PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer each of the following questions in brief:

(A) Natural Vegetation

Question 1.
What is meant by natural vegetation?
Answer:
Natural vegetation includes all the trees, thorny bushes, plants and grass.

Question 2.
Which vegetation type is known as ‘Terror of Bengal’?
Answer:
Water Hyacinth plant is called. Terror of Bengal.

Question 3.
In which places the local natural vegetation is found in India?
Answer:
In areas with less than 70 cm of rainfall the natural vegetation is found consisting of thorny bushes. This is found in the N-W part of India and semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP and Haryana and also found in the hills of Khasi and Jaintia.

Question 4.
What percentage of land in India is covered under forests as compared to the whole world?
Answer:
22.7% of land area is covered with forests in India.

Question 5.
In which State and Union Territories, the areas of maximum and minimum forest land fall?
Answer:
The smallest forest area is found in Delhi and the largest forest area is found in Madhya Pradesh in India.

Question 6.
Why do coniferous forests are found more than the broad forests in our country?
Answer:
Most of the part of our country have extreme climate with short summers and cold long lasting winters and these forests thrive where summers are short and cool and winters long and harsh,’ with heavy snowfall coniferous forests are needle shaped tree which remain evergreen. These forests with conical leaves are found in high mountains.

Question 7.
Which are State forests?
Answer:
State forests are those forests in which the sole right is of state govt.

Question 8.
What do you mean by reserved forests?
Answer:
Reserved forests are protected forests are terms denoting forests accorded a specific degree of protection. These are protected from any depletion.

Question 9.
Name some trees of Tropical Evergreen Vegetation. (Pb. 2008)
Answer:
The trees grown in tropical evergreen forests are Mahogony, Rubber, Coconut, Bamboo, Cane, Rosewood, Palm etc.

Question 10.
Which factors destroy the semiarid deciduous vegetation?
Answer:
The extensive agricultural area is the main reason of destroying semiarid deciduous vegetation.

Question 11.
Give the names of trees and area of arid vegetation.
Answer:
The trees found in semiarid are mainly Kikar, Cactus, Jand, Phulahi, Ber, Neem, etc.

Question 12.
What are the other names of tidal vegetation?
Answer:
The other names of tidal forests are Mangrove, Marshy, Sunder Ban.

Question 13.
Name the trees found at an elevation of about 2500 meters in Eastern Himalayas.
Answer:
Silver Fur, Pine, Spruce, Deodar, Blue Pine, etc.

Question 14.
In which areas the mountainous vegetation is grown in Deccan Plateau?
Answer:
Mountain vegetation in southern plateau is found in Bastar, Panchmari, Mahabaleshwar, Nilgiri, Palni, Shevroy and the mountain areas of Anamalai.

Question 15.
Which trees are used for making Health Medicines?
Answer:
The trees of Khar, Sincona Quinine, Sarpgandha, Oak, Awla are used for the preparation of medicines.

Question 16.
Which trees are used for Leather tanning?
Answer:
The trees of Mangrove, Kach, Gambear, Harr, Bahera, Amtand Kikar help in tanning material.

Question 17.
What is the chief objective of national forest policy?
Answer:
The maiji aim of national forest policy is to grow forests on 60% of hilly areas and 20% of plain areas.

(B) Animals

Question 1.
How many different types of animals could be there?
Answer:
There are 76 thousand species of animals in India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 2.
What type of areas are liked by elephant to live in?
Answer:
The hot wet equatorial region and dense forests.

Question 3.
Which species of deer are found in India?
Answer:
The species of deer found in India are Black Deer, Chikara, Ordinary Deer and four horn deer are main species.

Question 4.
Where are lions found in India?
Answer:
The maiii natural living place of Sunder Ban in the Delta of Ganges.

Question 5.
Name the animals which are found in Himalayas.
Answer:
Wool Sheep, Goats, Cycan, Taper, Panda, Snow Leopard are found in Himalayas.

Question 6.
Name the Nation’al Animal and National Bird of India.
Answer:
Lion is our national animal and peacock is our national bird.

Question 7.
Which species of animals are (endangered?
Answer:
Wolf, lion, rhinoceros, golden sparrow are animals feared to extinct.

(C) Soils

Question 1.
Define soil.
Answer:
Soil is the mixture of soft, loose, unconsolidated rock material and bacteria is called soil.

Question 2.
How is Soil formed?
Answer:
The process of the formation of soil is due to disintegration of rocks.

Question 3.
Which are the basic elements of Soil?
Answer:
The parent materials for soil are:

  1. Primary Rocks
  2. Climate
  3. Slope of land
  4. Period of natural vegetation.

Question 4.
Which chemical elements are found in Black Soil?
Answer:
Iron, Potash, Aluminium, Limestone and Potassium.

Question 5.
Where is laterite soil found in India?
Answer:
Laterite soil is found in Vindhyanchal, Madhya Pradesh along with Satpura, Orissa, Basaltic mountain ranges.

Question 6.
Where is Bhur soil found?
Answer:
Bhur soil is found in border districts of Punjab and Haryana.

Question 7.
What are different names of Saline soils in different parts of the country?
Answer:
Thur, Reh, Kallar.

Question 8.
In which areas of India are the soils suitable for cultivation of Tea found?
Answer:
Assam, Himachal Pradesh (Lahul Spiti, Kinnaur), Western Bengal, Darjeeling, Uttar Pradesh and Nilgiris in South.

Question 9.
What is meant by soil erosion?
Answer:
To remove the thick layer (15 to 30 cm thick) found on surface by physical and non physical factors is called soil erosion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 10.
What different measures are taken to check the forward extension of desert?
Answer:
The trees are grown to decrease the speed of winds in deserts. Along this, grass is grown on sand dunes.

II. Answer each of the following questions in short:

(A) Natural Vegetation

Question 1.
Why has foreign vegetation beconae a problem for us? Elaborate with examples.
Answer:
Nearly 40% of plant species found in India have come from outside and are called exotic plants. These plants have been brought from Sino; Tibetan, African and Indo- Malayasian areas. These plants were brought as decorative garden plants in India. These plants grow rapidly as weeds under hot-wet tropical conditions. These rapidly multiply so that it is difficult to eradicate these.

Lantana and water hyacinth are two such species. Water Hyacinth is known as “Terror of Bengal”. It has choked up all the watercourses like rivers, streams, tanks, canals, etc.

Question 2.
How can foreign plants be harmful for us?
Answer:
The exotic plants have following disadvantages:

  1. Our useful domestic vegetation can get destroyed.
  2. It requires lot of money to destroy these exotic plants.
  3. These spread diseases and are a hazard to public health.
  4. It can pollute our water resources.
  5. It can reduce our fertile land pastures and destroy the forest areas in the country.

Question 3.
What are the main reasons for our natural vegetation not remaining actually natural?
Answer:
Most of present vegetal cover in India is not really natural. A considerable part of the original cover has been destroyed or changed due to human settlement and use of the land. Much of vegetation is low in quality and content. The original natural vegetation survives only in inaccessible areas of the Himalayas and Thar Desert. In other parts of the country, the vegetation is not ‘natural’ in the real sense of the term.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 4.
Write a short note on Deciduous or Monsoonal Vegetation.
Answer:
The vegetation that sheds its leaves in order to have excessive evaporation, before the start of the hot season, is called Deciduous or Monsoon vegetation.

According to rainfall, the vegetation can be subdivided into two such types:
1. Moist Deciduous Forests. This type of vegetation is found where the annual rainfall is 100 to 200 cms. The vegetation is not much dense and the trees can achieve the height of 30 m. Teak, sandal are the main trees.

2. Dry Deciduous Forests. This type of vegetation is found in areas having rainfall between 50 to 100 cms. Its long belt starts from Punjab and goes up to Deccan plateau. Kikar, Jand are its main trees.

Question 5.
What type of vegetation is found in Eastern Himalayan region?
Answer:
In Eastern Himalaya, we find 4000 species of flowers and 250 species of ferns. Height, Temperature and Rainfall has great impact on the type of vegetation:

  1. Upto an altitude of 1200 metres, we can find deciduous vegetation and mixed forests.
  2. Upto the altitude from 1200 to 2000 metres we find desert evergreen forests. Sal and Magnolia are the main trees.
  3. Due to decrease in temperature at a height of 2000 to 2500 metres are found temperate type of vegetation. Oak, Chestnut, Laurel, Birch, Maple, Alder are the main trees.
    PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils 1
  4. At an altitude between 2500 to 3500 metres, we find coniferrous trees. It includes Silver Fir, Pine, Spruce, Deodar, Rendoderan, Blue pine as main trees.
    After some more height short natural grass (Alpine grass) and different types of flowers can be seen.

Question 6.
How does natural vegetation act as a boon for industries?
Answer:
Natural vegetation provides the basis for many industries. The main industries based on forests are like this.

  1. Match Industry. Soft wood is used to manufacture match boxes.
  2. Lac Industry. Insects provide lac on trees and is used for records, polish, electrical goods.
  3. Paper Industry. Bamboo, eucalyptus, and many types of grass are used in paper industry. Bamboo is found in Terai region.
  4. Warnish and paints. Warnish and paints are prepared from resin which comes from forests.
  5. Medicines. Many important medicines are made from forests, e.g. Quinine from cincona. Other Industries: Forests provide raw material for many industries like pencils, boxes, sandal oil, furniture and sports goods.

Question 7.
What have been the implications of indiscriminate cutting of forests in the country?
Answer:
Natural vegetation plays an important role in our life. There has been great deforestation during the last four years which can result in the following disadvantages:

  1. Deforestation has great impact on ecological balance.
  2. It can create problem of soil erosion due to floods on mountain slopes as well as on plains.
  3. The northern parts of Punjab are facing the problems of soil erosion.

(B) Animals

Question 1.
What steps are being taken for protection of animal life in India?
Answer:
Our rich wild life is rich heritage formed through centuries. It must be preserved. Many of the fauna are found only in India such as swamp deer, the one horned rhinoceros, the bison, Kashmiri stag, Nilgai, etc. These rare species are in danger of extinction. Wild life is a gift of nature and a thing of beauty. Wildlife Act provides for the protection and conservation of these species. For this zoos, national parks, bio-reserves, tiger reserves have been established in India.
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils 2

  • Nilgiri Bio-reserve. This is the first reserve set up in the country in 1986.
  • Nanda-Devi Bio-reserve in Uttranchal Himalayas in (1988).
  • Nokrek in Meghalaya
  • Andaman-Nicobar Bio-reserve.
  • Valley of flowers in western Uttranchal
  • Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu
  • Thar desert in Rajasthan
  • Rann of Kutchh (Gujarat)
  • Kaziranga and Manas Park in Assam.

(C) Soils

Question 1.
What is the contribution of Primary Rocks in the formation of soils?
Answer:
Sedimentary rocks are found in Northern plains and igneous rocks are found in Indian plateau. Their composition is different and different types of soils are formed. The colour, texture and composition of soil depends upon the time factor the rocks have suffered a type of climate. In West Bengal, Bacteria help in the formation of soils. But in Rajasthan, the fertility of soil decreases due to absence of vegetation. In areas of heavy rainfall and strong winds, soil erosion is active. So the fertility decreases.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 2.
What should be done to increase the fertility of soils?
Answer:
The following methods should be used to improve the fertility of the soils:

  • Methods should be adopted to check soil erosion
  • Manures and chemical fertilizers should be used to maintain the fertility of soils.
  • Crop rotation should be practised.
  • Scientific methods of cultivation should be used.
  • Land should be kept fallow to retain its fertility.
  • Suitable combination of crops should be cultivated.

Question 3.
Write a short note on Peat or Marshy Soils.
Answer:
Peat soils cover an area of 1500 sq. km. It is found in Sundar Bans, the coastal area of Orissa, coastal areas of South Tamil Nadu, Central Bihar, Almora in Uttranchal. It is black and acidic. It is called Black soil in Kerala. Sometimes it takes the form of blue soils due to excess of bacteria.

Question 4.
What are the different types of Soil erosion?
Answer:
Soil Erosion. Soil erosion is of two types:

Types of Soil Erosion:

  1. Sheet Erosion. When the soil is washed away in thin layers by water or wind, it is called Sheet Erosion. Fine silt and clay is removed from the top soil.
  2. Gully Erosion: It is done by running water by cutting channel. Gullies and ravines are formed by rapid run off. Badland is formed over clay soils in Chambal Valley.

Question 5.
What are the causes of soil erosion?
Answer:
Causes of Soil Erosion:

  1. Steep slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water. On steep slopes, intensity of soil erosion increases.
  2. Torrential rainfall. Heavy rainfall loosens the soil particles.
  3. Strong winds. Winds and dust storm blow away soil in dry areas. This process is known as deflation.
  4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
  5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation renders soil infertile.
  6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area to soil erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by Chos along the Siwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation, etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 6.
What are the agents of soil erosion?
Answer:
Wind, water, glaciers are the agents of soil erosion.

III. Answer each of the following questions subjectively:

Question 1.
Explain the classification of natural vegetation of India on various bases.
Answer:
Natural vegetation of India can be divided into the following five parts on the basis of geographical factors:
1. Evergreen forests or tropical evergreen forests. Evergreen forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is 200 cms or more. These forests are mostly found in the Tarai region of the Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman islands.

2. Deciduous forests or monsoon forests. These forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is between 60 and 200 centimetres. These forests are mainly found on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, Chotanagpur, Gangetic Valley and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.

3. Semi-desert forests. Such forests in India are found in Rajasthan, Western Haryana, Southwestern Punjab and Gujarat.

4. Desert or thorny forests. Thorny bushes are the typical vegetation of such forests. Such forests are found in parts of Rajasthan and Kutch.
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils 3
5. Forests of Delta regions or Tidal forests. Such forests are found in the deltas of the rivers. Such forests in India are found in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna, Cauvery, Ganga and Brahmputra rivers.

6. Mountain forests or the natural vegetation of the Himalayas. Forests of this type are found on the slopes of the mountains.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 2.
How is natural vegetation classified on the basis of Geographical elements in the country? (Pb. 2005, 06)
Answer:
There .are many variations of soil and climate in India. This has given rise to many types of forests. The forests in India can be divided into the following main types:
1. Evergreen forests or the tropical evergreen forests. Evergreen forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is 200 cms or more. These forests are mostly found in the Terai region of the eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman islands. The chief trees of these forests include Mahogany, bamboos, cane, rubber and cinchona. The wood from these trees is used for making furniture, houses and boats.

2. Deciduous forests or monsoon forests. These forests are found in those parts in India where the average annual rainfall is between 60 and 200 centimeters. These forests are mainly found on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, Chhotanagpur, Gangetic valley and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. The chief trees found in these forests include teak, sal, sesoo, mango, sandal and cotton tree. These trees shed off their leaves in summer.

3. Semi-desert forests. This type of forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is between 20 and 60 cms. Such forests in India are found in Rajasthan, Western Haryana, South Western Punjab and Gujarat. Acacia and date palm are the typical trees of these forests.

4. Deserts or thorny forests. Such vegetation or forests are found in those parts of India where the average annual rainfall is less than 20 cms. Thorny bushes are the typical vegetation of such forests. Such forests are found in parts of Rajasthan and Kutch.

5. Forests of Delta regions or Tidal forests. Such forests are found in the deltas of the rivers. There is ample water and the soil is also fertile. Such forests in India are found in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Ganga and Brahmputra rivers. Such forests are found in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

6. Mountain forests or the natural vegetation of the Himalayas. Forests of this type are found on the slopes of the mountains. The nature of forests changes with the height and the amount of rainfall.

Question 3.
Describe the benefits of natural vegetation to the country.
Answer:
Importance of Forests:
Forests are a valuable rersource; like a river system, it is a multiple resource. Forests provide mankind with a number of products. Forests have greatly influenced human activities. Modern civilisation depends more and more on forests.

Following are the direct and indirect advantages of forests:

  • Forests provide many things to meet our food requirements like wild fruits, nuts, berries, etc. Many tribes are dependent on gathering of these products in forests.
  • Forests are a source of timber for house building, furniture making, ship building, etc.
  • Forests supply about 40% of fuel of the world. Wood has been the major source of fuel in houses, smelting industries and running locomotives.
  • Softwoods supply raw materials for wood pulp, paper, rayon industries.
  • Many products like rubber, pitch, gum, tanning materials, cork, camphor, fir, herbs, etc. are gathered from forests.
  • Forests provide plywood and fibre wood for packing purposes.
  • Forests help in rainfall by capturing moisture in the air. These affect the climate of an area,
  • Forests prevent Soil erosion and floods.
  • Forests increase the fertility of soil, help agriculture and maintain ecological balance.
  • Forests provide shelter to wild animals and help recreation, wild life and hunting.
  • They check the advance of deserts.

Question 4.
Which elements determine the texture of soil?
Answer:
The formation of soils depends upon the following factors:

  1. Bed rocks. Sedimentary rocks are found in the Northern plain while igneous rocks are found in peninsular India. These rocks have a variety of minerals which add to their fertility.
  2. Climate. Colour, structure and composition of soils depend upon climate. West Bengal has fertile soils due to chemical processes. But Rajasthan has less fertile soils due to absence of vegetation. Areas with heavy rainfall and strong winds have soil erosion and the soils are less fertile.
  3. Slope. Slope also affects the development of soils. Land slide occurs in hilly areas due to fast running water and gravity. Therefore, slopes are not fertile, but the valleys of Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra are fertile.
  4. Natural vegetation. Vegetation provides Humus which makes the soils fertile. India has a large area under cultivation. Vegetation is.not adequate. Only 5% to 10% bacteria is available. So soils are not very fertile.
  5. Period. Time plays an important factor. Soils receive every year humus, sediments, bacteria, etc. Soil formation is a slow process which takes thousands of years.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 5.
Discuss the various types and characteristics of soils found in India.
Answer:
India is primarily an agricultural country. The soils of India are classified on the basis of bed rocks and climate conditions.
1. Black Soils: Black soils are mainly found over the Deccan Lava tract including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. These soils have been formed due to weathering of Lava rocks. These soils cover an area of about 5 lakh sq. km. These soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. These are also called ‘Regur Soils’. These soils are most suitable for cotton cultivation and are known as ‘Black Cotton Soils’.
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils 4
2. Red Soils. These soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and areas on periphery of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to decomposition underlying igneous rocks.

3. Laterite Soils. Laterite soils are found on the highland areas of the plateau. These are found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and hilly regions of Assam, Rajmahal hills and Chottanagpur plateau. Due to monsoonal climate (wet and dry seasons alternatively occurring), there is the leaching of soils.

4. Alluvial Soils. These soils have been deposited by the rivers in river valleys of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and their deltas. These are deep and fertile soils. These are dark soils.

5. Desert Soils. These soils cover 2 lakh sq. km. from dry areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana. These sandy soils are suited to cultivation of jowar, bajra, cotton, wheat, etc.

Question 6.
What is Soil Erosion? Why is it caused? What is its regional distribution? How can it be checked? (Pb. 2008)
Answer:
Causes of Soil Erosion:

  1. Steep slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water. On steep slopes, intensity of soil-erosion increases.
  2. Torrential rainfall. Heavy rainfall loosens the soil particles and scoopes out the soil forming gullies and ravines. This gives rise to a dissected surface called badland as in Chambal Valley of India.
  3. Strong winds. Winds and dust storms blow away soil in dry areas. This process is known as deflation.
  4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
  5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation renders soil infertile,
  6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area to soil-erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by chos along the Shiwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation, etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

Soil conservation. Soil is a fundamental natural resource. Soil formation is a slow process, but it is easily lost by soil erosion. In fact, more soil is being lost each year than Nature makes. Soil erosion must be checked. Sound farming practices and measures be adopted to conserve, protect, renew and maintain soil fertility.

These methods constitute soil conservation.

  1. Afforestation. In some areas, the original vegetation cover has been removed.
    It has resulted in soil erosion as along Shiwalik Hills. In such areas, trees should be planted (reforestation) to hold the soil. Afforestation is needed in new areas to check the surface run off. Advance of deserts can be checked by planting trees along the margins of deserts.
  2. Controlled grazing. The number of animals to be grazed on slopes should be
    according to the carrying capacity of the pastures. It gives time for the grass to grow again.
  3. Terraced Agriculture. Slopes must be cut into a senes of terraces (fields) for cultivation. Outer walls at edges are made to slow down the flow of rainwater.
  4. River Dams. River Dams are built in the upper course of rivers to control floods and check soil erosion.
  5. Contour ploughing. Contour ploughing, terracing and bunding is done to check soil wash on slopes. Ploughing is done at right angles to the hill slopes.
  6. Crop rotation. Crop rotation system be applied and the land should be left fallow for some time. Soil fertility can be maintained in this way.
  7. Other methods. In areas of heavy rain, basin type of cultivation is adopted.

IV. Show the following on the map of India:

Question 1.
(i) Areas of arid vegetation,
(ii) Mangrove vegetation area.
(iii) Areas of black soil and alluvial soils
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils 5

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions each in one line or one word:

Question 1.
How much part of India is under forests?
Answer:
22 percent.

Question 2.
Name an industrial use of Timber.
Answer:
Fuel.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 3.
How much rainfall is required for the growth of tropical evergreen forests?
Answer:
200 cm.

Question 4.
Name the forests which shed their leaves in the summer season.
Answer:
Deciduous forests.

Question 5.
Which state has the largest area under forests?
Answer:
Madhya Pardesh.

Question 6.
Name a tree found in Tidal forests.
Answer:
Sundari.

Question 7.
Which forests are found in Nilgiris?
Answer:
Sholas.

Question 8.
Name a Biosphere recognised by UNESCO.
Answer:
Sunder Bans.

Question 9.
Name a Bird sanctuary.
Answer:
Bharatpur.

Question 10.
Where are Rpyal Bengal Tigers found?
Answer:
In Sunderbans.

Question 11.
What name is given to a Horizon of soil?
Answer:
Top Soil.

Question 12.
Which is the mostly found soil in India?
Answer:
Alluvial.

Question 13.
Which soil is most indispensable on Deccan plateau?
Answer:
Red soil.

Question 14.
What name is given to Black soil?
Answer:
Regur soil.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 15.
Name the crop for which black soil is used.
Answer:
Cotton.

Question 16.
Name an area of soils.
Answer:
Thar.

Question 17.
In which area Ravines are found?
Answer:
Chambal Valley.

Question 18.
Why is diversity of vegetation found in India?
Answer:
Because there is a great diversity in relief, climate vegetation in India.

Question 19.
Where are tropical evergreen forests found in India?
Answer:
Tropical evergreen forests are found on west coast, western ghats, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura and West Bengal.

Question 20.
Where are Monsoons forests found in India?
Answer:
Monsoon forests are found in Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, U.P., Uttranchal and Punjab.

Question 21.
Name the four main trees found in Monsoon forests.
Answer:
Sal, Teak, Sheesham and Ebony.

Question 22.
Where are Delta forests found? Name one important tree.
Answer:
Delta forests are found in coastal areas where Deltas are formed. Sundri is an important tree.

Question 23.
Which wood is the best for making furniture, ships and rail coaches?
Answer:
Teak wood is the best.

Question 24.
Where are mangrove forests found?
Answer:
These forests are found in Deltas and coastal areas. These can be grown in salt areas as well as in fresh water areas.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 25.
Why is Ganga, Brahmputra Delta known as Sunder Ban?
Answer:
Sundri is the most important tree in this Delta. Therefore it is called Sunder Ban.

Question 26.
Why do the trees in deserts have long roots?
Answer:
There is absence of water in deserts. Nature has provided trees with long roots to get water from depth.

Question 27.
How do forests increase the fertility of soil?
Answer:
Dead leaves of trees mix with soil and become humus. It increases fertility.

Question 28.
Why do the forests control floods?
Answer:
Flood water seeps into the ground and decreases the flow of floods and control floods.

Question 29.
What do you mean by alluvial soils?
Answer:
The soils formed by rivers are called alluvial soils.

Question 30.
Name three types of alluvial soil.
Answer:
Khadar soil, Bhangar soil and Delta soil are types of alluvial soil.

Question 31.
Name one merit of Black soil.
Answer:
It can hold moisture and is best suited for cotton crop.

Question 32.
Which elements are found in large quantity in laterite soils?
Answer:
Iron and aluminium elements are found in large quantity in laterite soils.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 33.
Name any two milch animals.
Answer:
Cow, Buffalo etc.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Trees and plants make_______
Answer:
Natural vegetation

Question 2.
_________ plant is called Terror of Bengal.
Answer:
Hyacinth

Question 3.
Coniferous cover _______ % forests.
Answer:
5

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 4.
_________ % of land should be under forests.
Answer:
33

Question 5.
________ has the largest forest area.
Answer:
Madhya Pradesh.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Describe forest cover in India is:
(a) 9.48%
(b) 10.48%
(c) 11.48%
(d) 12.48%.
Answer:
(c) 11.48%

Question 2.
Teak wood is found in forests:
(a) Evergreen
(b) Tidal
(c) Mountain
(d) Deciduous.
Answer:
(a) Evergreen

Question 3.
Which is a bird sanctuary?
(a) Bharatpur
(b) Dacligarm
(c) Gir
(d) Nilgiris.
Answer:
(a) Bharatpur

Question 4.
Sunderbans is the habitat of:
(a) Tiger
(b) Lions
(c) Elephants
(d) Camels.
Answer:
(a) Tiger

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 5.
Kaziranga is a national park in:
(a) Bihar
(b) U.P.
(c) Assam
(d) Tripura.
Answer:
(c) Assam

True / False:

Question 1.
Teak wood is best for making ships.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Black soils are mainly found in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Flora is related with plant kingdom.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
There are 80,000 species of plants in the world.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
There are 75,000 species of animals in India.
Answer:
True.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Soil? How is it formed?
Answer:
The loose and unconsolidated material which forms the upper layer of the crust is called soil. It is found in layers or horizons. Its thickness varies from some cms to meters. It consists of many mineral and organic particles, humus, bacteria, etc. Soil formation is a slow process. Soil is formed through the chemical and mehanical weathering of rock cover. Parent materials derived from rock cover and humus together lead to soil formation. Soil is the end product of the physical, chemical, biological and cultural factors which act and react together.

Question 2.
What are the major factors in the formation of Soil?
Answer:
The formation of soil depends upon many factors. The major factors are:

  1. Parent Material
  2. Climate
  3. Surface features of relief
  4. Slope of the land
  5. Natural vegetation.

Question 3.
What are the characteristics of Alluvial Soils?
Answer:

  1. Alluvial soils are deposited by rivers.
  2. These soils are limited to river basins and plains.
  3. These are very fertile soils.
  4. These consist of fine grained clay and sand.
  5. These soils are rich in potash, but poor in phosphorus.
  6. These are generally deep soils.

Question 4.
Which type of soils are formed as a result of wide diffusion of iron in the rocks? Explain two important characteristics of these soils of India.
Answer:
Red soils are formed as a result of wide diffusion of iron in the rocks.

Characteristics of Red Soils. These soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and areas on periphery of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to the decomposition of underlying igneous rocks. The red colour of these soils is due to oxidation and diffusion of iron in hard crystalline rocks. These are given to the cultivation of millets, pulses, linseed, tobacco etc. These soils cover the largest area in Peninsular India. These soils are poor in lime, nitrogen and humus. Fertilizers are added to make these soils fertile.

Question 5.
Which exotic species is known as ‘Terror of Bengal5? Why is it called so?
Or
Why does exotic flora become a problem for us? Name two such species.
Answer:
Nearly 40% of plant species found in India have come from outside and are called exotic plants. These plants have been brought from Sino-Tibetan, African and Indo – Malayasian areas. These plants were brought as decorative garden plants in India. These plants rapidly multiply so that it is difficult to eradicate these. These reduce the useful land cover. These prevent the growth of economic plants. These spread diseases and are a hazard to public health. Lantana and water hyacinth are two such species. Water hyacinth is known as “Terror of Bengal”. It has choked up all the water courses like rivers, streams, tanks, canals, etc.

Question 6.
What is the need for conservation of forests?
Answer:
Increasing human and animal population has adverse impact on natural vegetation. Areas which were once covered with forests, have now become semi-desert. Even Rajasthan has forests. Forests are essential for ecological balance which in turn is essential for human survival and development. For balanced ecology and healthy environment, at least one third of the land of India must be kept under forest. Unfortunately we do not have even one fourth of the total area under forest. The need for a policy for conservation and mangement of forest resources, therefore, demands no emphasis.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 7.
What are the aims of National Forest Policy?
Answer:
A new National Forest Policy was adopted in 1988 to stop the further decrease in the forest cover.

  1. The policy aimed at bringing 33 percent of India’s landmass under forest cover. The world coverage was 27 percent, and India’s own coverage at that time was only 19 percent.
  2. The policy further stated that efforts would be made to maintain environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed.
  3. The other objective was to conserve the natural heritage of the country, its biological diversity and genetic pool.
  4. The policy further aimed to check soil erosion, an extension of the desert lands and reduction of floods and droughts.
  5. Other objectives of the policy were to increase the forest cover through social forestry and afforestation denuded and unproductive land, increase in productivity of forests to make timber, fuel, fodder and food available to rural and tribal populations dependent on forests and encourage the substitution of wood.
  6. Lastly it emphasized the creation of a massive people movement involving women to encourage planting of trees and stop felling of trees.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Soil Erosion? In which different ways does it occur?
Answer:
Soil Erosion. It is the destruction and removal of top soil by running water, wind, etc. Soil erosion has become a serious problem in many areas. Soil formation is a slow process and takes thousands of years to develop soil, but it may be removed in a matter of a few years. Soil erosion results from the following causes ;

Causes of Soil Erosion:

  1. Steep Slopes. Steep slopes affect the rapidity of running water on steep slopes, and the intensity of soil erosion increases.
  2. Torrential Rainfall. Heavy rainfall lessens the soil particles and scoops out the soil-forming gullies and ravines. This gives rise to a dissected surface called badland as in the Chambal valley of India.
  3. Strong Winds. Winds and dust storms blow away soil in dry areas. This process
    is known as deflation.
  4. Over-grazing. Due to over-grazing, the vegetation becomes too thin to protect the soil. Rain and wind can easily erode the loose soil.
  5. Over-cropping. Crop rotation maintains soil fertility. But over-cropping and shifting cultivation render soil infertile.
  6. Deforestation. Deforestation means the removal of forest cover and it exposes the area of soil erosion. Reckless cutting of trees has resulted in soil erosion by chos along the Shiwalik hills. Human misuse of the land through wrong farming practices, deforestation etc. leads to the removal of soil cover.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils

Question 2.
What factors control the diversity and growth of fauna and flora?
Answer:
The growth, types, and diversity in flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following factors:

  1. Temperature
  2. Sunlight
  3. Precipitation
  4. Soil
  5. Relief

1. Temperature. The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. On the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the peninsula above the height of 915 metere, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth, and changes it from tropical to subtropical temperature and alpine.

2. Sunlight. The variation in sun’s radiant energy at different places is due to the difference in latitude, season and duration of the day. Due to long duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.

3. Precipitation. Almost the entire rainfall occurs by the advancing south-west monsoon (June to Sept.) and retreating north-east monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas.

4. Soil. Changes in soil conditions have given rise to peculiar types of vegetation in many areas such as mangrove forests swamps and sandy coastal forests.

5. Relief. It is another important factor affecting vegetation. Plains, plateaus and mountains have different types of vegetation.

Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Flora – Plant Kingdom.
  • Fauna – Animal Kingdom.
  • Ecosystem – Plants, animals, human beings are part of the ecosystem.
  • Species of plants – 45,000 species in world, 5000 species in India.
  • Species of animals – 75,000 species in India.
  • Great diversity in flora – Due to varied relief, soil and climate.
  • Total area undçr forest – 750 lakh hectares (22% of total area).
  • Tropical rain forests – Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood.
  • Tropical deciduous forests – Teak, Sal.
  • Dry forests – Kikar, Babul, Ihair,
  • Tidal forests – Mangrove and Sundri.
  • Coniferous forests – Silver fir, pine, birch, spruce.
  • Species of birds – 2000 species in India.
  • Areas for protecting fauna sanctuaries – National Parks, Zoological gardens, Bio-reserves.
  • National Parks – 86.
  • Wildlife sanctuaries – 480.
  • Zoological gardens – 35.
  • Bio-reserves – 16.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Natural Vegetation, Wild Life and Soils Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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