## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Population

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Population Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
What is the most important and valuable resource of a country?
The healthy people of the country, mentally as well as physically, is the biggest natural resource of a country.

Question 2.
What do you understand by the development of human resources?
The development of human resources is the framework for helping employees to develop their knowledge, skills and abilities, which improves an effectiveness of organisations. Because these are the people who with their abilities make a valuable material with the help of any natural resource. Human Resource Development is the vast field of training and development provided by organisations. HRD (Human Resource Development) can be formal like in classroom training, a college course etc.

Question 3.
What is the most important and pathetic mistake of the Indian Planning according to Dr. Amertya Sen?
The most important and pathetic mistake of the Indian Planning according to Dr. Sen is the development of institution, on the basis of caste etc. In Delhi, he said, “several buildings do not have public toilets, which is important for every building. As compare to other such as China, Pakistan, Bangladesh have expanded education system and health care facilities. But this is a pathetic condition in India.

Question 4.
What problem is being faced by our country for not paying full attention to the development of Human Resources?
The following problems are being faced by our country for not paying full attention to the development of Human Resource:

• In the Development of the country, Human Resources play an important role. So, not paying full attention to the development of Human Resources is a big mistake. With this our economic failures arise. Because of not paying full attention on social justice issues, economic decisions taken in independent India, not beneficial for women, poor people and vulnerable people. So problem of Economic issues arise.
• Recruitment, Retention and Motivation.
• Work force security issues is also a great problem.
• Human resources are the ultimate resource of nature because they uses technology and skills and add value to natural resources and if they ignored, ultimately our country faced several economic, social and political issues.

Question 5.
What were the causes of slow increase in population before independence?
The causes of this slow growth were epidemics, wars and famines which increased death rate.

Question 6.
What was the population of India in the year 1901?
The population of India was 23,83,96,327 (23.8 crore) in the year 1901.

Question 7.
Why the 1921 and 1951 years have been considered as population divider?
Population increased rapidly after the years of 1921 and 1951. Therefore, these years are called demographic divide (population divider).

Question 8.
What was the population of India in the year 2011?
The. population of India was 121 crores in the year 2011.

Question 9.
What is rank of India in the world from the population point of view?
India ranks second in world (after China) in the view of population.

Question 10.
Write the name of the states with highest and lowest population.
Uttar Pradesh has the highest population (19.9 crore) and Sikkim has the lowest population (6 lakh) in India.

Question 11.
How many states have the population of more than 5 crores?
There are 10 states of India in which population is more than 5 crores.

Question 12.
What was the population of Punjab irr the year 2011 and what is the rank of Punjab from the population point of view?
The population of Punjab was 2.77 crores in the year of 2011 and Punjab ranks 15th in the country in the view of population.

Question 13.
What percentage of population of India lives in Punjab?
Almost 2.3 percent of total population of country lives in Punjab.

Question 14.
How many cities are there in India with a population of more than one lakh?
There are 302 cities in India with the population of more than one lakh.

Question 15.
How much per cent of population of our country lives in plains?
40% of population of the country lives in the plains.

Question 16.
How much percentage of population of the country lives in villages?
69% of population of the country lives in the villages.

Question 17.
What is the average density of population in our country?
The average density of population in India is 382 persons per square kilometre.

Question 18.
Name the states having highest and lowest density of population.
Bihar is the state with largest density of population (1102) and Arunachal Pradesh is the state with lowest density of population (17) in India.

Question 19.
What is density of population of India?
The density of population of India is 382 sq.km.

Question 20.
Which union territory has the highest density of population?
National Capital Area Delhi has the largest density of population (11297).

Question 21.
Name the elements that determine the age structure.
The factors which determine the age structure are:

• Fertility
• Mortality
• Migration.

Question 22.
What is percentage of population that falls in the 0-14 years age group in our country?
37.2% of population is found in the country with the age group of 0-14 years.

Question 23.
What percentage of population falls in the 15-65 years age group in our country? ,
58.4% of population is found in the country with the age group of 15-65 years.

Question 24.
What is the percentage of population that are voters?
There is 60% of population as voters in the country.

Question 25.
What do you understand by sex ratio?
Or
What is meant by sex ratio?
The number of women per thousand men is sex ratio.

Question 26.
What are the factors that are responsible for the decrease in rural and urban sex ratio?
Following are the factors responsible for the decrease in rural and urban sex ratio:

1. Social factors Indian society is patriarchal and male centric thoughts force. One family to have male child with old beliefs such as nomination process.
2. Technological Factors. Ultrasoniography is the advent of science has made it possible for antenatal detection of sex.
3. Economifcal factors. Social Evils such as dowry, etc. also considered economic burden for family. So people prefer male child.
4. Lack of awareness. Because there is low contribution on female education, so they are not considered as important as males.
5. Security issue. Also considered a major problem in the country.

Question 27.
What is the sex ratio among the Sikh segment of our country?

Question 28.
Which people are called main workers of India?
The main workers of India are those people who have done work for six months ih the last year (or 183 days) in any economic activity.

Question 29.
When was the concept of classifying the people as workers and non-workers introduced for the first time in India’s census?
According to work, the population was divided into working Arid non-working population in the year 1961.

Question 30.
What percentage of labourers is there in rural areas?
The percentage of labourers in the rural areas is 40%.

Question 31.
What is total urban population?
The total urban population in India is 37.47%.

Question 32.
In which two categories can we divide population of India on economic basis.

1. Main workers, Marginal workers.
2. Non-workers.

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
What problems arise due to uneven distribution of population in states?
There are 28 states in India. There is uneven distribution of population in these states. Many problems have been created as:

• Transport problem: It is a great problem to connect isolated rural settlement with towns by road.
• Basic needs: It is difficult to-provide basic facilities to rural areas.
• Other problems: Problems like Pollution, Transport, Settlement etc.

Question 2.
What are the factors that affect the distribution of population?
Population in India is not evenly distributed. Many factors are responsible for this:

1. Fertility of the soil. The states in which there is a large fertile area the density of population is high. U.P. and Bihar are such states.
2. Amount of rainfall. The density of population is higher in regions of abundant rain. In northern India the amount of rainfall goes on decreasing from east to west. The density of population also goes on decreasing in the same direction.
3. Climate. Wherever the climate is congenial the density of population will be high. In Assam even though there is abundant rainfall but the density of population is low because the climate is unhealthy. The malaria is always there is an epidemic form.
4. Developed means of transportation. With development of means of transportation the business makes rapid progress and the density of population increases. The reason for high density of population in U.P., Bihar and West Bengal is the development of means of transportation.
5. Industrial development. At places where the factories are located the density of population also increases. The reason is that people like to live in those areas where industrial development takes place. They can carry on their business more easily in such areas and they have better chances of earning more money. That is why the density of population is high in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

Question 3.
What is the importance of Economic Structure of Population?
Importance of Economic Structure of Population:

1. We come to know the percentage of people engaged in productive work.
2. It shows the cultural composition of population which determines the stage of development of a country.
3. It marks the backward areas of the country so that proper planning can be done.

Question 4.
Into how many categories can we divide main workers? Name them.
The table below shows the categories of main workers:

Question 5.
Why is there more percentage of male workers than female workers?
The percentage of male workers is 37.50 in India (about 1/3rd of population)

1. This is due to rapidly growing population. It increases the dependent population.
2. Females are not allowed to go out for work,
3. There is absence of female awareness and education.

Question 6.
Why is India known as a country of villages?
There is no doubt that India is a country of villages.

1. Most of the people live in villages.
2. 3/4th of population lives in rural areas.
3. There are more than 5 lakh and 50 thousand rural settlements, but 71% of urban population lives in 302 towns.
4. About 40.1% of labourers live in rural areas and 30.2% of labourers live in urban areas.

Question 7.
Name the languages spoken in our country.
There is a great diversity in languages spoken in India.
Assamese, Orriya, Urdu, Kannad, Kashmiri, Gujrati, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Bangla, Malyalam, Sanskrit, Sindhi and Hindi are the main languages of India. These have a constitutional status. The languages of the South Tamil, Telugu, Kannad and Malyalam have their origin fthm Dravidian system. A large number of people ih India speak Hindi, understand Hiridiffe^bn if it is not their mother tongue. Hindi is the national language of India.

Question 8.
What are characteristic features of regional distribution of population?
Characteristic features of regional distribution of population:

1. The distribution of population is uneven in India. There is dense population in river valleys and coastal plains. There is sparse population in hilly areas, deserts and drought affected areas. 16% of the area of the country, in the Northern plains only 3% people of India live. 94% of population lives on an area of 18% in plains. Only 2% population lives on an area of 6% in Rajasthan.
2. Most of the people live in villages. Only 31% people live in urban areas.
3. A large part of minorities live in sensitive border area. Along the N.W. border of India; Sikhs in Punjab and Muslims in J & K, form a majority community. Along the borders of China and Burma, in the North-East, mostly Christians are found. It has created many political, economic and social problems.
4. On the one hand, there is concentration of population in river valleys and coastal areas, but deserts, hilly areas are sparsely populated. It looks like a demographic divide.

Question 9.
Which are the states which have high density of population?
There is dense population in Northern plain, western coastal plain, Eastern Coastal plain (Deltas). These areas have fertile soils and facilities of irrigation. So the population is dense. As we go westward, the rainfall goes on decreasing and the density of population also decreases. That is why the density of population in West Bengal is greater than that in Haryana and Punjab. Kerala has also high density because two or three crops can be grown due to high rainfall.

Question 10.
What are the causes of high density of population in plains?
The density of population is high in plains. This is due to:

1. The Northern plain is fertile.
2. It has high rainfall.
3. It has many big industrial centres.
4. The means of transport are developed.
5. Coastal plain has facilities of fishing and foreign trade.

Question 11.
What are the areas of low density of population?
Arunachal Pradesh is the ara of low density of population followed by Andaman and Nicobar, Mizoram and Sikkim as per the census 2011.

Question 12.
Name the areas of low density of population. What are the causes of low density of population?
Thar Desert, Eastern Himalayas and Chotta Nagpur plateau are sparsely populated areas.

1. The soils are infertile or sandy or stony.
2. The means of transport are not developed
3. The climate is not healthy. It is either too hot or too cold. Himalayas get heavy rainfall.
4. Industries are not developed in these areas except Chotta Nagpur plateau.

Question 13.
Why is it necessary to study the structure of population?
It is necessary to study the structure of population of a country due to:

1. We need different components of population such as age structure, sex ratio, occupational structure for the economic and social planning of a country.
2. The different aspects of population have a close relationship with development on the one hand, These are affected by population and on the other hand these affect population and ’development. For example, if the percentage of children and old age people is high in age structure, a country has to spend more on education and health facilities. On the other hand, a high percentage of working age group encourages the economic development of a country.

Question 14.
Name the areas with small population.
Sikkim, Lakshadweep are the areas with small population.

Question 15.
What is the importance of study of age structure?
These are the advantages of study of age structure of population:

1. By determining the 0-14 age group the govt, knows that there is need of expenditure on education, health and social services. So new schools, health centres and community centres are opened.
2. We know the number of eligible voters in the country which is vital for a democracy. There should be 58% voters per age group, but actually there are 60% of voters in the country.

Question 16.
What are the causes of low sex ratio in India?
The sex ratio of India is 940 per thousand males. There is a general declining trend in sex ratio. The ratio in 1901 was 972, It was declined to 934 in 1981. This decline has been due to social evils in our society.

In our society, female child is neglected. Male population dominates in our society. There is high death rate among females. Death rate is particularly high among married women. Women labour migrates to some mining and industrial centres. It also results in declining sex ratio.

Question 17.
What are the causes of increase in urban population in India?
The rapid growth of population has posed many socio-economic problems in different countries. The main problems are :

1. Food problem. Growth of population has led to shortage of foodgrains in many areas.
Agricultural production has increased due to new technology, yet many countries have to import agricultural products.
2. Housing problem. Housing conditions are poor in over-populated countries. People live in slum areas. Skyscrapers are being built in many Metropolitan towns.
3. Unemployment. Rapid increase in population leads to unemployment. Migration of people from over-populated rural areas has added to Unemployment.
4. Low standard of living. Per capita income is low in overcrowded areas so living conditions are poor. People do not afford to have basic necessities of life. Population explosion leads to poverty and a poor standard of living.
5. Dependent population. A large percentage of young people become dependent on a small working population.
6. Social problems. Many social problems arise due to overcrowding. Poor health and bad sanitary conditions lead to epidemics.

The percent share of population of some states of India’s total population

III. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Explain the regional structure of density of population in India.
The distribution of population in India is unequal. According to 2011 census, the total population of India is 121 crore and the density of population is 382 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall.

The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.
1. Densely populated areas. These areas have a density’of more than 400 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahmputra valley, the density of population is very high.
(a) West Coastal Plain: Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) East Coastal Plain: Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq, kilometre.

(c) The Northern Plain: It includes West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab.

Factors favouring high density:

• Sufficient rainfall
• Fertile river valleys and deltas.
• 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Healthy climate.
• Rich in mineral and power resources.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 200 to 400 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, Goa, Assam have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transportation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava, soils and mineral resources.

3. Sparsely populated areas.
These areas have a density less than 200 persons per sq. kilometre.
(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 200 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Factors for low density :

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall
• Poor econoufic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Question 2.
Explain in detail the state-wise structure of sex ratio in India.
Sex ratio means’the number of females per 1000 males. Now-a-days, women have equal rights with men. In developed countries, the number of women is equal to number of men. In some countries sex ratio is 1050. The average sex ratio in developing countries is 964. In India, in 2011, sex ratio was 940, and is one of the lowest in the world.

State-wise sex ratio. Sex ratio is not uniform in all states. Only one state, Kerala, has sex-ratio of 1084 and Puducherry (1036) (Above the average). In other states, sex ratio is less than average.

It is clear that Northern States have low sex ratio which is a matter of concern.

Question 3.
Explain the main characteristics of regional structure of distribution of population.
The distribution of population in India is unequal. According to 2011 census, the total population of India is 121 crore and the density of population is 382 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall.

The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.
1. Densely populated areas. These areas have a density’of more than 400 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahmputra valley, the density of population is very high.
(a) West Coastal Plain: Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) East Coastal Plain: Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq, kilometre.

(c) The Northern Plain: It includes West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab.

Factors favouring high density:

• Sufficient rainfall
• Fertile river valleys and deltas.
• 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Healthy climate.
• Rich in mineral and power resources.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 200 to 400 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, Goa, Assam have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transportation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava, soils and mineral resources.

3. Sparsely populated areas.
These areas have a density less than 200 persons per sq. kilometre.
(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 200 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Factors for low density :

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall
• Poor econoufic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Question 4.
What problems are arising due to increase in urban population in metro cities?
The rapid growth of population has posed many socio-economic problems in different countries. The main problems are:

1. Food problem. Growth of population has led to shortage of foodgrains in many areas.
Agricultural production has increased due to new technology, yet many countries have to import agricultural products.
2. Housing problem. Housing conditions are poor in over-populated countries. People live in slum areas. Skyscrapers are being built in many Metropolitan towns.
3. Unemployment. Rapid increase in population leads to unemployment. Migration of people from over-populated rural areas has added to Unemployment.
4. Low standard of living. Per capita income is low in overcrowded areas so living conditions are poor. People do not afford to have basic necessities of life. Population explosion leads to poverty and a poor standard of living.
5. Dependent population. A large percentage of young people become dependent on a small working population.
6. Social problems. Many social problems arise due to overcrowding. Poor health and bad sanitary conditions lead to epidemics.

Question 5.
Write a note on the cultural structures of population of India.
1. Races. Ethnically, India consists of several races, the Dravidians, the Mongoloids, the Arayans and the Caucasians. In course of time these races have intermingled, losing many of original traits and acquiring new ones from others. And yet we notice a great diversity which is so characteristic of the Indian people. In fact, the richness and beauty of India culture lies in its diversity. Its spirit of tolerance, give-and- take assimilation makes it one of the distinctive cultures of the world.

2. Faiths. The Indian people follow different faiths. These do not follow regional, political and linguistic barriers. They speak different languages ^languages cut across race, religion, caste and often region. Notwithstanding these facial, religious linguistic arid regional diversities, we are all Indians first and Indians last. Ours is a plural society with a composite culture. It can be compared to a fine mosaic or to a garden with flowers of various colours and shades. This maintaining entity of each lends colour and beauty to the total cultural landscape of our country.

3. Religions. India is the home of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Zorastrians and others. None of these people enjoy any special privileges on the ground of their religion. Nor do they suffer in economic, political or social life because of their faith in a .particular religion. All are equal before law and enjoy full freedom. All are bestowed with equal rights, .entailing corresponding responsibilities.

4. Languages. In India there are a large number of languages. Some of them are derived from Sanskrit while others are of Darvidian origin. The major Indian languages are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malyalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Of these, four languages of southern India-Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malyalam are of Dravidian origin.

5. National Language. It would be a mistake to conclude that everybody speaking any of these languages is Dravidian by race. Similarly, not all who speak languages of Sanskrit origin are Aryans. Generally, the people who lived in a given area over a long period of time adopted the language of that region as their first language irrespective of ethnic or any other considerations. A great number of people speak Hindi. Similarly, a large number of people are able to understand this language even if it is not their mother tongue. This has led to the adoption of Hindi as the official language of the Union Government. For the convenience of the non-Hindi- speaking states English is also used officially.

6. Linguistic unity. Linguists are of the view that the Indian languages and their literatures have much more in common than their apparent or outward differences. All the Indian languages are phonetic in nature and have a more or less common structure and a surprisingly large common vocabulary. There is not much difference in the scripts of many of these languages.

Question 6.
Write an essay on problem of population increase in India and also enlighten the solution to this problem.
Answer:India’s population is growing rapidly, and creating some problems.

1. Low standard of living. Indian people have low standard of living as compared that of Europeans. About 48% people live below poverty line. They do not have full meals. It results in low production capacity.
2. Deforestation. The forests are cleared recklessly to meet the growing needs. It has resulted in problems of soil erosion, floods, pollution and loss of forest-wealth.
3. Lack of pastures. India has only 4% land under pastimes. If this land is used for other purposes, it will result in shortage of fodder for cattle.
4. Pressure on Land. Land is a limited source and cannot be increased. It is leading to pressure of population on land. It will decrease the productivity of the land.
5. Lack of minerals. Industries are developed to meet the growing needs of people. So more minerals are used. These reserves will exhaust soon.
6. Environment. Population growth has an adverse effect on environment. Clear water and air is a problem. Oxygen is also decreasing.

Solutions:

• Family planning should be adopted,
• People should be explained significance of small families by films, songs, plays,
• Illiteracy should be abolished so that people should understand harms of growing population,
• Female education should be increased, marriageable age of girls be increased.

Question 7.
Study critically the efforts being made Tor the expansion of Education in India.
Education. One of the basic inputs in human resource development is education. Literacy and numeracy form the foundation on which superstructure of education is built.
1. At the time of independence only 14% of the people were literate. It meant that they could at least read and write names. By 2011 it has slowly risen to 65.58%. In absolute terms the number of the literates has grown to 550 million from 60 million. It is about 11 fold growth. But it is pertinent to note that the number of the illiterate persons has also increased.

2. Our constitution directed the Government to provide education for all children upto the age of fourteen. This was a big task because the bulk of the population was distributed over half a million villages. These villages are separated by considerable distance from one another. Priority was, therefore, given to set up schools in almost every village. As a result there are now half a million primary school in place of two lakhs in 1951. Similarly the middle schools also increased by as much as ten times. Earlier there was one middle school for every 15 primary schools. Now it stands for every four primary schools.

3. Although there has been a marked increase in the number of children getting into formal schools. One of the worries is that out of every 100 children in class I, only 40 manage to complete class V and 25 reach class VIII. Thus three fourths of the pupils drop out on their way.

4. We have also made progress in increasing the number of secondary schools, universities, industrial training as well as other institutions. Still educational facilities are not available to all because of fast growing population.

IV. Show the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Areas of high density of population.
(ii) Two States with high literacy rate.
(m) Two States of highest and lowest population.
(iv) Areas with high growth rate of population.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Population Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line:

Question 1.
What was the total population of India in 2011?
121 crores.

Question 2.
Where does India rank in world population?
2nd.

Question 3.
When was last census held in India?
2011.

Question 4.
What is birth rate in India?
26 per thousand.

Question 5.
What is sex ratio in India?
940.

Question 6.
Which state ha’s highest sex ratio?
Kerala

Question 7.
Which state has lowest sex ratio?
Haryana.

Question 8.
What is literacy rate in India?
65%.

Question 9.
Which state has the highest density of population?
Bihar.

Question 10.
Which state has the largest poulation?

Question 11.
What is average density of population in India?
382 persons per sq. km.

Question 12.
Which state has lowest density of population?

Question 13.
Write down any four characteristics of population census.
The four characteristics of population census are distribution of population, density of population, literacy, the age-sex ratio.

Question 14.
What do you mean by distribution of population?
Distribution of population means the nature of population and its concentration at one place.

Question 15.
What do you mean by density of population?
Density of population means the average number of persons living in a unit square area. It is shown per sq. km.

Question 16.
What is the main factor affecting the distribution of population and why?
Agricultural production is the main factor affecting the distribution of population because India is an agricultural country.

Question 17.
Name any four factors affecting the structure of distribution of population.

1. Agricultural production
2. Diversity in natural factors
3. Industrialisation
4. Cultural reasons.

Question 18.
Name the three states having low density of population.

2. Nagaland
3. Manipur.

Question 19.
Which communities have .the highest and lowest sex ratio in India?
Christians have the highest sex ratio (994 women per thousand men) and Sikhs have the lowest sex ratio (886 per thousand men) in India.

Question 20.
What are the bad results of increasing population in urban areas?
There is heavy rush on available sources and public services due to increase in population in urban areas. It becomes very difficult for people to meet fMeir basic needs.

Question 21.
What is meant by sex ratio? :
The numerical ratio between females and males is called sex ratio.

Question 22.
Distinguish between productive and dependent population.
By productive population we mean those persons who follow different professions and earn money. Children and old persons are included in the dependent persons.

Question 23.
Name four racial groups living in India.
The racial grqups living in India are:

• Dravid, Mangol,
• Arya, Caucasiun

Question 24.
Which languages of India are of Dravidian origin?

1. Tamil in Tamil Nadu State
4. Malayalam in Kerala.

Question 25.
What are the two reasons of decrease in death rate?

1. The main reason is increase in health services.
2. Due to spread in education, death rate has fallen down.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1 .
_______ is a human resource.
Population

Question 2.
India ranis _______ in world population.
second

Question 3.
India has a total population of ______ crores.
131

Question 4.
Punjab has a population of ________crores.
77

Question 5.
Most of population lives in _________ areas.
rural.

Mulitiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
What is the total population of India (2011)?
(a) 102 crore
(b) 112 crore
(c) 118 crore
(d) 131 crore.
(d) 131 crore.

Question 2.
When was first census held in India?
(a) 1971
(b) 1881
(c) 1891
(d) 1861.
(b) 1881

Question 3.
Which state has the lowest population?
(a) Punjab
(b) Sikkim
(c) Assam
(d) Rajasthan.
(b) Sikkim

Question 4.
What is the average sex ratio in India ?
(a) 910
(b) 930
(c) 933
(d) 940.
(d) 940.

Question 5.
The literacy rate in India is :
(a) 55%
(b) 60%
(c) 65%
(d) 67%.
(c) 65%

Question 1.
State three reasons for the uneven distribution of population in India.

The distribution of population in India is unequal. According to 2011 census, the total population of India is 121 crore and the density of population is 382 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall.

The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.
1. Densely populated areas. These areas have a density’of more than 400 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahmputra valley, the density of population is very high.
(a) West Coastal Plain: Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) East Coastal Plain: Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq, kilometre.

(c) The Northern Plain: It includes West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab.

Factors favouring high density:
(0 Sufficient rainfall
(ii) Fertile river valleys and deltas.
(iii) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
(iv) Irrigation facilities.
(iv) Healthy climate.
(vi) Rich in mineral and power resources.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 200 to 400 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, Goa, Assam have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transportation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava, soils and mineral resources.

3. Sparsely populated areas.
These areas have a density less than 200 persons per sq. kilometre.
(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 200 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Factors for low density :

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall
• Poor econoufic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Question 2.
Throw light on some important aspects of population of India.

1. India is one of the selected countries where population concentration is found.
2. After independence, population of India has increased 4 times.
3. India has an average population of 3 crores for each state.
4. U.P. has the highest population in India.
5. Average density of population is 382 persons per sq. km.
6. West Bengal has the highest density of population.

Question 3.
How is the growth of population a problem for India ?
After independence, the land-area has been fixed in India but the population has increased manifold. The growth of population is 1.7 per-cent. It is a great problem to provide basic amenities to such a huge population. It is not easy to provide the facilities of education, hospitals and other facilities to all. We shall have to increase the transport and communication facilities also. We shall have to cultivate quality in our population.

Question 4.
State the adverse effects of rapid growth of population in India.
The rapid growth of population has posed many socio-economic problems in different countries. The main problems are:

1. Food problem. Growth of the population has led to shortage of foodgrains in many areas.
Agricultural production has increased due to new technology, yet many countries have to import agricultural products.
2. Housing problem. Housing conditions are poor in over-populated countries. People live in slum areas. Skyscrapers are being built in many Metropolitan towns.
3. Unemployment. Rapid increase in population leads to unemployment. Migration of people from over-populated rural areas has added to Unemployment.
4. Low standard of living. Per capita income is low in overcrowded areas so living conditions are poor. People do not afford to have basic necessities of life. Population explosion leads to poverty and a poor standard of living.
5. Dependent population. A large percentage of young people become dependent on a small working population.
6. Social problems. Many social problems arise due to overcrowding. Poor health and bad sanitary conditions lead to epidemics.

Question 5.
Why is the occupational structure of India lop sided?
Two thirds of our population still lives on agriculture. Only 10% of the working population is engaged in industry. The rest one fourth of population is in the tertiary or service sector. This makes clear that a small proportion of our population is engaged in secondary sector of economy. The secondary sector includes manufacturing by which we can increase our national income by producing useful products. So there are not more people employed in manufacturing. So our occupational structure is lop sided.

Question 6.
Why are the Northern plains densely populated?

The distribution of population in India is unequal. According to 2011 census, the total population of India is 121 crore and the density of population is 382 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall.

The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.
1. Densely populated areas. These areas have a density’of more than 400 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahmputra valley, the density of population is very high.
(a) West Coastal Plain: Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) East Coastal Plain: Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq, kilometre.

(c) The Northern Plain: It includes West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab.

Factors favouring high density:

• Sufficient rainfall
• Fertile river valleys and deltas.
• 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Healthy climate.
• Rich in mineral and power resources.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 200 to 400 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, Goa, Assam have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transportation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava, soils and mineral resources.

3. Sparsely populated areas.
These areas have a density less than 200 persons per sq. kilometre.
(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 200 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Factors for low density :

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall
• Poor econoufic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Question 7.
Name three sparsely populated areas of India. Give reasons.
The rapid growth of population has posed many socio-economic problems in different countries. The main problems are:

1. Food problem. Growth of population has led to shortage of foodgrains in many areas.
Agricultural production has increased due to new technology, yet many countries have to import agricultural products.
2. Housing problem. Housing conditions are poor in over-populated countries. People live in slum areas. Skyscrapers are being built in many Metropolitan towns.
3. Unemployment. Rapid increase in population leads to unemployment. Migration of people from over-populated rural areas has added to Unemployment.
4. Low standard of living. Per capita income is low in overcrowded areas so living conditions are poor. People do not afford to have basic necessities of life. Population explosion leads to poverty and a poor standard of living.
5. Dependent population. A large percentage of young people become dependent on a small working population.
6. Social problems. Many social problems arise due to overcrowding. Poor health and bad sanitary conditions lead to epidemics.

Question 8.
Explain the following with reference to population of India.
(a) census
(b) density of population
(c) growth of population
(d) death rate.
(a) Census. After every ten years, the Government arranges the counting of all persons of the country. It is called census. Some social and economic data is also collected. The last census in India was held in 2011. According to this census, the total population of India was 121 crores.

(b) Density of Population. Density of population means the average number of persons living in a unit sq. area. It is shown per sq. km. According to 2011 census, density of population in India was 382 persons per km2.

(c) Growth of Population. People, sometimes, migrate from one area to another due to epidemics or droughts or in search of employment. It increases or decreases the population of an area. In the area to which people migrate population increases. It is known as growth of population or decrease in population.

(d) Death Rate. Death rate means the number of deaths per 1000 persons.

Question 9.
What do you mean by Dependency Ratio? Why is it high in India? Give two reasons.
The proportion between productive and dependent population is dependency ratio. Children and old people are dependent population. India has a joint family system. Therefore children and old people get livelihood automatically. Illiteracy has also increased it. Orthodox views increase this ratio.

Question 10.
What is major mistake done by Indian planning? What are its effects?
The most important and pathetic mistake of the Indian Planning according to Dr. Sen is the development of institution, on the basis of caste etc. In Delhi, he said, “several buildings do not have public toilets, which is important for every building. As compare to other such as China, Pakistan, Bangladesh have expanded education system and health care facilities. But this is a pathetic condition in India.

Question 11.
Distinguish between distribution of population and density of population.
Population in India is not evenly distributed. Many factors are responsible for this:

1. Fertility of the soil. The states in which there is a large fertile area the density of population is high. U.P. and Bihar are such states.
2. Amount of rainfall. The density of population is higher in regions of abundant rain. In northern India the amount of rainfall goes on decreasing from east to west. The density of population also goes on decreasing in the same direction.
3. Climate. Wherever the climate is congenial the density of population will be high. In Assam even though there is abundant rainfall but the density of population is low because the climate is unhealthy. The malaria is always there is an epidemic form.
4. Developed means of transportation. With development of means of transportation the business makes rapid progress and the density of population increases. The reason for high density of population in U.P., Bihar and West Bengal is the development of means of transportation.
5. Industrial development. At places where the factories are located the density of population also increases. The reason is that people like to live in those areas where industrial development takes place. They can carry on their business more easily in such areas and they have better chances of earning more money. That is why the density of population is high in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

Question 12.
Why is the conservation of resources necessary?
Man depends upon the environment to meet his needs. He uses water, land, soil, vegetation, etc. to satisfy his needs. Man is using these resources at such an alarming rate that there will be serious shortage of these resources in the near future. Natural resources are of limited supply. So, conservation of resources is essential for the survival of man.

To some people conservation means that the available resources should not be used. These should be held back. But conservation of resources means a careful and rational utilization of resources. These resources should be used intelligently for the welfare of mankind. It means a careful control and management of resources so that these may be usd for the benefit of future generations also. These should be preserved from reckless exploitation and wanton destruction. These resources should not be wasted in a short time. The resources should be maintained in a healthy condition for their use as to achieve a high standard of living for mankind.

Question 13.
Why is low density of population found in Rajasthan and Arunachal Pradesh?
In some areas, it is difficult to get means of livelihood. These have a harsh climate. The soils are sandy or hilly. Agriculture is not possible. There is absence of irrigation and the production is low. Industries can not be developed in such areas. Therefore low density of population is found in Rajasthan and Arunachal Pradesh.

Question 14.
The people are important to develop the economy and society. Give three facts.

1. People use available resources.
2. They create a social and cultural environment..
3. Intelligent and hard working people make the real man power.

Question 15.
Define birth rate. What is its function with reference to population?
Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 persons in a year. It is a component of growth of population; because birth rate is always higher than death rate. The population increases when birth rate is higher tMn death rate.

Question 16.
Define death rate. What is its function with reference to population?
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. It is a component of growth of population. Due to declining death rate, there is a rapid growth of population in India. When death rate is more than birth rate, the population growth is negative.

Question 1.
List factors influencing the distribution of population.
The following factors influence the distribution of population:
1. Fertility of the soil. The states in which there is a large fertile area, the density of population is high. U.P. and Bihar are such states.

2. Amount of rainfall. The density of population is higher in regions of abundant rain. In. northern India, the amount of rainfall goes on decreasing from east to west. The density of population also goes on decreasing in the same diection.

3. Climate: Wherever the climate is congenial, the density of population will be high. In Assa even though there is abundant rainfall but the density of population is low because the climate is unhealthy. The malaria is always in an epidemic form.

4. Developed means of transporUition. With development of mans of transportation the business makes rapid progresS and the density of population increases. The reason for high density of population in Ui., Biliar and West Bengal is the development of means of trahsportation.

5. Industrial development. At places whëre the faetones are located, thë density’ of population also increases. The reason is that people like to live in those areas where industrial development takes place. They can carry on tliei1 bushis mo easily in such areas, and they have better chances of earning more money. That iš why the density of population is high in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

Population PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Manpower – A human resource.
• Total Population of India – 126 crores
The second-largest populated country of the world.
• Average density of population (2011) – 382 persons per sq. km.
• The State with highest density of population – Bihar (1102 persons per km2.)
• The State with the lowest denstiy of the population – Arunachal Pradesh (17 persons per km2.)
• The union territory with the highest density of population. – Delhi. (11297 persons per sq. km.)
• The state having largest population-U.P. (199581477 persons).
• Rate of growth of population during 2001-2010 – 17.7%.
• The State with highest rate of growth of population – Meghalaya (27.8%).
• The State with lowest rate of growth of population – Kerala (4.9%).

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 7 Population Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Minerals and Power Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions objectively:

Question 1.
Name the important minerals.
Iron ore, manganese, coal, limestone, bauxite are the main minerals of India.

Question 2.
What are the uses of Manganese?
Manganese is used in steel making and strengthening steel.

Question 3.
What is the position of India amongst the manganese ore producing countries of the world?
India ranks fourth in the world after Brazil, South America and Russia.

Question 4.
Name the position of India amongst the mica producing countries in the world.
First position.

Question 5.
Name the state that produces more than half of the total production of Mica.
Bihar.

Question 6.
Name the industries in which Mica is used as a raw material.
It is used in electrical goods industries.

Question 7.
Which mineral is obtained from Bauxite ore?
Aluminium.

Question 8.
What are the uses of Copper?
Or
Cite any two uses of copper.
Copper is used for making utensils. It is used in electric goods industries because it is a good conductor of heat.

Question 9.
Name the place and state where maximum gold is produced.
Kolar (Karnataka).

Question 10.
In which industry is the limestone used to the maximum?
In cement industry.

Question 11.
What is the place of India in coal production in the world?
India ranks third after China and U.S.A.

Question 12.
What is the percentage of coal reserves found in Damodar Valley?
About three fourth of the total reserves.

Question 13.
Which organisation controls the management of coal production?
Coal India Limited (CIL).

Question 14.
Name the four major atomic energy-producing centres.

1. Tarapur-Along the border of Maharashtra, Gujarat.
2. Rawat Bhata-Near Kota in Rajasthan.
4. Narora-Near Buland Shahar (U.P.)

Question 15.
What is Wind Energy?
The energy produced by windmills and the power of the wind is called wind energy.

Question 16.
Which material is extracted from Bai^adila Mines?
Iron ore.

Question 17.
Which mineral is extracted from Kolar Mines?
Gold.

Question 18.
What is the other name given to Lignite?
Brown coal.

Question 19.
For which work is the ship ‘Sagar Samrat’ used?
Sagar Samrat is a mobile drilling platform bought from Japan. It is used for exploring oilfields in coastal areas like Bombay High.

Question 20.
Which energy is derived from Uranium?
The atomic energy power source is obtained from Uranium.

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Describe the role of minerals in the National Economy.
Minerals have an important part to play in the Indian Economy.

1. There are great possibilities of industrial development due to minerals. Coal and Iron with large reserves form the basis of the machine age.
2. Mining provides income to states.
3. Mining provides employment to millions.

Question 2.
Name the Manganese producing states of India.
Orissa is the largest producer of Manganese in India. After Orissa, M.P., Maharashtra and Karnataka are the main producers. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa and Bihar also produce Manganese. Orissa has the main mines at Keonjhar, Kalahandi and Mayur Bhanj. Madhya Pradesh has mines at Bala Ghat, Chindwara and Jabalpur.

Question 3.
Name the major Bauxite producing centres.
Bauxite deposits are found in many areas of India. Jharkhand, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh are the main producers of Bauxite. Good quality Bauxite is mined in Kolhapur district (Maharashtra).

During the last few years, the Bauxite deposits of Orissa have been developed. The largest aluminium plant of Asia (with a capacity of 8 lakh tonnes alumina and 2.25 lakh tonnes aluminium) has been set up in this state.

Question 4.
Name the copper-producing centres in India
Most of the copper of India is mined in Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Balaghat (M.P.), Alwar, Jhunjhnu (Rajasthan). Khaman in Andhra Pradesh, Chitrakoot and Hassan in Karnataka and Sikkim also produce some copper.

Question 5.
What are the causes of the non-availability of minerals in Punjab?
Most of Punjab is made up of alluvial soils. It is a flat low land area suitable for agriculture. Minerals were formed in ancient periods in the areas of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. Therefore, minerals are not found in alluvial soils of Punjab.

Question 6.
Name the coal-producing centres in India.
Three fourth of coal reserves are found in the Damodar Valley. Raniganj, Jharia, Gridihi, Bokaro arrd Karanpura are major coalfields in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar states. Coal is also mined in Singarauli, Suhagpur and Raigarh in Chhattisgarh. Singareni (Andhra Pradesh), Talcher (Orissa) and Chouda (Maharashtra) are other coal fields.

Question 7.
Name the main coal-producing centres in Orissa.
Three fourth of coal reserves are found in the Damodar Valley. Raniganj, Jharia, Gridihi, Bokare arrd Karanpura are major coal fields in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar states. Coal is also mined in Singarauli, Suhagpur and Raigarh in Chhattisgarh. Singareni (Andhra Pradesh), Talcher (Orissa) and Chouda (Maharashtra) are other coal fields.

Question 8.
What were the causes of Nationalisation of coal production?
The main aims of the Nationalisation of coal industry were’:

1. To protect labourers.
2. Planned mining.
3. To preserve the environment.

Question 9.
Name the non-conventional Sources of Energy.
Non-conventional sources are:

• Solar power
• Wind power
• Tidal power
• Geothermal power
• Trees
• Urban Waste.
• Power from organic material.

Question 10.
Describe the importance of wind energy in India.
Wind power is an unlimited and less expensive source of power. New industries can be set up in isolated areas.

Uses:

• Irrigation in rural areas.
• Electricity is generated by windmills and is included in the grid system.

Question 11.
What is the role of Indian Government in mining industry?
The government provides guidelines in mining. Laws are made according to Mineral Act 1957. The government provides “licences and contracts for mining. The government takes steps for development of mining and changes the rules regarding old contracts.

Question 12.
Iron ore is mined in Jabalpur and Balaghat districts. Modern techniques are used in Bailadila Mines (Bastar). Iron ore is exported to Japan.

Question 13.
Name all the institutes associated with exploration, refinement and regional distribution of oil.
The organisations are:

• Oil and Natural Gas Commission (O.N.G.C.)
• Oil India Limited (O.I.L.)
• Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (H.P.C.)
• Gas Authority of India Limited (G.A.I.L.).

Question 14.
Why is solar energy said to be a future energy reserve?
Coal and oil are exhaustible sources of power. These will not last long. On the other hand solar power is an inexhaustible source of power.

It provides unlimited power, when oil and coal will be exhausted, solar power will be used.

Question 15.
What is the importance of natural gas in manure industry?
Natural gas is a raw material for fertiliser industry. It helps to increase agriculture production. It is transported to factories through pipe-lines. 1730 K.M. long HBJ gas pipe-lines provide natural gas to 6 fertiliser factories.

Question 16.
What are the problems faced in the regional distribution of Hydroelectric energy in India?
The main problems are:

1. The consumer centres are situated away from bower generating centres. It becomes expensive to layout grid system.
2. Some part of electricity is lost on the way.
3. Due to some fault in the grid system electricity supply is stopped.

Question 17.
Describe in brief the importance of mineral reserves in India.
India is rich in mineral wealth.

• India is especially rich in Iron ore. Iron and coal are the bases of the machine age. India had 1/4th reserves of Iron ore of the world. India has rich reserves as well as good quality iron ore.
• India has rich reserves of Manganese which is useful for alloy steel.
• India has huge reserves of coal. But coking coal reserves are low. Coal and Iron ore are found adjacent to each other which makes up the deficiency of coking coal.
• Limestone is widely found in India.
• India is rich in Bauxite (used for aluminium) and Mica (used for electrical goods).

Question 18.
Describe the main iron ore producing centres of India.
India has huge iron ore reserves. It is of good quality, namely Haematite and Magnetite iron ore. This has 60 to 70% iron ore content. So it has a great demand in the international market.

Areas: Iron ore is found in many areas. India has, an iron ore reserve of 1757 crore tonnes. One-half of the reserves are found in Singhbhum (Jharkhand) and Keonjhar,

Bonai, Mayurbhanj (Orissa). This is the largest iron ore belt of the world. It is also found in Bihar, Chhattisgarh. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka states.

Question 19.
Describe efforts made in the field of exploration and refinement of oil in India after independence.
Potential oil-bearing area extends over 10 lakh 700 km. in India ; (almost 1/3rd of area of the country). It includes the Ganges-Brahmputra plain, coastal belts, Gujarat plains, Thar Desert and Andaman Nicobar inlands.

Position at the time of Independence. At the time of independence, oil was found only in Assam. Oil refinery was set up at Digboi. It was a small oilfield. But it worked for about 100 years.

Oil-exploration after the independence. Oil exploration was started to meet the growing demand. Oil and natural gas was discovered in off-shore regions of Gujarat and Gulf of Cambay. Oil was found at Bombay (Mumbai) High at a distance of 115 kms from Mumbai coast. At present, it is the largest oilfield of India. A mobile drilling platform ‘Sagar Samrat’ from Japan was used to explore oil. India extended this oil region. New oilfields have been discovered in off-shore regions of deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery. New oil reserves have been found in Assam.

Question 20.
Describe the development in the electrification process in villages after independence.
Special attention was paid to the rural electrification after independence. Schemes were launched jointly by States and Electricity Boards. More than 5 lakh villages were electrified till 2000. 98 lakh tube-wells were installed. About 84% of villages were electrified. In Punjab all the villages have been electrified. To supply electricity in areas of scheduled castes and tribes, priority is being given. It will provide a multipurpose development of the villages.

Question 21.
Write in detail about the ‘Power-village Scheme’.

• Power-village Scheme’ has been started by Govt, of India with the aim of providing power to inaccessible rural areas.
• It includes the setting up of Gobar gas plants with the help of organic materials, Gobar, by-products of human waste.
• It is being set up at individual, collective and village level.
• Bio-gas plants in urban areas are run on the human waste.
• In recent years Power-village scheme has been completed in 184 villages. Besides, 222 villages have this scheme at different stages.
• A survey of Power in 1680 villages has been completed and a survey of 344 villages is being conducted.

Question 22.
Write about a programme of Smokeless stoves being planned at the national level (Pb. 2004, 10)
A special programme of Smokeless Chullahas is being set up at national level. Its main aim is to save fuel and remove the problem of wood-collection by rural women.

Power is mostly used in kitchen. Cow dung and wood is used as fuel. The traditional chullahas consume more fuel and emit more smoke. So this scheme was started in ) December 1983. A smokeless chullah can save 700 kg fuel per year. It saves 20 to 35% fuel-wood. 2.85 crore Smokeless Chullahas had been set up till March 1998. These pollution free chullahas have a bright future.

Question 23.
Describe Solar energy as an inexhaustible source of energy. Which parts of the country can make maximum utilization of solar energy?
Solar energy is an unlimited and inexhaustible source of power. It is widely used and has a bright future. Solar energy can be used at a low cost, for water heating, cooking, heating the rooms, making the water lighter and drying up of crops. An area of 2.80 lakh sq. km had been marked as a potential area for the use of Solar energy till March 1993. About 5 lakh Solar cookers had been sold till March 1998.

Potential Areas. The more potential area for the use of Solar energies is Rajasthan. This state gets Solar Heat throughout the year. This energy can be supplied to scattered villages without any problem. It is the source of power for the future.

Question 24.
Write a short note on the progress made in the generation of Hydro¬electricity.
Hydel power is a major source of Power. In 1988-89, the total installed capacity of electric power was 4 crore kW in the country. It was twice the developed water power. In 1999-2000, the developed electric power was 97.8 thousand MW units. Besides this 23.8 thousand MW units of water power and 2.7 thousand MW units of atomic power were developed; showing an increase every year.

Electric power houses are widely scattered in the country. The developed power forms a grid. It saves the loss of power. A National Electric Grid is being formed. The power is developed from all the sources. Coal, Gas, oil, water and atomic power will be integrated into a grid.

Question 25.
Describe the peaceful utilisation of atomic energy in India. Also write about the related international pressures due to this.
Atomic energy is destructive, but India is using it for peaceful purposes. Atomic energy stations can be set up in areas deficient of other sources, or where these sources cannot meet the demands. India is trying its use. in peaceful purposes like agriculture and medicines.

The rich countries do not want its successful working in developing countries like India. So these countries want an international contro^over its working. So these countries want India to sign an international treaty. India’s argument against it is that it is a discriminating treaty that obstructs the peaceful use of atomic energy in India. Pressure is being mounted on India. India has to face difficulties to get the instruments required for it. The scientists are trying to find substitutes. India achieved a major success when Nuclear Reactor at Rawa Bhata (Rajasthan) was repaired with indigenous techniques. It saves a lot of foreign exchange and Nuclear technology receives a great boost. It is a matter of pride for India.

III. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Describe in detail the main problems which are being faced with the increase in coal production.
Coal is the major source of power for industries. It is important for iron and steel, and chemical Industries. India has huge reserves of coal. 3/4th of coal reserves are located in Damodar valley. Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have also coal fields.

Nationalisation of coal fields. After independence, coal industry has been nationalised. Its main aim is to protect the coal labourers from injustice.

Importance of coal. Light brown coal is of great importance for India. It has been useful for producing electricity and gas. Oil can be obtained from it. Mini thermal plants have been set up near coal fields. The electricity produced thus is connected with national electric grid. It saves time and expenditure both.

Production. In 1951, coal production was 3.5 crore tonnes. Now it has increased to 333.58 million tonnes.

Problems:

• There is shortage of high grade coal.
• Fire accidents have taken the lives of several labourers.
• Coal fields are found at great depth. Its mining is expensive.
• The technical development of coal production is slow.

Question 2.
Describe about the progress made by India in development of atomic energy.
Thermal power is produced with the use of coal, petroleum and natural gas. These sources are called fossil fuels. These cannot be re-used. Besides these, Atomic fuel and Heavy water is used to generate electricity. Thus, electricity is generated as Hydel power, Thermal power and atomic power. Electricity is used in Agriculture, Industries, transformation and domestic purposes. It is impossible to imagine life without electricity.

In 1999-2000, the total production of electricity was 897.8 thousand MW. It included 74.9% as thermal power, 23.5% a Hydel power and 1.60% as atomic power. The share of thermal power has increased rapidly. The installed capacity was 81.8 thousand MW in 1994-95. During eighth five year plan (1992-97), the target was to increase it by 30,858 MW. But during the first four years only 14,799 MW Or 48% has been increased. Thus there is a great difference in potential and developed power in India.

Question 3.
Write about the importance and development of non conventional sources of energy.
Non-conventional sources of energy. Today non-conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geothermal heat, biogas, farm and animal waste including human excreta. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible. They are inexpensive in nature.

These sources include the following:
1. Wind energy. It can be used for pumping water. It is used in irrigating farms in the countryside. Also, it can be used for generating electricity. It is estimated that wdnd alone can provide 2000 MW of electricity. The states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Orissa are better placed in regard to this energy. Areas with constant and high speed winds are suitable for the purpose.

2. Tidal energy. This is another inexhaustible and inexpensive source of energy. The Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay are ideally suited to develop electricity from the energy produced by high tides entering into narrow creeks.

3. Geo-thermal energy. India is not rich in this source. However, efforts are being made to utilize natural energy of the hot springs at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh. Energy so produced can be used for running cold storage plants.

4. Energy from urban waste. A pilot plant for demonstration purposes had already been set up in Delhi to treat solid municipal waste for conversion into energy. It produces nearly 4 MW energy every jmar. Sewage in cities is used for generating gas and electricity.

5. Biogas based power plants. Biogas, farm wastes, rice husk are being used to produce electricity.

6. Farm animal and human wastes (Urja Gram). By using biogas, animal, poultry wastes and human excreta, gobar gas plants are being set up in villages. The power so produced is used for cooking, lighting homes and streets and meeting irrigation needs of the village. The plants are being set up both at individual and community or village levels. Nearly 3 million smokeless chullahas are in operation. This saves nearly 2 million tonnes of firewood.

7. Solar Energy. It is the most abundant, cheapest and inexhaustible source of energy produced from sunlight. Solar cookers are used in cooking food. Solar power is being used for cooking, water heating, water desalination, space heating, crop drying. Solar energy is going to be the energy of the future.

Question 4.
What is the importance of electricity in the industrialisation of country?
Or
Explain the role of energy in the industrialization of the country.
Electricity is important for the development of industries in India.

• Industries are run with the help of machines that use electricity.
• Electricity is generated from coal, water and atomic energy.
• Some power is obtained from non-conventional sources.
• Coal is a raw material also which is used in Iron and Steel industry.
• Coal and lignite provide more than 60 per cent of the needs of our country.
• The exploitation of oil has increased in industries.
• Natural gas is used in fertilizer industry.

IV. Show/Mark the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Iron-ore producing areas
(iii) Manganese producing areas
(iii) Coal producing areas
(iv) Centres of Atomic energy
(v) Iron producing areas of Damodar Valley
(vi) Four major reserves of Bauxite
(vii) Gold producing areas in Koiar
(viii) Lignite coal-producing areas

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Minerals and Power Resources Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line:

Question 1.
Which is the hardest mineral?
Diamond.

Question 2.
Name one example of a ferrous mineral.
Iron.

Question 3.
Name two Non-ferrous minerals.
Bauxite, Copper.

Question 4.
Which is the best quality iron ore?
Magnetite.

Question 5.
Name a mineral in which India is deficient.
Copper.

Question 6.
Name the largest iron ore producing state.
Jharkhand.

Question 7.
Name an industry in which limestone is used.
Cement.

Question 8.
Name a conventional source of energy.
Coal.

Question 9.
Name the best quality coal.
Anthracite.

Question 10.
Where is lignite coal found?
Neyvelli.

Question 11.
Name an offshore oilfield.
Mumbai High.

Question 12.
Name a nuclear power station in Tamil Nadu.
Kalpakkam.

Question 13.
Name a solar plant in India.

Question 14.
Why have the minerals become more important in Modern age?
Due to scientific research and technological development.

Question 15.
How can you say that India is rich in basic minerals?
India is rich in Manganese ore to make the best quality of steel. India is also rich in Bauxite and Mica.

Question 16.
How is the distribution of minerals unequal in India?
North Eastern plateau of India is considered as one of the rich mineral areas of the world, others have no minerals.

Question 17.
Why is North Eastern plateau considered as a gift in the industrial development?
Good quality of iron ore is found in North Eastern plateau.

Question 18.
In which two states of India iron ore is found? Name one mine of these two states.
Iron ore is found in the states of Bihar and Orissa in India. Iron ore is mined at Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Keonjhar in Orissa.

Question 19.
Which four ports export Iron ore? Which country is the main importer of our iron ore?
The four ports exporting iron ore are—Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Goa and Paradip.

Question 20.
Name any two districts of Jharkhand where iron ore is found.
Iron ore is found in the districts of Raigarh and Bilaspur in Jharkhand.

Question 21.
Name four mines of Manganese ore in Orissa.
The four mines of Manganese ore situated in Orissa are Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj and Talchir.

Question 22.
In which state of India Mica is mostly found? Name two other mica producing states.
Mica is mostly found in the state of Jharkhand in India. The other two mica producing states are Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Question 23.
Name two main Bauxite producing states.
The two main bauxite producing states are Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Question 24.
In which state copper is mainly found? Name two mines situated there.
Copper is mainly found in Jharkhand. Its two mines are situated at Singhbhum and Hazaribagh.

Question 25.
Name four main coal mines of India.
The four main coal mines of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih and Bokaro.

Question 26.
Which was main oil producing state in India before independence? In which other states oil is mined in modern times?
Assam was the main oil producing state in India before independence. Gujarat and (Bombay High) Maharashtra are other states in which oil is mined.

Question 27.
Name the atomic minerals found in India. In which states are they found? ‘
Uranium is found in Bihar. Beryllium is found in Rajasthan. There is a huge reserve of mineral (Thorium) sand along the coast of Kerala.

Question 28.
Which atomic centres are w orking today in India.? Which is the oldest one?
Tarapur, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kalpakkam.

Question 29.
How many atomic energy centres are there in India?
As per 2016, India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation at seven cities.

Question 30.
Which is the oldest Atomic Power Centre in India?
Tarapur Atomic PowTer Station. (T.A.P.S.)

Question 31.
For which two peaceful purposes is atomic energy used in India? For which purpose it may be used in the future?
India is using atomic energy for making medicines and improving the quality of seeds. It may be used for making water reservoirs, changing the course of rivers and developing mineral wealth.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Khetri is famous for________
cooper

Question 2.
Singhbhum is famous for__________
iron ore

Question 3.
Oil is drilled at __________
Digboi

Question 4.
Kalpakkam

Question 5.
Iron is a __________ mineral.
ferrous

Question 6.
Hirakud dam is___________metre long and__________metre high.
48,00 metres, 61 metres

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which is the hardest mineral?
(a) Diamond
(b) Granite
(c) Basalt
(d) Galbro.
(a) Diamond

Question 2.
Which is a ferrous mineral?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Iron
(c) Mica
(d) Coal.
(b) Iron

Question 3.
Which mine is famous for copper?
(a) Bastar
(b) Khetri
(c) Nellore
(d) Jharia.
(b) Khetri

Question 4.
Gold is mined at
(a) Shimoga
(c) Koiar
(d) Bellary.
(c) Koiar

Question 5.
Jharia is famous for:
(a) Oil
(b) Coal
(c) Gas
(d) Atomic energy.
(b) Coal

True /False:

Question 1.
T.A.P.S. was the first commercial nuclear power station built in India.
True.

Question 2.
Limestone is an example of metallic mineral.
False

Question 3.
Anthracite is the best quality coal.
True.

Question 4.
False

Question 5.
True.

Question 1.
Write a note on the production and distribution of iron ore.
India has about 25% of the iron ore reserves in the world. According to one estimate, India has 2,100 crore tons of iron ore reserves.

Production. The output of iron ore in India has greatly increased during the past few years. In 1957 India produced only 40 lakh tonnes of iron ore but in 2011-12 the output touched 90 Million tonnes.

Distribution. The maximum quantity of iron ore (40%) in India is mined in Orissa. Jharkhand is the second-largest producer of iron ore. The other important iron ore producing areas are Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Question 2.
Name the four important mineral regions of India and also give the names of important minerals found in each region.
Four important mineral regions of India are given below:

1. Chhota Nagpur in Bihar and Northern Orissa. It is a very well developed mineral region. Iron and coal are found in this region.
2. There are vast reserves of minerals in central Rajasthan. This region is being developed. Copper, lead, zinc and mica are found in this region.
3. Southern India is very important for minerals. Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are included in this region. Iron ore and lignite are found in this region.
4. This region consists of southern Madhya Pradesh and eastern Maharashtra. Iron ore and manganese are found in this region.

Question 3.
What are the advantages of hydroelectricity over other sources of energy?
There are four main sources of energy—coal, petroleum, hydroelectricity and atomic energy. Hydroelectricity has special importance as source of energy. It has the following advantages:

1. Coal and petroleum deposits will be exhausted sooner or later but the rivers will continue flowing for thousands of years and so long as the rivers flow there will be no dearth of hydroelectricity.
2. While producing hydroelectricity water is not lost. Hydroelectricity is produced by moving turbines with the help of fast-flowing water. The water is afterwards used for irrigation.
3. It is not easy to transport coal or petroleum from one place to another and it costs a lot but hydroelectricity can be taken hundreds of kilometres away by wires only.
4. Hydroelectricity is cheaper than coal or petroleum.

Question 1.
What is the importance of iron in modern age? Give a detailed account of the production of iron ore in different parts of India. Also describe the total production and reserves of iron ore in our country.
Iron has great importance in the modern age. It is the foundation stone of industry. There cannot be any economic progress in any country without iron. All the machinery used in the factories is made of iron. It is used for making railways, aeroplanes and ships. Iron has more strength as compared to other metals and it is also cheaper.

Regional distribution. Iron in India is found in the regions given below:

1. Orissa. The largest quantity of iron ore in India ns produced in Orissa. The chief
districts producing iron ore in this state are Mayurbhunj, Bonai, Sambalpur and Cuttack, Gurumathasani, Badampahar and Sulaipet are the chief iron ore mines in this state.
2. Jharkhand and Bihar. Jharkhand and Bihar are the second most important iron producers in India. The highest amount of iron ore is produced in Singhbhum, Hazaribagh and Shahabad districts.
3. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These two states have the third position as producer of iron ore. The ore is mainly produced in the districts of Jabalpur, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Durg and Balaghat.
4. Karnataka. Karnataka is the 4th important producer of iron ore in India. Cudoor
district is well-known for production of iron ore in this state. The iron ore is mined at Kamengudi in Baba Budhan hills. Iron is also mined in Sindur and Sheetal Durg districts.

Production. There has been a great increase in the production of iron ore during the last few years. In 1956, India produced only 40 lakh tonnes of iron ore but in 2011-12 India produced 900 lakh tonnes of iron ore. In terms of money, it will come to 95 crores of rupees.

Reserves. There are 2,100 crore tonnes of iron ore reserves in India. This is about 25% of the iron ore reserves in the world.

Question 2.
Describe the mineral wealth and power resources of India.
Or
Where are the following minerals found in India? What is their importance? — Coal, Iron, Manganese, Bauxite, Mineral oil, Copper and Mica.
Mineral wealth has great importance for every country. No country can run its industry without mineral wealth. India is fairly rich in mineral wealth. The following minerals are the chief minerals found in India.

1. Coal. Coal is an important mineral. It is a big source of energy. Most of the coal in the country is used in Industry. Main coal mines are situated in Bihar. Besides, there are coal mines at Jharia and Raniganj. In 2010-11, India produced 333.58 million tonnes of coal. India exports a small quantity of coal.

2. Iron. Iron is considered as foundation of industrialisation. There are huge deposits of iron in India. The chief mines of iron ore are in Singhbhum (Bihar), Mayurbhunj, Keonjhar, Bonai (Orissa) and Salem (Tamil Nadu). Iron is also found in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. India exports some of its iron ore to Japan. This iron ore deposits of India are estimated to be 78,000 lakh tonnes. India can depend on its iron ore deposits for a long time to come. In 2010-11 India produced 90 million tonnes of iron ore.

3. Manganese. India is the third largest producer of manganese in the world. India produces about 20% of the world production of manganese.Russia and Brazil lead the world in the production of manganese. In India the chief producers of manganese are Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Bihar. Manganese is used for making steel from iron but this industry is not fully developed and India exports a large quantity of manganese. The manganese in India is of high quality. It is exported to U.S.A. and U.K.

4. Mica. Mica is a costly mineral. It is used in the manufacture of gases and electrical goods. India is the largest producer of mica in the world. It produces about 75% of the world output of mica. It is mainly produced in Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. A small quantity of mica is also produced in Rajasthan. India exports mica to Britain, France, U.S.A., Japan, Italy, Canada-and Australia.

5. Bauxite. It is used for making aluminium. Aluminium is used for making railway coaches, buses, aeroplanes, electrical goods, utensils, paints etc. It is also used for refining petroleum, making cement and many other chemical products. India is self-sufficient in the productionof bauxite. Bauxite in India is produced in Bihar, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Jammu and Kashmir states.

6. Mineral Oil. Mineral oil is very important in the modern age. It is not only a source of energy but also a raw material for many industrial products. Petroleum is used for running trains, buses, ships, aeroplanes etc. When mineral oil is refined it leaves behind many type of products like wax, mobil oil, grease, etc. Most of the mineral oil in India is produced in Assam. The chief centres of oil production in Assam are Makum, Digboi, Nihar Khatia and Badurpur. Oil is also produced near Ankleshwar in Gujarat and Bwibay High near Mumbai sea coast. The production of oil in India is much less than its requirements hence India has to import petroleum from other countries. India produces only 20% of her oil requirements.

Minerals and Power Resources PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Minerals (Types of Minerals) – Natural chemical compounds.
• Metallic – Ferrous: Iron ore, manganese, chromite, tungsten, nickel and cobalt.
Non-Ferrous: Gold, sihrer, copper, lead, bauxite and magnesium.
• Non-metallic – Limestone, nitrate, dolomite, potash, gypsum.
• Mineral Fuels – Coal, petroleum and gas.
• Iron ore – Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Goa are the main producers.
• Manganese (Second in world reserves) – Orissa is the major producer of Manganese. Karnataka, M.P., Maharashtra and Goa are other states.
• Mica – India leads the world with 60% of world production.
• Bauxite (Source of aluminium) – Jharkhand, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and M.P. are main producers.
• Conservation – Reduction of wastage in mining, Less exports, Substitutes, Recycling.
• Conventional Sources of Energy – Thermal coal, petroleum and gas 70.6%, Hydro 25.5%, Nuclear 2.6%, Wind 1.3%.
• Power Generation – 1400 MW in 1947; 1,02,000 MW in 2011. capacity
• Coal – Per capita consumption 400 kg in 2011.
• Petroleum – Estimated
Reserves: 4000 million tonnes,
Production: 33 million tonnes (63% Mumbai High, 18% Gujarat, 16% Assam).
• Natural Gas – Consumption: 23 billion cubic metres
Recoverable Reserves: 700 bIllion cubic metres
Production: 27,860 million cubic metres per year.
• Electricity – Installed capacity : 1,04,917 MW
Per capita consumption: 379 KW (lowest in the world).
• Non-conventional sources – 95000 MW – (Solar, wind, biogas.)

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Land Utilization and Agriculture

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Land Utilization and Agriculture Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions objectively:

Question 1.
Name the crops which are sown in Kharif season.
The crops sown in the Kharif season are-Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Groundnut, Jute and Cotton.

Question 2.
WTiich are the crops sown in Rabi season?
Wheat, barley, grams, mustard and rapeseed etc, are grown in Rabi season.

Question 3.
What is difference between Green Manure and Fertilizer?
Fertilizers and Manures. Fertilizers are chemically prepared but manures include gobar and green plants.

Question 4.
What are Milch Cattle?
The cattle which provide milk are called Milch cattle. Cows and buffaloes are milch cattle.

Question 5.
What is Fallow Land?
Fallow Land is a piece of land in which only one crop is grown during a period of two or three years.

Question 6.
What is the percentage area of our country under forests?
23.3% area of country is under the forests.

Question 7.
How much area should be under the forests from the scientific point of view?
According to scientific point of view, 33% of land of a country should be under forests.

Question 8.
How much percentage area in Punjab is under forest?
5.7% area is under forest in Punjab.

Question 9.
How much percentage of land is under agriculture in India?
50% of land of India is arable.

Question 10.
Whch is the largest wheat producing state of our country?
Uttar Pradesh is the largest wheat producing state of India.

Question 11.
Which state of our country contributes largest amount of wheat to the central pool?
Punjab has the largest contribution of wheat to the public distribution system in India.

Question 12.
What are the causes of decreasing pasture lands?
The area under pastures is brought under cultivation to meet the needs of growing population of the country.

Question 13.
In the year 2001 how much food was available per person per year in India?
458 grams was available per person per year in India in 2001.

Question 14.
Name the state that produces largest amount of Rice.
West Bengal is the largest rice producing state in India.

Question 15.
What is the rank of Punjab in terms of per hectare production of wheat?
Punjab ranks first in India as regards yield per hectare of wheat.

Question 16.
What is the rank of India in terms of producing pulses in world?
India gets first position in the world in the production of pulses.

Question 17.
After the green revolution, what type of change occurred in production?
Pulses were sown in 9.3 lakh hectare land in Punjab before green revolution. After green revolution this area has reduced and left 95 thousand hectares.

Question 18.
At the end of 21st century how much foodgrains would be required for the Indian population?
40 crore tonnes of foodgrains would be required for the population of India at the end of 21st century (Almost 160 to 170 crores of population).

Question 19.
Write down any three problems of the present Indian agriculture.

1. Huge pressure of population on land.
2. Unequal distribution of cultivated land.
3. Uneducated farmers.

Question 20.
What is the rank of India in the world in the production of sugarcane?
India has the fifth position in the world in the production of sugarcane.

Question 21.
Name the crops of oil seeds.
Oil seeds are – Groundnut, Mustard and Rape Seed,-Sunflower, Cotton seeds, Coconut etc. We get oil from these.

Question 22.
Name any two states which produce maximum amount of groundnuts.
Gujarat and Maharashtra are two largest groundnut producing states.

Question 23.
In which decade the area under oil seeds production had increased the most?
In the decade of 1980 to 1990, India obtained the maximum increase in the production of oil seeds.

Question 24.
Which are the main cotton producing states of our country?
The main cotton producing states of India are:

Question 25.
What is the per hectare production of cotton in our country?
249 kilograms per hectare is the average yield of cotton.

Question 26.
Which are the main potato producing states of India?
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar and Punjab are the main potato producing states.

Question 27.
Name the main potato producing districts of Punjab.
Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Patiala and Ludhiana are the main potato producing districts of Punjab.

Question 28.
What is the rank of Punjab in our country in respect of cattle wealth?
Punjab gets 13th position in India as regards to cattle wealth.

Question 29.
Which part of the country amounts the highest cattle wealth?
Uttar Pradesh has the largest cattle resources in India.

Question 30.
What is the rank of India in the world in respect of fruit and vegetables?
India gets second position in world in the production of fruit and vegetables.

Question 31.
Where does India rank in the world in production of cashewnuts?
India gets first position in the world in the production of cashewnuts.

Question 32.
Name the apple producing states.
Jammu-Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are the main apple producing states.

II. Answer the following Questions in short:

Question 1.
Why is the agriculture called the basic mainstay of Economic system?
Agriculture is the basis of Indian Economy. Agriculture contributes only 33.7% of National Production, still it is important.

1. Two-thirds of our population gets livelihood from agriculture.
2. Agriculture sector provides employment to two-third labourers of the country.
3. Most of the industries get raw material from agriculture.
4. The fact is that the industrial structure has been built on the foundations of Agriculture.

Question 2.
What are the main features of Green Revolution?
Green revolution encourages mechanised agriculture and it increases the total production. Ploughing, planting the seeds and harvesting is done by machines. Fertilizers and better seeds are used.

Question 3.
Which items are included in agriculture side?
Agriculture includes livestock farming, fisheries, forestry, sericulture, bee hiving, poultry farming etc.

Question 4.
What is the difference between milch cattle and working load animals?
Dairy cattle and draught cattle Cows and buffaloes are dairy cattle. These provide milk to us. Bullocks and oxen are draught cattle. These help in ploughing, sowing, harvesting and transportation of agricultural products.

Question 5.
What is the difference between current fallow land and old fallow land?
Current Fallow Land and Old Fallow Land
Fallow lands are marginal lands which are left free for only one year. Crops are not grown. After one year, these lands are again cultivated. It is called current fallow land. The remaining fallow land is called old fallow land which is never cultivated.

Question 6.
What climatic conditions are required for the wheat cultivation?
Wheat is an important foodgrain.
Geographical conditions. The following geographical conditions are suitable for wheat cultivation:

• Wheat requires lower temperature during the growing period and high temperature at the harvesting period. At the sowing time temperature should be about 15°C to 20°C and at the time of ripening the temperature should be between 20°C and 25°C.
• Wheat can be grown in areas of moderate rainfall. 50 to 75 centimeters rainfall is quite suitable for its cultivation. The rain should be well distributed
• The soil should be fertile. Loamy soil is very suitable for wheat cultivation.
• The land should be even for the convenience of irrigation.

Production. India occupies fourth position as a producer of wheat in the world.
Green revolution has brought many changes. In 1960-61 wheat production was 1.6 crore tonnes. In 2011-12 it increased to 8.5 crore tonnes.

Wheat Producing States. Although wheat is cultivated in almost every part of the country except the southern part of the Indian peninsula, it is essentially a crop of North India. Uttar Pradesh produces highest quantity of wheat in India. Punjab occupies the second position as a producer of wheat in India. Haryana is also an important producer of wheat.

The states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra also grow some wheat.

Question 7.
Name the main paddy growing areas of our country.
The following are the main rice producing areas of India:
Areas of Heavy Rainfall: Delta regions of East and West coastal plain. The plains and lower hills of N.E. India, lower slopes of the Himalayas; West Bengal, Bihar, Eastern U.P., Chhattisgarh; Northern Andhra Pradesh. Areas of Low Rainfall: Western U.P., Haryana, Punjab, and adjoining districts of Rajasthan.

Question 8.
Discuss the required condition for the production of Sugar Cane.
Required condition for the production of Sugar Cane:
(а) Sugarcane requires well-drained fertile soil.
(b) It also needs large amount of chemical fertilizers and organic manure.
(c) Hot and humid climate is favourable for its higher yields.
(d) It grows well in areas with about 100 cm of rainfall.

Question 9.
What are the main uses of forests?
Forests are a valuable resource. Following are the advantages of forests:
(a) Forests are helpful in maintaining ecological balance and natural Eco-system.
(b) Forests supply timber and fuel. It is used for making furniture, packing boxes, boats etc. and is used for buildings.
(c) Soft wood is used for preparing wood-pulp which has a large demand for paper
industry.
(d) We obtain lac, cane, gum, medicinal herbs from forests.
(e) We get fodder for cattle from forests.

Question 10.
Why is Indian agriculture known as ‘Subsistence Agriculture’?
Most of land holdings in India are of small size. Large amount of capital and labour is applied on small farms, but economic benefit is small. Small farmers have to hire agricultural implements and tubewell water for irrigation. They have to purchase costly fertilizers from the market. It results in a small net savings. Therefore Indian agriculture is called Subsistence Agriculture.

Question 11.
Why some people call green revolution as ‘wheat revolution’?
Or
May green revolution be termed as wheat revolution only. How?
Total production of wheat in 1960-61 was 1 crore 10 lakh tonnes. But due to green revolution it increased five times in 1993-94. Due to the enormous increase in wheat production, sometimes it is called wheat revolution,

Question 12.
Explain the efforts made for the development of animal wealth.
Many attempts have been made by Central govt, and state govts, for the development of livestock farming in India.

Special attempts have been made to improve their breed, to protect them from different diseases, to control their diseases; and provide market facilities. At least one veterinary hospital has been started in each block. At village level, the health centres for livestock have been opened. In 1992-93, such health centres were more than 22,000. Besides this, 26 cattle injection centres in public and private sectors had been opened.

Question 13.
What are the reasons that are responsible for the increase in land use under non-agricultural purposes?
There are two reasons for the increasing use of land for non-agricultural purposes growing population and economic development. The urban and rural areas are increasing in size due to growing population. Due to increase in economic development large area is being used for canals, roads, industries and irrigation projects.

Question 14.
Write in brief about the importance of forests.
Forests are important in our daily life in the following ways:

• These maintain ecological balance.
• Trees absorb carbon dioxide and control the increase in temperature.
• Forests are the home of wild animals. These protect them.
• Forests increase the rainfall and droughts do not occur,
• Forests preserve water resources and control floods in rivers.

Question 15.
What effect incurred after independence on the requirement of foodgrains per head?
After independence, many steps have been taken to develop agriculture. As a result, the production of foodgrains has increased. From 1950-51 to 1994-95, production of rice has increased four times and production of wheat has increased ten times. It has affected food for persons. In 1950 the availability of foodgrains was 395 grams per person per day. In 2000 it had increased to 458 grams per person per day.

Question 18.
What are the reasons of small land holdings in India? How these effect Indian agriculture?
50% land holdings are less than one hectare in size. The main reason for it is law of inheritance. After the death of the father, the land is equally divided among the sons. Therefore size of the land holding is small due to increasing pressure of population on land. Due to small holdings the farmer cannot use machinery and the advanced methods of irrigation. As a result, he has to hire water and machinery. Therefore, net saving is less and the farmer is becoming poorer day by day.

Question 17.
Name the main paddy producing states.
West Bengal was the largest rice producing state of India with a production of 1.39 crore tonnes in 2000-01. Other main producers are U.P., Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Bihar. Punjab and Orissa. Each state produces more than 60 lakhs tonnes of rice. Besides this, M.P., Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Haryana are other large producers of rice.

Question 18.
What are the causes for high per hectare yield of wheat in Punjab?
Punjab is the second largest producer of wheat in India. Punjab ranks first in yield per hectare and its contribution towards national store of wheat is due to

• Wheat is cultivated on a large scale in Punjab because it is a commercial crop in Punjab.
• Better irrigation facilities are available.
• The yield per hectare is high.
• The yield per hectare has increased due to mechanised agriculture.

Question 19.
What are the causes of decrease in area under pulses cultivation?
The production of pulses and oil seeds are still low due to the following reasons:

1. The areas under cultivation of pulses and oil seeds is small. Pulses are grown on an area of 2.3 crore hectares.
2. There is absence of irrigation.
3. The yield per hectare is low. The green revolution has not affected it,
4. The rate of growth of population is more than the rate of production of these crops.

Question 20.
Write down the benefits of Dairy Industry.
Dairy farming includes rearing of cattle to get milk and milk products. It is a part of agriculture. It has the following advantages:

• It provides employment in drought areas.
• It provides additional income to farmer.
• It provides nutrients in diet by increasing the production of milk.

Question 21.
Why production of pulses and oil-seeds is still low?
The production of pulses and oil seeds is lower and does not meet our needs. This is due to:

1. Low production of Pulses. The production of pulses was 1.3 crore tonnes in 1960-61. It was 1.4 crore tonnes in 1993-94. Unfortunately, the yield of pulses per person has reduced to one half. This is due to the decrease in area under pulses. Much area has been brought under cultivation of rice and wheat. There has been decreasing of 34 lakh hectares under pulses during the last thirty years.
2. Low production of Oil-seeds. The position of oil-seeds is opposite to-that of pulses. There has been increase in area under oilseeds as well as production of oilseeds. In 1960-61 area under oilseeds was 1.4 crore hectares. It increased to 2.23 crore hectares in 2000-01. The production increased two fold but still there is shortage of oilseeds. The demand is increasing by 5% annually and 2% growth of population is making the problem more severe.

Question 22.
What are the main problems of Indian agriculture?
The following are the agricultural problems of India:

• There is a great soil erosion because the area under forests and pastures is small.
• Most of the soils are saline. More than one lakh hectares is affected by this in Ferozepur district.
• Most of the farmers are illiterate and are unable to practise crop rotation.
• Cultivated land is decreasing due to the increasing use of land for non-agriculturai purposes.
• The size of the land holding is small, uneconomic and there is small net saving. Because the farmers have to hire the costly machinery and costly fertilizer
• Fall in ground water and loss of fertility are other problems.

Question 23.
Explain the changes that have occurred rapidly in the diversification of crop rotation after Green Revolution.
Rapid changes have taken in crop-rotation after Green Revolution. This is due to the increase in productivity in areas affected by Green Revolution (Punjab, Haryana and H.P.). Agricultural productivity has decreased in the traditional rice producing areas of the East. Besides this, the agricultural development, in Green revolution affected areas, has become stagnant. To meet these problems, the farmers have adopted new systems of crop rotation in different areas. For example, Punjab has adopted a Wheat-Rice rotation system, and U.P. has taken to Wheat-Sugarcane crop-rotation system.

Question 24.
What are the indications that depict that Indian agriculture is advancing towards commercial agriculture leaving behind the subsistence type of agriculture?
Subsistence farming means the raising of crops for the local consumption according to needs of the farmer and his family. In commercial farming the surplus is sold in the market. The following factors have been responsible for transforming Indian agriculture from subsistence to commercial farming:

• The Govt, has passed legislative measures to abolish the Zamindari system.
• Chakbandi has consolidated scattered land holdings of the farmers to make it of economic size.
• Cooperative movement has helped the farmers to collectively tackle their problems of credit and marketing.
• National banks provide loans to farmers on relatively easy terms.
• The Agricultural Price Commission fixes the minimum support prices for various crops. The farmers are not compelled to sell their products at low prices,

Question 25.
What efforts have been made by Government of India for the development of Agriculture?
The Central and State governments have taken the following five important steps for the progress of agriculture in India:

1. Consolidation. The government under the five year plans have consolidated the small holdings into big blocks in order to mechanize the agriculture.
2. Supply of quality seeds. The government has undertaken to supply seeds of good quality to the farmer so that agricultural output is increased.
3. Supply of fertilizers. The government, therefore, has started supplying chemical fertilizers to the farmers. Many factories have been set up to meet the demand of chemical fertilizers.
4. Modern means of agriculture. In order to increase the agricultural output new machines are being used for agriculture.
5. Means of irrigation. Many multipurpose projects have been completed. Dams have been built across the rivers and the water thus stored is used for irrigation. Bhakra-Nangal project and Damodar Valley Corporation are examples of this type of projects.

III. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Explain, in detail, the problems being faced by the Indian Agriculture.
The main problems of Indian Agriculture are as under:

1. The most important problem of Indian Agriculture is the pressure of population on land. About 65% workers depend upon agriculture for their livelihood; but earn only 29% of the National income.
2. Most of the land holdings are small and unequally distributed. These are uneconomic.
3. The area under forests and pastures is low. Therefore soil erosion has an adverse effect on soil fertility.
4. Most of the farmers are illiterate. They cannot practise crop-rotation. So the natural fertility of the soil decreases. So intensive agriculture affects the fertility of the soil.
5. Irrigation has become a problem in India. There is necessity of extending irrigation facilities in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, M.P., Karnataka, etc.; but due to over-irrigation in Punjab the problems of water logging and saline soils have been created.
6. The capital investment in Agriculture is decreasing. In 1980-81, the capital investment was Rs. 1769 crores, but in 1990-91 it decreased to Rs. 100 crores. After that this capital investment is on increase.
7. Marginal development has taken place in development of better seeds.
8. Diversification of crops and slow growth is also a problem.
9. The fact is that Govt, has a strict control on agriculture and prices. Farmers cannot be provided adequate facilities like industries.

Question 2.
Write an explanatory essay on the Green Revolution of India.
Green Revolution is a new strategy used to increase the production of foodgrains in the country. A revolution has taken place in the agricultural methods and technology. This revolution is known as Green Revolution. It includes the use of better quality seeds, high yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers, agricultural machinery and to provide irrigation facilities. It has led to a complete modernisation of Indian Agriculture.

This strategy was introduced to do away with food shortage and import of foodgrains. In 1961 seven districts were selected for this programme. In Punjab, Ludhiana was one of these districts. Green Revolution affected the whole of Punjab. Punjab became the bread basket of India. Yield per hectare of wheat rose to 3531 kg. in 1985-86. But in India it was 2132 kg. In fact, Green Revolution helped to increase production on less land.

Question 3.
Rice. Rice is the leading agricultural crop of India. It is the staple food of 2/3rd of her population. Suitable geographical environment for its cultivation, its production and trade are described ahead:

Geographical conditions. The geographical conditions suitable for rice cultivation are the following:

1. Rice is the product of moist tropical region. It requires high temperature. The temperature should not be more than 25°C. At the harvest times especially, the temperature should be high.
2. Rice requires great amount of water. A rainfall between 130 and 200 cms is suitable for it. A good crop of rice mainly depends on the Monsoon. Deficiency in rainfall can be made up by irrigation.
3. Very fertile soil is needed for rice cultivation. Clay and delta soils are most suitable for it.
Rice requires a lot of manual labour. Therefore, cheap labour should be available for its cultivation. Therefore rice is grown in densely populated areas.

Rice Producing Areas. India stands next only to China in the production of rice. In India, West Bengal produces largest quantity of rice. Tamil Nadu and Jharkhand are second and third producers of rice respectively. Rice is also grown in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Assam, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. In 2011-12 rice was grown in 4.3 crore hectares of land in India and the total output of rice was 9.5 crore tonnes.

Question 4.
Explain in detail about the cultivation of wheat in India.
Wheat is an important foodgrain.
Geographical conditions. The following geographical conditions are suitable for wheat cultivation:

1. Wheat requires lowr temperature during the growing period and high temperature at the harvesting period. At the sowing time temperature should be about 15°C to 20°C and at the time of ripening the temperature should be between 20°C and 25°C.
2. Wheat can be grown in areas of moderate rainfall. 50 to 75 centimetres rainfall is quite suitable for its cultivation. The rain should be well distributed
3. The soil should be fertile. Loamy soil is very suitable for wheat cultivation.
4. The land should be even for the convenience of irrigation.

Production. India occupies fourth position as a producer of wheat in the world.
Green revolution has brought many changes. In 1960-61 wheat production was 1.6 crore tonnes. In 2011-12 it increased to 8.5 crore tonnes.

Wheat Producing States. Although wheat is cultivated in almost every part of the country except the southern part of the Indian peninsula, it is essentially a crop of North India. Uttar Pradesh produces highest quantity of wheat in India. Punjab occupies second position as a producer of wheat in India. Haryana is also an important producer of wheat.

The states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra also grow some wheat.

Question 5.
Write about the cultivation of pulses in India.
The production of pulses has not shown any marked increase in India. India is still the largest producer of the pulses. Main pulses include Grams, Arhar, Masur, Mung and Peas. It is grown in dry areas all over the country in both the Kharif and Rabi season.

The area under pulses has not increased because a large area was cultivated for wheat and rice after green revolution. In 1960-61 pulses were cultivated in an area of 2.6 crore hectares. But in 2000-01 it reduced to 2.23 crore hectares showing a decrease of 30 lakh hectares during the last 34 years.

The production of pulses was 1.3 crore tonnes in 1960-61 and increased to 2.5 crore tonnes in 2010-11. With better seeds, the production of pulses can be increased.

Question 6.
Highlight the causes that led to decrease in area under oilseeds after Green Revolution. What steps have been taken by the government to increase the cultivation of oilseeds?
Oilseeds are grown in combination with other crops to increase the soil fertility. It acts as pivot in crop rotation. After green revolution the area under oilseeds had decreased. In 1975-76 the area under oilseeds was 3.2 lakh hectares. In 1991 it decreased to 1.0 lakh hectares.
Steps taken. The Government is providing better seeds to increase oilseeds production. Good prices have been offered for oilseeds so that farmers should take interest in its cultivation.

Question 7.
Write a comprehensive essay on the cotton production in our country.
Cotton is an important fibre crop. The cotton yarn is used for manufacturing cloth. Cotton plantation in India has been done since ancient times (during Indus civilisation). The Babylonians called it ‘Sandhu’ and Greeks called it ‘Sindo’.

Geographical conditions. Given below are the physical requirements of cotton cultivation:

1. High temperature is needed for cultivation of cotton crop. Average temperature should be between 30°C and 35°C.
2. A moderate amount of rainfall is required for cultivation of cotton. Cotton can be easily grown in area with 50 to 100 cms of rainfall. Irrigation is used in dry areas.
3. During the growing period of the cotton plants the relative humidity should be high. At the time of picking the weather should be dry.
4. Cotton can be grown in many types of soils but loamy soil is ideal for its growth. In India it is mostly grown in the black cotton soil region of Gujarat and Maharashtra. A special feature of black soil is that it can retain moisture for a long period and the need for irrigation is minimised. In Punjab and Haryana cotton is grown in alluvial soil.
5. Most of the activities connected with cotton cultivation require manual labour. Therefore large amount of cheap labour is essential.

Sowing and harvesting periods. In most parts of India cotton is a summer crop. It is sown from April to June and harvested in the months of September and October. In Gujarat it is sown in the month of June and harvested in October. In Tamil Nadu cotton is sown in September and harvested in the month of March.

Production. India is the fourth biggest producer of cotton in the world. India produces about 700 lakh bales of cotton, each bale weighing 170 kilograms. In 2011-12 the area under cotton cultivation was 86 lakh hectares.

State-wise distribution. Maharashtra state is the biggest producer of cotton in India and produces about 26.3 lakh bales of cotton. The other important cotton producing states of India are Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka. Punjab, Gujarat (second largest producer), Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Most of the cotton grown in India is of short staple type but the cultivation of long staple American and Egyptian cotton is on the increase.

Question 8.
Explain the main features of Horticulture in India.
Horticulture means cultivation of vegetables, flowers and fruit. Its main characteristics are:

1. India ranks second in the world in the production of fruit and vegetables. The production of fruit was 3.9 crore tonnes and the production of vegetables was 6.5 crore tonnes.
2. Different types of fruit, vegetables and flowers are grown due to diverse climatic conditions. Tea and coffee on hill slopes and coconut in coastal areas are grown.
3. India ranks first in the world in the production of bananas, mangoes, coconuts and cashewnuts. India is a large producer of oranges, apples, potatoes, tomatoes, onions and peanuts.
4. The exports of these products is 25% of the total exports of India.
5. Floriculture has increased due to demand in foreign countries. 200 units have been selected to export flowers.
6. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh states lead in the production of apples, Maharashtra in the production of oranges and bananas, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the production of mangoes and Kerala in the production of cashewnuts.

The production of fruits and vegetables has rapidly increased in Punjab. In 2000-01, the production was 8 lakh tonnes. Hoshiarpur, Ferozpur, Amritsar and Faridkot are the leading districts. 26.6 thousand hectares of land is under kinoo gardens and orange plantation.

IV. Show the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Main Wheat producing areas
(ii) Main Jowar-Bajra producing areas
(iii) Main Cotton producing areas
(iv) Main Rice (paddy) producing areas
(v) Main Oilseeds producing areas
(vi) Sugarcane producing areas
(vii) Main Pulses producing areas
(viii) Maize producing areas

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Land Utilization and Agriculture Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line:

Question 1.
How much percentage of population of India depends upon agriculture?
70 percent,

Question 2.
Name an activity which besides cultivation is included in agriculture.
Animal husbandry.

Question 3.
How much area is net sown area in India?
143 million Hectare.

Question 4.
What is the percentage of fallow land?
5%.

Question 5.
In which state is Jhumming practised?
Meghalaya.

Question 6.
Name an important Rabi crop.
Wheat.

Question 7.
Name an important Kharif crop.

Question 8.
Name a plantation crop of India.
Tea.

Question 9.
Where does India rank in world production of tea?
First.

Question 10.
Name a fibre crop.
Cotton.

Question 11.
From which liquid is rubber produced?
Latex.

Question 12.
How much per cent area of India is under cultivation? Where does India rank in the world?
About 51 per pent land of India is under cultivation. From this point of view, India ranks first in the world.

Question 13.
What do you mean by fallow land?
Fallow land is that land which is used for one crop after 2 or 3 years. It is again left vacant so that its fertility can be restored.

Question 14.
The percentage of fallow land is decreasing in India. What does it suggest? Explain two points.

1. More manures and fertilizers are being used in fallow land.
2. Scientific methods are being used to retain moisture in land.

Question 15.
Despite less area under pastures in India, India has the largest number of cattle in the world. How is it?
Livestock are reared on fodder crops and grass.

Question 16.
How do forests check floods?
Forests allow the seepage of rain water into land. So these help to retain water and control the destructive floods of rivers.

Question 17.
How can afforestation control droughts?
Forests help in rainfall. Therefore droughts do not occur frequently.

Question 18.
What do you mean by wasteland?
Wasteland is that land which is not used at present. It includes arid, rocky areas and sandy deserts. High rugged mountains and bad lands are included in it.

Question 19.
In which two ways wastelands are increased by man?

1. By overgrazing
2. By deforestation.

Question 20.
Explain three methods of forests conservation.

1. Deforestation should be stopped.
2. Forests should be declared reserved areas.
3. More trees should be planted than cut during a year.

Question 21.
Why is the demand for land increasing in India? Give two examples.

1. More land is required for human settlements due to growing population.
2. People want to live in open, spacious houses due to high standard of living.

Question 22.
Why is it necessary to plan the proper use of the land available?
Land is a limited resource. It can neither be increased nor decreased. But pressure on land is increasing constantly. So it is necessary to plan the proper use of land.

Question 23.
State three steps which should be taken for the proper land-use.

1. Soil erosion should be checked.
2. To check the advance of deserts.
3. Steps be taken to use the wasteland.

Question 24.
The natural fertility of soils in India is decreasing. State two reasons for it.
The following are the two main reasons for decreasing soil fertility in India:

1. The absence of forests and pastures is affecting the natural fertility of soils.
2. The poverty of farmers and their ignorance of scientific techniques are also responsible for the decrease in natural fertility of soils.

Question 25.
Explain the importance of bunding and contour ploughing in dry farming.
Bunding and contour ploughing are useful in dry farming. It retains the moisture in soil. It also checks soil erosion.

Question 26.
What steps should be taken to maintain soil fertility in India?
Green manures and Gobar manures should be used to maintain soil fertility. But a suitable amount of fertilizers should also be used at the same unit.

Question 27.
What is the function and importance of National Price Commission?
National Price Commission fixes the standard rate of crops, useful for farmers.

Question 28.
Name the two agricultural seasons oflndia.
In India, there are two main agricultural seasons, Kharif and Rabi. Rice is the main crop of Kharif season while wheat is the main foodgrain of Rabi season.

Question 29.
Where is most of wheat produced in India? Why?
Wheat is mostly produced in northern plains. Punjab, Haryana and U.P. are the leading producers of wheat.

Question 30.
Explain the importance of cultivation of pulses in India.
(i) Pulses are the major sources of protein for poor people in India.
(ii) Pulses fix nitrogen in the soil to restore its fertility.

Question 31.
What are oilseeds? Name some important oilseeds.
Groundnut, Sesaum, Linseed, Sunflower, Castor seed, Rape seed, Mustard, etc. are important oilseeds.

Question 32.
Name four main fibres of India. How are these obtained?
The four main fibres in India are:

1. Cotton
2. Jute
3. Wool
4. Silk.

Question 33.
What is the importance of forestry?

1. Forests maintain ecological balance and ecosystem.
2. Forests provide timber, lac, gum, cane, fuel, medicines, etc.

Question 34.
Why is India considered a fortunate country as regards land available for cultivation?
More than one half of total land is available for agriculture in India. No other country is so fortunate in this regard.

Question 35.
Why is it necessary to increase the area under forests for economic development?
Many industries are based on forests. These increase the employment sources. Moreover, these check soil erosion and control floods. So the area under forests is to be increased.

Question 36.
State a problem related to Ecosystem of Punjab.
Forests cover an area of 5.7 per cent in Punjab. This area is very low as regards scientific norm. The low forested area has an adverse effect on Ecosystem of Punjab.

Question 37.
How can you say that Punjab is an agricultural state?
Most of the land of Punjab is being used for agricultural purpose. Waste land covers very small area as compared to the whole country. So we can say that Punjab is an agricultural state.

Question 38.
What do you know about social forestry? State its main aim.
Social forestry includes a programme under which common wasteland in rural area is used for planting trees. Its aims is to make wasteland a green belt, provide employment in rural areas, and to solve fuel problem in villages.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Net sown area in India is___________%.
47

Question 2.
India has ____________ % area under forests.
22.6

Question 3.
In Punjab _________% area is under forests.
5.7

Question 4.
India is the largest exporter of ___________
Tea

Question 5.
India is second largest producer of _________
Rice.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
India is the largest producer of
(a) Tea
(b) Coffee
(c) Rice
(d) Cotton.
(a) Tea

Question 2.
Which state is the largest producer of wheat?
(a) Punjab
(b) U.P.
(c) Rajasthan
(b) U.P.

Question 3.
Which is known as golden fibre?
(a) Cotton
(b) Silk
(c) Jute
(d) Wool.
(c) Jute

Question 4.
Crops grown in _______season are called Kharif crops.
(a) Spring
(b) Summer
(c) Winter
(d) Rainy.
(d) Rainy.

Question 5.
Black soils are ideal for cultivation of:
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Cotton
(d) Maize.
(c) Cotton

True / False:

Question 1.
Rice is a product of moist tropical region.
True.

Question 2.
Less fertile soil is needed for rice cultivation.
False

Question 3.
Jharkhand produces largest quantity of rice.
False

Question 4.
Wheat can be grown in areas of moderate rainfall.
True.

Question 5.
Cotton is an important fibre crop.
True.

Question 1.
Which is the most satisfying feature of land use pattern in India? What are its main features?
The most satisfying feature of land use in India is that net sown area is increasing. During last 3 decades 2.2 crore hectares has been added to it. Today net sown area is 16.2 crore hectares and it is about 47.7% of total area.

Main Features:

1. The area under forests is low. It is only 22.7% of total area. But for a self-reliant economy and proper ecological balance, one third of the land should be under forests.
2. The area under pastures is low.

Question 2.
Distinguish between fallow land and wasteland. What are two advantages of fallow land to farmers?
Fallow lands are lands which are not cultivated annually for crops. Only one crop is grown on these-lands during two or three years. After getting one crop, it is left vacant to maintain its fertility. Its use depends on timely monsoonal rain. Wasteland is a land which is not used for cultivation. It includes arid, rocky and sandy land.

1. Fallow lands regain their lost fertility.
2. Agricultural production is increased due to increase in productivity of land.

Question 3.
Distinguish between subsistence farming and commercial farming giving one example from each.
Subsistence farming is the type of agriculture in which crops are grown for local consumption to meet the needs of the family. On the opposite, commercial farming meets the demand of market. In commercial farming, one crop is grown and cultivation is done on large farms using scientific techniques. Subsistence farming includes wheat farming while tea plantations are a type of commercial farming.

Question 4.
Name two agricultural seasons. Why is wheat mostly grown in Punjab? Give two reasons.
The two agricultural seasons are:

1. Kharif
2. Rabi.

Wheat is mostly grown in Punjab due to these reasons:

• Punjab has fertile land deposited by alluvial soils. These loamy soils are best suited for wheat.
• Cyclonic rainfall, which occurs over a long period, is well suited for wheat.

Question 5.
Why is the rice cultivation increasing in Punjab? Give four reasons.
Increase in rice cultivation is due to these reasons:

1. Intensive farming is practised in Punjab with the use of better seeds and fertilizers.
2. Irrigation methods are highly developed. In some districts, water logging has increased rice production.
3. Land is fertile and farmers are hard working.
4. Punjab Agriculture University has introduced new varieties of rice.

Question 1.
What are the major characteristics of land use pattern in India?
Land use pattern. Land is a limited resource. Attempts are made to make the maximum use of land. India has total geographical area of 32.8 crore hectares. Out of it 92.2% area is used.

Main characteristics of land use are as under:
(а) Net sown area. About 51% of total land (16.3 crore hectares) is net sown area. This vast area shows the importance of agriculture in India. It includes 1.3% land under fruits and 5% under fallow land.

(b) Fallow land. About 5% land (2.2 crore hectares) is left as fallow land and is cultivated after two or three years. Fallow land has decreased due to use of fertilizers and manures.

(c) Forests. About 22.7% of land (6.7 crore hectares) is under forests. The actual area under forests is 4.6 crore hectares. According to scientific norms, l/3rd of area should be under forests.

(d) Pastures. About 4% land is under pastures. Still India has the largest number of cattle in the world. Cattle are reared on fodder crops.

(e) Other uses. Land under permanent grassland, cultivable waste, and not available for cultivation amounts to about 22% of total land. It includes wasteland also.
Moreover the demand for human settlements is increasing due to growing population.

Question 2.
Describe the geographical conditions of growth, areas and production of tea in India. Also, discuss its International Trade.
India is the leading producer of tea in the world. Tea plantations were started by the British for their own benefit. Now Indians are the owners of these plantations. About 10 lakh persons are engaged in Tea farming directly and same number of persons get employment indirectly. It is labour-intensive industry.
(а) Geographical conditions. The following geographical, conditions are suitable for cultivation of tea:

• Abundant rainfall (150 cms) is necessary for the growth of tea plants.
• Tea requires high temperature. An average temperature of 20°C to 30°C is suitable for its proper growth.
• The relative humidity should be high.
• The water should not stagnate in the roots of the plant.-Therefore tea is mostly grown on the hilly slopes.
• Tea requires fertile soil.
• Cheap labour is very essential for tea plantation as the picking of leaves requires human labour.

(b) Tea producing states. Assam is the biggest producer of tea in India. West Bengal is the second largest producer of tea in India. Tea is grown in Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Nilgiri hills. Tea is also grown in Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, U.P., Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka.

(c) Production. In 1950-51, tea estates covered an area of 3,14,000 hectares. In 2000-01 the area under tea estates raised to 4,00,000 hectares. In 1950-51 total production of tea was .2,75,000 tonnes. In 2011-12, it rose to 8,00,000 tonnes. It amounts to one half of the world production.

(d) Trade. In 2010-11, India exported 2.03 lakh tonnes of tea valued at Rs. 1976 crores. Sri Lanka is a competitor of India as regards exports of tea. Kenya is a new tea-exporter. Tea consumption is increasing in India. So tea export is decreasing.

Question 3.
What are the main causes of backwardness of the Indian agriculture? Suggest remedies for its improvement.
Causes of backwardness. The causes of backwardness of the Indian agriculture are as under:

1. Dependence on rain. The Indian farmer depends on rain for irrigation. Only 23% of the cultivated land has irrigation facilities.
2. Dearth of Nitrogen in the soil. Indian soil is poor in nitrogen. The land has been cultivated for thousands of years continuously and has, thus, affected the fertility of the soil.
3. Poor labour. The Indian farmers are weak in health and they cannot provide the required amount of labour for agriculture.
4. Subdivision of holdings. In India the land is equally distributed amongst all the sons after the death of the father. As a result the size of fields goes on decreasing and this affects the production.
5. Primitive methods of agriculture. The Indian farmer is still following the
primitive methods of agriculture. Hence agriculture in India has suffered a setback.
6. Non-utilization of good seeds. Indian farmers are poor and do not use seeds of good quality. This lowers the production.
7. Poverty. Money is needed for agriculture but the farmers are poor.
8. Weak cattle. Indian farmer cultivates his land with the help of bullocks but most of the bullocks in India are not of good breed. They are very weak and are thus unable to undertake the agricultural activities properly.
9. Illiteracy. Indian farmer is illiterate. He finds it difficult to adopt new methods of agriculture.

Suggestions for improvement of agriculture:

• Co-operative farming. Co-operative farming should be introduced. This will increase the size of the fields and modem methods of agriculture would easily be adopted.
• Improvement in irrigation. In order to bring improvement in agriculture the irrigation facilities should also be improved.
• Intensive farming. The farmers should adopt intensive farming. This brings more return from smaller area.
• Good seeds and fertilizers. The government should arrange to supply quality seeds and fertilizers to the farmers at reasonable rates.
• Use of new agricultural implements. There can be lot of improvement in agriculture if modern agricultural implements are used by the farmers. The government should give financial aid to farmers for the purchase of such implements.

Land Utilization and Agriculture PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Land under Agriculture – 46.6% of geographical areaor 1530 lakh hectares.
• Per capita cultivated land – 0.16 hectares.
• Fallow land – 7.1% or 230 lakh hectares.
• Distribution – Net sown area to geographical area varies from 3.4% in Arunachal Pradesh to 84.2% in Punjab.
• Land holdings – One-third are small, less than one hectare in size.
• Types of farming – Subsistence, shifting, plantation, intensive, sedentary and commercial farming.
• Contribution of Agriculture – 26% Gross Domestic Product (Down from 52% in 1950s).
• Major Crops – Cereals (rice, wheat, millets, maize), pulses (arhar, urad, moong, masur, peas and gram), oil seeds (groundnut, sesamum, rapeseed, linseed, castor, fibre crops (cotton and jute), Beverage crops (coffee and tea) and cash crops (sugarcane, rubber, tobacco, spices and fruits, animal husbandry and fisheries.
• Technology – Use of wooden plough, bullock cart, Persian wheel and now water pump and tractors.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 5 Land Utilization and Agriculture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer each of the following questions in brief:

(A) Natural Vegetation

Question 1.
What is meant by natural vegetation?
Natural vegetation includes all the trees, thorny bushes, plants and grass.

Question 2.
Which vegetation type is known as ‘Terror of Bengal’?
Water Hyacinth plant is called. Terror of Bengal.

Question 3.
In which places the local natural vegetation is found in India?
In areas with less than 70 cm of rainfall the natural vegetation is found consisting of thorny bushes. This is found in the N-W part of India and semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP and Haryana and also found in the hills of Khasi and Jaintia.

Question 4.
What percentage of land in India is covered under forests as compared to the whole world?
22.7% of land area is covered with forests in India.

Question 5.
In which State and Union Territories, the areas of maximum and minimum forest land fall?
The smallest forest area is found in Delhi and the largest forest area is found in Madhya Pradesh in India.

Question 6.
Why do coniferous forests are found more than the broad forests in our country?
Most of the part of our country have extreme climate with short summers and cold long lasting winters and these forests thrive where summers are short and cool and winters long and harsh,’ with heavy snowfall coniferous forests are needle shaped tree which remain evergreen. These forests with conical leaves are found in high mountains.

Question 7.
Which are State forests?
State forests are those forests in which the sole right is of state govt.

Question 8.
What do you mean by reserved forests?
Reserved forests are protected forests are terms denoting forests accorded a specific degree of protection. These are protected from any depletion.

Question 9.
Name some trees of Tropical Evergreen Vegetation. (Pb. 2008)
The trees grown in tropical evergreen forests are Mahogony, Rubber, Coconut, Bamboo, Cane, Rosewood, Palm etc.

Question 10.
Which factors destroy the semiarid deciduous vegetation?
The extensive agricultural area is the main reason of destroying semiarid deciduous vegetation.

Question 11.
Give the names of trees and area of arid vegetation.
The trees found in semiarid are mainly Kikar, Cactus, Jand, Phulahi, Ber, Neem, etc.

Question 12.
What are the other names of tidal vegetation?
The other names of tidal forests are Mangrove, Marshy, Sunder Ban.

Question 13.
Name the trees found at an elevation of about 2500 meters in Eastern Himalayas.
Silver Fur, Pine, Spruce, Deodar, Blue Pine, etc.

Question 14.
In which areas the mountainous vegetation is grown in Deccan Plateau?
Mountain vegetation in southern plateau is found in Bastar, Panchmari, Mahabaleshwar, Nilgiri, Palni, Shevroy and the mountain areas of Anamalai.

Question 15.
Which trees are used for making Health Medicines?
The trees of Khar, Sincona Quinine, Sarpgandha, Oak, Awla are used for the preparation of medicines.

Question 16.
Which trees are used for Leather tanning?
The trees of Mangrove, Kach, Gambear, Harr, Bahera, Amtand Kikar help in tanning material.

Question 17.
What is the chief objective of national forest policy?
The maiji aim of national forest policy is to grow forests on 60% of hilly areas and 20% of plain areas.

(B) Animals

Question 1.
How many different types of animals could be there?
There are 76 thousand species of animals in India.

Question 2.
What type of areas are liked by elephant to live in?
The hot wet equatorial region and dense forests.

Question 3.
Which species of deer are found in India?
The species of deer found in India are Black Deer, Chikara, Ordinary Deer and four horn deer are main species.

Question 4.
Where are lions found in India?
The maiii natural living place of Sunder Ban in the Delta of Ganges.

Question 5.
Name the animals which are found in Himalayas.
Wool Sheep, Goats, Cycan, Taper, Panda, Snow Leopard are found in Himalayas.

Question 6.
Name the Nation’al Animal and National Bird of India.
Lion is our national animal and peacock is our national bird.

Question 7.
Which species of animals are (endangered?
Wolf, lion, rhinoceros, golden sparrow are animals feared to extinct.

(C) Soils

Question 1.
Define soil.
Soil is the mixture of soft, loose, unconsolidated rock material and bacteria is called soil.

Question 2.
How is Soil formed?
The process of the formation of soil is due to disintegration of rocks.

Question 3.
Which are the basic elements of Soil?
The parent materials for soil are:

1. Primary Rocks
2. Climate
3. Slope of land
4. Period of natural vegetation.

Question 4.
Which chemical elements are found in Black Soil?
Iron, Potash, Aluminium, Limestone and Potassium.

Question 5.
Where is laterite soil found in India?
Laterite soil is found in Vindhyanchal, Madhya Pradesh along with Satpura, Orissa, Basaltic mountain ranges.

Question 6.
Where is Bhur soil found?
Bhur soil is found in border districts of Punjab and Haryana.

Question 7.
What are different names of Saline soils in different parts of the country?
Thur, Reh, Kallar.

Question 8.
In which areas of India are the soils suitable for cultivation of Tea found?
Assam, Himachal Pradesh (Lahul Spiti, Kinnaur), Western Bengal, Darjeeling, Uttar Pradesh and Nilgiris in South.

Question 9.
What is meant by soil erosion?
To remove the thick layer (15 to 30 cm thick) found on surface by physical and non physical factors is called soil erosion.

Question 10.
What different measures are taken to check the forward extension of desert?
The trees are grown to decrease the speed of winds in deserts. Along this, grass is grown on sand dunes.

II. Answer each of the following questions in short:

(A) Natural Vegetation

Question 1.
Why has foreign vegetation beconae a problem for us? Elaborate with examples.
Nearly 40% of plant species found in India have come from outside and are called exotic plants. These plants have been brought from Sino; Tibetan, African and Indo- Malayasian areas. These plants were brought as decorative garden plants in India. These plants grow rapidly as weeds under hot-wet tropical conditions. These rapidly multiply so that it is difficult to eradicate these.

Lantana and water hyacinth are two such species. Water Hyacinth is known as “Terror of Bengal”. It has choked up all the watercourses like rivers, streams, tanks, canals, etc.

Question 2.
How can foreign plants be harmful for us?
The exotic plants have following disadvantages:

1. Our useful domestic vegetation can get destroyed.
2. It requires lot of money to destroy these exotic plants.
3. These spread diseases and are a hazard to public health.
4. It can pollute our water resources.
5. It can reduce our fertile land pastures and destroy the forest areas in the country.

Question 3.
What are the main reasons for our natural vegetation not remaining actually natural?
Most of present vegetal cover in India is not really natural. A considerable part of the original cover has been destroyed or changed due to human settlement and use of the land. Much of vegetation is low in quality and content. The original natural vegetation survives only in inaccessible areas of the Himalayas and Thar Desert. In other parts of the country, the vegetation is not ‘natural’ in the real sense of the term.

Question 4.
Write a short note on Deciduous or Monsoonal Vegetation.
The vegetation that sheds its leaves in order to have excessive evaporation, before the start of the hot season, is called Deciduous or Monsoon vegetation.

According to rainfall, the vegetation can be subdivided into two such types:
1. Moist Deciduous Forests. This type of vegetation is found where the annual rainfall is 100 to 200 cms. The vegetation is not much dense and the trees can achieve the height of 30 m. Teak, sandal are the main trees.

2. Dry Deciduous Forests. This type of vegetation is found in areas having rainfall between 50 to 100 cms. Its long belt starts from Punjab and goes up to Deccan plateau. Kikar, Jand are its main trees.

Question 5.
What type of vegetation is found in Eastern Himalayan region?
In Eastern Himalaya, we find 4000 species of flowers and 250 species of ferns. Height, Temperature and Rainfall has great impact on the type of vegetation:

1. Upto an altitude of 1200 metres, we can find deciduous vegetation and mixed forests.
2. Upto the altitude from 1200 to 2000 metres we find desert evergreen forests. Sal and Magnolia are the main trees.
3. Due to decrease in temperature at a height of 2000 to 2500 metres are found temperate type of vegetation. Oak, Chestnut, Laurel, Birch, Maple, Alder are the main trees.
4. At an altitude between 2500 to 3500 metres, we find coniferrous trees. It includes Silver Fir, Pine, Spruce, Deodar, Rendoderan, Blue pine as main trees.
After some more height short natural grass (Alpine grass) and different types of flowers can be seen.

Question 6.
How does natural vegetation act as a boon for industries?
Natural vegetation provides the basis for many industries. The main industries based on forests are like this.

1. Match Industry. Soft wood is used to manufacture match boxes.
2. Lac Industry. Insects provide lac on trees and is used for records, polish, electrical goods.
3. Paper Industry. Bamboo, eucalyptus, and many types of grass are used in paper industry. Bamboo is found in Terai region.
4. Warnish and paints. Warnish and paints are prepared from resin which comes from forests.
5. Medicines. Many important medicines are made from forests, e.g. Quinine from cincona. Other Industries: Forests provide raw material for many industries like pencils, boxes, sandal oil, furniture and sports goods.

Question 7.
What have been the implications of indiscriminate cutting of forests in the country?
Natural vegetation plays an important role in our life. There has been great deforestation during the last four years which can result in the following disadvantages:

1. Deforestation has great impact on ecological balance.
2. It can create problem of soil erosion due to floods on mountain slopes as well as on plains.
3. The northern parts of Punjab are facing the problems of soil erosion.

(B) Animals

Question 1.
What steps are being taken for protection of animal life in India?
Our rich wild life is rich heritage formed through centuries. It must be preserved. Many of the fauna are found only in India such as swamp deer, the one horned rhinoceros, the bison, Kashmiri stag, Nilgai, etc. These rare species are in danger of extinction. Wild life is a gift of nature and a thing of beauty. Wildlife Act provides for the protection and conservation of these species. For this zoos, national parks, bio-reserves, tiger reserves have been established in India.

• Nilgiri Bio-reserve. This is the first reserve set up in the country in 1986.
• Nanda-Devi Bio-reserve in Uttranchal Himalayas in (1988).
• Nokrek in Meghalaya
• Andaman-Nicobar Bio-reserve.
• Valley of flowers in western Uttranchal
• Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu
• Thar desert in Rajasthan
• Rann of Kutchh (Gujarat)
• Kaziranga and Manas Park in Assam.

(C) Soils

Question 1.
What is the contribution of Primary Rocks in the formation of soils?
Sedimentary rocks are found in Northern plains and igneous rocks are found in Indian plateau. Their composition is different and different types of soils are formed. The colour, texture and composition of soil depends upon the time factor the rocks have suffered a type of climate. In West Bengal, Bacteria help in the formation of soils. But in Rajasthan, the fertility of soil decreases due to absence of vegetation. In areas of heavy rainfall and strong winds, soil erosion is active. So the fertility decreases.

Question 2.
What should be done to increase the fertility of soils?
The following methods should be used to improve the fertility of the soils:

• Methods should be adopted to check soil erosion
• Manures and chemical fertilizers should be used to maintain the fertility of soils.
• Crop rotation should be practised.
• Scientific methods of cultivation should be used.
• Land should be kept fallow to retain its fertility.
• Suitable combination of crops should be cultivated.

Question 3.
Write a short note on Peat or Marshy Soils.
Peat soils cover an area of 1500 sq. km. It is found in Sundar Bans, the coastal area of Orissa, coastal areas of South Tamil Nadu, Central Bihar, Almora in Uttranchal. It is black and acidic. It is called Black soil in Kerala. Sometimes it takes the form of blue soils due to excess of bacteria.

Question 4.
What are the different types of Soil erosion?
Soil Erosion. Soil erosion is of two types:

Types of Soil Erosion:

1. Sheet Erosion. When the soil is washed away in thin layers by water or wind, it is called Sheet Erosion. Fine silt and clay is removed from the top soil.
2. Gully Erosion: It is done by running water by cutting channel. Gullies and ravines are formed by rapid run off. Badland is formed over clay soils in Chambal Valley.

Question 5.
What are the causes of soil erosion?
Causes of Soil Erosion:

1. Steep slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water. On steep slopes, intensity of soil erosion increases.
2. Torrential rainfall. Heavy rainfall loosens the soil particles.
3. Strong winds. Winds and dust storm blow away soil in dry areas. This process is known as deflation.
4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation renders soil infertile.
6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area to soil erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by Chos along the Siwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation, etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

Question 6.
What are the agents of soil erosion?
Wind, water, glaciers are the agents of soil erosion.

III. Answer each of the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Explain the classification of natural vegetation of India on various bases.
Natural vegetation of India can be divided into the following five parts on the basis of geographical factors:
1. Evergreen forests or tropical evergreen forests. Evergreen forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is 200 cms or more. These forests are mostly found in the Tarai region of the Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman islands.

2. Deciduous forests or monsoon forests. These forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is between 60 and 200 centimetres. These forests are mainly found on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, Chotanagpur, Gangetic Valley and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.

3. Semi-desert forests. Such forests in India are found in Rajasthan, Western Haryana, Southwestern Punjab and Gujarat.

4. Desert or thorny forests. Thorny bushes are the typical vegetation of such forests. Such forests are found in parts of Rajasthan and Kutch.

5. Forests of Delta regions or Tidal forests. Such forests are found in the deltas of the rivers. Such forests in India are found in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna, Cauvery, Ganga and Brahmputra rivers.

6. Mountain forests or the natural vegetation of the Himalayas. Forests of this type are found on the slopes of the mountains.

Question 2.
How is natural vegetation classified on the basis of Geographical elements in the country? (Pb. 2005, 06)
There .are many variations of soil and climate in India. This has given rise to many types of forests. The forests in India can be divided into the following main types:
1. Evergreen forests or the tropical evergreen forests. Evergreen forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is 200 cms or more. These forests are mostly found in the Terai region of the eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman islands. The chief trees of these forests include Mahogany, bamboos, cane, rubber and cinchona. The wood from these trees is used for making furniture, houses and boats.

2. Deciduous forests or monsoon forests. These forests are found in those parts in India where the average annual rainfall is between 60 and 200 centimeters. These forests are mainly found on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, Chhotanagpur, Gangetic valley and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. The chief trees found in these forests include teak, sal, sesoo, mango, sandal and cotton tree. These trees shed off their leaves in summer.

3. Semi-desert forests. This type of forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is between 20 and 60 cms. Such forests in India are found in Rajasthan, Western Haryana, South Western Punjab and Gujarat. Acacia and date palm are the typical trees of these forests.

4. Deserts or thorny forests. Such vegetation or forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is less than 20 cms. Thorny bushes are the typical vegetation of such forests. Such forests are found in parts of Rajasthan and Kutch.

5. Forests of Delta regions or Tidal forests. Such forests are found in the deltas of the rivers. There is ample water and the soil is also fertile. Such forests in India are found in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Ganga and Brahmputra rivers. Such forests are found in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

6. Mountain forests or the natural vegetation of the Himalayas. Forests of this type are found on the slopes of the mountains. The nature of forests changes with the height and the amount of rainfall.

Question 3.
Describe the benefits of natural vegetation to the country.
Importance of Forests:
Forests are a valuable rersource; like a river system, it is a multiple resource. Forests provide mankind with a number of products. Forests have greatly influenced human activities. Modern civilisation depends more and more on forests.

Following are the direct and indirect advantages of forests:

• Forests provide many things to meet our food requirements like wild fruits, nuts, berries, etc. Many tribes are dependent on gathering of these products in forests.
• Forests are a source of timber for house building, furniture making, ship building, etc.
• Forests supply about 40% of fuel of the world. Wood has been the major source of fuel in houses, smelting industries and running locomotives.
• Softwoods supply raw materials for wood pulp, paper, rayon industries.
• Many products like rubber, pitch, gum, tanning materials, cork, camphor, fir, herbs, etc. are gathered from forests.
• Forests provide plywood and fibre wood for packing purposes.
• Forests help in rainfall by capturing moisture in the air. These affect the climate of an area,
• Forests prevent Soil erosion and floods.
• Forests increase the fertility of soil, help agriculture and maintain ecological balance.
• Forests provide shelter to wild animals and help recreation, wild life and hunting.
• They check the advance of deserts.

Question 4.
Which elements determine the texture of soil?
The formation of soils depends upon the following factors:

1. Bed rocks. Sedimentary rocks are found in the Northern plain while igneous rocks are found in peninsular India. These rocks have a variety of minerals which add to their fertility.
2. Climate. Colour, structure and composition of soils depend upon climate. West Bengal has fertile soils due to chemical processes. But Rajasthan has less fertile soils due to absence of vegetation. Areas with heavy rainfall and strong winds have soil erosion and the soils are less fertile.
3. Slope. Slope also affects the development of soils. Land slide occurs in hilly areas due to fast running water and gravity. Therefore, slopes are not fertile, but the valleys of Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra are fertile.
4. Natural vegetation. Vegetation provides Humus which makes the soils fertile. India has a large area under cultivation. Vegetation is.not adequate. Only 5% to 10% bacteria is available. So soils are not very fertile.
5. Period. Time plays an important factor. Soils receive every year humus, sediments, bacteria, etc. Soil formation is a slow process which takes thousands of years.

Question 5.
Discuss the various types and characteristics of soils found in India.
India is primarily an agricultural country. The soils of India are classified on the basis of bed rocks and climate conditions.
1. Black Soils: Black soils are mainly found over the Deccan Lava tract including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. These soils have been formed due to weathering of Lava rocks. These soils cover an area of about 5 lakh sq. km. These soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. These are also called ‘Regur Soils’. These soils are most suitable for cotton cultivation and are known as ‘Black Cotton Soils’.

2. Red Soils. These soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and areas on periphery of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to decomposition underlying igneous rocks.

3. Laterite Soils. Laterite soils are found on the highland areas of the plateau. These are found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and hilly regions of Assam, Rajmahal hills and Chottanagpur plateau. Due to monsoonal climate (wet and dry seasons alternatively occurring), there is the leaching of soils.

4. Alluvial Soils. These soils have been deposited by the rivers in river valleys of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and their deltas. These are deep and fertile soils. These are dark soils.

5. Desert Soils. These soils cover 2 lakh sq. km. from dry areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana. These sandy soils are suited to cultivation of jowar, bajra, cotton, wheat, etc.

Question 6.
What is Soil Erosion? Why is it caused? What is its regional distribution? How can it be checked? (Pb. 2008)
Causes of Soil Erosion:

1. Steep slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water. On steep slopes, intensity of soil-erosion increases.
2. Torrential rainfall. Heavy rainfall loosens the soil particles and scoopes out the soil forming gullies and ravines. This gives rise to a dissected surface called badland as in Chambal Valley of India.
3. Strong winds. Winds and dust storms blow away soil in dry areas. This process is known as deflation.
4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation renders soil infertile,
6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area to soil-erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by chos along the Shiwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation, etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

Soil conservation. Soil is a fundamental natural resource. Soil formation is a slow process, but it is easily lost by soil erosion. In fact, more soil is being lost each year than Nature makes. Soil erosion must be checked. Sound farming practices and measures be adopted to conserve, protect, renew and maintain soil fertility.

These methods constitute soil conservation.

1. Afforestation. In some areas, the original vegetation cover has been removed.
It has resulted in soil erosion as along Shiwalik Hills. In such areas, trees should be planted (reforestation) to hold the soil. Afforestation is needed in new areas to check the surface run off. Advance of deserts can be checked by planting trees along the margins of deserts.
2. Controlled grazing. The number of animals to be grazed on slopes should be
according to the carrying capacity of the pastures. It gives time for the grass to grow again.
3. Terraced Agriculture. Slopes must be cut into a senes of terraces (fields) for cultivation. Outer walls at edges are made to slow down the flow of rainwater.
4. River Dams. River Dams are built in the upper course of rivers to control floods and check soil erosion.
5. Contour ploughing. Contour ploughing, terracing and bunding is done to check soil wash on slopes. Ploughing is done at right angles to the hill slopes.
6. Crop rotation. Crop rotation system be applied and the land should be left fallow for some time. Soil fertility can be maintained in this way.
7. Other methods. In areas of heavy rain, basin type of cultivation is adopted.

IV. Show the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Areas of arid vegetation,
(ii) Mangrove vegetation area.
(iii) Areas of black soil and alluvial soils

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions each in one line or one word:

Question 1.
How much part of India is under forests?
22 percent.

Question 2.
Name an industrial use of Timber.
Fuel.

Question 3.
How much rainfall is required for the growth of tropical evergreen forests?
200 cm.

Question 4.
Name the forests which shed their leaves in the summer season.
Deciduous forests.

Question 5.
Which state has the largest area under forests?

Question 6.
Name a tree found in Tidal forests.
Sundari.

Question 7.
Which forests are found in Nilgiris?
Sholas.

Question 8.
Name a Biosphere recognised by UNESCO.
Sunder Bans.

Question 9.
Name a Bird sanctuary.
Bharatpur.

Question 10.
Where are Rpyal Bengal Tigers found?
In Sunderbans.

Question 11.
What name is given to a Horizon of soil?
Top Soil.

Question 12.
Which is the mostly found soil in India?
Alluvial.

Question 13.
Which soil is most indispensable on Deccan plateau?
Red soil.

Question 14.
What name is given to Black soil?
Regur soil.

Question 15.
Name the crop for which black soil is used.
Cotton.

Question 16.
Name an area of soils.
Thar.

Question 17.
In which area Ravines are found?
Chambal Valley.

Question 18.
Why is diversity of vegetation found in India?
Because there is a great diversity in relief, climate vegetation in India.

Question 19.
Where are tropical evergreen forests found in India?
Tropical evergreen forests are found on west coast, western ghats, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura and West Bengal.

Question 20.
Where are Monsoons forests found in India?
Monsoon forests are found in Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, U.P., Uttranchal and Punjab.

Question 21.
Name the four main trees found in Monsoon forests.
Sal, Teak, Sheesham and Ebony.

Question 22.
Where are Delta forests found? Name one important tree.
Delta forests are found in coastal areas where Deltas are formed. Sundri is an important tree.

Question 23.
Which wood is the best for making furniture, ships and rail coaches?
Teak wood is the best.

Question 24.
Where are mangrove forests found?
These forests are found in Deltas and coastal areas. These can be grown in salt areas as well as in fresh water areas.

Question 25.
Why is Ganga, Brahmputra Delta known as Sunder Ban?
Sundri is the most important tree in this Delta. Therefore it is called Sunder Ban.

Question 26.
Why do the trees in deserts have long roots?
There is absence of water in deserts. Nature has provided trees with long roots to get water from depth.

Question 27.
How do forests increase the fertility of soil?
Dead leaves of trees mix with soil and become humus. It increases fertility.

Question 28.
Why do the forests control floods?
Flood water seeps into the ground and decreases the flow of floods and control floods.

Question 29.
What do you mean by alluvial soils?
The soils formed by rivers are called alluvial soils.

Question 30.
Name three types of alluvial soil.
Khadar soil, Bhangar soil and Delta soil are types of alluvial soil.

Question 31.
Name one merit of Black soil.
It can hold moisture and is best suited for cotton crop.

Question 32.
Which elements are found in large quantity in laterite soils?
Iron and aluminium elements are found in large quantity in laterite soils.

Question 33.
Name any two milch animals.
Cow, Buffalo etc.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Trees and plants make_______
Natural vegetation

Question 2.
_________ plant is called Terror of Bengal.
Hyacinth

Question 3.
Coniferous cover _______ % forests.
5

Question 4.
_________ % of land should be under forests.
33

Question 5.
________ has the largest forest area.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Describe forest cover in India is:
(a) 9.48%
(b) 10.48%
(c) 11.48%
(d) 12.48%.
(c) 11.48%

Question 2.
Teak wood is found in forests:
(a) Evergreen
(b) Tidal
(c) Mountain
(d) Deciduous.
(a) Evergreen

Question 3.
Which is a bird sanctuary?
(a) Bharatpur
(b) Dacligarm
(c) Gir
(d) Nilgiris.
(a) Bharatpur

Question 4.
Sunderbans is the habitat of:
(a) Tiger
(b) Lions
(c) Elephants
(d) Camels.
(a) Tiger

Question 5.
Kaziranga is a national park in:
(a) Bihar
(b) U.P.
(c) Assam
(d) Tripura.
(c) Assam

True / False:

Question 1.
Teak wood is best for making ships.
True.

Question 2.
Black soils are mainly found in Tamil Nadu.
False

Question 3.
Flora is related with plant kingdom.
True.

Question 4.
There are 80,000 species of plants in the world.
False

Question 5.
There are 75,000 species of animals in India.
True.

Question 1.
What is Soil? How is it formed?
The loose and unconsolidated material which forms the upper layer of the crust is called soil. It is found in layers or horizons. Its thickness varies from some cms to meters. It consists of many mineral and organic particles, humus, bacteria, etc. Soil formation is a slow process. Soil is formed through the chemical and mehanical weathering of rock cover. Parent materials derived from rock cover and humus together lead to soil formation. Soil is the end product of the physical, chemical, biological and cultural factors which act and react together.

Question 2.
What are the major factors in the formation of Soil?
The formation of soil depends upon many factors. The major factors are:

1. Parent Material
2. Climate
3. Surface features of relief
4. Slope of the land
5. Natural vegetation.

Question 3.
What are the characteristics of Alluvial Soils?

1. Alluvial soils are deposited by rivers.
2. These soils are limited to river basins and plains.
3. These are very fertile soils.
4. These consist of fine grained clay and sand.
5. These soils are rich in potash, but poor in phosphorus.
6. These are generally deep soils.

Question 4.
Which type of soils are formed as a result of wide diffusion of iron in the rocks? Explain two important characteristics of these soils of India.
Red soils are formed as a result of wide diffusion of iron in the rocks.

Characteristics of Red Soils. These soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and areas on periphery of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to the decomposition of underlying igneous rocks. The red colour of these soils is due to oxidation and diffusion of iron in hard crystalline rocks. These are given to the cultivation of millets, pulses, linseed, tobacco etc. These soils cover the largest area in Peninsular India. These soils are poor in lime, nitrogen and humus. Fertilizers are added to make these soils fertile.

Question 5.
Which exotic species is known as ‘Terror of Bengal5? Why is it called so?
Or
Why does exotic flora become a problem for us? Name two such species.
Nearly 40% of plant species found in India have come from outside and are called exotic plants. These plants have been brought from Sino-Tibetan, African and Indo – Malayasian areas. These plants were brought as decorative garden plants in India. These plants rapidly multiply so that it is difficult to eradicate these. These reduce the useful land cover. These prevent the growth of economic plants. These spread diseases and are a hazard to public health. Lantana and water hyacinth are two such species. Water hyacinth is known as “Terror of Bengal”. It has choked up all the water courses like rivers, streams, tanks, canals, etc.

Question 6.
What is the need for conservation of forests?
Increasing human and animal population has adverse impact on natural vegetation. Areas which were once covered with forests, have now become semi-desert. Even Rajasthan has forests. Forests are essential for ecological balance which in turn is essential for human survival and development. For balanced ecology and healthy environment, at least one third of the land of India must be kept under forest. Unfortunately we do not have even one fourth of the total area under forest. The need for a policy for conservation and mangement of forest resources, therefore, demands no emphasis.

Question 7.
What are the aims of National Forest Policy?
A new National Forest Policy was adopted in 1988 to stop the further decrease in the forest cover.

1. The policy aimed at bringing 33 percent of India’s landmass under forest cover. The world coverage was 27 percent, and India’s own coverage at that time was only 19 percent.
2. The policy further stated that efforts would be made to maintain environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed.
3. The other objective was to conserve the natural heritage of the country, its biological diversity and genetic pool.
4. The policy further aimed to check soil erosion, an extension of the desert lands and reduction of floods and droughts.
5. Other objectives of the policy were to increase the forest cover through social forestry and afforestation denuded and unproductive land, increase in productivity of forests to make timber, fuel, fodder and food available to rural and tribal populations dependent on forests and encourage the substitution of wood.
6. Lastly it emphasized the creation of a massive people movement involving women to encourage planting of trees and stop felling of trees.

Question 1.
What is Soil Erosion? In which different ways does it occur?
Soil Erosion. It is the destruction and removal of top soil by running water, wind, etc. Soil erosion has become a serious problem in many areas. Soil formation is a slow process and takes thousands of years to develop soil, but it may be removed in a matter of a few years. Soil erosion results from the following causes ;

Causes of Soil Erosion:

1. Steep Slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water on steep slopes, and the intensity of soil erosion increases.
2. Torrential Rainfall. Heavy rainfall lessens the soil particles and scoops out the soil-forming gullies and ravines. This gives rise to a dissected surface called badland as in the Chambal valley of India.
3. Strong Winds. Winds and dust storms blow away soil in dry areas. This process
is known as deflation.
4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation render soil infertile.
6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area of soil erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by chos along the Shiwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

Question 2.
What factors control the diversity and growth of fauna and flora?
The growth, types, and diversity in flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following factors:

1. Temperature
2. Sunlight
3. Precipitation
4. Soil
5. Relief

1. Temperature. The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. On the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the peninsula above the height of 915 metere, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth, and changes it from tropical to subtropical temperature and alpine.

2. Sunlight. The variation in sun’s radiant energy at different places is due to the difference in latitude, season and duration of the day. Due to long duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.

3. Precipitation. Almost the entire rainfall occurs by the advancing south-west monsoon (June to Sept.) and retreating north-east monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas.

4. Soil. Changes in soil conditions have given rise to peculiar types of vegetation in many areas such as mangrove forests swamps and sandy coastal forests.

5. Relief. It is another important factor affecting vegetation. Plains, plateaus and mountains have different types of vegetation.

Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Flora – Plant Kingdom.
• Fauna – Animal Kingdom.
• Ecosystem – Plants, animals, human beings are part of the ecosystem.
• Species of plants – 45,000 species in world, 5000 species in India.
• Species of animals – 75,000 species in India.
• Great diversity in flora – Due to varied relief, soil and climate.
• Total area undçr forest – 750 lakh hectares (22% of total area).
• Tropical rain forests – Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood.
• Tropical deciduous forests – Teak, Sal.
• Dry forests – Kikar, Babul, Ihair,
• Tidal forests – Mangrove and Sundri.
• Coniferous forests – Silver fir, pine, birch, spruce.
• Species of birds – 2000 species in India.
• Areas for protecting fauna sanctuaries – National Parks, Zoological gardens, Bio-reserves.
• National Parks – 86.
• Wildlife sanctuaries – 480.
• Zoological gardens – 35.
• Bio-reserves – 16.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 The Climate

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Land Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Distinguish between climate and weather.
Climate. Climate is the description of atmospheric conditions of an area over along period, (say 35 years) Weather. Weather is the sum total of atmospheric conditions at any place at any specific period.

Question 2.
Name the factors which affect the climate of India.

1. Distance from the Equator
2. Relief
3. Pressure system
4. Seasonal winds and
5. Nearness from the Indian ocean.

Question 3.
Name the places in India having maximum and minimum temperatures during winter season.
Places with highest temperature Barmer, Jodhpur. Places with lowest temperature Dras, Kargil.

Question 4.
Give the names of hottest and coldest places in India during various seasons.
Coldest place: Hilly Areas like Leh and Shillong.
Hottest place: North West plain areas.

Question 5.
Name the driest and wettest regions of the country.
The driest places of the country are: Leh, Jodhpur, Delhi while Shillong, Mumbai, Kolkata and Trivandrum are the wettest areas.

Question 6.
Name two places in India having moderate and extreme climate.
Mumbai and Chennai are two places of equable climate. Extreme climate is found in Amritsar and Jodhpur.

Question 7.
What is the importance of relief in determining the climate?
It provides monsoon climate to whole country by acting as a climatic divide.

Question 8.
What is Jet Stream?
Jet streams are high velocity winds at high altitudes. A jet stream is a narrow tubular shaped flow of wind along the troposphere. These have a velocity of 500 kms per hour and are located at 5 to 12 kms with an average location between 20°S to 40°N latitudes.

Question 9.
What do you mean by the term Monsoon?
The word Monsoon is said to be derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausam’ meaning season. This word was first applied to the winds blowing over the Arabian sea. Monsoon implies seasonal reversal of the wind pattern over the years. Monsoon winds are those seasonal or periodic winds which changes their direction with the season. These winds blow from sea to land of six months during summer and from land to see during winter. Thus with the change of season the pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall changes.

Question 10.
What is Burst of Monsoons?
The monsoon winds blow in south-west direction on the west coast. These are highly charged with water vapour. I’; advances rapidly over west coast. The rains begin rather suddenly in the first week of June. This sudden onset of rain is often termed as ‘Monsoon Burst’. This rainfall is heavily accompanied by thunder and lighting. The rain is so sudden and heavy that it appears as if a balloon of water has been burst.

Question 11.
What do you mean by ‘Loo’?
Loos are hot dusty winds caused by low pressure in hot season. These are very hot and dry winds. These are called ‘Loo’ in local language.

Question 12.
What is Break in Monsoons?
The dry period between monsoons is called Break.

Question 13.
What are monsoons?
Monsoons are seasonal winds.

Question 14.
Where does ELNINO ocean current flow?
Elnino current flows along the coast of Chile. It is studied for the reasons causing Monsoon.

Question 15.
What are ‘Kal Baisakhis’ or Norwesters?
Or
What are Kal Baisakhis?
The destructive cyclones are called Kal Baisakhis in West Bengal.

Question 16.
What is meant by ‘Mango Shower’?
North East Monsoons give rain in coastal areas of Kerala and Karnataka at the end of summer seasons.

Question 17.
At which places do the Monsoon winds coming from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal meet?
The Monsoon winds from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal meet in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

II. Give reasons df the following in brief:

Question 1.
Mumbai is colder than Nagpur.
Nagpur is situated away from sea. Whereas Mumbai is situated on the sea shore. There is equable type of climate in Mumbai due to effect of sea. Therefore there is less cold.

In the opposite of it, Nagpur has situated far away hum sea and free from sea effect. Therefore, extreme type of climate is found here.

Therefore, Nagpur is colder than Mumbai in winter.

Question 2.
Most of the average Annual rainfall in India comps in just four months of the year.
In India, rainfalls mostly from mid June to mid September. The Monsoon winds coming from sea blow oyer India in these four months. These vapour laden winds give heavy rainfall in India.

Question 3.
Kolkata receives 145 cm of Rainfall whereas Jaisalmer receives only 12 cm of rainfall by the South West monsoons.
The S. W. monsoons, from Bay of Bengal, first of all strike in Kolkata in West Bengal. These moisture laden winds give a heavy rainfall of 145 cms here. Jaisalmer lies to the west of Aravallis in Rajasthan. Aravallis lie parallel to S.W. Monsoons of Arabian sea. So these mountains fail to check S. W. monsoons. These winds move northward giving only 12 cms of rainfall.

Question 4.
Chennai receives most rainfall during winter season.
Chennai is situated on Eastern coastal plain of India. It comes under the effect of North-East monsoon winds. These winds move from land to sea. But while crossing the Bay of Bengal, these pick up moisture. After striking Eastern ghats, these give heavy rainfall in winter. In summer, it gets less rain as it is a rain shadow area.

Question 5.
Chennai gets more rainfall in winters. Why?
Chennai is located on the east coast of India. N.E. monsoons give here rainfall in winter. But in summer, dry winds blow which do not give more rainfall.

III. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
What are the regional variations in the climate of India?

1. Range of Temperature. There is a great variation in range of temperatures in different parts of India. Kerala and Andaman-Nicobar islands have a daily range of temperature i. e. 8° C. On the other hand in Thar Desert, if the day temperature is around 50° C, at night it may drop down very close to freezing point (0°C). The daily range of temperature is 50°C.
2. Direction of Rain Bearing Winds. Most of India gets rain in summer from S. W. Monsoons but, in winter Tamilnadu gets rain from N. E. Monsoons.
3. Form of Precipitation. Most of the country gets rain showers, while snowfall occurs in the Himalayas.
4. Amount of Rainfall. The annual rainfall is less than 10 cms in N. W. Himalayas and Thar Desert. It exceeds 400 cms. in Meghalaya. Mawsynram gets 1,141 cms rainfall.
5. Rainfall Regime i.e. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall. There is a great variation in rainfall regimes in the country. Most of the country gets rain from advancing monsoons in summer. Tamilnadu gets rainfall in winter from N.E. monsoons. Some parts receive rainfall from retreating monsoons.

Question 2.
Give an account of the main reasons for the climatic variations in the country.
There are great variations in the climate of India. It is not the same throughout the year due to:

1. Northern hilly region remains cold due to high altitude. Coastal areas have equable climate. Interior areas have high temperatures.
2. Windward slopes get high rainfall but rain shadow areas are dry.
3. In summer, winds blow from sea, to land. These moist winds give heavy rainfall. But as these move ahead, the rainfall goes on decreasing.
4. In winter the winds blow from land to sea. These winds are dry. Only S.E. coast of India gets rainfall. Other parts remain dry.

Question 3.
Why does the Pre-Monsoonal rainfall occur?
In summer, equatorial low-pressure shifts towards Tropic of Cancer. To fill this space, the S.E. trades cross the Equator and get the direction of S.W. winds due to rotation of the earth. On 1st June, when these winds reach west coast, moderate rainfall occurs on windward slope of western ghats. This is called pre-monsoonal rainfall.

Question 4.
Describe India’s rainy season.
Rainy season is also called the South West Monsoon season. Its time period is from the June to Mid September. The main characteristics of this season are:

1. A low pressure trough is developed in N.W. India.
2. Winds enter into the country from sea and give heavy rainfall.
3. The winds filled with humidity move at the rate of 30 km per hour and spread into whole country within one month.
4. Indian peninsula divides Monsoon into two parts-Monsoon winds of Arabian Sea and Monsoon winds of Bay of Bengal.
5. Most of rainfall in Western ghat and North East area of India is done by monsoon winds of Bay of Bengal.

There is more than 250 cm of rainfall on the winward slopes of western ghats. On the opposite there is more than 50 cm of rainfall on leeward slopes. Therefore due to this reason most of rainfall in Northeast states of India is highest and longer on hills of Eastern Himalayas. On the opposite the amount of rainfall goes on decreasing from East to West.

Question 5.
Which places receive maximum rainfall in India?
The areas in which the rainfall is between from 1.50 to 200 cm are the places with highest rainfall. These are divided into three areas:

1. A narrow belt of 20 km width extends from western ghat to Kanyakumari in the North-South direction. It extends from the mouth of the Tapti River to the plains of Kerala.
2. Second belt extends along the southern slopes of Himalayas. It extends from Himachal Pradesh to the valley of Assam passing through Kumaon Himalaya.
3. Third belt extends in North-South direction. The hills of Tripura, Manipur and Mekar are in it. There is 200 cm annual rainfall in the belt.

Question 6.
Give any three characteristics of Indian Monsoon.
See Question 2. Part IV.

Question 7.
In spite of being close to the Arabian Sea, why does Rajasthan remain dry?
Or
Why Rajasthan remains dry inspite of being close to Arabian Sea?
The western part of Rajasthan is desert. It gets an annual rainfall less than 20 cms. This is due to the following reasons:

1. Rajasthan is under the influence of S.W. summer monsoons. The Aravallis system lies parallel to the direction of S.W. monsoons coming from Arabian Sea. So this mountain system is unable to check these winds. So western Rajasthan is practically dry. The southern part gets some rainfall.
2. This area lies at a great distance from the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal monsoons become dry and lose their moisture when they reach Rajasthan.
3. This area is away from the Himalayan region. So it does not come under the influence of monsoons giving rain in Sub-Himalayan region.

Question 8.
How do South East trade winds cause Monsoon rainfall?
South East trade winds crossing the equator move towards India. The direction is changed due to rotation and move in S. W. directions. These reach Kerala coast on 1st June and give heavy rainfall. This is called Monsoon burst. These winds cover whole of India in one month and give rainfall.

IV. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Which elements affect the climate of India?
The climate of India is mainly based on the following facts:
1. Distance from the equator. The places which are situated near the equator have high temperature whereas the places away from the equator do not have high temperature.

2. Height above sea level. The higher you go, the cooler it is. That is why the mountainous regions are cooler than plains.

3. Distance from the sea. The places near the sea have equable climate. Neither the summers are very hot nor the winters are cold, whereas in the parts away from the sea the summers are hot and winters are cold.

4. Winds. The winds have a great affect on the climate of India. The winds coming from the sea are full of moisture and they cause heavy rain. On the other hand, the winds that come from the land are dry winds and cause no rain.

5. Direction of the mountains. Wherever the mountains are located in the way of the winds, the winds are forced to rise against the mountains and cause rainfall. For example, when the moisture laden monsoon winds strike against Himalayas they cause heavy rain in West Bengal and Assam. On the other hand, the Aravali mountains run parallel to the direction of the monsoons that blow from the Arabian Sea and there is no rain in Rajasthan.

6. Nature of the soil. Sand gets heated and cooled quickly. The land is sandy in Rajasthan. That is why, the temperature is of extreme type there.

7. Slope of the land. If the land slopes towards the sun the rays of the sun will fall vertically and the temperature will be high. On the contrary if the land slopes away from the sun the rays of the sun will be slanting and the temperature will be low.

8. Forests. The regions with dense forests receive heavy rain, because the winds blowing over these forests gain moisture from the leaves of the trees, lose temperature and cause rain.

Question 2.
Describe the main characteristics of monsoon rainfall in India.
Characteristics of rainfall in India: The average annual rainfall in India is about 110 cms. It is estimated that more than 85% of this rainfall is received in summer. The main characteristics of summer rainfall are given below:

1. Monsoonal rainfall. Most of the rain is received from S.W. summer monsoons during the period mid-June to mid-September. It is seasonal rainfall.
2. Uncertain rainfall. Summer rainfall is quite uncertain. Some times monsoons start early resulting in floods. Often the onset of monsoons is delayed resulting in drought. The early or late retreat of monsoons also results in serious droughts.
3. Unequal distribution. The rainfall is Unevenly distributed over the country. About 10% of the country gets more than 200 cms of rain while 25% of the country gets less than 75 cms of rain.
4. Heavy rainfall. Indian rainfall is heavy and downpouring type. It is often said, “It pours, it never rains in India.”
5. Relief rainfall. The amount of rainfall is determined by the presence of mountains. High mountains force monsoons to rise and cause rain.
6. No continuity of rainfall. Summer rain is characterised by breaks or dry spells.
7. Variable rainfall. Most of the areas have variable rainfall, as much as 30 cms. plus or minus. Due to variability in areas of low rain, famines occur.

Question 3.
Explain the characteristics of different seasons of India.
The Indian Weather: The Indian sub-continent has a tropical monsoon climate. Monsoons dominate the climate of the sub-continent. Monsoons exercise a unifying influence on the weather conditions of India making it a single meteorological unit. India has a broad unity of monsoon type of climate having the same rhythm of season. The advance and retreat of monsoon divide the weather into different seasons.

(A) Seasons of N.E. Monsoons.

1. The Cold Season. December to February.
2. The Hot Season. March to May.

(B) Season of S.W. Monsoons.

1. The Rainy Season. June to September
2. The Season of Retreating Monsoon. October to November.

1. The Cold Season: The cold season lasts from December to February.
(a) Temperature. The sun is overhead at Tropic of Capricorn. The Indian sub-continent has winter season. January is the coldest month. The southern parts have warm conditions. (20°C) while low temperatures (10°C) are found in N.W. India.

(b) Pressure and Winds. High pressure is developed over N.W. part while a low pressure exists over the Indian Ocean with the result winds blow from land to sea. The out-blowing winds are Westerly in Northern plain and North Easterly over the rest of the country.

Rainfall. The N.E. Monsoons are off-shore winds and are dry. But these winds pick up some moisture crossing Bay of Bengal and give rain to S.E. coast of India. Some cyclones from Mediterranean Sea also bring a small amount of rain (10 to 20 cms.) to Northern plains. Night Frost is common in the N.W. parts.

2. The Hot Season. The hot season lasts from March to May.
(а) Temperature: As the sun’s rays fall vertical over Tropic of Cancer, the temperature begins to rise. The average temperature is above 30 C; the maximum temperature rises to 50°C in Banner (Rajasthan). The daily range of temperature rises in inland areas.

(b) Pressure and Winds. Intense heat results in the development of low pressure over N.W. India and Pakistan. A high pressure exists over Indian Ocean. S.W. Monsoons begin to blow from sea to land. ‘Norwesters’ and ‘Loo’ blow over Northern plains.

(c) Rainfall. Some areas receive convectional rainfall. The west coast also starts receiving rainfall. Most of the country is dry in the pre-Monsoon period.

3. The Rainy Season. The rainy season lasts from June to September.
(а) Temperature. The sun shines vertical over Tropic of Cancer. The temperatures are more than 30°C. With the onset of monsoon, there is a drop in temperature (5° to 10°C) with the result July is not the hottest month.

(b) Pressure and Winds. S.W. Monsoons blow from sea to land with a “burst’ on the West coast. It blows in two currents.

1. The Arabian Sea Current,
2. The Bay of Bengal Current

(c) Rainfall. S.W. Monsoons are rain giver as most of the sub-continent gets rainfall in this season. The Arabian Sea branch gives heavy rainfall on the West Coast, but Deccan plateau lies in rain shadow of Western Ghats. The Bay of Bengal branch gives heavy rainfall in Eastern Himalayas. The rainfall goes on decreasing up the Ganges valley with the decrease in moisture. Rajasthan is practically a desert.

4. The Season of Retreating Monsoon. S.W. Monsoons begin to withdraw from the sub-continent during the first week of October. The sun begins to move towards equator. There is a decrease in temperature. Hot and sticky weather is found. Some tropical cyclones are developed which give heavy rainfall in coastal areas. Cool-weather begins in N.W. India, but the Southern parts have an equable climate.

Question 4.
Compare the summer and winter seasons of India.

The Indian Weather: The Indian sub-continent has a tropical monsoon climate. Monsoons dominate the climate of the sub-continent. Monsoons exercise a unifying influence on the weather conditions of India making it a single meteorological unit. India has a broad unity of monsoon type of climate having the same rhythm of season. The advance and retreat of monsoon divide the weather into different seasons.

(A) Seasons of N.E. Monsoons.

1. The Cold Season. December to February.
2. The Hot Season. March to May.

(B) Season of S.W. Monsoons.

1. The Rainy Season. June to September
2. The Season of Retreating Monsoon. October to November.

1. The Cold Season: The cold season lasts from December to February.
(a) Temperature. The sun is overhead at Tropic of Capricorn. The Indian sub-continent has winter season. January is the coldest month. The southern parts have warm conditions. (20°C) while low temperatures (10°C) are found in N.W. India.

(b) Pressure and Winds. High pressure is developed over N.W. part while a low pressure exists over the Indian Ocean with the result winds blow from land to sea. The out-blowing winds are Westerly in Northern plain and North Easterly over the rest of the country.

Rainfall. The N.E. Monsoons are off-shore winds and are dry. But these winds pick up some moisture crossing Bay of Bengal and give rain to S.E. coast of India. Some cyclones from Mediterranean Sea also bring a small amount of rain (10 to 20 cms.) to Northern plains. Night Frost is common in the N.W. parts.

2. The Hot Season. The hot season lasts from March to May.
(а) Temperature: As the sun’s rays fall vertical over Tropic of Cancer, the temperature begins to rise. The average temperature is above 30 C; the maximum temperature rises to 50°C in Banner (Rajasthan). The daily range of temperature rises in inland areas.

(b) Pressure and Winds. Intense heat results in the development of low pressure over N.W. India and Pakistan. A high pressure exists over Indian Ocean. S.W. Monsoons begin to blow from sea to land. ‘Norwesters’ and ‘Loo’ blow over Northern plains.

(c) Rainfall. Some areas receive convectional rainfall. The west coast also starts receiving rainfall. Most of the country is dry in the pre-Monsoon period.

3. The Rainy Season. The rainy season lasts from June to September.
(а) Temperature. The sun shines vertical over Tropic of Cancer. The temperatures are more than 30°C. With the onset of monsoon, there is a drop in temperature (5° to 10°C) with the result July is not the hottest month.

(b) Pressure and Winds. S.W. Monsoons blow from sea to land with a “burst’ on the West coast. It blows in two currents.

1. The Arabian Sea Current,
2. The Bay of Bengal Current

(c) Rainfall. S.W. Monsoons are rain giver as most of the sub-continent gets rainfall in this season. The Arabian Sea branch gives heavy rainfall on the West Coast, but Deccan plateau lies in rain shadow of Western Ghats. The Bay of Bengal branch gives heavy rainfall in Eastern Himalayas. The rainfall goes on decreasing up the Ganges valley with the decrease in moisture. Rajasthan is practically a desert.

4. The Season of Retreating Monsoon. S.W. Monsoons begin to withdraw from the sub-continent during the first week of October. The sun begins to move towards equator. There is a decrease in temperature. Hot and sticky weather is found. Some tropical cyclones are developed which give heavy rainfall in coastal areas. Cool-weather begins in N.W. India, but the Southern parts have an equable climate.

Climatic graphs of Chennai and Mumbai

Climatic graphs of Jodhpur and Dethi

Question 5.
Explain with the help of examples the impact of monsoon winds on life in India.
Climate has a great effect on the economic, religious and social life of a country. It is also true in case of India. Monsoon is a powerful element of the climate of India and affects the life of people in many ways:
1. Economic effects. A lot of people depend upon agriculture. Monsoon rains are the basis of agriculture and backbone of the Indian Economy. If monsoons occur in time, it helps to increase agricultural production. When monsoons fail, there is a drought in India and the foodgrain reserves decrease. If monsoons start earlier,
the floods occur in different parts. If monsoons start late, the crops fail. With the result, it is often said, Indian budget is a gamble in monsoons.

2. Social effects. Monsoons affect the food, clothing, customs of people. With the
start of Monsoons, dress of people changes due to change in temperature. Monsoon winds complete a cycle in the country in which food and clothings change turn by turn. .

3. Religious effects. Many festivals are connected with monsoons. The sowing of crops and harvesting of crops are connected with festivals. Baisakhi in Punjab marks the harvesting of wheat crop and Bhangra is performed by farmers. In fact, the life of Indians revolves around Monsoons.

Question 6.
In spite of vast monsoon unity, there exist wide regional disparities in India. Explain with examples.
The rainfall is unevenly distributed in India. Many regional variations are found in the distribution of annual rainfall. The distribution of annual rainfall shows two main trends:

1. From the coastal areas, the rainfall decreases towards the west and North-West.
2. The rainfall decreases towards the interior of the country.

The main factors controlling this distribution of rainfall are the presence of high mountains and the distance from the sea. The coastal areas get high rainfall. The west coast gets more than 200 cms. of rainfall while the east coast gets about 100 cms. of rainfall. The rainfall in the interior of peninsular India is as low as 50 cms. The Western Ghats, the Garo-Khasi hills, and the Sub-Himalayan region get more than 200 cms. of rainfall. But Rajasthan is dry as there is no high mountain to check S.W. Monsoons.

Distribution of Rainfall, The average annual rainfall of India is 118 cms. Regional variations in the distribution are found due to differences in relief of the country. Rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the country.

India can be divided into the following, rainfall regions:

1. Areas of Heavy Rainfall. These areas get more than 200 cms. of annual rainfall. These include Western Coast and Western Ghats, Sub-Himalayas and the N.E. parts of India.
2. Areas of Moderate Rainfall. These areas get annual rainfall of 100-200 cms. These include West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Eastern parts of U.P. and Madhya Pradesh and coastal plains of Tamilnadu.
3. Areas of Low Rainfall. These areas experience an annual rainfall of 50-100 cms. These include Uttranchal, Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, Peninsular plateau and Eastern Rajasthan.
4. Areas of Scanty Rainfall. These areas get less than 50 cms. of annual rainfall. These include Ladakh, S.W. Punjab, Southern Haryana, Western Rajasthan, Kutch and Thar Desert.

IV. Represent the following on the outline map of India.

Question 1.
(i) Low pressure areas of summer and direction of winds.
(ii) Areas of winter rainfall and direction of North-East monsoon winds.
(iv) Regions of very less rainfall.
(v) Regions of more than 200 centimetres rainfall.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The Climate Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions each in one word or one line:

Question 1.
Which type of climate is found in India
Monsoon climate.

Question 2.
Name the hottest place in India.
Barmer.

Question 3.
Name the coldest place in India.
Dras.

Question 4.
Name the Rainiest place in India.
Mawsynram.

Question 5.
What is the cause of winter rain in’ Punjab?
Cyclones.

Question 6.
What type of winds are monsoons?
Seasonal.

Question 7.
What is the direction of summer monsoons?
South-west.

Question 8.
Name a Kharif crop depending on rains.
Rice.

Question 9.
What are hot dusty winds?
Loo.

Question 10.
Name one example of rain shadow.
Deccan plateau.

Question 11.
For which crop mango shower is useful?
Coffee.

Question 12.
Which region has high pressure in winter?
Rajasthan.

Question 13.
To which state Kal Baishaki relates?
Assam.

Question 14.
For which crop,winter rainfall is useful?
Wheat.

Question 15.
What is the duration of monsoon in India?
120 days.

Question 16.
How do Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal affect the climate of Sub¬continent?
These two affect very deeply the climate of Indian sub-continent.

Question 17.
Which land mass works as effective climatic divide for India and how?
Great Himalayas work as an effective climate divide for India.

Question 18.
If there were no monsoons what will be effect on India’s land mass?
If there were no monsoons in India then it will become a dry land mass or a desert.

Question 19.
How do mountain ranges of Himalaya effect the extent of monsoons in India?
Due to their effect the whole Indian sub-continent comes under the effect of saturated winds.

Question 20.
What is the period of rainy season in India? How much percentage rainfall occurs in this period?
The period of rainy season is from June to September. 75% to 90% of rainfall occurs in this period.

Question 21.
In which part of India rainfall occurs by Western Cyclones? For which crop this rainfall is useful?
Rainfall occurs in the northern India by western cyclones. This rainfall is useful for Rabi crop, especially the crop of wheat.

Question 22.
What is Monsoon trough?
Monsoon trough is the name given to the region in the inter tropical convergence zone which has low pressure.

Question 23.
What do you mean by low pressure trough of Monsoon?
The area with low pressure air develops in a big area in the end of May in this area.

Question 24.
Write two characteristics of Monsoon.

1. Monsoon winds change their direction with the change in season.
2. Rainfall occurs in the rainy season due to these winds.

Question 25.
Write two main characteristics of season of Retreating winds.

1. The area of low pressure is replaced by high pressure air.
2. Monsoons withdraw from Northern plains by the end of October.

Question 26.
In which part of India is the highest temperature in the start of summer season and what is the temperature?
There is highest temperature on Deccan Plateau in the start of summer season and the temperature is almost 38°C.

Question 27.
Which place has the highest rainfall in the world and why?
The highest rainfall occurs in the Mawsynram in the world.

Question 28.
Why does Shillong get more rainfall than Kolkata?
Shillong is situated at high altitude in Meghalaya. Bay of Bengal branch gives here heavy rainfall (about 400 cms annual rainfall).

Question 29.
Why has Thiruvananthapuram an equable climate?
Thiruvananthapuram is a coastal town of Kerala.

Question 30.
Define two characteristics of cold season in India.

1. The cold season occurs during December, January and February.
2. It has a pleasant, comfortable weather.

Question 31.
Why does Thar desert get low rainfall?
Aravallis lie parallel to S.W. monsoons and fail to check monsoons.

Question 32.
Name the following:
(i) Two stations affected most by Arabian Sea Branch of Monsoons.
Windward slope of West ghats, and coastal plain

(ii) The most affected place by Bay of Bengal Branch of Monsoons.
Mawsynram, Cheerapunji

(iii) Two stations affected by both.
Dharamsala, Mandi (H.P.).

Question 33.
Name the following:
(i) Two stations affected by Retreating monsoons & N.E. monsoons.

(ii) The months with highest rainfall.
July, August.

Question 34.
Mumbai gets most of rainfall in summer, while Chennai gets most of rainfall in winter. Why?

1. Mumbai gets rainfall by onshore S.W. winds of Arabian Sea.
2. Onshore N.E. winds give rainfall in winter season.

Question 35.
What is meant by Rain Shadow?
The leeward dry slope of mountain.

Question 36.
Name the rainiest place in India.
Mawsynram near Cheerapunji – 1187 cm rainfall.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Tropic of________ bisects India.
Cancer

Question 2.
_______ % rain falls in summer.
87

Question 3.
Agriculture is based on _________
Monsoons

Question 4.
The west coast gets rainfall of ________
250 cms

Question 5.
Hot season is __________
dry

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which is the coldest place in India?
(a) Srinagar
(b) Shinila
(c) Dras
(d) Shillong.
(c) Dras

Question 2.
Which is the hottest place in India?
(a) Nagpur
(b) Bangalore
(c) Barmer
(d) Kanpur.
(c) Barmer

Question 3.
Which is the rainiest place in India?
(a) Cherrapunji
(b) Mawsynram
(c) Kolkata
(d) Mumbai.
(b) Mawsynram

Question 4.
The duration of monsoons in India is:
(a) 60 days
(b) 90 days
(c) 120 days
(d) 150 days.
(c) 120 days

Question 5.
Which is a rain shadow area?
(a) Deccan plateau
(b) Assam
(c) Gujarat
(d) Kerala.
(a) Deccan plateau

True / False:

Question 1.
The southern part of west coastal plain is called Malabar coast.
True

Question 2.
Along the coast of Australia, EL Nino flows.
False

Question 3.
Winter cyclonic rainfall helps the growth of wheat crop.
True

Question 4.
Dry temperature in June in Barmer is 30°C.
False

Question 5.
Dras is the coldest place in India.
True

Question 1.
How do Himalayas act as ‘climatic divide’ for India?
The Himalayas act as a mountain wall to protect the sub-continent from the northern winds. These cold chilly polar winds cannot enter India, as these cannot cross the lofty Himalayas. So these mountains enable the Northern India to have a tropical climate. Thus the Himalayas act as an effective climatic divide.

Question 2.
Describe the origin of Monsoons and cause of its reversal of direction.
Monsoon winds are caused due to difference in heating and cooling of land and water. In summer, the land gets more heated than sea resulting in a low pressure on the landmasses and a high pressure over seas. The winds blow from Sea to Land and in winter, from Land to Sea. Thus there is a reversal of wind direction according to seasons.

Question 3.
Distinguish between Western Jet Stream and Eastern Jet Stream.
Western Jet Stream. The western jet stream is located in lower stratosphere over Southern Himalayas. In summer, its location is about 30° North. It lies north of the Tien Shan mountains in June.

Eastern Jet Stream. It lies over 25°N latitudes in winter. The western jet stream shifts southward due to shifting of the sun and takes the form of eastern jet stream. It is responsible for sudden burst of monsoons in summer in India.

Question 4.
What are the causes of storms occurring in May in N.W. part?
A strong trough of low pressure is formed in N.W. India in May. These areas attract winds from the oceans. So the hot and dry winds meet these wet winds. With the result, storms originate. Strong winds prevail over the area. Sometimes, there is torrential rainfall and hailstones.

Question 5.
What would have been the climate of India, had there been no Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Himalayas?

1. Had there been no Bay of Bengal, there would not have been rainfall in S.E. coast (Tamil Nadu). Temperature would have been high.
2. Without the Arabian Sea, there would not have been so much rainfall on western ghats and west coastal plains.
3. Without the Himalayas, India would not have got monsoonal rainfall.

Question 6.
Why is not the monsoonal rainfall continuous?
Summer monsoons are the cause of rainfall in India. The weather in S.W. monsoons is highly variable. It does not rain continuously throughout the period of summer monsoons. There are frequent ‘breaks’ or spells of dry weather, some of them lasting several days. This breaks the continuity of rain by S.W. monsoons.

The summer monsoons do not have great amount of moisture to give heavy rainfall. The amount of rainfall is increased by tropical depressions, convectional system, and jet stream. These cyclones are irregular and have a fluctuating pattern. The frequency of these cyclones determines the height of rainy season. The absence of these leads to a dry spell.

Question 7.
Give four examples of uncertainty and variability of Monsoons in India.
Indian monsoons are variable and uncertain in time and place.

1. The number of rainy days sometimes increases and sometimes decreases,
2. Some years, it is heavy rainfall, hut some years get light rainfall,
3. The start and end of monsoons is early or late,
4. Some areas get high rainfall and some areas remain dry.

Question 8.
‘India would have been an arid land or desert, if there had been no phenomena of Monsoons.’ Explain it giving four points.

1. Most of rainfall is obtained from S.W. Monsoons. Without these, India would have been arid.
2. Western coastal plain would have been dry.
3. Tamil Nadu, without N.E. monsoons, would have been dry.
4. Central and Eastern India would have been arid area.

Question 9.
Distinguish between Mango Showers and Kal Baisakhi.
Mango Showers. Local rainfall in coastal areas of Kerala and Karnataka at the close of summer premonsoons is called Mango showers. It helps in early ripening of mangoes.

Kal Baisakhi. In summer, West Bengal and Assam get sharp showers by evening thunder-storms. These are called Kal Baisakhi. It means calamity of the month of Baisakh.

Question 10.
Why does the interior of Deccan Plateau and Rajasthan remain dry?
In Rajasthan, Aravallis lying parallel to S.W. monsoons fail to check these. So they do not give rainfall. Deccan plateau is situated in rain shadow of western ghats. In this area, the descending winds become dry and do not give rainfall.

Question 11.
Name three characteristics of retreating monsoons.
The months of October and November are known for retreating monsoons.

1. The monsoon low pressure trough becomes weaker and is replaced by high pressure.
2. The effect of monsoons over Indian landmass begins to shrink.
3. The direction of surface winds starts reversing.

Question 12.
Name three areas getting low rainfall.
The areas of low rainfall include the areas which get an annual rainfall of less than 50 centimetres.

1. Western Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat.
2. Interior of Deccan Plateau.
3. The region around Leh in Kashmir.

Question 13.
What is the effect of different seasons on life of people? Give three examples. .

1. During cold winter seasons in Northern India, people wear woollen clothes in December.
2. Due to hot, dusty winds (Loo) it is uncomfortable in the month of May.
3. The moist laden monsoons give rainfall in June-July and weather becomes sticky.

Question 14.
What is Jet Stream? State its branches and speed. What are their effects?
A Jet Stream is a high velocity wind in the upper air system. It has two branches- Westerly and Easternly jet streams. Westemly stream blows on 27°-30° N latitude. Its speed is about 110 km/hour to 184 km/hour. These bring cyclones with them over Northern India to increase summer rains.

Question 15.
What are western disturbances? What is their effect on crops?
Western disturbances are low pressure depressions coming from Mediterranean sea. These blow over N.W. part of India during winter. These provide 10-20 cms of rainfall which is helpful to wheat and other rain crops. This small rainfall is locally known as Mahawat.

Question 16.
What do you mean by I.T.C.Z.? Explain its location and formation.
I.T.C.Z. is Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. It is a brough trough of low pressure in Equatorial latitudes. It is formed due to convergence of N.E.’Trades and S.E. Trades.

It moves north or south of equator with the movement of the sun. It is situated on Ganga’ plain in summer and is called Monsoon trough also.

Question 17.
What is El Nino? What does it mean? What are its effects?
El Nino is a periodic warm current blowing along the coast of Peru in Pacific Ocean. It is a Spanish word which means child. It increases the surface temperatures and weakens the trade winds. The difference between pressure in Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean is used to compute the intensity of Monsoons; early or late monsoons.

Question 18.
‘Relief plays a major role in determining the climate of a place.’ Explain with examples.
High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds. The Himalayas check the cold winds from Siberia from entering in India. High mountains like Himalayas cause rainfall by checking moist winds. The leeward side of a mountain remains in Rainshadow and is dry.

Question 19.
Which weather conditions govern the climate of India?
(a) Pressure and surface winds
(b) Upper ah circulations
(c) Western cyclonic disturbances
(d) Tropical cyclones.

Question 20.
What is October Heat?
The month of October forms a period of transition from the hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of monsoons is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. Day temperatures are high, but nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist. Owing to conditions of high temperature and humidity the weather is rather oppressive during the day. This is known as ‘October Heat’.

Question 1.
Describe the season of Advancing Monsoon in India.
Advancing Monsoon. The four months of June. July, August and September form , the rainy season almost all over the country. This is called the season of‘Advancing Monsoons’. About 75% to 90% of total rainfall occurs in this season. This duration of the rainy season, however, goes on decreasing from south to north and from east to west. The rainy season is only two months long in North West, while it is nine months long in North East.

Origin of S.W. Monsoons. The low pressure conditions develop over the north western plains. By early June they are powerful enough to attract the trade winds of Southern Hemisphere. These south-east trade winds are Sea to Land winds. After crossing the equator these winds enter the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. After that, these winds blow over India. Passing over the Equatorial warm currents they bring with them moisture in abundance. After crossing the equator they follow a southwesterly direction. This is why they are known as south-west monsoons.

Burst of Monsoons. The rain-bearing winds are strong. They blow at an average speed of 30 km per hour. They over-run the country in a month’s time. The sudden approach of the moisture-laden winds is associated with violent thunder and lightning. This is known as “break” or “burst” of the mopsoons.

Branches of S.W. Monsoons. The Indian peninsula divides the monsoon into two branches.

1. The Arabian Sea Branch
2. The Bay of Bengal Branch.

1. The Arabian Sea Branch. The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoons strikes (Sahyadris) the Western Ghats. The windward side of the Sahyadris receives very heavy rains. Crossing the Western Ghats they blow over the Deccan Plateau and Madhya Pradesh. These winds give fair amount of rainfall in these areas. Thereafter, the jr enter in the Ganga Plains and mingle with the Bay of Bengal branch. Another part of the Arabian Sea branch strikes the Saurashtra peninsula and the Kutch. It passes over West Rajasthan and along the Aravallis causing only a scanty rainfall. In Punjab and Haryana too, it joins the Bay of Bengal branch. These two branches join together and cause rains in the Western Himalayas.

2. The Bay of Bengal Branch. The Bay of Bengal branch approaches the Burmese
coast and the southeast Bangladesh. But the Arakan Hills along the Burmese coast deflect this branch to enter the Indian subcontinent. The monsoons, therefore, enter West Bengal and Bangladesh from south and southeast instead of the south-westerly direction.

this branch splits into two parts under the influence of the mightly Himalayas and the thermal low in N.W. India.

1. One branch moves westward along the Ganga plains’ and reaches the Punjab plains.
2. The other branch moves up the Brahmaputra valley in the North and Northeast. It causes widespread rains in the North-eastern India. Its sub-branch strikes the Garo and Khasi Hills of the Meghalaya. Cherrapunji is situated at the head of a funnel-shaped valley in Khasi Hills. It gets the heaviest rainfall in the world due to its situation.

Distribution of Rainfall. Distribution of rainfall received from south-west monsoons is very largely governed by the relief or orography. For instance the windward side of the Western ghats gets a rainfall of over 250 centimetres. On the other hand the leeward side, receives 50 centimetres rainfall. The Northeastern States get heavy rainfall due to high Eastern Himalayas. The rainfall in the northern plains goes on decreasing from East to West. During this rainy season Kolkata receives about 120 centimetres, Patna 102 cm, Allahabad 91 cm and Delhi 56 cm.

The Climate PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Climate of India – Tropical Monsoon type.
• Highest Temperature – Barmer (Rajasthan) 50°C.
• Lowest Temperature – Kargil (Ladakh) – 45°C.
• Rainiest Place – Mawsynram – 1140 cms annual rainfall.
• Indian Ocean – Storehouse of moisture for monsoons.
• The Himalayas – A climatic divide.
• Jet Stream – A fast-flowing wind a high altitude.
• Monsoon – Derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’.
• Seasons in India – Cold, Hot, Rainy and Retreating Monsoons.
• Western Disturbances:
1. Cyclones from the Mediterranean Sea.
2. Give rainfall in N.W. India in winter.
• Mango Showers – Ike-monsoon winds.
• Kal Baisakhi – Local thunderstorms in Bengal and Assam.
• South-West Monsoons:
1. 1st June Date of onset in Kerala.
2. Arabian Sea Branch and Bay of Bengal Branch.
• Rain Shadow Areas – Deccan Plateau, N.W. Kashmir, Shillong Plateau.
• North-East Monsoons:
1. Retreating Monsoons (October-November).
2. Give rainfall on the East coast.
• Monsoons – Uncertain, irregular, variable in place and time
A unifying bond.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 3 The Climate Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Land

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Land Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions objectively :

Question 1.
Name main units of India’s physical divisions.

1. Himalayan ranges
2. Northern great plains
3. Peninsular plateau
4. Coastal plains and
5. Indian islands.

Question 2.
What is the size of the Himalayan Mountain range?
Himalayans are a convex curve. Its central part is bent along Indo-Nepalese border and looks like a bow.

Question 3.
Name the major peaks of Trans Himalayas.
The main peaks are Mt. K2 Godwin Austin, Hindon Peak, Broad Peak Geyserabam, Rakaposhi, Harmush.

Question 4.
Which mountain peaks are found at the height above 8000 metres in Greater Himalayas?
Mt. Everest 8848 metres, Kanchenjunga (8598) metres, Makalu 8481 metres, Dhaulagiri 8172 metres Manalasu, Naga Parbat and Annapurna.

Question 5.
Name the young and old mountains of India.
Himalayas are young mountains. Old mountains include Aravallis, Vindhyas, Satpuras.

Question 6.
Where are rift valleys located in India?
Rift valleys are found over peninsular India like Narmada and Tapti valleys.

Question 7.
What is meant by delta?
A triangular shaped land formed in the lower course of a river is called a delta.

Question 8.
Name some important deltaic regions of India.
The main deltas are Ganga Brahmaputra, Godawari Delta, Kaveri Delta, Krishna Delta and Mahanadi Delta.

Question 9.
Which passes are found in the Himalayan mountains?
The main passes in Himalayas are Burzel, Zoji la, Nanak la, Chang la, Khurnak la, Barala, Shipki la, Nathu la, Takla Kot.

Question 10.
Name the important mountain ranges of the lesser Himalayas.

1. Pir Panjal in Kashmir
2. Dhauladhar to Kumaon in H.P.
3. Mahabharat ranges in Nepal
4. Mussorie in U.P.
5. Thimpu in Bhutan.

Question 11.
Which hill stations and valleys are found in Lesser Himalayas?
Shimla, Srinagar, Mussorie, Nainital, Darjeeling, Chakrata are hill resorts.

Question 12.
Name the main Doon-valleys of our country.
Dehra Dun, Patli Doon, Kothri Doon, Udhampur, Kotli.

Question 13.
Name the major Eastern off-shoots of Himalayas.
Patkoi Bum, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Tripura.

Question 14.
Which landform features formed by rivers are found in the Great Northern plains?
Alluvial cones, Fans, Meanders, River terraces, Natural leaves and Flood plains.

Question 15.
What is the size of the Brahmaputra plain?
Brahmaputra plain is 640 kms. long and 90-100 kms wide. This narrow plain slopes from N. East to West.

Question 16.
What is the extent of Aravalli mountain range? Give the name of its highest peak.
Aravallies extend from Delhi to Gujarat. It is 725 km long. Guru Shikhar 1722 metres high is the highest peak.

Question 17.
Name the major peaks of western ghats.

1. Vania Mala (2339 metres)
2. Kudremukh (1894 Metres)
3. Pushpagiri (1714 metres), Kalsubai (1646 metres).

Question 18.
Name the southern mountains of the Eastern Ghats.
Javadi, Gingee, Shevroy, Kalaimalais, Panchmalais, Godumalai are the hills of Eastern ghats.

Question 19.
Which mountain ranges meet at the Anaimudi Knot?
Three ranges meet at Anaimudi Knot Cardamom from south, Anaimalai from North and Palni from North East.

Question 20.
Which hill stations are found in Deccan plateau’s hilly region?
Doda Beta, Ootacumand (Udagmandlam), Kodaikanal.

Question 21.
What are the sub-divisions of North-eastern coastal plain?

1. Orissa Coast
2. Northern Circar Coast.

Question 22.
Name the Islands in the Arabian sea.
This group of islands is called Lakshadweep. It includes Amini Divi, Central (Lacca deep), Minicoi in South.

Question 23.
Which onshore Islands are found near the coasts of India?
Sagar, Saurat, New Moors islands, Bhasra, Palmban, Elephanta are near the coasts of India.

Question 24.
Where is the Southern frontier point of India located?
Indira Point (Near Great Nicobar).

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Do we find any similarities between Himalayan mountain and the Deccan plateau?
The following similarities are found between the Himalayas and the Deccan plateau.

• The Himalayas came into existence due to presence of the Southern plateau.
• The hills, faults and folds of the southern peninsula have been formed due to pressure from the Himalayas.
• Many minerals are found in both areas.:
• Forests are found in both areas for the use in the country.

Question 2.
Are the Himalayan mountains still in youth or young stage?

• There is no doubt about the fact that Himalayas are still young fold mountains.
• It has been folded out of sediments deposited by rivers. Folds were formed in sediments due to the drifting of two blocks on either side. It increased the height of Himalayas.
• Himalayas are still rising. These mountains were formed at a later stage as compared to other mountains. So these are called young mountains.

Question 3.
Throw some light on the surface features of Great Himalayas.
The Himalayas extend from Indus Valley to Dihang Gorge in the East. Its main characteristics are:

• It is the longest and the highest mountain range of the country. It includes old rocks of granite, gneiss crystalline metamorphic rocks.
• It has Mt. Everest 8848 metres high, the highest peak of the world.
• The peaks of the Himalayas are always snow-covered.
• Many passes make routes across it.
• It includes important valleys of Kathmandu and Kashmir.

Question 4.
Which alluvial plains form part of the great Indian Northern Plain?
The following are the alluvial plains included in Northern great plain:

2. Bangar plains
3. Bhabar plains
4. Terai plains
5. Barren plains.

Question 5.
Write a Geographical note on the Thar Desert.
Thar Desert extends from southern borders of Punjab and Haryana to Rann of Kutch (Gujarat). It is a plain and arid area. Aravallis form its eastern boundary. It has international boundary of Pakistan in the West. It is 640 km. long and 300 km. wide. In ancient period, this region was under sea. Proofs show that this desert was once a fertile area. But due to low rainfall and deforestation it has been changed into areas of sand dunes.

Question 6.
What could be the different divisions of Indian Islands on the basis of location? Explain with examples and diagrams.
On the basis of location, Indian islands can be divided into the following two groups:
1. Islands situated away from the coast. There are about 230 islands found in groups. Such Coral islands exist in Arabian Sea and are called Lakshdweep islands. Amandivi, Lakshdweep, Minicoy are other islands. Andaman Nicobar islands, Norcadam, Barren islands are found in Bay of Bengal.

2. Islands situated near the coast. The new moor islands Sorat, Wheeler islands are found near Ganges delta. Other islands are Bhasara, Diu, Palmbam, Mandapam, Elephanta.

Question 7.
What is the contribution of coastal plains to entire country?

1. Coastal plains are known for rice, dates, coconuts, spices, ginger, cardamoms, etc.
3. High grade fish are caught in these coastal areas,
4. Beaches along Goa, Mumbai, Tamilnadu are a great attraction for the tourists.
5. Salt is prepared on the marshy areas of west coast.

Question 8.
What is the contribution of the Himalayan Region to the development of the country as a whole?
The following is the contribution of the Himalayan region to the development of the country as a whole.

1. Useful Rivers. All the important rivers such as the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Sutlej, the Brahmaputra etc. rise in the Himalayas.
2. Useful Wood. On account of heavy rainfall, dense forests are found in the Himalayas. Teak, deodar and pine are some of the trees, the wood of which is of great use.
3. Minerals. Many types of minerals are found in the Himalayas.
4. Fruits and Tea. The slopes of the Himalayas are very favourable for the growth of various fruits and tea. Assam is known for good quality of tea.
5. Fodder and Medicinal Herbs. Many varities of medicinal herbs and grasses for fodder grow over most of the parts of Himalayas.

Question 9.
How does the peninsular plateau affect the other physical region of India?

1. Peninsular India is a part of old Gondwana land. The rivers rising out of it helped in the formation of Himalayas. After that it helped in the formation of Northern plains.
2. On both sides of the plateau, there are many dams. These dams provide water for irrigation to the plains and power for industries.
3. The forests of this area meet the needs of the other parts of the country.

III. Differentiate between

Question 1.
(i) Distinguish between Terai and Bhabar region.

 Terai Bhabar 1. Terai is a broad long zone south of Bhabar plain. 1. Bhabar is a long narrow plain along the foothills. 2. It is a marshy damp area covered with thick forests. 2. It is a pebble-studded zone of porous beds. 3. It is 20-30 kms wide. 3. It is 8-16 km wide. 4. Many streams re-emerge here from the Bhabar area. 4. Streams are lost in the region due to porous rocks. 5. It is suitable for agriculture. 5. It is unsuitable for agriculture.

(ii) Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar.

 Bangar Khadar 1. The older alluvium of the high plain is called Bangar. 1. The younger alluvium of the flood plain is called Khadar. 2. This area stands above the level of the , flood plain. 2. Flood water spreads a new layer over it every year. 3. It is composed of calcarous Kankars and clay. (Dahia) 3. It is composed of fertile alluvium. (Bet)

IV. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Divide the relief of India and explain in detail any one region.
India is divided into following physiographic divisions:

1. Himalayan Ranges
2. Northern Great Plains
3. Peninsular India
4. Coastal Plains
5. Indian Islands.

Himalayan Ranges. The Himalayas are spread over the northern boundary of India like an arc, from west to east. The length of these mountains is about 2500 kilometres and breadth is between 250 to 400 kilometres. The Mount Everest (8,848 metres) is the highest peak of the Himalayas.

The Himalayas can be divided into three parts :
1. Northern Kashmir Himalayas. The North-western part of the Himalayas is known as the Kashmir Himalayas. Karakoram, Laddakh, Zaskar and Kailash ; are the main ranges of the Kashmir Himalayas.

2. Main Himalayas
1. Greater Himalayas or Himadri. This range spreads from East to West. Mount Everest (8,488 metres), the highest peak of the world lies in the range. Jojila, Jailpa la and Lingshi la are some of the important passes in this range.

2. The Himachal Range or Lesser Himalayas. The average height of this range is 3500 to 4500 metres and its breadth is 60 to 80 kilometres. Hill stations like Shimla, Mu^oorie and Nainital are situated on this range.

3. Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas. The average height of these hills is 900 to 1200 metres and breadth is only 10 to 50 kilometres.

The Himalayas

4. Off-Shoots of the Himalayas. The Himalayas turn to the south on the eastern and western flanks. They are repectively known as the Eastern and the Western Himalayas in the east and the west.
(а) Eastern Himalayas. The Himalayas consist of the famous hills of Patkoi, Naga and Manipur. They are very low hills and are fully covered with forests.
(b) Western Himalayas. In the West, Suleman and Kirthar ranges are dominant. They have many important passes like Khyber, Tochi and Bolan.

Western Himalayas

Eastern Himalayas

Question 2.
Write a note on the origin and structure of the Himalayas. Are they still rising?
Millions of years ago, the Himalayas were occupied by a geosyncline known as Tethys. It was sandwiched between two long landmasses—Angara land on the north and Gondwana land on the south. The Tethys seas stretched over the Northern plains in east-west direction. For millions of years, sediments were deposited in Tethys sea. These sediments were folded to form the Himalayas. The land masses of Angara land and Gondwana land drifted slowly towards each other. The horizontal forces worked from two opposite directions resulting in compression. It led to sinking of the Tethys sea.

The Indian plate was driven northwards and pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. When the two plates came closer, the Tethys sea’s crust fractured. The sediments buckled and folded to form the mighty fold mountains of the Himalayas. It has been observed that the ‘Himalayas are still rising.

Question 3.
Compare the Western and Eastern coastal plains.

 Western Coastal Plains Eastern Coastal Plains 1. West Coast is a narrow alluvial plain with a width of 50-80 kms.It is uneven and wet. 1. The Eastern Coast has a wide plain with well developed delta 80 to 120 km wide. It is level and dry. 2. Beautiful lagoons are found on the Malabar Coast. 2. The Eastern Coast has only two or three lagoons. 3. The short swift rivers do not make any deltas on the western Coast. The Tapti and Narmada make estuaries. 3. The large rivers make wide deltas on the Eastern Coast. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishana, Cauvery make well developed deltas. 4. Kandla, Mumbai, Marmugao, Mangalore and Cochi are major ports on West Coast. 4. Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradeep and’Kolkata are major ports on the East Coast.

Question 4.
Give a detailed description of the size, origin and regional division of India’s Northern plains.
Extent. The great plain extends in between the Himalayas and the Peninsular plateau. It is 3200 km long and 150 to 300 km wide. Its average height is 150 metres. It covers an area of 7.5 lakh sq. km.

Formation. It is an alluvium filled trough. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought from the Himalayas by the Ganga, Sutlej and other rivers.

Main Characteristics :

1. It is a dead flat lowland. The maximum height above the sea level is 263 metres.
2. It has a gentle gradient $$\frac{1}{4}$$ metre per km.
3. It has huge depth of alluvium.
4. A large number of rivers flow in this plain dividing it into Doabs.
5. It has fertile alluvial soils namely Khadar and Bangar soils.

Division of Northern Plain :

1. Bhabar and Terai. It is a long, narrow zone along the foothills. It is a pebble- studded zone. Swampy areas occur in Terai.
2. Punjab Plain. This plain has a slope in the South West direction. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments by Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers. Chos (seasonal streams) cause soil erosion in foothills of Shiwaliks.
3. Ganga Plain. This plain has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought by the Ganga and its tributaries. It can be divided into three regions—upper Ganga plain, middle Ganga plain and the lower Ganga plain. It occupies an area of about 3.5 lakh sq. km. Sunder Ban Delta is formed in the lower Ganga plain.
4. Brahmaputra Plains. These plains are situated in the Eastern part and are often known as Assam valley. The Brahmaputra river forms a large delta in Bangladesh.

The Great Indian Desert plain of the west. This covers the western part of the Aravalli mountains. This region has a sandy land, so it is also known as the Thar desert. This region gets very little rainfall, due to which the agriculture is not developed here. There are many saltwater lakes like the Sambhar, Didwana and Panchpadra, from which salt is extracted.

The formation of northern plains.
The northern plains lie in between the Himalayas and the peninsular India. It has been formed by the filling of the depression formed by Tethys sea. The Himalayan rivers after eroding the Himalayas deposited huge amount of silt and deposition in the ever-shrinking Tethys sea. This depression has been filled gradually to form northern plains or the Indo- gangetic plains. These rivers have deposited silt to form Ganga delta in Bangladesh. Due to continuous deposition, the delta is still advancing towards sea.

Question 5.
What is the extent and surface formation of the Peninsular Plateau? Describe its sub-division on the basIs”of slope of the land’.
The Peninsular Plateau:
The Deccan plateau is the oldest structure of India. It is the core of the geology of India. It is surrounded by oceans on three sides. Therefore it is often called Peninsular plateau. It covers an area of 16 lakh sq. km. The average altitude of the plateau varies from 600 to 900 metres. Its limits are formed by the Aravallis in the North Rajmahal Hills and Shillong plateau in the East. There is Malda gap between Rajmahal hills and Shillong plateau. The southernmost point is known as Kanyakumari. It is an ancient, stable, hard block formed by igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was part of Gondwana land.

Division of Peninsular Plateau. A series of low hills, known as Satpura ranges between 21° N to 24° N latitudes divided the Peninsular plateau into two parts.
(a) Malwa Plateau
(b) Deccan Plateau.

(a) Malwa Plateau. The Malwa plateau covers a large part of central highlands. It extends from Aravallis in the West, Ganges valley in the North and East, and Vindhyas in the South. The Aravallis are residual mountains or Relict Mountains. Its highest peaks are Mt. Abu (1158 metres) and Guru Shikhar (1722 metres). This plateau includes Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand and Chambal valley. This Vindhyan plateau consists of long narrow ridges made up of Quartzite rocks. It extends upto Mahadeo Hills, Kaimur range, Maikal range, Rajmahal hills in the East. In the East lies Chotta Nagpur plateau drained by Damodar river. This plateau is the storehouse of minerals of India.

Vindhyas: This range extends from east to west in the north of River Narmada. It separates Northern India from Southern India. Its average height is 300 metres. It starts from Gujarat in the west and goes up to Bihar in the East passing through the Madhya Pradesh.

Satpuras: This mountain range spreads between the Narmada and the Tapti rivers. They extend from Gujarat in the west to Amarkantak in the east. Dhupgarh (1350 metres) is the highest point of these ranges.

(b) Deccan Plateau: This plateau lies South of Narmada river. It is surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and Satpuras. Narmada and Tapti valleys are rift valleys between Satpuras and Vindhyas. Karnataka Plateau lies between Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Deccan plateau is a tilted plateau with a general eastward slope. It covers an area of about 70 lakh sq. km. Its average height varies between 500 metres to 1000 metres.

The rivers have divided this plateau into many sub divisions. N.W. Deccan plateau is made up of lava and is known as Deccan trap.
1. the Western Ghats. The Western Ghats extend from Tapti Valley up to Kanyakumari for about 1500 kms. It has three passes Thai ghat, Bhor ghat and Pal ghat. These ranges rise abruptly from the coast. Short swift streams flow towards the west and do not form deltas. The average height is about 1200 metres. Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers rise from Western ghats and flow towards East. Anai Mudi (2698 metres) is the highest peak.

East-West Cross Profile of the South Indian Plateau

2. Eastern Ghats. Eastern Ghats extend for about 800 kms from Mahanadi valleys upto Nilgiris. These are not continuous ranges. Rivers form wide gaps. Javadi, Shevroy and Nallamalai bills are found in the Southern part.

(Hi) Nilgiris. The western and eastern Ghats join each other in the south where they are known as the Nilgiris. Doda Beta (2637 metres) is the highest peak in the Nilgiris.

Question 6.
Compare and contrast the surface features of the Himalayas and Peninsular Plateau.
Or
Cite difference between Himalayas and Peninsular Plateau comparing their physical features.

 The Himalayas Indian Plateau 1. The Himalayas are young new fold mountains. 1. The Indian plateau is an ancient crystalline table land. 2. These mountains have been formed due to folding by different earth movements. 2. This plateau has been formed’ as a Horst. 3. The relief features show young age of the Himalayas. 3. The plateau is old and well dissected. 4. Parallel mountain ranges are formed in the Himalayan region. 4. Rift valleys are formed due to faulting. 5. These mountains are the loftiest mountain system of the world with the highest mountain peak Mt. Everest 8848 mts. above sea level. 5. It is an old eroded crystal rock with the highest peak Anaimudi 2695 mts. above sea level. 6. These mountains extend in an arc. 6. This plateau is triangular in shape. 7. Deep gorges and U-shaped valleys are formed. 7. Narrow deep river valleys are formed on the plateau. 8. These have been formed out of Tethys sea in Mesozoic period. (276 Million years ago.) 8. This plateau has been lifted out of the sea in the precambrian period. (1600 million years ago.) 9. It is made up of sedimentary rocks. 9. It is made up of igneous rocks.

Question 7.
Write short notes on:
(i) Vindhyachal
Vindhyas: This range extends from east to west in the north of River Narmada. It separates Northern India from Southern India. Its average height is 300 metres. It starts from Gujarat in the west and goes up to Bihar in the East passing through the Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Satpuras
Satpuras: This mountain range spreads between the Narmada and the Tapti rivers. They extend from Gujarat in the west to Amarkantak in the east. Dhupgarh (1350 metres) is the highest point of these ranges.

(iii) Aravalli Mountains

(iv) Malwa Plateau and
Malwa Plateau: The Malwa plateau covers a large part of central highlands. It extends from Aravallis in the West, Ganges valley in the North and East, and Vindhyas in the South. The Aravallis are residual mountains or Relict Mountains. Its highest peaks are Mt. Abu (1158 metres) and Guru Shikhar (1722 metres). This plateau includes Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand and Chambal valley. This Vindhyan plateau consists of long narrow ridges made up of Quartzite rocks. It extends upto Mahadeo Hills, Kaimur range, Maikal range, Rajmahal hills in the East. In the East lies Chotta Nagpur plateau drained by Damodar river. This plateau is the storehouse of minerals of India.

(v) Nilgiri Hills.
Nilgiris: The western and eastern Ghats join each other in the south where they are known as the Nilgiris. Doda Beta (2637 metres) is the highest peak in the Nilgiris.

Question 8.
Are the different physical divisions of India separate and interdependent units or are they complementary to each other? Explain this statement with examples. (Important)
India is divided into three major physiographic division i.e. the Himalayas, the Northern plains and the Peninsular plateau. The peninsular is the core of the geology of India. It is a stable block of hard rocks around which other physiographic divisions have been formed. The northward drifting of peninsular plateau led to the formation of Himalayas. The Himalayas adorn like a crown. These enclose the Indian sub-continent. Sediments brought down from Himalayas have been deposited to form the northern plains. The Gangetic plain is the cradle of Indian civilisation. Thus three physiographic divisions help to strengthen the forces of unity of our people.

V. Show the following on the outline map of India:

Question 1.
(1) Karakoram, Zanskar, Kailash, Pir Panjal, Shiwalik Hills
(2) Coromandel, Konkan (B.Q.P. 2019), Malabar Coast.
(3) Passes of Thai Ghat, Bhor Ghat, Pal Ghat
(4) Passes of Zojila, Nathula, Jelepla, Shipkila
(5) Mt. Everest (B.Q.P. 2019), Nanda Devi, Kanchenjunga, K2.

Question 2.
(1) Aravali, Anamailai.
(2) Mt. Abu, Shimla, Satpura.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Land Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions each in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Which is the ancient block in India?
Deccan Plateau.

Question 2.
Name the sea which existed in place of Himalayas.
Tethys.

Question 3.
Name the western boundary of Deccan plateau.
Aravallis.

Question 4.
Name an area where chos are found.
Hoshiarpur.

Question 5.
Name the highest mountain peak of Peninsular India.
Anai Mudi.

Question 6.
Name the Northern part of west-coast.
Konkan.

Question 7.
Name a cold desert in India.

Question 8.
Name a religious place in western Himalayas.
Vaishno Devi.

Question 9.
Where is a valley of flowers located?
The great Himalayas.

Question 10.
What is the use of Kayals?
Fishing.

Question 11.
Which disaster struck east coast in 2004?
Tsunami.

Question 12.
Which is the highest peak of Himalayas located in India?
Kanchan Junga.

Question 13.
Name a rift valley in India.

Question 14.
Why is the peninsular India called the Core of structure of India?
Peninsular India is the ancient part of India.

Question 15.
What is the meaning of Himalayas?
Himalayas means abode of snow.

Question 16.
What is the average height of Trans Himalayas? Name four mountain ranges of these.
The average height of Trans Himalayas is 5000. metres. It includes Zanskar, Karakoram, Ladakh, and Kailash Ranges.

Question 17.
Name the main glaciers of the Traps Himalayas.
Hisper, Batur, Baltoro, Siachen, Bearo.

Question 18.
What is a dun?
Dun is a longitudinal valley situated in Himalayas.

Question 19.
Name the highest peaks of Eastern offshoots of Himalayas.
Dafa Bum (4578 meters), Saramati (8926 meters) and Japau.

Question 20.
Name the higher peak of the world and its height.
Or
Which is the highest peak of the world?
Mt. Everest 8848 metres is the highest peak of the world.

Question 21.
State the situation of the Northern great plains.
This plain extends between Indus River (West) and Brahmaputra River (East).

Question 22.
State two Relief characteristics of Northern great plain.

1. It is a flat plain.
2. The whole plain has a network of streams.

Question 23.
Which rivers have deposited sediments in Punjab-Haryana plain?
Sutluj, Ravi, Beas and Ghaghar.

Question 24.
According to height, into how many sub-divisions can Ganges plain be divided?

1. Upper Ganges valley
2. Middle Ganges valley
3. Lower Ganges valley.

Question 25.
State two characteristics of Brahmputra plain.

1. This plain is 640 km long and 90:100 km wide.
2. New sediments are deposited every year by floods.

Question 26.
State the. two ranges of Deccan plateau.

1. Western ghats
2. Eastern ghats

Question 27.
Name three passes of Western ghats.
Thai ghat, Bhor ghat, Pal ghat

Question 28.
Where is Jog Falls and what is its height?
Jog Falls is located on the border of Shimoga and Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka. Height of Jog Falls is 253 metres.

Question 29.
State the sub-divisions of west coastal plain.

1. Gujarat coast
2. Konkan coast
3. Malabar coast
4. Kerala coast.

Question 30.
State one difference between Eastern coastal plain and Western coastal plain.
Eastern coastal plain is wide and flat. While west-coastal plain is narrow.

Question 31.
Which are the group of islands of India and where are they situated?
Andaman Nicobar and Lakshdweep group of islands are situated in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively.

Question 32.
State two differences between the mountains of northern India and mountains of Peninsular India.

1. Mountains of Northern India are young fold mountains. Mountains of peninsular India are residual old mountains.
2. The mountains of northern India are high and snow covered. But the mountains of Peninsular India are not high and are not covered with glacier.

Question 33.
Which is the highest peak of the world?
Mount Everest (8848 metres)

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The Himalayas extend for ____________kms.
2400.

Question 2.
Mt. Everest is _________ metres high.
8848.

Question 3.
Ganges plain slopes towards________.
East.

Question 4.
The Southern plateau has its apex at ________.
Kanyakumari

Question 5.
Andaman group has __________ islands.
120.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which is the oldest land mass of India?
(a) Northern Plain
(b) Peninsular Plateau
(c) Himalayas
(d) Aravallis.
(b) Peninsular Plateau

Question 2.
Which is the highest peak in southern India?
(a) Doda Beta
(b) Anaimudi
(c) Mahendar gins
(d) Kalsubai.
(b) Anaimudi

Question 3.
Which is a rift valley?
(a) Ganga
(c) Chambal
(d) Damodar.

Question 4.
Ravines are found in :
(a) Chambal Valley
(b) Son Valley
(c) Damodar Valley
(d) Betwa Valley.
(a) Chambal Valley

Question 5.
The largest salt water lake in India is :
(a) Sambar
(b) Chilka
(d) Kalleru.
(b) Chilka

True / False :

Question 1.
The Himalayas are rift valleys formed due to faulting.
False

Question 2.
Doda Beta is the highest peak in the Nilgiris.
True

Question 3.
Ganga river makes estuary.
False

Question 4.
In Indo-Gangetic plains alluvial soils are found.
True

Question 5.
There are 550 islands in the Indian Ocean.
True

Question 1.
Compare and contrast the Indo-Gangetic Plains and Peninsular Plateau.

 Peninsular Plateau Indo-Gangetic Plains 1. Location: It is a triangular plateau bounded by Vindhyas, Western ghats and Eastern ghats. 1. It is an alluvial plain stretching from Punjab to Assam Valley. 2. Relief: The relief of this plateau is uneven. Its average height above sea level is more than 600 metres. 2. This is a level plain about 200 metres high above sea level. 3. Climate: The climate here is hot and humid. 3. Here the summers are hot and winters are cold. 4. Crops: Jawar, Bajra, Spices and Groundnut are grown here. 4.         Rice, Wheat, Cotton and Sugarcane are mostly grown here. 5. Rivers: Cauvery, Mahanadi, Godavari, Narmada and Tapti are the main seasonal rivers here. 5. Ganga, Yamuna and Brahmaputra are the main perennial rivers. 6. Irrigation: Irrigation here is mainly done by Tanks. 6. Wells, Tubewells and Canals are the main sources of irrigation here. 7. Transport: Means of transport are rare here. 7. A network of Railways and roads is laid here. 8. Minerals: Gold and Manganese are the main minerals of this plateau. 8. Iron, Coal and Mica are the important minerals of these plains. 9. Population: The population is very thin. 9. The population is very dense. 10. Soils: Soils are made up of lava especially black soil 10. Alluvial soils are found.

Question 2.
Write notes on Eastern ghats and Western ghats.

 Western ghats Eastern ghats 1. The Western ghats form a continuous chain from Gulf of Cambay to Kanyakumari. 1. The Eastern ghats form a discontinuous chain of low hills from Orissa to Coromandel coast. 2. These consist of Sahyadri, Nilgiris, Annamalai and Cardamom hills. 2. The Eastern ghats are known by local names. 3. The main passes in Western ghats are Thai ghat, Bhor ghat, Pal ghat. 3. There are wide gaps in Eastern ghats, through which rivers flow. 4. The average height is 100d metres. The highest peak is Anaimuth (2965 metres) in Kerala. 4. The average height of Eastern ghats is 450 metres. These merge with Western ghats to form a knot in Nilgiris.

Question 3.
What is Gondwatta land? Which land masses constitute it?
Orignially it was a super continent called Pangea consisting of two parts. The Northern part was called Angara land, while the Southern part was called Gondwana land. Gondwana land is the oldest landmass. It included India, Australia, South Africa and South America. These have changed its position due’ to drifting of continents.

Question 4.
State four main features of Himalayas.

1. The Himalayas are young, fold and loftiest mouhtains.
2. These extend in a west-east direction from Indus to Brahmaputra.
3. These form an arc which covers a distance of about 2400 kms. while their width varies from 400 km. in Kashmir to 150 km-in Arunachal Pradesh.
4. The Himalayas consist of three, parallel ranges Himadri (Great Himalayas), Himachal (Lesser Himalayas) and Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas).

Question 5.
Name the mountain ranged and. valleys situated in Himachal (Lesser Himalayas).
The lesser Himalayas are called Himachal. Its altitude varies between 3,700 and 4,500 mitres. It includes the ranges of Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat. It includes the famous valleys of Kashmir, Kangra and Kulu. This region is well-known for its hill stations.

Question 6.
‘River valleys demarcate the broad divisions of Himalayas.’ Give examples.
The Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from West to East on the basis of. river valleys.

1. Kashmir Himalayas: Between Indus and Satluj rivers.
2. Kumaon Himalayas: Between Satluj and Kali rivers.
3. Nepal Himalayas: Between Kali and Tista rivers.
4. Assam Himalayas: Between Tista and Dihang rivers.

Question 7.
‘Northern plain is agriculturally a very productive part of India.’ Give reasons.
Northern plain is called the ‘Granary of India’. It is rich in the production of food grains and crops.

1. The region has fertile alluvial soils.
2. It has an adequate water supply.
3. It has a favourable climate with a long growing season.

Question 8.
What is the extent of Ganga plain? Name the states included in it.
The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq km. It is 2400 km long and 240-320 km wide. It is spread over the the states of North India—Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, West Bangal and partly Jharkhand.

Question 9.
Describe four main features of Peninsular plateau.

1. The Peninsular Plateau is a table land composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
2. It is the oldest land mass (a part of Gondwana land).
3. The plateau has broad and shallow valleys anjd rounded hills.
4. It has been formed due to breaking, weathering and drifting of Gondwana land.
5. It consists of two broad divisions-Central Highlands and Deccan Plateaus.

Question 10.
Describe the different plateaus found in Central Highland.
The peninsular plateau consists of two broad divisions-Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau. Central Highlands lie to the North of Narmada river. It includes a major area of Malwa plateau. Vindhyan range is enclosed by Aravallis and central highlands. The eastward extension of Central Highlands is Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand plateaus. Further eastwards, lies the Chota Nagpur plateau.

Question 11.
What is the average height of Western ghats? Name the local peaks and hill stations found in Western ghats.
Western ghats are higher than Eastern ghats. The average height of Western ghats is 900-1600 metres. The height of the western ghats increases from North to South. The highest peaks include Anai Mudi (2695 meters), Doda Beta (2637 metres). The famous hill stations are Udaga Mandlam (Ooty) and Kodai Kanal.

Question 12.
What are the effects of Western ghats?

1. Western ghats cause relief rainfall along the Western slopes. These face the rain bearing moist winds. <br
2. The eastern slopes and Deccan plateau lie in rain shadow.
3. Due to weathering of Deccan plateau, Black soils of Deccan trap are found here.

Question 13.
What is meant by ‘Trans Himalayas’?
The Trans Himalaya or Gangetic-Nyenchen Tanglha range is a 16,00-kilometre
long mountain range. This range is in China extending in west-east direction parallel to the main Himalayan range.

Question 1.
Give an account of the coastal plains and island groups of India.
Coastal Plains And Islands
The peninsular plateau is flanked by narrow coastal plains on the Eastern and Western margins.
1. The Eastern Coastal Plain. It extends from Mahanadi Delta upto Kanyakumari. Its width varies from 50 to 250 km. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna form broad deltas on this coast. Sand dunes and lagoons exist on this coast. Chilka lake and Pulicat lake are the two important lagoons. It is also known as Coromandel coast. The northern part, along the Orissa state, is known as Utkal coast.

2. The Western Coastal Plain. This is a narrow coastal plain 1500 kms long and about 10 to 50 km wide. It extends between the Arabian Sea and Western Ghats. It has three sub-divisions. Konkan coast from Gulf of Cambay to Goa, Kanara coast from Goa to Cochin, Malabar coast from Cochin to Kanyakumari. Lagoons and back waters along Malabar coast join together to form waterways. Vembnad is an important lagoon lake which is 63 km in length. Narmada and Tapti rivers make estuaries while Mumbai and Marmagao are deep natural harbours.

These plains are divided into the following parts:
(a) Gujarat coastal plain: A marshy area around Gulf of Kutch and Saurashtra. Gorakhnath is the highest peak with 1117 metres in height.
(b) Konkan coast: It extends from Daman to Goa; 500 km long and 50-80 km. wide. Mumbai port is in the Creek by Thana.
(c) Malabar coast: From Goa to Mangalore, 225 km long and 24 km wide. It extends upto Kanyakumari.
(d) Kerala coast: From Mangalore to Kanyakumari 500 km long and 100 km wide plain has lagoons and Kayals used as backwaters for boat navigation.

ISLANDS: There are about 550 islands in the Indian Ocean. Most of these islands are too small to be inhabited.

These islands are found in the following groups :
1. Andaman-Nicobar Islands: These islands form two major groups in Bay of Bengal. These are Andamans and Nicobar islands. These islands extend between 10° and 14° N latitudes for a distance of 500 kms. These islands are 214 in number. The Nicobar group consists of 15 islands extending between 6°N to 10°N latitudes. Ten degree channel separates the Andaman group of island from the Nicobar group. These islands form a union territory of India with Port Blair as its capital. Indira Point in the Nicobar-island is the southernmost point of the Indian Union. These islands form the summits of the submerged hills of the ocean floor.

The Arabian Sea Islands

2. Barren Islands and Norcondam Islands: These islands situated in north of Port Blair are volcanic islands.

3. Lakshadweep Islands: These islands are situated in the Arabian Sea and lie 320 km off the coast of Kerala between 8° N and 12° North latitudes. These are coral islands and some of these are ring-shaped and called attolls. These are 27 in number and 17 of these are uninhabited. It is a U.T. with Kavaratti as capital. Pamban and Rameshwaram islands lie between India and Sri Lanka.

Bay of Bengal-Islands

Land PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Physiographic Divisions:
1. The Himalayas.
2. Northern plains.
3. The peninsular plateau.
• Mt. Everest- The highest peak in the (Sagarmatha) world (Sagarmatha) 8848 metres.
• Kanchenjunga – The highest peak of the Himalayas in India (8598 metres).
• Anai Mudi:
1. The highest peak in peninsular India.
2. 2698 metres high.
• The Himalayas. – Three parallel ranges-the greater Himalayas, the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks.
• Pamir Knot – The roof of the world.
• Galciers of the Himalays – Baltro and Siachen.
• K2 Godwin Austin – The second highest peak of the world.
• Passes in the Himalayas – Zoji la, Shipki la, Nathu la, Bomdila.
• Purvanchal – Patkoi, Naga, Lushai Hills.
• Sunderbans – Ganga Brahmaputra Delta.
• Rift valleys – Narmada and Tapi.
• Guru Shikhar – Highest peak in Aravallies (1722 metres).
• Central Highlands – Aravavllies, Vindhyas and Satpuras.
• Deccan trap – N.W. plateau made up of lava.
• Passes in Western Ghats – Thai ghat, Bhor ghat, Pal ghat.
• Coastal plain (West) – Konkan, Kanara, Malabar coast.
• Coastal plain (East) – Coromandel, Utkal coast.
• Coral islands – Lakshadweep islands.
• Lagoons (Lakes) – Chilka and Pulicat.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 2 Land Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Due to this vastness, India is called as an Indian sub-continent. The sub-continent is a large and independent region. The boundaries of whose terrain are drawn by various natural features which distinguish it from the surrounding areas. India also crosses the Agil, Muzigh, Kunlun and Karakoram, Hindukush and Jaskar mountain ranges from Tibet across the Himalayas in the north, from Pak, Jal Damru in the south and Gulf of Mannar from Sri Lanka, east. In the direction Arakan separates Yoma from Myanmar (Burma) and in the western direction from the vast Dhar desert, Pakistan. Due to such a vast area of India many cultural, economic and social variations are found. But despite this unity is found in climate, culture etc. in the country.
(a) Why is India called the sub-continent?
India is given the status of sub-continent due to its expansion and position. The sub-continent is a vast and independent landmass whose boundaries are formed by different topography. These topographies separate it from its surrounding areas. Agill across the Himalayas in the the north of India. The mountain ranges of Mugtgh, Kunlun, Karakoram, Hindukush etc. distinguish it from the north-western parts of Asia. In the South, the Pak strait of central and the gulf of Mannar separate it from Sri Lanka. Formerly Arakan Yoma separates it form Myanmar. The Thar Desert separates it from a very large part of Pakistan. Despite this, we cannot call present day India a sub¬continent. The Indian sub-continent is formed by the combination of undivided India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

(b) Which elements contribute to maintaining unity in the diversity of the country?
India is a country of diversity. Yet a distinct unity appears in our society. The main elements that provide unity to Indian society are the following:
1. Monsoon Season. The monsoon winds make most of the rainfall in summer. This affects the agriculture of the country as well as other business. Monsoon winds make the power supply reliable by raining the mountainous regions. Infact, monsoon rainfall is the basis of the entire country’s economy.

2. Religious Culture. There are two things in favor of religious culture. One is that religious places have united the people of the country in one sutra. Secondly, religious saints have instilled a sense of brotherhood through their teachings. People from all parts of the country come and worship at Tirupati, Jagannathpuri, Amamath, Ajmer, Harimandir Sahib, Patna, Hemkunt Sahib and other pilgrimage places. The saints have also tried to create religious harmony.

3. Language and Art. Almost all the northern India. Vedas were propogated in Sanskrit language. Urdu was born in the middle age of this language. English is the contact language and Hindi is the national language. Together, these have provided an opportunity to understand each other closely. Siinlarly, folk songs and folk arts have also created an opportunity for people to express similar feelings.

4. Traffic and means of communication. Railways and roads have played an important role in bringing people of different areas closer. The means of communication like Doordarshan and newspapers have also connected the national stream by giving the national thinking of the people.

5. Migration. Many people from villages have started coming to the cities. Despite their racial differences, they have come to understand each other and thus they have come closer to each other. The truth is that many natural and cultural elements have given unity to our country.

Question 2.
The vast northern plains along the Himalayas provide habitat and livelihood to 40% of the country’s population. Their fortile soil, suitable climate, flat surface have contributed significantly in the spread and development of rivers, canals, roads, railways and cities and in the development of agriculture. Therefore, this plain region has the distinction of being the granary of the country. These plains have built a special kind of civilization and society since the Aryans. People from all over the country consider Ganga to be a holy river and the Rishikesh, Haridwar, Mathura, Prayag, Ayodhya, Kanshi etc. places in its valley have been the center of attraction for sufi saints and religious people living in different parts of the country. Later in these plains, great men like Sikh Guru, Mahatma Buddha, Mahavir Jain were born and different religious were established. Its deep impact can be seen in the Himalayan mountains and also in South India.
(a) Name the major landforms created by the rivers in the vast plains of the north.
The landforms formed by the rivers in the northern plains are alluvial fins, alluvial cones, sepentine turns, hilly staircases, natural dams and floodplains.

(b) Describe the huge northern plains contribute to the development of the country.
The Himalayan regions have the following contribution to the development of the country.

1. Rain. The monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean hit the Himalayan mountains and rain heavily. Thus, it donates rain to the northern plain. There is enough rainfall in this ground.
2. Useful Rivers. All the major rivers flowing in northern India originate from the Himalayan mountains like Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, etc. These rivers flow throughout the year. In the dry season, Himalayan ice burns these rivers.
3. Fruit and Tea. The slopes of the Himalayas are very useful for tea cultivation. Apart from these, fruits are also grown on the mountain slopes.
4. Useful Wood. Dense forests are found on the Himalayan Mountains. These forests are our wealth. Many industries in India depend on the wood derived from them. This wood is also used in building works.
5. Good Pastures. Beautiful and green pastures are found on the Himalayas. Animals are fed in them.
6. Mineral Substances. Many types of mineral substances are found in these mountains.

Question 3.
The word ‘climate’ or ‘wind water’ refers to the long-term seasonal conditions in a place, in which the temperature of that place is the amount of water in the air flowing from there. These conditions are mainly determined by important elements such as surface variation of the place, distance from the coastline and distance from the equator. It has a profound effect on human and human activities. India is a vast country. Its vast sin-face units, the peninsular position and the tropic of cancer passing through it have a profound effect on its climate. Due to the largest surface variations of temperature, rainfall, winds and clouds etc.
(a) Describe the (two) elements affecting the climate of India.
The main elements influencing the climate of India are :

• Distance from the equator.
• Surface Pattern.
• Air pressure system
• Seasonal winds and
• Proximity to Indian Ocean.

(b) What are the regional variations of Indian climate?
The regional variations of Indian climate are as follows:
1. In winter the temperature reaches – 45°C in the Kargil regions of the Himalayan mountain but at the same time it is more than 20°C in Chennai (Madras) metropolis in Tamil Nadu. Similarly in summer the western direction of the Aravali mountains is crossed 50° centigrade, while the Srinagar is less than 20° centigrade. There is a temperature of 204 centimeters in Srinagar.

2. The annual rainfall is located in the mountain range of Mawsymaram, 1141 cm. Annual rainfall in Jaisalmer is less than 10 cm. in the year.

3. In Barner and Jaisalmer are carved clouds, but the whole year is the same as the same year throughout the year.

4. Due to the effect of the sea in Mumbai and other coastal cities, the temperature ramains almost same of the year. In contrast, the National area is found to be huge difference in the cold and hot temperature in the area and surrounding areas.

Question 4.
The economy, the relief and social development is deeply influenced the economic progress. In the social development, the area can be applied to the development of economic progress there. Indian agriculture, almost completely dependent on. agriculture (aggregated). In which development of the monsoon has given significant contributions to providing a major and strong basis. Monsoon is called a pivotal point of the country. Apart from agriculture, the entire production is dependent oh agricultural production, If monsoon rainfall is in appropirate amount, the agricultural production increases. But because of the failure of monsoon, the crops dried. The country goes dry and the grains are reduced in the stores.
(a) Discuss the important features of the monsoon.
In India rainfall is mainly in July to September. This is the period of southwest monsoons blowing from sea to land. There are three important features of the monsoon rainfall.

1. Erratic. Rainfall is not reliable in India. It is not necessary that rain continues to be same. Due to this erratic situation of rain, the situation of starvation and famine is arranged. This erratic situation of rainfall is more in the inner parts of the country and in Rajasthan.
2. Uneven Distribution. There is uneven distribution of rainfall in India. Western slopes of western ghats and Meghalaya or in the hills of Assam. There is more than 250 cm. rainfall. In contrast Rajasthan, West Gujarat, North Kashmir etc., the rainfall is less than 25 cm.
3. Uncertainty. The amount of rainfall in India is not certain. Sometimes monsoon winds reached before time, It rains a lot. But sometimes the rainfall is low or sometimes ends up before a time. As a result the situation of drying is generated in the country.

(b) Why the Indian Economy (budget) is called gambling of monsoon winds?
Indian monsoon is a gambling of monsoon winds. This sentence reveals that the advancement of India’s economy depends on that how much appropriate time of any year, distribution and quantity.
If the rain comes on time and its quantity is also suitable, a good crop of agriculture can be expected.

For example-crops are good due to good monsoon, so three things happen.

1. Fair raw materials available for factories. The industry-related factors of cotton, jute, oil seeds etc. are flourishing.
2. When the agriculture and industires are strengthened from good monsoon, the
productivity increases. On one hand, the export is promoted. On the other hand international trade is flourishing. Wealth grows in the country and people’s standard of living improves.
3. Due to good monsoon, there is an increase in water in the rivers, the water level of the dams rises high. Where this water helps in the production of hydropower, the irrigation system improves. This creates a stir in economic activities in the country. There is no doubt that today due to the advancement of science, we can grow a good crop even in the absence of monsoon, but we have to think about whether all farmers can benefit from lack of rainfall or unequal distribution of rainfall. A good monsoon affects every section and every region of the country. If the monsoon is suitable, the country’s economic development is assured. Therefore, it is fair to call the Indian economy a gamble of monsoon winds.

Question 5.
Agriculture has an important role in the Indian economy. The agricultural sector employs about two-thirds of the country’s workforce. The region derives 29.0 percent of the total national income and agricultural products a1 so have an important place in foreign exports. Many products of agriculture are used as raw materials in our factories. Due to the progress in the field of agriculture, the achievement of food grains per person, which was 395 grams in the 1950’s has increased to 510 grams per person per day in 1991.
India also ranks fourth in the world in the use of chemical fertilizers. The area under pulses in our country is the highest in the world. In the field of cotton products, India is the first country in the world, where the first efforts were made to produce improved varieties of cotton. The country has made significant achievements in the preparation of prawn fish and pest culture technological development.
(a) What percentage of land is cultivable in India?
51% of the land in India is cultivable.

(b) Why is agriculture called the mainstay of the Indian economy?
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Indian economy. Even though agriculture now contributes only 33.7% of the total national production, its importance is no less.

1. Agriculture sustains 2/3 of our population.
2. The agriculture sector provides employment to about two-thirds of the country’s workers.
3. Most of the industries get raw materials from agriculture. The truth is that the place of industries is being built on the foundation of agriculture.

Question 6.
A decline in per capita achievement of pulses in Punjab and other parts of the country is a matter of concern. It seems that the wave of ‘Green Revolution’, which has revolutionized the production of wheat and rice in the country has not made any special contribution in increasing the production of pulses. Actually, if it is said that there is harm then there will be no wrong. Because in the years following the Green Revolution, the area of pulses has been diverted to a large number of high yielding crops like wheat and rice. This has happened especially on a large scale in commercially agricultural states like Punjab.
(a) In Punjab, what kind of changes has occurred in the pulses production area after Green revolution.
After the green revolution, the area of pulses production decreased from 9.3 lakh hectares to 9.5 thousand hectare.

(b) What are the main reasons for the decline in the production of pulses?
The production of pulses has decreased in the last decades. The main reasons for this are as follows :

1. The area with pulses has been subjected to crops like wheat and rice, which produce more after the Green Revolution.
2. Some areas have been subjected to canals, roads, and other development projects due to development work.
3. The growing area of pulses has also declined due to increasing land demand for
housing of the growing population.

Question 7.
Our country is also considered very rich in terms of mineral wealth. It is estimated that the country accounts for one fourth of the total iron ore reserves in the world. There are also huge deposits of manganese, a major mineral used in the iron and steel industry. There are also abundant reserves of coal, limestone, bauxite and mica in the country. But non-ferrous minerals such as zinc, lead, copper and gold are in very limited quantities. The sulfur reserves in the country are almost nil, while sulfur is the mainstay of modern chemical industry. We also have plenty of water power resources and nuclear minerals. Their use as a power tool is increasing rapidly due to their power efficiency and very little tampering with the environment. For this reason, solar energy is also being used as a power tool. Solar energy is the priceless power store of God. Its use will increase rapidly as a source of power in the future.
(a) What is the contribution of minerals to the national economy?
Minerals have great importance in the national economy. The following facts will make it clear.

• The industrial development of the country depends mainly on minerals. Iron and coal are the basis of the machine age. We have one-fourth of the world’s iron ore deposits. There are also huge reserves of coal in India.
• State governments get income from mining operations and provide employment to millions of people.
• Coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. are important sources of mineral energy.
• Equipment made from minerals helps in the growth of agriculture.

(b) Why is solar energy called the source of future energy?
Coal and mineral oil are exhaustive resources. There will come a day when the people of the world will not get enough energy from them. Their stores must have been exhausted. Unlike then, sun energy is a never-ending means. This gives a tremendous amount of energy. When the reserves of coal and mineral oil are exhausted, then power will be obtained and we will be able to do it easily with our domestic work and plants.

Question 8.
All the trees, thorn bushes, plants and grasses etc. are included in the natural vegetation which grow without human intervention. Before starting its study, it is necessary to know the related words like Flora, Vegetation and Forests. Different species of plants that grow in a certain time and in a certain area are included in the flora, shrubs, plants, grass etc. that grow at a place in a certain environment are called vegetation. Whereas a large area surrounded by dense and adjacent trees, plants, thorn bushes etc. is called forest. The term jungle is mostly used by environmental scientists and forest guards and geographers. Each type of developed vegetation has to go through a long life cycle by creating a delicate balance with its environment, which depends on the quality of its mutual cohesion and ability to adapt. The entire flora found in our country is not local, but 4Q% of it belongs to foreign castes which are called Boreal and Paleo-Tropical species.
(a) Name the foreign castes and quantities in the country.

• The foreign vegetation species present in the country are called as Boreal and Paleo-Tropical.
• The amount of foreign vegetation in India is 40%.

(b) Write briefly on the autumn or monsoon vegetables.
The vegetation that leaves its leaves before the start of summer to prevent further evaporation is called the autumn or monsoon vegetation. This vegetation can be divided into two sub-parts which are and wet based on rainfall.

• Autumn Forest. This type of vegetation is found in four big areas, where the annual rainfall varies from 100 to 200 cm. Trees are less dense in these areas but their height reaches 30 metres. Sal, Sheesham, Teak, Chandan, Jamun, Amltas, Haldu, Ebony, Mulberry are the major trees of these forests.
• Dry Deciduous Vegetation. This type of vegetation is found in areas with rainfall less than 50 to 100 cm. Its long strip starts from Punjab and extends to the adjoining areas of the southern plateau. Kelkar, Babool, Banyan, Haldu are the main trees here.

Question 9.
In our country, along with the diversity of vegetation, there is a large variety of fauna. In fact there is a deep interconnection between the two. About 76 thousand species of fauna are found in the country. 2500 species of fish are found in the fresh and salt water of the country. Similarly, there are 2000 species of birds. 400 species of snakes are found in India. Apart from this, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and small insects and worms are also found. Mammals have majestic elephants with majestic chicks. It is an organism of equatorial tropical forests. In our country, it is found in the forests of Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. It rains heavily and the forests are also very dense. In contrast camels and wild asses are found in very hot and dry deserts. Camel Thar is the common animal of the desert, while wild plants are found only in the Rann of Kuchh. They have a horned rhinoceros in the opposite direction. They live in marshy areas in northern parts of Assam and West Bengal. Among Indian animals, the Indian bison, the Indian buffalo are particularly notable.
(a) Name the animals found in the Himalayas.
In the Himalayas, wild sheep, mountain goat, a long horned wild goat and tapir etc, are found, while pandas and Himatendua animals are found in high mountain

(b) What are the works being done to look after the animals in the country?
Indian Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in 1972. Under this, 1,50,000 square kilometers of area (2.7% of the country and 12 percent of the total forest area) in various parts of the country were declared as national parks and wildlife sancturies.

Near Extinction Special attention has been paid to wildlife.
The work of counting animals and birds has been started at the National level. At present there are 16 tiger reserves in different parts of the country.

A special scheme for rhinoceros conservation is being carried out in Assam. The truth is that till now 18 Biosphere Reserves have been established in the country.
Under the scheme, the first life reservation area was created in Nilgiri. Protection of every animal is mandatory under this scheme. This natural heritage is for future generations.

Question 10.
A combined mixture of light, loose and unstructured rocky shreds and fine-grained bacteria found on the earth’s surface is called soil which has the power to give rise to plants. Deposition of this mixture is found in deep layers ranging from 15-30 cm to several metres. But the soil scientist is divided into three layers called A, B and C respectively, depending on the depth and quantity of soil colour, texture, size of particles etc. Due to the high quantity of humus in ‘A’ Horizon soils, they begin to turn black. But due to being situated in the zone of leaching on this layer, the minerals dissolve and go down and the colour starts to turn dark black. The colour of sub-layer with ‘B’ Horizon under this layer is brown due to the mineral matter leaking from the top layer. But the aihount of humus in it decreases. Below this layer, a layer of ‘C’ Horizon soil is found in which the substances separated from the above rocks do not have any special change and later go to the main base rock. The colour of this sub-rocky surface is grey or light brown,
(a) Describe the definition of soil.
The combined mixture of light, loose and unstructured rock crust (shell powder) and fine granules found on the earth’s surface is called soil.

(b) What is the contribution of primary rocks in the birth of soil?
The primary rocks in the country consist of lofty rocks of the northern plains or lava-formed rocks of the plateau. They contain various types of minerals. Therefore, they make good soil. The colour, formation, texture, etc. of the soil formed by the primary rocks depends on how long the rocks are being affected and by what kind of climate. In a state like West Bengal, the spil is highly developed due to the effects of chemical reactions in the climate and humus. But in dry area like Rajasthan, due to lack of vegetation, soil fertility decreases. Likewise, soil erosion is more in areas with high rainfall and high winds. Fertility decreases as a result.

Question 11.
In today’s knowledge and information-based world, the important contribution of human resources is being realized in national construction and development much better than before. Today all the countries of the world, especially the developing countries, are paying more attention to the development of human resources than before. Children can you think why is this ? In the countries of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia etc., known as ‘Asian Tigers’, the rapid development of economic development is being attributed to the huge investment made in the development of human resources in the last few decades. In human resource development, not only the parameters like education, technical skills, health and nutrition but also human-ethics-ideas, civilization- culture, species and nation-pride should be included. Only then will human resource development becQme a complete ideology.
(a) What is the most valuable resource of a country?
Intellectually and physically healthy citizens.

(b) Why is it important to study the population structure of the country?
There are many reasons why it is necessary to know the population structure of a country.

• Various characteristics of the population of any country for social and economic planning such as the age structure of the population, gender structure, business structure etc. data is required.
• Different components of the population structure are closely related to the economic development of the country. While the population structure components are affected by economic development from another, they are also unable to remain untouched by the impact of progress and level of economic development. For example, if the percentage of children and old people in the age structure of a country’s population is very high, then the country will have to spend more and more financial resources on basic facilities like education and health. On the other hand, the rate of economic development of the country is accelerated due to the higher proportion of working-age groups in the age structure.

Question 12.
The study of the regional pattern of population distribution provides the basis for understanding all demographic components of the population. For this reason, it is very important to understand the regional pattern of distribution of population. Here first we must also clarify the difference between population distribution and population density. Population distribution is related to place and density is related to ratio. Population distribution implies that what is the regional pattern of population in any part of the country, that is, the population pattern is nucleated or agglomerated in one place. On the other hand in density, which is related to population size and area, attention is given to the ratio of man and area. The history of human settlements in India is very old. That is why the population resides in every part of the country which is the sum of human. habitation. Yet the distribution of population is greatly affected by the fertility* of the land. As India is an agricultural country, the pattern of population distribution depends on agricultural productivity. For this reason, in states where the productivity of agriculture is high, the concentration of population is equally high. Apart from agricultural productivity, the variation of physical factors, industrial development and cultural elements also contribute significantly in influencing the population distribution pattern of India.
(a) Name the largest and least populous states of the country.
The most populous state in the country is Uttar Pradesh and the least state is Sikkim.

(b) Describe the format giving the salient features of the regional pattern of population distribution in the country?
The regional pattern of population distribution in India and its important features are as follows:
1. The distribution of population in India is very uneven. Population is very dense in river valleys and seaside plains, but the population is very sparse in the mountainous desert and scarcity areas. Only 3% of the population lives on 16 percent of the country’s land in the hilly regions of the north, while 40 percent of the population lives on 18 percent of the country’s land in the northern plains. In Rajasthan, 6 percent of the population lives on only 6 percent of the country’s land.

2. Majority of the population is settled in rural areas. About 71% of the total population of the country resides in rural areas, about 29% in cities. Large cities have a large population of urban population. Two thirds of the total urban population lives in first-tier cities with population of one lakh or more.

3. The concentration of minority communities in thei country is in the most sensitive and important outer border areas. For example, the Sikhs in Punjab and the Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir are in abundance near the Indo-Pak border in north western India. Similarly there is a gathering of people of Christianity along the borders of China and Burma (Myanmar) in the northeast. Many social, economic and political difficulties arise from such distribution.

4. On the one hand, the population is dense in the coastal plains and valleys of the rivers. On the other hand, the population in the mountainous, plateau and desert parts is sparse. -This distribution resembles a demographic divide.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 India: An Introduction

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB India: An Introduction Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions objectively :

Question 1.
What is the basis of naming Bharat as ‘India’?
India got its modern name from Sindhu river.

Question 2.
What is the situation of India on the globe?
Or
What is geographical position of India on the globe? (Pb. 2019)
It is situated in the Northern hemisphere.

Question 3.
What are the geographical divisions of Northern and Southern India?
Plain and Plateau Division.

Question 4.
What is the location of India in respect of Indian Ocean?
India has central position in Indian Ocean.

Question 5.
Which countries came in direct contact with India because of the nearness of its coastal boundaries with Indian ocean?
Maldeep , Sri Lanka.

Question 6.
What are th/e evidences for the powerful naval force of India?
India’s naval army tried to curb the terrorism in Sri Lanka in last decade.

Question 7.
What is the extent of India?
India extends between 804’ and 3706′ north latitude and 6707′ and 97025′ east longitude.

Question 8.
What is the area of India?
The area of India is almost 32,87,263 square kilometres.

Question 9.
Compare the area, currency, population and literacy of India with that of Pakistan?
Do it Yourself with the help of your teacher.

Question 10.
What is the North-South and East-West extent of India?
The North-South extent of India is 3214 km and East-West extent is 2933 km.

Question 11.
What is the length of land and coastal boundaries of India?
The length of land frontiers is 15,200 km. and the length of coastal boundaries is 7,517 km.

Question 12.
What do you mean by sub-continent?
A subcontinent is part of a larger continent. It is made up of a number of countries that form a large mass of land. The subcontinent is often used to refer to the area that contains India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Question 13.
What is Cultural fusion?
Cultural fusion is a phenomenon which emerges when two or more cultures inter¬mingle and produce a new culture.

Question 14.
What is the rank of India in the world in terms of area?
India ranks seventh in the world in terms of area.

Question 15.
Which countries share the land frontiers with India?
Pakistan Nepal Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh and China.

Question 16.
What were the political division of India before Independence?

• Princely State
• British Provinces.

Question 17.
What work was done by the State Reorganization Commission?
It reorganised boundaries of the states on linguistic basis.

Question 18.
When was the present Punjab state created?
Present Punjab came into existence on November 1st, 1966.

Question 19.
What is the present administrative division of geographical set up of India?
India has 28 states and 8 union territories.

Question 20.
Name the largest and smallest States of India in terms of area and population.
Rajasthan is the largest and Goa is the smallest state of India in terms of area. Uttar Pradesh is the largest and Sikkim is the smallest state of India in terms of population.

Question 21.
What is the number of members in the two houses of Parliament?

• Lok Sabha-545
• Raya Sabha-250.

Question 22.
Name some of the important religious places of India.

Question 23.
To which regions of India major groups of people came through migration.
From villages to urban areas.

Question 24.
In which areas/fields the country has failed on large scale?
To provide Employment to a large population

Question 25.
Write the names of major folk dances of India.
Bhangra. Gidha, Bhart Natyam, Kyttchipuddi etc,

II. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
Is India a sub-continent?
Or
What is a sub-continent?
India is called a sub-continent on the basis of its size and location :

1. Physical features separate it from adjoining areas.
2. In the Northern part, Trans Himalayan ranges Aghil, Muztagh, Kunleun, Karakoram and Hindukush separate it from N.W. of Asia.
3. Palk Straits and Gulf of Manar separate it from Sri Lanka in the South. Arakans separate it from Burma (Myanmar) in the East.

Question 2.
What type of cultural diversities are found in India?
People belonging to different Religions and castes live in different parts of India. Great diversity is found in their languages, food, clothing and mode of living. Their folk songs, festivals, fairs and customs are different. There are 187 spoken languages. 23 languages are spoken in 97% of area. In Constitution of India, 22 languages have been recognised. In fact, diversity is found in every aspect of life.

Question 3.
Write a note on India’s Land Extent.
The Indian subcontinent extends from 8°4′ North to 37°6′ North latitudes and 68°7′ East to 97°25′ East longitude.

The Tropic of Cancer passes through the centre of the-country. The area of Northern India is twice than that of Southern India. It has a North-South extent of 3214 km. from Kashmir to Kanyakumari; and an East-West extent of 2933 km. from Arunachal Pradesh to Rann of Kutch. Its effect is that when the sun is rising in Arunachal Pradesh, it is the last quarter of night in Gujarat.

Question 4.
What is the contribution of Indian languages and arts to the unity in diversity of India?
The languages and folk arts have an important role in the unity of India. Take up the case of Sanskrit. In India, Vedas and other ancient scriptures are written and learnt in Sanskrit. It goes to the credit of Sanskrit language that Vedas are read from Rajasthan to Manipur. Urdu came into existence as a mixture with Sanskrit. It was recognised by Delhi Rulers in Medieval period. Nowadays English is a link language and Hindi a national language. The folk songs, heroic ballads, film songs have encouraged fine arts in India.

Question 5.
Describe India’s regional diversity through any two facts.

1. Vast Size: A great diversity is found due to a large East-West and North South extent. It is called a sub-continent due to its size. It is natural that diversity is found in Natural and Human elements.
2. Relief: India has old fold mountains like Aravallis as well as young fold mountains like Himalayas. The Southern Plateau is an ancient block of hard rocks. Great plains exist between the Himalayas and the plateau.

Question 6.
Elaborate India’s unity in diversity any two factors.
1. There is a great diversity in relief: In the North Himalayas exist while plateau is found in the South. The Northern plains deepen the.diversity. Still Monsoons provide a climatic unity. Most of rainfall is through Monsoons.

2. 187 languages are spoken in India. 23 languages are spoken in an area of 97%. Still Sanskrit language has united the whole country. English as a link language and Hindi as National language provide a unity in diversity.

Question 7.
What has been the contribution of natural diversity towards cultural variations in the country?
Or
What is contribution of natural diversity towards cultural variation in India?
India is a vast country. Many contrasts are found due to vast size. People wear woollen clothes in hilly areas and their life is according to environment. People in peninsular plateau work under harsh conditions. Their methods of cultivation .differ from those in other parts. On the other hand, people in plains have utilised their sources to the maximum extent to raise their standard of living.

Question 8.
When the sun is rising in Arunachal there is still night in Gujarat.’ Explain.
India extend between 68°7′ E to 97° 25′ E longitudes. The East-West extent is 2933 km. which is roughly l/12th of the circumference of the earth. Thus, India has a longitudinal extent of about 30° longitudes. There is a time lag of 2 hours between the sunrise in the easternmost and the westernmost horizons of India. It means that the sun takes two hours to rise in Saurashtra after it has ri§pn in Arunachal Pradesh. There is a difference of 4 minutes for 1° of longitude. Therefore, there is difference of time of 2 hours (30° × 4 = 120 minutes = 2 hours). It has been suggested to have two standard meridians (instead of one) to reduce time lag to 1 hour.

III. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
How has India got its name? Describe in detail its size and Administrative divisions.
According to ancient writings, the name of our country has been changing. First of all, its name was Himachal Setu Paryantam. It means the area between Himachal and Rameshwarm. With the arrival of Aryans, it was called Aryavarat. According to Rig Veda, it was called Bharatvarsh on the name of Bharat, son of King Dushyant.

The new name ‘India’ is based on the river Indus. The vast river of North West had name Indus (Sindhu). This word Sindhu changed to ‘Hindu’. The people living along this river were called Hindus by the Iranians. The Greeks changed it to Indus and the people were called Indus ; later on it changed to India, Hindustan and Bharat.

Shape and size. Its shape is triangular, with Arabian Sea on one side and Bay of Bengal on the other side. It is broader in the North and tapering toward south. It is a point at Kanyakumari.

Administrative divisions. There are 28 States and 8 Union Territories. In fact, India is a unique country.

Question 2.
What is the impact of India’s geographical location on its security, climate, trade and culture? (Pb. 2014)
India is a vast country situated in South Asia. It occupies a central position at the head of Indian ocean. Its effects are:
1. Defence. India has a strong naval fleet for defence of its long coastline. Its frontiers on the south are safe. Land and Air force is there to defend land frontiers of North. India has faced the attacks from the North, and has helped Sri Lanka and Maldives also.

2. Climate. India enjoys monsoon climate being located between the Himalayas and Indian Ocean. India mostly gets rainfall in summer, but S.E. part gets winter rainfall.

3. Trade. Most of trade routes pass through Indian ocean along the coast of India. These connect India with Europe and America on the west and Australia, East Asia, and Far East.

4. Culture. Different racial groups like Aryans, Greeks, Turks, Mughals came through passes to the N. West and settled in India. These races mixed with Indians and gave a new form to Indian culture. Indian culture got many changes in dress, food and mode of living.

In fact, India has an important position in the world due to its location.

Question 3.
‘India is a country of diversity.’ Explain the statement.
India is a land of severe contrasts. The vastnesss has produced a diversity in physical and social conditions.

Factors of Diversity :
1. Vast size of the Indian Sub-continent : India ranks seventh in the world as regards to area. Thus, there is marked regional diversity in natural features.

2. Physical Environment : There is a high degree of diversity in the natural environment of India. Regional differences are found in relief, climate, vegetation and soils. The youthful topography of Himalayas with highest peak of the world, represent a great contrast to the old dissected topography of the Deccan plateau.

3. Ethnic Groups : Different racial groups entered India during different periods. The Mediterraneans, Negritos, Proto-Australoids and the Mongoloids are the main racial groups found in different parts of India.

4. Agriculture : India is primarily an agricultural country. A number of crops are grown ranging from tropical region to temperate region.

Question 4.
Which factors influence the regional disparities found in India?
The following factors have created regional diversity in India:

1. Vast Size. India is a vast country. North-South extent is 3214 km. while East-West extent is 2933 km. It is impossible to have a uniform relief over a country. It is a land of contrasts.
2. Relief. India has a varied relief. It includes mountains, plateaus and plains. It includes narrow valleys as well as deserts.
3. Climate. India has a variable rainfall. Some parts get the highest rainfall in the world. Some areas are the desert areas of the world. The Northern part has an extreme climate while Peninsula gets hot climate and coastal areas have a marine climate.
4. Migration. Different racial groups entered India from different areas. Mongoloids, Aryans, Muslims, Dravidians settled in India.
5. Culture. Due to the settlement of different racial groups, the food, shelter, clothing, mode of living, folk songs, folk dance of festivals and fairs of people are different.

Question 5.
Which factors are responsible for maintaining India’s unity in diversity?
Factors of Unity:

1. Monsoons: India has primarily a monsoon type of climate. Seasons follow the pattern of monsoons in India.
2. Cultural Fusion: Different cultures are found in different regions. The mixing and exchange of these cultures have led to a cultural fusion in India. It has created a strong bond of integration. Sanskrit and Persian provided strong bonds of unity in the religious, cultural and intellectual fields.
3. Economic Factors: The development of inter-regional means of transport and communication has played an important role in unifying the country.
4. Languages and Fine Arts: Sanskrit, Urdu, Hindi and English languages have created a unity in India. Fine arts and folk songs represent some feelings of nationalism.

IV. Show the following port on the outline map of Indian subcontinent :

Question 1.
(1) India’s neighbouring countries and their capitals.
(3) Standard meridian.
(4) Runn of Kuchchh, Kanyakumari, Arunachal Pradesh, Srinagar.
(6) New Moor Islands, Diu, Lakshadweep, Indira Point.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide India: An Introduction Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line :

Question 1.
Name the two zones formed by Tropic of Cancer in India.
Tropical zone and Temperate zone.

Question 2.
Which line of latitude passes through centre of India?
23$$\frac{1}{2}$$°N.

Question 3.
What is the total length of coastline of India?
7516 km.

Question 4.
Which ocean route links India with Europe?
Suez Canal.

Question 5.
Which is the smallest state of India?
Goa.

Question 6.
Name a group of coral islands.

Question 7.
Name a capital town located on tropic of cancer.
Gandhinagar.

Question 8.
Name the line forming the boundary between China and India.
Mac Mahon line.

Question 9.
Which state is called the ‘Land of dawn’?

Question 10.
Name the Southernmost point of India.
Indira Point.

Question 11.
Name the place where three seas meet.
Kanya Kumari.

Question 12.
Name a Southern neighbour country of India.
Sri Lanka.

Question 13.
Where does India rank in population in world?
Second.

Question 14.
Name a state which has the longest coastline.
Gujarat.

Question 15.
In which two parts is India divided from the administrative point of view?
India is divided into two parts from the view of administration—States and Union Territories.

Question 16.
Write the longitudinal extent of India.
The longitudinal extent of India is 68°-7′-33″ to 97°-24′-47” E.

Question 17.
Write the latitudinal extent of India.
The latitudinal extent of India is 8°4′ to 37°6′.

Question 18.
How many states and union territories are there in India?
There are 28 states and 8 union territories in India.

Question 19.
Which groups of islands of India are situated in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea?
Andaman Nicobar and Lakshdweep islands of India are situated in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

Question 20.
In which continent is India situated? How much percentage 6f land area is covered by India?
India is situated in the continent of Asia. This country covers the 2.2% of land area.

Question 21.
Name the three states of India along the borders of Pakistan.

1. Punjab
2. Rajasthan
3. Gujarat.

Question 22.
Which is the smallest Union Territory?

Question 23.
Name the two oceans along India and write the length of its coastal line.
The Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea are oceans along with India. The length of its coastal line is 6,083 km.

Question 24.
Write two characteristics of states of India.

1. The number of states of India is 28.
2. Rajasthan in the area and Uttar Pradesh in population rank first.

Question 25.
Name four union territories of India.

Question 26.
Write the East-West and North-South extent of India.
The East-West extent of India is 2,933 km. and the North-South extent of India is 3214 km.

Question 27.
What is the length of coastline and land border?
The length of coastline is almost 6,083 km. and the length of land border is almost 15,200 km.

Question 28.
Which strait separates India from Sri Lanka?
Palk Strait.

Question 29.
Name any four states of India along the borders of other countries.
Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and West Bengal are four states along the borders of other countries.

Question 30.
Which states of India are surrounded by boundaries of five states?

Question 31.
Write the four states situated on the Eastern coast.
The four states situated on the Eastern coast are—Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal.

Question 32.
Write four states of India along Arabian Sea.

1. Gujarat
2. Maharashtra
3. Karnataka
4. Kerala.

Question 33.
Name four states along the borders of Bangladesh.

1. West Bengal
2. Assam
3. Meghalaya
4. Mizoram.

Question 34.
Name the three newly organised states of India.
The newly organised states of India are—Chhattisgarh, Uttranchal and Jharkhand.

Question 35.
How many states are coastal states?
Nine states— Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal.

Question 36.
How many islands are there in Andaman and Nicobar Islands?
204

Question 37.
Between which latitudes and longitudes does the Indian subcontinent lies?
Between 8°N to 37°N latitudes and 68°E to 97°E longitudes.

Question 38.
Which line of longitudes passes through the middle of India?
82/4° E longitudes.

Question 39.
Name the capitals of Chhattisgarh, Uttranchal and Jharkhand states.
The capitals of these states are Naya Raipur, Dehradun and Ranchi respectively.

Question 40.
Name the states from which the states of Chhattisgarh, Uttranchal and Jharkhand have been formed.
Chhattisgarh from M.P., Uttranchal from U.P. and Jharkhand from Bihar.

Fill in the blanks:

1. Indian ocean lies in the_________of India.
South.

2. India is a_______country.
Vast

3. In the west of India lies________desert.
Thar

4. India has_______States.
28

5. India has______climate.
monsoon.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
India has Union Territories :
(a) 5
(b) 6
(c) 9
(d) 8.
(d) 8.

Question 2.
Sri Lanka is separated from India by:
(a) Suez Canal
(b) Panama Canal
(c) Palk Strait
(d) Gibraltar Strait.
(c) Palk Strait

Question 3.
Islands are situated in Arabian Sea :
(b) Andaman
(c) Nicobar
(d) Barren.

Question 4.
Which is the Southernmost point of India?
(a) Kanyakumari
(b) Indira Point
(c) Rameshwarm
(d) Barren Island.
(b) Indira Point

Question 5.
India has a coastline of :
(a) 6500 km
(b) 7500 km
(c) 8500 km
(d) 9500 km.
(b) 7500 km

True / False :

Question 1.
There are 28 states and 6 UT’s in India.
False

Question 2.
Ranchi is the capital of Chandigarh.
False

Question 3.
Indira point is the southernmost point of India.
True

Question 4.
Andaman and Nicobar islands are situated in Bay of Bengal.
True

Question 5.
Sanskrit language is used to study Vedas.
True

Question 1.
Describe the size and extent of India.
India has an East-West length of 2933 km. while North-South length is 3214 km. The total area of India is 32,87,263 sq. km. Its size is so long as to include 24 countries of western Europe. It covers 2.2% area of the world. It has a coastline of 7516 km. and land frontiers of 15,200 km.

Question 2.
Reason out why the North-South extent of India is larger than its East- West extent even though the country’s latitudinal and longitudinal extent (in degrees) is of the same value (30°).
The East-West extent of India is 2933 kilometres, but the North-South extent is 3214 kilometres. Thus, North-South extent is longer than East-West extent by 281 kms. The fact is that the latitudinal extent (29°02′) and the longitudinal extent (29°18′) of the country are almost of the same value. This is due to the spherical shape of the earth. The equator is the longest circle on the earth (one degree of longitude measures 111 km.). But the length of other parallels goes on decreasing from the equator towards the poles due to the curvature of the earth. At 25° latitude, the length of one degree of longitude is 100 kms. Therefore, the East-West extent is shorter than North-South extent in kilometres. The East-West extent for 30° will be reduced by 30 x 10 kms = 300 kms approximately.

Question 3.
What is the longitudinal extent of India? What are its implications?
India extend between 68°7′ E to 97° 25′ E longitudes. The East-West extent is 2933 km. which is roughly l/12th of the circumference of the earth. Thus, India has a longitudinal extent of about 30° longitudes. There is a time lag of 2 hours between the sunrise in the easternmost and the westernmost horizons of India. It means that the sun takes two hours to rise in Saurashtra after it has ri§pn in Arunachal Pradesh. There is a difference of 4 minutes for 1° of longitude. Therefore, there is difference of time of 2 hours (30° × 4 = 120 minutes = 2 hours). It has been suggested to have two standard meridians (instead of one) to reduce time lag to 1 hour.

Question 4.
‘India is a vast country’. Support the fact with three examples.
India is a vast country. It is the seventh-largest country of the world. It has a latitudinal and longitudinal extent of about 30°. Its area accounts 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the world. India has a central location in the Indian ocean.

Question 5.
South of which latitude, tapering of mainland begins? What are its effects?
The mainland of India begins to taper South of 22° N latitude. This tapering divides India into two parts—Northern plains and Southern peninsula. It divides Indian Ocean into three sections—Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal.

Question 6.
What is the effect of latitudinal extent on length of day in different parts of the country?
India has a latitudinal extent of 30° almost 1/12 of the circumference of the earth. It affects the altitude of sun and inclination of sun’s rays. The differnce between length of day and night is about 6 hours in Kashmir. But the days and nights are almost equal in Kerala.

Question 7.
‘India’s relations through the land routes are much older than her maritime contacts.’ Discuss.
India has a central location in Asia due to her Trans-Indian ocean routes and land routes in the west. The various passes across the mountains in the North have provided passages to ancient travellers. But the oceans restricted such contacts. The land routes helped to make contacts with West Asia.

Question 8.
Name the five countries whose frontiers meet at the northern apex of India.
On the northern side of India, the boundaries of the following five countries meet together: China, Russia, Tajakistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. These five countries meet at the apex of the north Indian triangle.

Question 1.
Into how many divisions, can India be divided on the administrative basis? Explain with the help of a table.
India is divided into two parts:

1. States.
2. Union Territories.

The states are 28 in number and U.Ts. are 8 in number. The names of their capitals and area is given below:

 State Area (sq. km.) Capital 1. Andhra Pradesh 160203 Amravati 2. Arunachal Pradesh 81,578 Itanagar 3. Assam 78,523 Dispur 4. Bihar 94,162 Patna 5. Chhattisgarh 1,35,133 Raipur 6. Goa 3,702 Panaji 7. Gujarat 1,95,984 Gandhinagar           – 8. Haryana 44,222 Chandigarh 9. Himachal Pradesh 55,673 Shimla 10. Jharkhand 79,714 Ranchi 11. Karnataka 1,91,773 Bangalore 12. Kerala 38,864 Thiruvanthapuram 13. Madhya Pradesh 3,08,313 Bhopal 14. Maharashtra 3,07,762 Mumbai 15. Manipur 22,356 Imphal 16. Meghalaya 22,489 Shillong 17. Mizoram 21,087 Aizawl 18. Nagaland 16,527 Kohima 19. Orissa 1,55,782 Bhubaneshwar 20. Punjab 50,362 Chandigarh 21. Rajasthan 3,42,214 Jaipur 22. Sikkim 7,299 Gangtok 23. Tamil Nadu 1,30,069 Chennai 24. Tripura 10,477 Agartala 25. Uttar Pradesh 2,38,568 Lucknow 26. West Bengal 87,353 Kolkata 27. Uttranchal 55,845 Dehradun 28. Telangana 114,840 Hyderabad
 Union Territories Area (sq. km.) Capital 1. Andaman and Nicobar islands 8,293 Port Blair 2. Chandigarh 114 Chandigarh 3. Dadra & Nag&r Haveli and Daman and Diu 491 + 102 Daman 4. Lakshadweep 32 Kavaratti 5. Pondicherry 48 Pondicherry 6. Delhi 1,485 Delhi 7. Jammu & Kashmir — Srinagar 8. Ladakh — Leh All India 32,88,015 New Delhi

India: An Introduction PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

• Location — A tropical country.
• Total Geographical Area – 32, 87, 263 2
• Latitudinal extent – 8°4’ North to 37°6’ North.
• Longitudinal extent – 68°7’ East to 97°25’ East.
• North-South extent – 3214 king.
• East-West extent – 2933 kins.
• Land Frontiers – 15,200 kms.
• Coastline – 7,516 kms.
• Standard Meridian – 82½ East longitude.
• Southernmost point – Indira Point.
• The southernmost tip of the mainland – Kanyakumari
• Number of States – 28
• Number of union territories – 8
• The Largest State – Rajasthan
• The Smallest State – Goa.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 1 India: An Introduction Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.