PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Minerals and Power Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions objectively:

Question 1.
Name the important minerals.
Answer:
Iron ore, manganese, coal, limestone, bauxite are the main minerals of India.

Question 2.
What are the uses of Manganese?
Answer:
Manganese is used in steel making and strengthening steel.

Question 3.
What is the position of India amongst the manganese ore producing countries of the world?
Answer:
India ranks fourth in the world after Brazil, South America and Russia.

Question 4.
Name the position of India amongst the mica producing countries in the world.
Answer:
First position.

Question 5.
Name the state that produces more than half of the total production of Mica.
Answer:
Bihar.

Question 6.
Name the industries in which Mica is used as a raw material.
Answer:
It is used in electrical goods industries.

Question 7.
Which mineral is obtained from Bauxite ore?
Answer:
Aluminium.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 8.
What are the uses of Copper?
Or
Cite any two uses of copper.
Answer:
Copper is used for making utensils. It is used in electric goods industries because it is a good conductor of heat.

Question 9.
Name the place and state where maximum gold is produced.
Answer:
Kolar (Karnataka).

Question 10.
In which industry is the limestone used to the maximum?
Answer:
In cement industry.

Question 11.
What is the place of India in coal production in the world?
Answer:
India ranks third after China and U.S.A.

Question 12.
What is the percentage of coal reserves found in Damodar Valley?
Answer:
About three fourth of the total reserves.

Question 13.
Which organisation controls the management of coal production?
Answer:
Coal India Limited (CIL).

Question 14.
Name the four major atomic energy-producing centres.
Answer:

  1. Tarapur-Along the border of Maharashtra, Gujarat.
  2. Rawat Bhata-Near Kota in Rajasthan.
  3. Kalpakkam-Tamil Nadu.
  4. Narora-Near Buland Shahar (U.P.)

Question 15.
What is Wind Energy?
Answer:
The energy produced by windmills and the power of the wind is called wind energy.

Question 16.
Which material is extracted from Bai^adila Mines?
Answer:
Iron ore.

Question 17.
Which mineral is extracted from Kolar Mines?
Answer:
Gold.

Question 18.
What is the other name given to Lignite?
Answer:
Brown coal.

Question 19.
For which work is the ship ‘Sagar Samrat’ used?
Answer:
Sagar Samrat is a mobile drilling platform bought from Japan. It is used for exploring oilfields in coastal areas like Bombay High.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 20.
Which energy is derived from Uranium?
Answer:
The atomic energy power source is obtained from Uranium.

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Describe the role of minerals in the National Economy.
Answer:
Minerals have an important part to play in the Indian Economy.

  1. There are great possibilities of industrial development due to minerals. Coal and Iron with large reserves form the basis of the machine age.
  2. Mining provides income to states.
  3. Mining provides employment to millions.

Question 2.
Name the Manganese producing states of India.
Answer:
Orissa is the largest producer of Manganese in India. After Orissa, M.P., Maharashtra and Karnataka are the main producers. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa and Bihar also produce Manganese. Orissa has the main mines at Keonjhar, Kalahandi and Mayur Bhanj. Madhya Pradesh has mines at Bala Ghat, Chindwara and Jabalpur.

Question 3.
Name the major Bauxite producing centres.
Answer:
Bauxite deposits are found in many areas of India. Jharkhand, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh are the main producers of Bauxite. Good quality Bauxite is mined in Kolhapur district (Maharashtra).

During the last few years, the Bauxite deposits of Orissa have been developed. The largest aluminium plant of Asia (with a capacity of 8 lakh tonnes alumina and 2.25 lakh tonnes aluminium) has been set up in this state.

Question 4.
Name the copper-producing centres in India
Answer:
Most of the copper of India is mined in Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Balaghat (M.P.), Alwar, Jhunjhnu (Rajasthan). Khaman in Andhra Pradesh, Chitrakoot and Hassan in Karnataka and Sikkim also produce some copper.

Question 5.
What are the causes of the non-availability of minerals in Punjab?
Answer:
Most of Punjab is made up of alluvial soils. It is a flat low land area suitable for agriculture. Minerals were formed in ancient periods in the areas of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. Therefore, minerals are not found in alluvial soils of Punjab.

Question 6.
Name the coal-producing centres in India.
Answer:
Three fourth of coal reserves are found in the Damodar Valley. Raniganj, Jharia, Gridihi, Bokaro arrd Karanpura are major coalfields in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar states. Coal is also mined in Singarauli, Suhagpur and Raigarh in Chhattisgarh. Singareni (Andhra Pradesh), Talcher (Orissa) and Chouda (Maharashtra) are other coal fields.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 7.
Name the main coal-producing centres in Orissa.
Answer:
Three fourth of coal reserves are found in the Damodar Valley. Raniganj, Jharia, Gridihi, Bokare arrd Karanpura are major coal fields in West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar states. Coal is also mined in Singarauli, Suhagpur and Raigarh in Chhattisgarh. Singareni (Andhra Pradesh), Talcher (Orissa) and Chouda (Maharashtra) are other coal fields.

Question 8.
What were the causes of Nationalisation of coal production?
Answer:
The main aims of the Nationalisation of coal industry were’:

  1. To protect labourers.
  2. Planned mining.
  3. To preserve the environment.

Question 9.
Name the non-conventional Sources of Energy.
Answer:
Non-conventional sources are:

  • Solar power
  • Wind power
  • Tidal power
  • Geothermal power
  • Trees
  • Urban Waste.
  • Power from organic material.

Question 10.
Describe the importance of wind energy in India.
Answer:
Wind power is an unlimited and less expensive source of power. New industries can be set up in isolated areas.

Uses:

  • Irrigation in rural areas.
  • Electricity is generated by windmills and is included in the grid system.

Question 11.
What is the role of Indian Government in mining industry?
Answer:
The government provides guidelines in mining. Laws are made according to Mineral Act 1957. The government provides “licences and contracts for mining. The government takes steps for development of mining and changes the rules regarding old contracts.

Question 12.
From which districts of Madhya Fradesh is iron ore extracted?
Answer:
Iron ore is mined in Jabalpur and Balaghat districts. Modern techniques are used in Bailadila Mines (Bastar). Iron ore is exported to Japan.

Question 13.
Name all the institutes associated with exploration, refinement and regional distribution of oil.
Answer:
The organisations are:

  • Oil and Natural Gas Commission (O.N.G.C.)
  • Oil India Limited (O.I.L.)
  • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (H.P.C.)
  • Gas Authority of India Limited (G.A.I.L.).

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 14.
Why is solar energy said to be a future energy reserve?
Answer:
Coal and oil are exhaustible sources of power. These will not last long. On the other hand solar power is an inexhaustible source of power.

It provides unlimited power, when oil and coal will be exhausted, solar power will be used.

Question 15.
What is the importance of natural gas in manure industry?
Answer:
Natural gas is a raw material for fertiliser industry. It helps to increase agriculture production. It is transported to factories through pipe-lines. 1730 K.M. long HBJ gas pipe-lines provide natural gas to 6 fertiliser factories.

Question 16.
What are the problems faced in the regional distribution of Hydroelectric energy in India?
Answer:
The main problems are:

  1. The consumer centres are situated away from bower generating centres. It becomes expensive to layout grid system.
  2. Some part of electricity is lost on the way.
  3. Due to some fault in the grid system electricity supply is stopped.

Question 17.
Describe in brief the importance of mineral reserves in India.
Answer:
India is rich in mineral wealth.

  • India is especially rich in Iron ore. Iron and coal are the bases of the machine age. India had 1/4th reserves of Iron ore of the world. India has rich reserves as well as good quality iron ore.
  • India has rich reserves of Manganese which is useful for alloy steel.
  • India has huge reserves of coal. But coking coal reserves are low. Coal and Iron ore are found adjacent to each other which makes up the deficiency of coking coal.
  • Limestone is widely found in India.
  • India is rich in Bauxite (used for aluminium) and Mica (used for electrical goods).

Question 18.
Describe the main iron ore producing centres of India.
Answer:
India has huge iron ore reserves. It is of good quality, namely Haematite and Magnetite iron ore. This has 60 to 70% iron ore content. So it has a great demand in the international market.

Areas: Iron ore is found in many areas. India has, an iron ore reserve of 1757 crore tonnes. One-half of the reserves are found in Singhbhum (Jharkhand) and Keonjhar,

Bonai, Mayurbhanj (Orissa). This is the largest iron ore belt of the world. It is also found in Bihar, Chhattisgarh. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka states.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 19.
Describe efforts made in the field of exploration and refinement of oil in India after independence.
Answer:
Potential oil-bearing area extends over 10 lakh 700 km. in India ; (almost 1/3rd of area of the country). It includes the Ganges-Brahmputra plain, coastal belts, Gujarat plains, Thar Desert and Andaman Nicobar inlands.

Position at the time of Independence. At the time of independence, oil was found only in Assam. Oil refinery was set up at Digboi. It was a small oilfield. But it worked for about 100 years.

Oil-exploration after the independence. Oil exploration was started to meet the growing demand. Oil and natural gas was discovered in off-shore regions of Gujarat and Gulf of Cambay. Oil was found at Bombay (Mumbai) High at a distance of 115 kms from Mumbai coast. At present, it is the largest oilfield of India. A mobile drilling platform ‘Sagar Samrat’ from Japan was used to explore oil. India extended this oil region. New oilfields have been discovered in off-shore regions of deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery. New oil reserves have been found in Assam.

Question 20.
Describe the development in the electrification process in villages after independence.
Answer:
Special attention was paid to the rural electrification after independence. Schemes were launched jointly by States and Electricity Boards. More than 5 lakh villages were electrified till 2000. 98 lakh tube-wells were installed. About 84% of villages were electrified. In Punjab all the villages have been electrified. To supply electricity in areas of scheduled castes and tribes, priority is being given. It will provide a multipurpose development of the villages.

Question 21.
Write in detail about the ‘Power-village Scheme’.
Answer:

  • Power-village Scheme’ has been started by Govt, of India with the aim of providing power to inaccessible rural areas.
  • It includes the setting up of Gobar gas plants with the help of organic materials, Gobar, by-products of human waste.
  • It is being set up at individual, collective and village level.
  • Bio-gas plants in urban areas are run on the human waste.
  • In recent years Power-village scheme has been completed in 184 villages. Besides, 222 villages have this scheme at different stages.
  • A survey of Power in 1680 villages has been completed and a survey of 344 villages is being conducted.

Question 22.
Write about a programme of Smokeless stoves being planned at the national level (Pb. 2004, 10)
Answer:
A special programme of Smokeless Chullahas is being set up at national level. Its main aim is to save fuel and remove the problem of wood-collection by rural women.

Power is mostly used in kitchen. Cow dung and wood is used as fuel. The traditional chullahas consume more fuel and emit more smoke. So this scheme was started in ) December 1983. A smokeless chullah can save 700 kg fuel per year. It saves 20 to 35% fuel-wood. 2.85 crore Smokeless Chullahas had been set up till March 1998. These pollution free chullahas have a bright future.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 23.
Describe Solar energy as an inexhaustible source of energy. Which parts of the country can make maximum utilization of solar energy?
Answer:
Solar energy is an unlimited and inexhaustible source of power. It is widely used and has a bright future. Solar energy can be used at a low cost, for water heating, cooking, heating the rooms, making the water lighter and drying up of crops. An area of 2.80 lakh sq. km had been marked as a potential area for the use of Solar energy till March 1993. About 5 lakh Solar cookers had been sold till March 1998.

Potential Areas. The more potential area for the use of Solar energies is Rajasthan. This state gets Solar Heat throughout the year. This energy can be supplied to scattered villages without any problem. It is the source of power for the future.

Question 24.
Write a short note on the progress made in the generation of Hydro¬electricity.
Answer:
Hydel power is a major source of Power. In 1988-89, the total installed capacity of electric power was 4 crore kW in the country. It was twice the developed water power. In 1999-2000, the developed electric power was 97.8 thousand MW units. Besides this 23.8 thousand MW units of water power and 2.7 thousand MW units of atomic power were developed; showing an increase every year.

Electric power houses are widely scattered in the country. The developed power forms a grid. It saves the loss of power. A National Electric Grid is being formed. The power is developed from all the sources. Coal, Gas, oil, water and atomic power will be integrated into a grid.

Question 25.
Describe the peaceful utilisation of atomic energy in India. Also write about the related international pressures due to this.
Answer:
Atomic energy is destructive, but India is using it for peaceful purposes. Atomic energy stations can be set up in areas deficient of other sources, or where these sources cannot meet the demands. India is trying its use. in peaceful purposes like agriculture and medicines.

The rich countries do not want its successful working in developing countries like India. So these countries want an international contro^over its working. So these countries want India to sign an international treaty. India’s argument against it is that it is a discriminating treaty that obstructs the peaceful use of atomic energy in India. Pressure is being mounted on India. India has to face difficulties to get the instruments required for it. The scientists are trying to find substitutes. India achieved a major success when Nuclear Reactor at Rawa Bhata (Rajasthan) was repaired with indigenous techniques. It saves a lot of foreign exchange and Nuclear technology receives a great boost. It is a matter of pride for India.

III. Answer the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Describe in detail the main problems which are being faced with the increase in coal production.
Answer:
Coal is the major source of power for industries. It is important for iron and steel, and chemical Industries. India has huge reserves of coal. 3/4th of coal reserves are located in Damodar valley. Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have also coal fields.

Nationalisation of coal fields. After independence, coal industry has been nationalised. Its main aim is to protect the coal labourers from injustice.

Importance of coal. Light brown coal is of great importance for India. It has been useful for producing electricity and gas. Oil can be obtained from it. Mini thermal plants have been set up near coal fields. The electricity produced thus is connected with national electric grid. It saves time and expenditure both.

Production. In 1951, coal production was 3.5 crore tonnes. Now it has increased to 333.58 million tonnes.

Problems:

  • There is shortage of high grade coal.
  • Fire accidents have taken the lives of several labourers.
  • Coal fields are found at great depth. Its mining is expensive.
  • The technical development of coal production is slow.

Question 2.
Describe about the progress made by India in development of atomic energy.
Answer:
Thermal power is produced with the use of coal, petroleum and natural gas. These sources are called fossil fuels. These cannot be re-used. Besides these, Atomic fuel and Heavy water is used to generate electricity. Thus, electricity is generated as Hydel power, Thermal power and atomic power. Electricity is used in Agriculture, Industries, transformation and domestic purposes. It is impossible to imagine life without electricity.
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources 1
In 1999-2000, the total production of electricity was 897.8 thousand MW. It included 74.9% as thermal power, 23.5% a Hydel power and 1.60% as atomic power. The share of thermal power has increased rapidly. The installed capacity was 81.8 thousand MW in 1994-95. During eighth five year plan (1992-97), the target was to increase it by 30,858 MW. But during the first four years only 14,799 MW Or 48% has been increased. Thus there is a great difference in potential and developed power in India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 3.
Write about the importance and development of non conventional sources of energy.
Answer:
Non-conventional sources of energy. Today non-conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geothermal heat, biogas, farm and animal waste including human excreta. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible. They are inexpensive in nature.

These sources include the following:
1. Wind energy. It can be used for pumping water. It is used in irrigating farms in the countryside. Also, it can be used for generating electricity. It is estimated that wdnd alone can provide 2000 MW of electricity. The states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Orissa are better placed in regard to this energy. Areas with constant and high speed winds are suitable for the purpose.

2. Tidal energy. This is another inexhaustible and inexpensive source of energy. The Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay are ideally suited to develop electricity from the energy produced by high tides entering into narrow creeks.

3. Geo-thermal energy. India is not rich in this source. However, efforts are being made to utilize natural energy of the hot springs at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh. Energy so produced can be used for running cold storage plants.

4. Energy from urban waste. A pilot plant for demonstration purposes had already been set up in Delhi to treat solid municipal waste for conversion into energy. It produces nearly 4 MW energy every jmar. Sewage in cities is used for generating gas and electricity.

5. Biogas based power plants. Biogas, farm wastes, rice husk are being used to produce electricity.

6. Farm animal and human wastes (Urja Gram). By using biogas, animal, poultry wastes and human excreta, gobar gas plants are being set up in villages. The power so produced is used for cooking, lighting homes and streets and meeting irrigation needs of the village. The plants are being set up both at individual and community or village levels. Nearly 3 million smokeless chullahas are in operation. This saves nearly 2 million tonnes of firewood.

7. Solar Energy. It is the most abundant, cheapest and inexhaustible source of energy produced from sunlight. Solar cookers are used in cooking food. Solar power is being used for cooking, water heating, water desalination, space heating, crop drying. Solar energy is going to be the energy of the future.

Question 4.
What is the importance of electricity in the industrialisation of country?
Or
Explain the role of energy in the industrialization of the country.
Answer:
Electricity is important for the development of industries in India.

  • Industries are run with the help of machines that use electricity.
  • Electricity is generated from coal, water and atomic energy.
  • Some power is obtained from non-conventional sources.
  • Coal is a raw material also which is used in Iron and Steel industry.
  • Coal and lignite provide more than 60 per cent of the needs of our country.
  • The exploitation of oil has increased in industries.
  • Natural gas is used in fertilizer industry.

IV. Show/Mark the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Iron-ore producing areas
(iii) Manganese producing areas
(iii) Coal producing areas
(iv) Centres of Atomic energy
(v) Iron producing areas of Damodar Valley
(vi) Four major reserves of Bauxite
(vii) Gold producing areas in Koiar
(viii) Lignite coal-producing areas
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources 2

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Minerals and Power Resources Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line:

Question 1.
Which is the hardest mineral?
Answer:
Diamond.

Question 2.
Name one example of a ferrous mineral.
Answer:
Iron.

Question 3.
Name two Non-ferrous minerals.
Answer:
Bauxite, Copper.

Question 4.
Which is the best quality iron ore?
Answer:
Magnetite.

Question 5.
Name a mineral in which India is deficient.
Answer:
Copper.

Question 6.
Name the largest iron ore producing state.
Answer:
Jharkhand.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 7.
Name an industry in which limestone is used.
Answer:
Cement.

Question 8.
Name a conventional source of energy.
Answer:
Coal.

Question 9.
Name the best quality coal.
Answer:
Anthracite.

Question 10.
Where is lignite coal found?
Answer:
Neyvelli.

Question 11.
Name an offshore oilfield.
Answer:
Mumbai High.

Question 12.
Name a nuclear power station in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Kalpakkam.

Question 13.
Name a solar plant in India.
Answer:
Madhopur.

Question 14.
Why have the minerals become more important in Modern age?
Answer:
Due to scientific research and technological development.

Question 15.
How can you say that India is rich in basic minerals?
Answer:
India is rich in Manganese ore to make the best quality of steel. India is also rich in Bauxite and Mica.

Question 16.
How is the distribution of minerals unequal in India?
Answer:
North Eastern plateau of India is considered as one of the rich mineral areas of the world, others have no minerals.

Question 17.
Why is North Eastern plateau considered as a gift in the industrial development?
Answer:
Good quality of iron ore is found in North Eastern plateau.

Question 18.
In which two states of India iron ore is found? Name one mine of these two states.
Answer:
Iron ore is found in the states of Bihar and Orissa in India. Iron ore is mined at Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Keonjhar in Orissa.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 19.
Which four ports export Iron ore? Which country is the main importer of our iron ore?
Answer:
The four ports exporting iron ore are—Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Goa and Paradip.

Question 20.
Name any two districts of Jharkhand where iron ore is found.
Answer:
Iron ore is found in the districts of Raigarh and Bilaspur in Jharkhand.

Question 21.
Name four mines of Manganese ore in Orissa.
Answer:
The four mines of Manganese ore situated in Orissa are Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Mayurbhanj and Talchir.

Question 22.
In which state of India Mica is mostly found? Name two other mica producing states.
Answer:
Mica is mostly found in the state of Jharkhand in India. The other two mica producing states are Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Question 23.
Name two main Bauxite producing states.
Answer:
The two main bauxite producing states are Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Question 24.
In which state copper is mainly found? Name two mines situated there.
Answer:
Copper is mainly found in Jharkhand. Its two mines are situated at Singhbhum and Hazaribagh.

Question 25.
Name four main coal mines of India.
Answer:
The four main coal mines of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih and Bokaro.

Question 26.
Which was main oil producing state in India before independence? In which other states oil is mined in modern times?
Answer:
Assam was the main oil producing state in India before independence. Gujarat and (Bombay High) Maharashtra are other states in which oil is mined.

Question 27.
Name the atomic minerals found in India. In which states are they found? ‘
Answer:
Uranium is found in Bihar. Beryllium is found in Rajasthan. There is a huge reserve of mineral (Thorium) sand along the coast of Kerala.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 28.
Which atomic centres are w orking today in India.? Which is the oldest one?
Answer:
Tarapur, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Kalpakkam.

Question 29.
How many atomic energy centres are there in India?
Answer:
As per 2016, India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation at seven cities.

Question 30.
Which is the oldest Atomic Power Centre in India?
Answer:
Tarapur Atomic PowTer Station. (T.A.P.S.)

Question 31.
For which two peaceful purposes is atomic energy used in India? For which purpose it may be used in the future?
Answer:
India is using atomic energy for making medicines and improving the quality of seeds. It may be used for making water reservoirs, changing the course of rivers and developing mineral wealth.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Khetri is famous for________
Answer:
cooper

Question 2.
Singhbhum is famous for__________
Answer:
iron ore

Question 3.
Oil is drilled at __________
Answer:
Digboi

Question 4.
Tamilnadu has ______________atomic plant.
Answer:
Kalpakkam

Question 5.
Iron is a __________ mineral.
Answer:
ferrous

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 6.
Hirakud dam is___________metre long and__________metre high.
Answer:
48,00 metres, 61 metres

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which is the hardest mineral?
(a) Diamond
(b) Granite
(c) Basalt
(d) Galbro.
Answer:
(a) Diamond

Question 2.
Which is a ferrous mineral?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Iron
(c) Mica
(d) Coal.
Answer:
(b) Iron

Question 3.
Which mine is famous for copper?
(a) Bastar
(b) Khetri
(c) Nellore
(d) Jharia.
Answer:
(b) Khetri

Question 4.
Gold is mined at
(a) Shimoga
(b) Chittradrug
(c) Koiar
(d) Bellary.
Answer:
(c) Koiar

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 5.
Jharia is famous for:
(a) Oil
(b) Coal
(c) Gas
(d) Atomic energy.
Answer:
(b) Coal

True /False:

Question 1.
T.A.P.S. was the first commercial nuclear power station built in India.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Limestone is an example of metallic mineral.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Anthracite is the best quality coal.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
Madhopur is atomic energy plant.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Kalapakkam is in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
True.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the production and distribution of iron ore.
Answer:
India has about 25% of the iron ore reserves in the world. According to one estimate, India has 2,100 crore tons of iron ore reserves.

Production. The output of iron ore in India has greatly increased during the past few years. In 1957 India produced only 40 lakh tonnes of iron ore but in 2011-12 the output touched 90 Million tonnes.

Distribution. The maximum quantity of iron ore (40%) in India is mined in Orissa. Jharkhand is the second-largest producer of iron ore. The other important iron ore producing areas are Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Question 2.
Name the four important mineral regions of India and also give the names of important minerals found in each region.
Answer:
Four important mineral regions of India are given below:

  1. Chhota Nagpur in Bihar and Northern Orissa. It is a very well developed mineral region. Iron and coal are found in this region.
  2. There are vast reserves of minerals in central Rajasthan. This region is being developed. Copper, lead, zinc and mica are found in this region.
  3. Southern India is very important for minerals. Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are included in this region. Iron ore and lignite are found in this region.
  4. This region consists of southern Madhya Pradesh and eastern Maharashtra. Iron ore and manganese are found in this region.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 3.
What are the advantages of hydroelectricity over other sources of energy?
Answer:
There are four main sources of energy—coal, petroleum, hydroelectricity and atomic energy. Hydroelectricity has special importance as source of energy. It has the following advantages:

  1. Coal and petroleum deposits will be exhausted sooner or later but the rivers will continue flowing for thousands of years and so long as the rivers flow there will be no dearth of hydroelectricity.
  2. While producing hydroelectricity water is not lost. Hydroelectricity is produced by moving turbines with the help of fast-flowing water. The water is afterwards used for irrigation.
  3. It is not easy to transport coal or petroleum from one place to another and it costs a lot but hydroelectricity can be taken hundreds of kilometres away by wires only.
  4. Hydroelectricity is cheaper than coal or petroleum.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the importance of iron in modern age? Give a detailed account of the production of iron ore in different parts of India. Also describe the total production and reserves of iron ore in our country.
Answer:
Iron has great importance in the modern age. It is the foundation stone of industry. There cannot be any economic progress in any country without iron. All the machinery used in the factories is made of iron. It is used for making railways, aeroplanes and ships. Iron has more strength as compared to other metals and it is also cheaper.

Regional distribution. Iron in India is found in the regions given below:

  1. Orissa. The largest quantity of iron ore in India ns produced in Orissa. The chief
    districts producing iron ore in this state are Mayurbhunj, Bonai, Sambalpur and Cuttack, Gurumathasani, Badampahar and Sulaipet are the chief iron ore mines in this state.
  2. Jharkhand and Bihar. Jharkhand and Bihar are the second most important iron producers in India. The highest amount of iron ore is produced in Singhbhum, Hazaribagh and Shahabad districts.
  3. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These two states have the third position as producer of iron ore. The ore is mainly produced in the districts of Jabalpur, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Durg and Balaghat.
  4. Karnataka. Karnataka is the 4th important producer of iron ore in India. Cudoor
    district is well-known for production of iron ore in this state. The iron ore is mined at Kamengudi in Baba Budhan hills. Iron is also mined in Sindur and Sheetal Durg districts.

Production. There has been a great increase in the production of iron ore during the last few years. In 1956, India produced only 40 lakh tonnes of iron ore but in 2011-12 India produced 900 lakh tonnes of iron ore. In terms of money, it will come to 95 crores of rupees.

Reserves. There are 2,100 crore tonnes of iron ore reserves in India. This is about 25% of the iron ore reserves in the world.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources

Question 2.
Describe the mineral wealth and power resources of India.
Or
Where are the following minerals found in India? What is their importance? — Coal, Iron, Manganese, Bauxite, Mineral oil, Copper and Mica.
Answer:
Mineral wealth has great importance for every country. No country can run its industry without mineral wealth. India is fairly rich in mineral wealth. The following minerals are the chief minerals found in India.
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources 3
1. Coal. Coal is an important mineral. It is a big source of energy. Most of the coal in the country is used in Industry. Main coal mines are situated in Bihar. Besides, there are coal mines at Jharia and Raniganj. In 2010-11, India produced 333.58 million tonnes of coal. India exports a small quantity of coal.

2. Iron. Iron is considered as foundation of industrialisation. There are huge deposits of iron in India. The chief mines of iron ore are in Singhbhum (Bihar), Mayurbhunj, Keonjhar, Bonai (Orissa) and Salem (Tamil Nadu). Iron is also found in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. India exports some of its iron ore to Japan. This iron ore deposits of India are estimated to be 78,000 lakh tonnes. India can depend on its iron ore deposits for a long time to come. In 2010-11 India produced 90 million tonnes of iron ore.

3. Manganese. India is the third largest producer of manganese in the world. India produces about 20% of the world production of manganese.Russia and Brazil lead the world in the production of manganese. In India the chief producers of manganese are Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Bihar. Manganese is used for making steel from iron but this industry is not fully developed and India exports a large quantity of manganese. The manganese in India is of high quality. It is exported to U.S.A. and U.K.

4. Mica. Mica is a costly mineral. It is used in the manufacture of gases and electrical goods. India is the largest producer of mica in the world. It produces about 75% of the world output of mica. It is mainly produced in Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh. A small quantity of mica is also produced in Rajasthan. India exports mica to Britain, France, U.S.A., Japan, Italy, Canada-and Australia.

5. Bauxite. It is used for making aluminium. Aluminium is used for making railway coaches, buses, aeroplanes, electrical goods, utensils, paints etc. It is also used for refining petroleum, making cement and many other chemical products. India is self-sufficient in the productionof bauxite. Bauxite in India is produced in Bihar, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Jammu and Kashmir states.

6. Mineral Oil. Mineral oil is very important in the modern age. It is not only a source of energy but also a raw material for many industrial products. Petroleum is used for running trains, buses, ships, aeroplanes etc. When mineral oil is refined it leaves behind many type of products like wax, mobil oil, grease, etc. Most of the mineral oil in India is produced in Assam. The chief centres of oil production in Assam are Makum, Digboi, Nihar Khatia and Badurpur. Oil is also produced near Ankleshwar in Gujarat and Bwibay High near Mumbai sea coast. The production of oil in India is much less than its requirements hence India has to import petroleum from other countries. India produces only 20% of her oil requirements.

Minerals and Power Resources PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Minerals (Types of Minerals) – Natural chemical compounds.
  • Metallic – Ferrous: Iron ore, manganese, chromite, tungsten, nickel and cobalt.
    Non-Ferrous: Gold, sihrer, copper, lead, bauxite and magnesium.
  • Non-metallic – Limestone, nitrate, dolomite, potash, gypsum.
  • Mineral Fuels – Coal, petroleum and gas.
  • Iron ore – Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Goa are the main producers.
  • Manganese (Second in world reserves) – Orissa is the major producer of Manganese. Karnataka, M.P., Maharashtra and Goa are other states.
  • Mica – India leads the world with 60% of world production.
  • Bauxite (Source of aluminium) – Jharkhand, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and M.P. are main producers.
  • Conservation – Reduction of wastage in mining, Less exports, Substitutes, Recycling.
  • Conventional Sources of Energy – Thermal coal, petroleum and gas 70.6%, Hydro 25.5%, Nuclear 2.6%, Wind 1.3%.
  • Power Generation – 1400 MW in 1947; 1,02,000 MW in 2011. capacity
  • Coal – Per capita consumption 400 kg in 2011.
  • Petroleum – Estimated
    Reserves: 4000 million tonnes,
    Production: 33 million tonnes (63% Mumbai High, 18% Gujarat, 16% Assam).
  • Natural Gas – Consumption: 23 billion cubic metres
    Recoverable Reserves: 700 bIllion cubic metres
    Production: 27,860 million cubic metres per year.
  • Electricity – Installed capacity : 1,04,917 MW
    Per capita consumption: 379 KW (lowest in the world).
  • Non-conventional sources – 95000 MW – (Solar, wind, biogas.)

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Minerals and Power Resources Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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