the mainstay of the Indian economy?
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Indian economy. Even though agriculture now contributes only 33.7% of the total national production, its importance is no less.

1. Agriculture sustains 2/3 of our population.
2. The agriculture sector provides employment to about two-thirds of the country’s workers.
3. Most of the industries get raw materials from agriculture. The truth is that the place of industries is being built on the foundation of agriculture.

Question 6.
A decline in per capita achievement of pulses in Punjab and other parts of the country is a matter of concern. It seems that the wave of ‘Green Revolution’, which has revolutionized the production of wheat and rice in the country has not made any special contribution in increasing the production of pulses. Actually, if it is said that there is harm then there will be no wrong. Because in the years following the Green Revolution, the area of pulses has been diverted to a large number of high yielding crops like wheat and rice. This has happened especially on a large scale in commercially agricultural states like Punjab.
(a) In Punjab, what kind of changes has occurred in the pulses production area after Green revolution.
After the green revolution, the area of pulses production decreased from 9.3 lakh hectares to 9.5 thousand hectare.

(b) What are the main reasons for the decline in the production of pulses?
The production of pulses has decreased in the last decades. The main reasons for this are as follows :

1. The area with pulses has been subjected to crops like wheat and rice, which produce more after the Green Revolution.
2. Some areas have been subjected to canals, roads, and other development projects due to development work.
3. The growing area of pulses has also declined due to increasing land demand for
housing of the growing population.

Question 7.
Our country is also considered very rich in terms of mineral wealth. It is estimated that the country accounts for one fourth of the total iron ore reserves in the world. There are also huge deposits of manganese, a major mineral used in the iron and steel industry. There are also abundant reserves of coal, limestone, bauxite and mica in the country. But non-ferrous minerals such as zinc, lead, copper and gold are in very limited quantities. The sulfur reserves in the country are almost nil, while sulfur is the mainstay of modern chemical industry. We also have plenty of water power resources and nuclear minerals. Their use as a power tool is increasing rapidly due to their power efficiency and very little tampering with the environment. For this reason, solar energy is also being used as a power tool. Solar energy is the priceless power store of God. Its use will increase rapidly as a source of power in the future.
(a) What is the contribution of minerals to the national economy?
Minerals have great importance in the national economy. The following facts will make it clear.

• The industrial development of the country depends mainly on minerals. Iron and coal are the basis of the machine age. We have one-fourth of the world’s iron ore deposits. There are also huge reserves of coal in India.
• State governments get income from mining operations and provide employment to millions of people.
• Coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. are important sources of mineral energy.
• Equipment made from minerals helps in the growth of agriculture.

(b) Why is solar energy called the source of future energy?
Coal and mineral oil are exhaustive resources. There will come a day when the people of the world will not get enough energy from them. Their stores must have been exhausted. Unlike then, sun energy is a never-ending means. This gives a tremendous amount of energy. When the reserves of coal and mineral oil are exhausted, then power will be obtained and we will be able to do it easily with our domestic work and plants.

Question 8.
All the trees, thorn bushes, plants and grasses etc. are included in the natural vegetation which grow without human intervention. Before starting its study, it is necessary to know the related words like Flora, Vegetation and Forests. Different species of plants that grow in a certain time and in a certain area are included in the flora, shrubs, plants, grass etc. that grow at a place in a certain environment are called vegetation. Whereas a large area surrounded by dense and adjacent trees, plants, thorn bushes etc. is called forest. The term jungle is mostly used by environmental scientists and forest guards and geographers. Each type of developed vegetation has to go through a long life cycle by creating a delicate balance with its environment, which depends on the quality of its mutual cohesion and ability to adapt. The entire flora found in our country is not local, but 4Q% of it belongs to foreign castes which are called Boreal and Paleo-Tropical species.
(a) Name the foreign castes and quantities in the country.

• The foreign vegetation species present in the country are called as Boreal and Paleo-Tropical.
• The amount of foreign vegetation in India is 40%.

(b) Write briefly on the autumn or monsoon vegetables.
The vegetation that leaves its leaves before the start of summer to prevent further evaporation is called the autumn or monsoon vegetation. This vegetation can be divided into two sub-parts which are and wet based on rainfall.

• Autumn Forest. This type of vegetation is found in four big areas, where the annual rainfall varies from 100 to 200 cm. Trees are less dense in these areas but their height reaches 30 metres. Sal, Sheesham, Teak, Chandan, Jamun, Amltas, Haldu, Ebony, Mulberry are the major trees of these forests.
• Dry Deciduous Vegetation. This type of vegetation is found in areas with rainfall less than 50 to 100 cm. Its long strip starts from Punjab and extends to the adjoining areas of the southern plateau. Kelkar, Babool, Banyan, Haldu are the main trees here.

Question 9.
In our country, along with the diversity of vegetation, there is a large variety of fauna. In fact there is a deep interconnection between the two. About 76 thousand species of fauna are found in the country. 2500 species of fish are found in the fresh and salt water of the country. Similarly, there are 2000 species of birds. 400 species of snakes are found in India. Apart from this, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and small insects and worms are also found. Mammals have majestic elephants with majestic chicks. It is an organism of equatorial tropical forests. In our country, it is found in the forests of Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. It rains heavily and the forests are also very dense. In contrast camels and wild asses are found in very hot and dry deserts. Camel Thar is the common animal of the desert, while wild plants are found only in the Rann of Kuchh. They have a horned rhinoceros in the opposite direction. They live in marshy areas in northern parts of Assam and West Bengal. Among Indian animals, the Indian bison, the Indian buffalo are particularly notable.
(a) Name the animals found in the Himalayas.
In the Himalayas, wild sheep, mountain goat, a long horned wild goat and tapir etc, are found, while pandas and Himatendua animals are found in high mountain

(b) What are the works being done to look after the animals in the country?
Indian Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in 1972. Under this, 1,50,000 square kilometers of area (2.7% of the country and 12 percent of the total forest area) in various parts of the country were declared as national parks and wildlife sancturies.

Near Extinction Special attention has been paid to wildlife.
The work of counting animals and birds has been started at the National level. At present there are 16 tiger reserves in different parts of the country.

A special scheme for rhinoceros conservation is being carried out in Assam. The truth is that till now 18 Biosphere Reserves have been established in the country.
Under the scheme, the first life reservation area was created in Nilgiri. Protection of every animal is mandatory under this scheme. This natural heritage is for future generations.

Question 10.
A combined mixture of light, loose and unstructured rocky shreds and fine-grained bacteria found on the earth’s surface is called soil which has the power to give rise to plants. Deposition of this mixture is found in deep layers ranging from 15-30 cm to several metres. But the soil scientist is divided into three layers called A, B and C respectively, depending on the depth and quantity of soil colour, texture, size of particles etc. Due to the high quantity of humus in ‘A’ Horizon soils, they begin to turn black. But due to being situated in the zone of leaching on this layer, the minerals dissolve and go down and the colour starts to turn dark black. The colour of sub-layer with ‘B’ Horizon under this layer is brown due to the mineral matter leaking from the top layer. But the aihount of humus in it decreases. Below this layer, a layer of ‘C’ Horizon soil is found in which the substances separated from the above rocks do not have any special change and later go to the main base rock. The colour of this sub-rocky surface is grey or light brown,
(a) Describe the definition of soil.
The combined mixture of light, loose and unstructured rock crust (shell powder) and fine granules found on the earth’s surface is called soil.

(b) What is the contribution of primary rocks in the birth of soil?
The primary rocks in the country consist of lofty rocks of the northern plains or lava-formed rocks of the plateau. They contain various types of minerals. Therefore, they make good soil. The colour, formation, texture, etc. of the soil formed by the primary rocks depends on how long the rocks are being affected and by what kind of climate. In a state like West Bengal, the spil is highly developed due to the effects of chemical reactions in the climate and humus. But in dry area like Rajasthan, due to lack of vegetation, soil fertility decreases. Likewise, soil erosion is more in areas with high rainfall and high winds. Fertility decreases as a result.

Question 11.
In today’s knowledge and information-based world, the important contribution of human resources is being realized in national construction and development much better than before. Today all the countries of the world, especially the developing countries, are paying more attention to the development of human resources than before. Children can you think why is this ? In the countries of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia etc., known as ‘Asian Tigers’, the rapid development of economic development is being attributed to the huge investment made in the development of human resources in the last few decades. In human resource development, not only the parameters like education, technical skills, health and nutrition but also human-ethics-ideas, civilization- culture, species and nation-pride should be included. Only then will human resource development becQme a complete ideology.
(a) What is the most valuable resource of a country?
Intellectually and physically healthy citizens.

(b) Why is it important to study the population structure of the country?
There are many reasons why it is necessary to know the population structure of a country.

• Various characteristics of the population of any country for social and economic planning such as the age structure of the population, gender structure, business structure etc. data is required.
• Different components of the population structure are closely related to the economic development of the country. While the population structure components are affected by economic development from another, they are also unable to remain untouched by the impact of progress and level of economic development. For example, if the percentage of children and old people in the age structure of a country’s population is very high, then the country will have to spend more and more financial resources on basic facilities like education and health. On the other hand, the rate of economic development of the country is accelerated due to the higher proportion of working-age groups in the age structure.

Question 12.
The study of the regional pattern of population distribution provides the basis for understanding all demographic components of the population. For this reason, it is very important to understand the regional pattern of distribution of population. Here first we must also clarify the difference between population distribution and population density. Population distribution is related to place and density is related to ratio. Population distribution implies that what is the regional pattern of population in any part of the country, that is, the population pattern is nucleated or agglomerated in one place. On the other hand in density, which is related to population size and area, attention is given to the ratio of man and area. The history of human settlements in India is very old. That is why the population resides in every part of the country which is the sum of human. habitation. Yet the distribution of population is greatly affected by the fertility* of the land. As India is an agricultural country, the pattern of population distribution depends on agricultural productivity. For this reason, in states where the productivity of agriculture is high, the concentration of population is equally high. Apart from agricultural productivity, the variation of physical factors, industrial development and cultural elements also contribute significantly in influencing the population distribution pattern of India.
(a) Name the largest and least populous states of the country.
The most populous state in the country is Uttar Pradesh and the least state is Sikkim.

(b) Describe the format giving the salient features of the regional pattern of population distribution in the country?