Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers
The word Punjab is derived from two-Persian words, Panj (five) and Aab (water or river). Thus Punjab is the region of five waters. These five rivers are Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. The Punjab is situated on the North West of India. In 1947, After the partition of India, Punjab was partitioned into two parts. The western part of Punjab was transfered to Pakistan and eastern part of Punjab became North Western Province of Independent Republic of India. In Pakistani Punjab, which is called Western Punjab, three rivers are flowing namely Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. In Indian Punjab which is called East Punjab only two rivers are flowing namely Beas and Satluj. The name Punjab is so much popular that the residents of both the Bunjabs called their Punjab as only Punjab instead of west or east-. We will study in this book about medieval ancient Punjab between Yamuna and Sind rivers.
(а) Name the words and language from which the word Punjab has been derived. Write its meaning also.
The world Punjab is combination of two Persian words Panj and Aab which means region of five waters or five rivers.
(b) After Partition of India, why the Word Punjab had not remained so appropriate?
Before partition, Punjab was region of five rivers. But due to partition, its three rivers became the part of Pakistan and the remaining the Beas and Satluj remained in Present Punjab.
(c) Write briefly about any three Doabs.
- The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. This part is not much fertile.
- Chhaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. The Important cities of this Doab are Gujrat, Bhera and Shahpur.
- Rachna Doab. It is the region between rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the Important towns of this Doab.
The Afghan Chiefs were annoyed at Stiff attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. To show their discontentment, they made a plan to declare Alam Khan as ruler of Delhi. They decided to take help of Babur for this. But in 1524 A.D., After managing his victorious areas Babar had just reached the Kabul that Daullat Khan Lodhi after gathering his army seized Lahore from Abdul Aziz. After this, he vacated Sultanpur from Dilawar Khan and also defeated Alam Khan in Dipalpur.
Alam Khan went to Kabul in Babur’s Asylum. Then Daultat Khan Lodhi attacked Sialkot but failed. In order to supress the rising power of Daulat Khan and to eradicate Babur’s army from Punjab, Ibrahim Lodhi again deployed his army. Daulat Khan Lodhi gave crushing defeat to the army. As a result of which independent rule of Daulat Khan was established in central Punjab.
(а) Describe any two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Ibrahim Lodhi failed to understand the nature and habits of the Afghans.
- He tried to discipline the Afghans but failed miserably in his policy.
(b) Why Dilawar Khan Lodhi went to Delhi? How Ibrahim Lodhi treated him?
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position
regarding his relations with his father. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severly punish his father for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture which were inflicted on the rebels and after word he was imprisoned. Somehow, he managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi. On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts, the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.
Before Guru Nanak Devi Ji, Punjab was ruled by Muslims. That is why Muslims could get high position in government. They were treated with respect. Judiciary was in favour of them.
At that time, Muslim society was divided into four sections—Amir and Sardars, Ulema and Sayyad, Middle class and slave.
Women did not enjoy a respectable position in the muslim society. There were harems of women in havelis of Amirs and Sardars (Nobles). The women belonging to Amir and Sardars lived in harems. The Slaves and concubines were provided- to serve them. The Purdah system preveiled at that time. The women of the families of common muslim lived in separate part of the house partitioned by purdah. Their portion was called. ‘Janan Khana’. -They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Purdah. This system was not strictly observed in the rural areas. ‘
(а) Define the Classes into which the Muslim Society was divided.
At the end of fifteen century, Muslim society was divided into three classes
- Amirs (Nobles) high ranking commanders and Sardars
- Ulemas and Sayyad’s
- Middle class and the slaves.
(b) Mention the position of women in the Muslim Society.
A description of condition of Muslim women is as given below:
- (i) Women did not enjoy respectable position in the Muslim society.
- (ii) The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
- The Purdah System was prevalent in the society. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rural areas.
- The women of the families of the common people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called ‘Janan Khana’. They could come out from here only after wearing Burka.
After enlightenment, when Guru Nanak Dev ji returned to Sultanpur Lodhi, he was silent. When he was compeled to speak, then he said only this, “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. When Daulat Khan, Brahman and Kazis asked the meaning of this phrase, then Guru Sahib said that Hindus and Muslims both had forgotten the real principles of their respective religions. The meaning of these words were also that there is no difference between Hindus and Muslims and both are equal. He started giving his message in these importnat words. Guru Ji spent his remaining life in spreading this message. After resigning from his job, Guru ji started long udasis.
(а) What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining enlightenment and explain their meaning?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that “No one is Hindu or Muslim”. The meaning of his message was that Hindus and Mulsims both had distraced from the path of their respecitve religions.
(b) Describe briefly the views of Guru Nanak Dev ji about God.
- God is One. Guru Nanak Dev ji gave the message that there is one God and could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
- God is Formless and Self Created. Guru Nanak Dev ji preached that the Supreme Godis formless, without attributes and absolute. Even then the Supreme God has attributes which cannot be explained in words. Guru Nanak Sahib further taught that god is Self-Created and not bounded by the laws of time. Hence, he cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
- God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of the temple or mosque.
- God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji-, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of his grace and greatness.
- God is Compassionate (kind). According to Guru Nanak Dev ji, God is compassionate. He helps to his true seekers whenever they need them.
To see the indifferent attitude of Guru Nanak Dev ji towards worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu ji remained sad. In order to change his thinking, Mehta Kalu ji had given him duty of grazing buffalos. Guru ji took the animals towards fields but did not pay attention to them. They remained involved in meditation of God. Buffalos used to destroy the crops. Mehta Kalu ji had to bear many complaints about this. After hearing these complaints, Mehta ji gave the work of farming to Guru ji. Mehta ji gave twenty rupees to him and advised him to spend this in market for true and profitable deal. But due to his young age, Mehta ji sent Bhai Balaji with him. On the way, they met with the group of Saints. Guru ji spent that money in feeding hungry Saints. Mehta Ji was very disappointed when Guru ji returned empty handed. When he demanded the detail of twenty rupees, then guru ji explained the truth. This incident is called Sachha Sauda.
What is the meaning of Sachha Sauda?
The meaning of Sachha Sauda is pious deal or in other words, a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev ji made pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the hungry Saints.
(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev ji adopt in his early life?
Guru Nanak Dev ji had started showing his disinterest in education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest in worldy affairs. While on cattle grazing round, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into the fields of other people. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in the business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev ji spent all the money in feeding the hungry Saints. This incident of his life is popular as Sachha Sauda or the Pious Deal.
Guru Angad Dev ji continued Langar System, which was started by Guru Nanak Dev ji. This sy stem continued even at the time of Guru Amar Dass ji.
Guru Ji had made a rule according to which nobody would come in his presence without first partaking food. Mughal emperor Akbar and king of Haripur also had to partake food before meeting Guru Sahib, So this system proved to be powerful aid in propaganda work.
(а) Define Langar System.
The Langar system or Pangat System refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food.
(b) What is the meaning of Manji System and Why was it started?
Manji system was started by Guru Amar Dass ji. The no. of his Sikh followers had increased immensly by the time of Guru Amar Dass ji, However, Guru Amar Dass ji was very old and It was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees. The Manji System had great significance in the history of Sikh religion. Dr. Gokal Chand Narang says that this work of Guru Sahib consolidated the foundation of Sikh religion and helped to spread Guru’s teachings in the all parts of the country.
Guru Arjan Dev ji raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ in 1588 A.D. It is considered that Sufi Fakir Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without distinction. Bhai Budda Singh ji and Bhai Gurdas ji supervised the v. ork of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and was completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harminder Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
The construction work of Sri Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar was an important task to firmly strengthen the Sikh religion. With this, Sikhs need not visit Hindu pilgrimage. Amritsar had become Mecca and Ganga Benaras of Sikhs.
(а) When and who laid the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
The foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib was laid in 1589 A.D. by the renowned Sufi Saint of his times Mian Mir.
(b) Write about Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Guru Arjan Dev ji had raised Sri Harmandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar ‘Amritsar’ after the final union of Guru Ram Dass Ji with the Divine Power. Sufi Fakir, Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589 A.D. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without any distinction. Bhai Budda ji supervised the work of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and got it completed in 1601 A.D. In 1604 A.D, Adi Granth was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Bhai Budda ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Harmandir Sahib soon became Mecca and Ganga—Benaras or main centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.
Two Mughal Emperors, Akbar and Jahangir were contemporary to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Since the aim of preaches of gurus was to constitute a society where there will be no privilege given to caste, post, blind faith and strong religious beliefs. For this, Akbar used to like gurus. But Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. He was troubled by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji. After sometime, Prince Khusro revolted against his father Jahangir. When Royal army chased Khusro, then he ran away and came to Punjab and met Guru ji. On this, Jahangir who was already against Guru ji, fined Guru ji Rs. two lakh for helping rebilious Khusro. Guru ji refused to pay this fine considering it as an unappropriate. For this Guru ji was sentenced to death by giving physical torture in 1606 A.D.
(а) Why did Jahangir want to kill Guru Arjan Dev ji?
The Mughal Emperor Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev ji. Jahangir was perturbed (troubled) by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were also coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev ji.
(b) Write a note on the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev ji.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar had very cordial relations with Pancham Padshah (Sikh Guru) Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, Jahangir, the next Mughal’emperor abondoned the policy of toleration after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was on the look out for an opportunity to give mortal blow to Sikh religion. In the meantime, Prince Khusro, the son of Jahangir, revolted against his father. After getting defeat at the hands of his father, Khusro came to Guru Arjan Dev ji. Guru Sahib blessed him. Jahangir imposed a fine of two lakh rupees on Guru Sahib on the charge of helping rebellious Khusro. Guru Sahib refused to pay the fine. As a result, Guru Sahib was detained and subjected to severe torture. It infuriated the Sikhs. The Sikhs learned that the only course then left with them was to rise in arms for the protection of their religion.
Guru Gobind Singh ji was the tenth and the last guru of Sikhs. Guru Nanak Dev ji founded Sikh religion. His successors spread Sikh religion. The work was completed by Guru Gobind Singh ji.
He gave final shape to Sikh religion by establishing Khalsa in 1699 A.D. He developed the spirit of heriosm, courage and unity among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave a strong reply to the opression of Mughals with limited resources and lesser number of Sikh soldiers. Before his final union with divine power, he ended the guru system and gave his divine power to Granth Sahib Ji and Khalsa. For this, he had qualities of a spiritual leader, supreme organiser, general by birth, impressive scholar and best reformer at the same time. ”
(а) When and where Guru Gobind Rai ji was born? Write the names of his parents.
Guru Gobind Rai Ji was born on 22nd December 1666 A.D. at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Teg Bahadur ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujari ji.
(b) Describe the personality of Guru Gobind Singh ji as a General.
Guru Gobind Singh was a successful military commander and a brave soldier. Guru Sahib fought every battle courageously and established himself as a successful General. Guru Sahib had complete mastery over sword play, archery and horse riding. Guru Sahib had all the qualities of a commander of high calibre. Guru Sahib had made the Mughals and hill chiefs to lick dust even with the lesser number of soldiers and limited resources. During the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib had hardly forty Sikhs in his army. But under his command, they displayed such a spectacular fighting skill that the Mughal army of thousands, failed to defeat him.
In 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi, Guru Gobind Rai ji convened a assembly of Sikh followers at Anandpur Sahib. On that day, his nearly 80,000 Sikh followers gathered there. When all the people had settled down, then Guru Sahib brandished his sword and gave a call. “Is there any true Sikh of mine, who is ready to die for Dharma.” Guru Sahib repeated these words thrice. Third time, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and bowed before Guru Sahib. Guru ji took him to nearby tent and returned after sometime with a sword with blood dropping from it. Guru ji repeated his call. This time Dharam Dass jat of Delhi offered himself. Guru Sahib also took him to the tent. In this way, Guru Ji demanded five heads and five men, Bhai Mohkam Chand (Washerman of Dwarka), Bhai Sahib Chand (Barber of Bidar) and Bhai Himmat Rai (Kahar of Jagan Nath Puri) besides Bhai Daya Ram and Bhai Dharam Dass offered their heads to Guru ji. After some time, Guru ji brought that five men before gathering, wearing saff and colored beautiful clothes.
At that time, Guru ji himself had worn saffron coloured clothes. People were surprised to see that five men. Guru ji blessed them with title of ‘Panj Pyare’ collectively.
(а) When and where was Khalsa created?
In Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A.D. on the day of Baisakhi.
(b) Describe the principles of Khalsa.
Guru Gobind Singh ji created Khalsa in 1699 A.D. Guru Sahib made the following rules for the Khalsa.
- Every Sikh would add ‘Singh’ (lion) after his name. Every Sikh woman would add word ‘Kaur’ after her name.
- Before becoming Khalsa, every person has to drink Khande-ke-Pahaul. Only after that he will be declared Khalsa.
- Every Sikh must wear five Ks. which are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (the iron bangle), Kirpan (dagger) and Kachchera (a pair of shorts).
- Every Sikh shall recite the five prayers after taking bath every morning, which are recited when the Khande ka Pahul is prepared.
The main target of the military expedition of Banda Singh Bahadur was Sirhind where Subedar Wazir Khan lived, who had troubled Guru Gobind Singh ji throughout his life. He had sent army against Guru ji in battles of Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. At this place his younger sons were bricked alive in a wall. Wazir Khan had murdered thousands of innocent Sikhs and Hindus. That is why, Banda Bahadur and Sikhs had great anger on Wazir Khan. As the news of Banda, Bahadur marching towards Sirhand in Punjab, spread, thousands of people rallied under the flag of Banda Bahadur. A nephew of Suchha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhind administration also joined the invading Sikh army along with his one thousand soldiers. On the other side, number of Wazir Khan’s soldiers were 20000. In his army, besides horsemen, there were gunmen and cannon firemen and elephant riders.
(a) What were the orders, given by Guru Gobind Singh ji to the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnamas?
Guru Gobind Singh ji instructed the sikhs of Punjab in his Hukamnama to consider Banda Bahadur as their leader in their struggle against the Mughals.
(b) Describe battles of Chhapparchiri and Sirhind.
The Subedar of Sirhand Wazir Khan had troubled Guru Gobind Singh ji throughout his stay in Punjab. Besides, the two young Sahibzadas were bricked alive in a wall on his orders. So Banda Bahadur wanted to avenge the heinous crimes committed by Wazir Khan. As he marched towards Sirhind, many people rallied under his flag. A nephew of Sucha Nand, who was an employee of Sirhand administration, also joined the Sikh army along with his thousand soldiers. However, later he deserted the Sikh army. On the otherside, Wazir Khan had twenty thousand soldiers at his disposal. On May 22, 1710 A.D. a fierce battle between two armies took place at Chapparchiri, a place 16 kilometers away from Sirhind, Wazir Khan was slain in this battle. The enemy army became the victim of the swords of Sikhs in large numbers. The dead body of Wazir Khan was hanged from a tree. Suchha Nand, who had master minded the attrocities on Sikhs, his nose was pierced and was paraded, in the town.
In 1837 A.D., The Governor-General of India, General, Lord Auckland was feared at the increasing influence of Russia in Afghanistan. He also felt that Dost Mohammad was establishing friendly relations with Russia, a enemy of British. In these situations, Lord Auckland wanted to make ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja (Former ruler of Afghanistan who lived on Pension from British) instead of Dost Mohammad. For this, on 26th June 1838 A.D. with the permission of British Government, there was Treaty between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja which is called Tripartite Treaty. According to this treaty Shah Shuja would be the ruler of Afghanistan Shah Shuja accepted the right over all areas (Kashmir, Multan, Peshawar, Attuck, Derafat etc.) conquered by Maharaja from Afghans. Maharaja did not accept one term of the treaty that during Afghan war, he would let the English forces pass from his area. On this, the relations between Maharaja and British bittered. Maharaja died on June 1839 A.D.
(а) When was Ranjit Singh born? What was his father’s name?
Ranjit Singh was born on November 13, 1780 A.D. His father’s name was Mahan Singh.
(b) What was the Tripartite Treaty?
The Tripartite Treaty was signed between the British, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja in 1838 A.D. The terms of this treaty were as under :
- The territories conquered by Ranjit Singh would not be included in the Kingdom of Shah Shuja.
- No party would help any foreign power.
- Ranjit Singh would be allowed to control that-part of Sindh which he had quite recently conquered.
- Enemy of one would be considered as the enemy of other two signatories of the treaty.
- Whatever decision the British and Ranjit Singh would take in the matter of Sindh, would be accepable to Shah Shuja.
- Shah Shuja would not establish relations with any country without the consent of Ranjit Singh and British.
Although, Lord Hardinge, after defeating Sikhs did not include Punjab in British empire, but he certainly weakened the Lahore Government. British occupied southern areas of Satluj of Lahore state. He occupied fertile areas of Doab Bist Jalandhar. Kashmir, Kangra. Hilly states of Hazara were freed from Lahore. Army of Lahore state was reduced. A large amount of money was recovered from Lahore state. Punjab was weakened so much on economic and army front that when the english desired, they could occupy.
(а) Who was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
(b) What were the terms of second treaty of Lahore?
The second Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British and Sikhs on 11th March, 1846 A.D. The terms of the treaty were as under.
- British Government will keep large force in Lahore in the security of Maharaja Dalip Singh and inhabitants of Lahore. These forces would remain there upto 1846 A.D.
- Lahore city and fort would remain in control of British.
- Lahore government signed a treaty on 9 March 1846 A.D. by which it was decided that Lahore government will respect the jagirdars and officials of the area given to the English.
- Lahore government will have no right to seize the cannons, property, treasury from the forts given to English.
On January, 1848, Lord Dalhousie became the Governor-General of India in place of Lord Hardinge. He believed in expansion of Brisith empire in India. First of all he decided to include Punjab in British Empire. British got the opportunity to fight with Sikhs on revolt by Mool Raj of Multan and Chattar Singh of Hazara and his son Sher Singh. After the defeat of Sikhs in Second Anglo Sikh War the work of real shape of already decided was given to foreign secreatary Henery Elliot. He compeled the members of Council of Regency to sign a treaty. According to that treaty, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned. British occupied the whole property of Punjab. Kohinoor Diamond was sent to Queen of England (Victoria) A pension of Rs. 4 Lakh-5 Lakh was settled for Dalip Singh. On that day, Henry Elliot narrated a declaration paper written by Lord Dalhousie in Lahore Darbar. In this declaration, the decision of inclusion of Punjab in British Empire was justified.
(а) When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire? Who was the Governor-General of India at that time?
Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849 A,D. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.
(b) What do you know about Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Punjab (Lahore State). He was minor at the time of First Anglo-Sikh war. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal of 1846 A.D., a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration of the Lahore Darbar. It was to run the administration till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh. But the Sikh forces lost the Second Anglo-Sikh war. As a result of it, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and given a pension of 4-5 lakhs annually. Punjab became the part of British Empire.
Many cow slaughterers were killed by attacking on slaughterhouses of Amritsar and Raikot. Many in Kukas were openly hanged but they did not get back from their objectives. On January 1872 A.D., a group of 150 Kukas reached Malerkotla to punish cow slaughterers. On 15 January 1872, there was great fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many people were killed on both sides. British government sent forces in Malerkotla to take action against Kukas. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by the cannons on 17th January 1872 A.D. Other 16 Kukas were also blown off by cannons fire on 18th January 1872 A.D. after a trial. Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was deported to Rangoon. Many Namdharis were sent to Kala Pani. Many were drowned to death in a sea. Properties of many Kukas was confiscated. In this way, British government did many attrocites. But this wave continued up till 15th August 1947 A.D. untill India became independent.
(а) Why did Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji show non-cooperation with the British Government?
Sri Satguru Ram Singh Ji was opposed to the foreign government, foreign administration and foreign goods.
(b) Describe the tragedy that occured between the Namdharis and Britishers in Malerkotla.
Namdharis had started the work of protection of cows. For the protection of cows, they began to kill butchers. In January 1872 A.D. a group of 150 Kukas (Namdharis) reached Malerkotla to punish Cow slaughterers, On 15th January, there was a staff fight between Kukas and forces of Malerkotla. Many peoples were killed on both sides. British government sent his special force to Malerkotla. Sixty five Kukas arrested themselves. Out of them, 49 Kukas were blown off by cannon on 17th January 1872 A.D. After a trial, other 16 Kukas were also killed by cannon on 18th January 1872 A.D.
In an atmosphere of unrest and anger, about 20,(TOO people from Amritsar and nearby villages assembled at Jallianwala Bagh on Baisakhi day 13th April 1919. General Dyer declared these type of meetings illegal on that day at 9.30 A.M. But people did not know about it. That is why the meeting was continuing.
General Dyer got an opportunity to avenge the massacre -of the five Britishers. He arrived at the entrance gate of Jallianwala Bagh with 150 soldiers. There was only one narrow street to reach the garden. General Dyer standing on that street, ordered the people to get out within three minutes. But it was not possible. After three minutes, General Dyer gave shoot order. About 1000 people were killed and more than 3000 were injured. After the incident of Jallianwala Bagh, the country’s independence wave got new direction. The revenge of this incident was taken by Sardar Udham Singh after 21 years by shooting dead Sir Michel O’Dyer (who was Lieutenant governor at the time of incident).
(а) Who took the revenge of Jallinwala Bagh Massacre and How?
Shaheed Udham Singh took revenge of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Twenty-one years after the massacre, he shot dead Michel O’ Dwyer in England.
(b) What were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Following were the causes of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.
- Rowlatt Acts. In 1919 A.D., the British Government passed the Rowlatt Act. According to which police was given special powers to crush the people. So the people oppossed it.
- Arrest of Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. Strikes were called at many places in Punjab to protest against the Rowlatt Act. Violent incidents occurs in some cities. So the Government arrested two popular leaders of Punjab Dr. Satpal and Dr. Kichlu. This enraged the people.
- Murder of some Britishers. Police opened fire on the excited people at Amritsar. In return, people killed five Englishmen. So the administration of Amritsar was handed over to General Dyer.
To express anger against these incidents, a meeting was being held at Jallianwala Bagh Amritsar, where tragedy occured.
Group of Akalis started vacating gurdwaras from corrupt Mahants. They got vacated Gurudwara Punja Sahib situated at Hasan Abdal, Gurudwara Sachha Sauda of District Shaikhupura and Gurudwara Chola Sahib of Amritsar District. Akalis fought with Mahants at Tarantaran. Similar incidents happened at Gurudwara Baba Ki Ber at Sialkot and Gurdwara Gajra at District Layalpur (Faislabad). Even then, Akalis remained in struggle to vacate Gurudwaras. There occured incident at Gurdwara Nankana Sahib on 20th February 1921 when group of Akali gathered at gurdwara peacefully. There Mahant Narayan Dass of thfit Gurdwara got massacred 30 Akalis. British Government did not show any sympathy to Akalis. But Muslims and Hindus of Sarparant showed sympathy to Akalis.
(a) Why was the key Morcha Organised?
The keys of the treasury of Sri Harnaandir Sahib were with the British Government. The Sikhs launched the Morcha to secure the keys of the treasury of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
(b) Describe the incident of Guru Ka Bagh.
Gurudwara ‘Guru Ka Bagh’ is situated 13 KM away from Amritsar at Ajnala Tehsil. This Gurudwara was in the hands of a corrupt person named Mahant Sunder Dass. The Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee sent a Jatha under the leadership of Dan Singh on 23rd August, 1921 A.D. to take over the charge of the Gurudwara in its hands. The Englishmen arrested the members of this Jatha.
This incident further enraged the Sikhs. Sikhs sent more and more Jathas. These Jathas were badly treated and tortured by the Englishmen. All the political parties of the country criticised this action of the British. In the end, Akalis won the ‘Guru Ka Bagh Morcha’ in peaceful manner.