Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality
SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in 20-25 words:
When and where Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born? Write the names of his parents.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 22, 1666 at Patna. The name of his father was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The name of his mother was Mata Gujri Ji.
Which games were played by Guru Ji in his childhood at Patna?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji played the game of mock battles. Guru Sahib also played the game of justice in a mock court along with his playmates. Guru Sahib also organised the wrestling bouts and-races during his childhood at Patna.
Name the teachers from whom Guru Gobind Singh Ji received his education.
Qazi Pir Muhammad, Pandit Harjas, Rajput Bajar Singh, Bhai Sahib Chand and Bhai Mati Das were eminent teachers who taught Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
What was the problem of Kashmiri Pandits? How did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji solve it?
Aurangzeb was forcibly converting Kashmiri Brahmins to Islam. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji saved the Kashmiri Brahmins from that grave injustice by sacrificing his life.
Name the forts constructed by Guru Gobind Singh Ji after his victory of Bhangani.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji constructed the forts at Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh and Fatehgarh after the battle of Bhangani (1690) at Anandpur Sahib.
Write names of the Panj Piaras.
The names of the Panj Piaras were Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, Mokham Singh, Sahib Singh and Himmat Singh.
How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji attain martyrdom?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji toured South India in 1708. Guru Sahib stayed at Nanded (in Maharashtra) for some time. There a Pathan attacked Guru Sahib and inflicted a severe injury on his stomach with a dagger. Guru Sahib made the final union with Divine Power some time after that incident on October 7, 1708.
Which Banis are recited while preparing Khande Ka Pahul?
The hymns of Japji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Jap Sahib, Swayas, Chaupais etc. are recited while preparing Khande Ka Pahul.
When and where was the Khalsa created?
The work of the creation of the Khalsa was undertaken in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib on the day of Baisakhi.
What was the impact of the Khalsa on Bhim Chand, the king of Bilaspur?
The Raja of Bilaspur, Bhim Chand was horrified due to the creation of the Khalsa. He made alliances with other Hill Chiefs against the Khalsa.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar? Why was it named so?
The earlier name of Muktsar was Khidrana. A group of 40 Sikhs had deserted Guru Gobind Singh Ji during the second battle of Anandpur Sahib (1704 A.D.). However, they again came back to Guru Sahib after realising their mistake. They fought in the battle of Khidrana against the Mughals and achieved martyrdom. Those 40 martyrs were called 40 Muktas, (The word Mukta is derived from the word Mukti which means salvation). The place Khidrana was named Muktsar in the memory of those forty Sikh soldiers who had earlier deserted Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib pardoned them after they had repented at Khidrana.
To whom did Guru Ji write a letter named ‘Zafarnama’?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote Zafarnama to Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
Write the names of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s four famous compositions.
The four most popular literary works of Guru Gobind Singh Ji are Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Akal Ustat and Shastra Nam Mala.
Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:
How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji spend his childhood at Patna?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji spent the first five years of his childhood at Patna Sahib. His maternal uncle Shri Kirpal Chand was his guardian. It is said that a Muslim saint named Bhikhan Shah from Ghuram (Patiala district^ visited Patna Sahib to have the divine glimpse of the child Gobind. The moment the Muslim saint looked at the child for the first time, he forecasted that the child would become a great man and lead the people on the right path. The forecast of the Muslim saint came out true. The signs of his greatness were visible even in his childhood. The child Gobind Das used to divide his friends into groups and organise mock battles. The child Gobind Das used to pay them even salaries in the form of sweets and cowries (small shells). The child Gobind Das used to play the role of a judge and settled disputes of his playmates. The child Gobind Das used to deliver judgements with great ability.
Write about the royal emblems of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji had also adopted the royal symbols like his grandfather Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib sat on a raised seat and also adorned his headgear with a crest. Guru Sahib also started calling meetings of the Sikhs under highly decorated and costly canopies. Guru Sahib also kept elephants and horses of the best breeds. Guru Sahib regularly went on hunting expeditions. Guru Sahib had also built Ranjit Nagara (the victory drum).
Describe the principles of the Khalsa.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in 1699. Guru Sahib made the following rules for the Khalsa:
- Every Sikh would add Singh (lion) after his name. Every Sikh woman would add word Kaur after her name.
- Every person would join the Khalsa Panth after getting sprinklings and five palmfuls of Amrit (Sacred Water of Immortality) of Khande Ka Pahaul (Baptism of the Sword). Then only the baptized Sikh may call himself a Khalsa.
- Every Sikh, must wear five Ks. which are Kesh (unshorn hair), Kanga (comb), Karra (the iron bangle), Kirpan (sword) and Kachchera ( a pair of shorts).
- Every Sikh shall recite the five prayers after taking bath every morning, which are recited when the Khande Ka Pahaul is prepared.
What were the causes of the battle of Bhangani?
Write any three reasons of the battle of Bhangani.
The battle of Bhangani was fought between the Hill Chiefs and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The causes of the battle were the following:
- The Hill Chiefs considered the military activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji as dangerous to them.
- Guru Sahib was strongly against idol worship whereas the Hill Chiefs were highly devoted to idol worship.
- Guru Sahib had recruited 500 Pathans, in his army who had been disbanded from the Mughal army. The Hill Chiefs were the vassals of the Mughal government. They supported the enemies of Guru Sahib.
- The Mughal Faujdar had provoked the Hill Chiefs to take action against Guru Sahib.
- Guru Sahib had strained relations with Bhim Chand of Bilaspur. The Sikhs had not allowed the marriage party of the son of Raja Bhim Chand to pass through Poanta Sahib while proceeding to Kharwal. As a result, the Hill Chiefs decided to fight a battle against Guru Sahib.
Describe briefly the second battle of Anandpur Sahib.
The second battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in 1704. Earlier, in the first battle of Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji had given a crushing defeat t© the hill chiefs. In spite of signing a peace accord with Guru Sahib, the hill chiefs had again started military preparations. They were also joined by the Gujjars. The Mughal Emperor had also accepted their request for military help. As a result, the governor of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, had sent a big contingent against the Sikhs.
The army of all the allied forces besieged Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib effectively resisted the attack of the Mughals. However, the Sikhs had an acute shortage of provisions. The Mughal generals cut off all the means of communication and the Sikhs experienced great hardships. The Sikh army started facing starvation. A group of forty Sikhs signed a disclaimer (Badhawa) and thus deserted Guru Sahib. Finally on December 21, 1704, on the advice of Mata Gujari Ji, Guru Sahib, and the Sikhs vacated Anandpur Sahib.
Write a note on the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Chamkaur Sahib from Anandpur Sahib after crossing the river Sirsa. Guru Sahib took position in a mud fort at Chamkaur where the armies of the Mughals and the Hill Chiefs besieged the fort. Guru Sahib gave them a tough fight. The two Sahibzadas of Guru Sahib, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh achieved martyrdom. Apart from that, thirty-five Sikhs also achieved martyrdom. The circumstances were not favourable for Guru Sahib. Hence the Sikhs pleaded with Guru Sahib to leave the place and Guru Sahib left for the jungles of Machchiwara along with his five Sikh devotees.
Describe the battle of Khidrana.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Khidrana after the battle of Chamkaur Sahib. The last battle of Guru Sahib with the Mughals was fought at Khidrana. Those forty Sikhs who had deserted Guru Sahib in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib came back to Guru Sahib after repentance and fought for Guru Sahib in the battle of Khidrana. They gave a proof of their devotion and achieved martyrdom after defeating the Mughals. Their devotion and sacrifice impressed Guru Sahib so much that he forgave them for their, previous faults and granted them salvation or Mukti. Hence, the forty martyrs are remembered in the history as forty Muktas. Mai Bhago had also fought in the battle of Khidrana and was badly wounded. Guru Sahib won the battle and the Mughal army ran away for their life after suffering a crushing defeat.
Describe the personality of Guru Gobind Singh Ji as a general.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great religious leader. Guru Sahib was also a successful military commander and a brave soldier. Guru Sahib fought battles forced upon him by the hill chiefs and the Mughals. But Guru Sahib fought every battle courageously and established himself as a successful General. Guru Sahib had complete mastery over swordplay, archery and horse riding. Guru Sahib had all the qualities of a commander of a high calibre. Guru Sahib had made the Mughals and hill chiefs to lick dust even with his lesspr number of soldiers and limited resources. During the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib had hardly forty Sikhs in his army. But under his command, they displayed such a spectacular fighting power that the Mughal army of thousands failed to defeat them.
Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:
What do you know about the life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave the final shape to the Sikh religion. After creating the Khalsa in 1699, Guru Sahib created the spirit of unity, courage and heroism among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib gave a strong reply to the oppression of the Mughals with his limited resources. Guru Sahib is remembered as a great spiritual leader, an organizer par excellence, a successful commander, a literary genius and a great social reformer. A brief description of his life history is as follows:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 22, 1666, at Patna. The name of the mother of Guru Sahib was Mata Gujari Ji. Guru Sahib was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib was originally (by birth) named Gobind Das. According to some scholars, Guru Sahib was later named as Gobind Rai.
Childhood Period at Patna. Guru Sahib spent the first five years of his childhood at Patna. Guru Sahib used to play such games which had revealed beforehand that one day the child Gobind Rai would become a great religious leader. Guru Sahib used to organise wrestling bouts and races of his playmates. Guru Sahib himself took part in the games. Guru Sahib used to divide his playmates into two groups and played mock battles. Guru Sahib used to hold his own court in his childhood to settle the disputes among his childhood friends. A Muslim saint, Sayyed Bhikan Shah, when he visited him from Ghuram had predicted that the child would become a great prophet one day.
Education. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji started living with his family at Chak Nanki (Anadpur Sahib) from 1672. The arrangements for the education of the child Gobind Rai were made here by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib studied Persian from Qazi Pir Muhammad and Sanskrit from Pandit Harjas. The Rajput Bajar Singh gave him training in horse riding and use of armaments. Guru Sahib learnt Gurumukhi from Bhai Sahib Chand and Bhai Mati Das.
Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and Accession of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Gaddi. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji achieved martyrdom. In 1675 in order to save Kashmiri Pandits from the oppression of the Mughals. The child Gobind had himself enjoined upon his father to achieve martyrdom. After the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, Guru Gobind Dass took over the responsibility of Guru Gaddi, which was granted to him by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji himself and he guided the destiny of the Sikh community for the next thirty-three years.
Marriage. According to Sikh traditions, Gobind Das married three women-Bibi Jito, Bibi Sundari, and Bibi Sahib Devan. According to some historians, these are the names of one woman only. Guru Sahib was blessed with four sons. Their names were Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh.
Organization of Army. Guru Sahib had rightly realized the need of raising an army for the protection of Sikh religion. Hence, Guru Sahib ordained that a Sikh, who had four sons, should recruit his two sons in his army. Guru S&hib further advised them to make gifts of arms and horses in place of any other thing. As a result, soon Guru Sahib was able to collect enough military weapons to raise an army. Guru Sahib also employed 500 Pathan soldiers of Pir Buddhu Shah of Sadhana.
Magnificent Court and Royal Insignias of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib had adopted royal insignias following the footsteps of his grandfather Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib occupied a raised throne and adorned his headgear with a crest (Kalghi). Guru Sahib held his court under magnificent canopies. Guru Sahib had also kept numerous elephants and horses of the best breeds. Guru Sahib regularly went on hunting expeditions in the jungles of Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib also constructed the Ranjit Nagara or the victory drum.
Guru Sahib in Poanta Sahib. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur did not like the activities of Guru Sahib at Anandpur Sahib and became jealous of him. He feared the rising power of Guru Sahib. The Raja was trying to find an opportunity to pick up a quarrel with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib knew it but he did not want to waste his military power in useless fights. Guru Sahib accepted the invitation of Raja Medni Parakash of Nahan to settle down in his state. In Nahan, Guru Sahib selected a scenic, peaceful and secluded place on the banks of river Yamuna. The place was named Poanta meaning a place where Guru Sahib rested his feet.
Guru Sahib brought 52 poets to Poanta Sahib. Guru Sahib composed many important literary works with the assistance of those poets. Guru Sahib got translated Ramayana and Mahabharata into Gurumukhi for the intellectual development of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib also made arrangements for imparting training in horse riding, archery, and swordplay to the Sikhs at Poanta Sahib.
Battles of the Pre-Khalsa Period,
- Guru Sahib was compelled by the circumstances to fight the battle of Bhangani. Guru Sahib defeated Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Fateh Shah of Srinagar in the battle of Bhangani. It was the first battle and an important victory of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib decided to leave Poanta Sahib after the battle and came back to Anandpur Sahib. Guru Ji built forts of Anandgarh, Lohgarh, and Fatehgarh at Anandpur Sahib.
- In the meantime, Aurangzeb who was in South India at that time got the reports of rising power of Guru Sahib. He directed his officers in Punjab in 1693, to start a war against Guru Sahib, As a result, the Faujdar of Kangra deputed his son Khanzada to lead an expedition against Guru Sahib. The Sikhs gave him a crushing defeat.
- In 1695, the Faujdar of Kangra deputed Hussain Khan against Guru Sahib. However, his expedition turned into a tussle with hill chiefs and the local Sikhs and he did not get the chance to trouble Guru Sahib, as he was killed.
- Shahzada Muazzam took many steps to crush the power of hill chiefs and Guru Sahib. Shahzada Muazzam succeeded in reducing the power of hill chiefs. However, Prince Muazzam did not act against Guru Sahib because Guru Sahib was highly respected by some of his officers.
Creation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa on the Baisakhi day in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib prepared Khande Ka Pahaul (Baptism of Sword) and administered it to his five Piyaras (chosen ones) named Daya Ram. Dharam Das, Mohakkam Chand, Sahib Chand and Himmat Rai. Guru Sahib added the word ‘Singh’ (Lion) to their names. Guru Sahib also added the word Singh to his own name.
Battles of the Post-Khalsa Period, The period after the creation of Khalsa is called the Post-Khalsa Period. Guru Gobind Singh Ji remained engaged in many battles during Post-Khalsa period. Guru Sahib fought the first battle of Anandpur Sahib in 1701, battle of Nirmoh in 1702, battle of Basoli in 1702, second battle of Anandpur Sahib in 1704, battle of Shahi Tibi and battle of Chamkaur Sahib in 1705. From Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Sahib reached Khidrana (Muktsar) after visiting places like Machchiwara, Dina etc. At Khidrana, Guru Sahib defeated the Mughal army in the last battle of his life in 1705. From Khidrana, Guru Sahib went to stay at Talwandi Sabo.
Death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Guru Gobind Singh Ji visited Nanded (Maharashtra) in 1708. The Faujdar of Sirhind had sent two Pathans to kill Guru Sahib. They used to visit the court of Guru Sahib occasionally. One evening, one of the Pathans got the opportunity to make a surprise attack on Guru Sahib and thrust a dagger into the stomach of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib received a severe injury. On October 7, 1708, Guru Sahib made the final union with the Divine Power.
Why did Guru Gobind Singh Ji create the Khalsa?
It was the glorious day in the history of Sikh religion when the saints of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were transformed into ‘Singhs’ the lions. They were transformed into such selfless soldiers who readily sacrificed their lives for the protection of their religion with smile on their faces, whenever any occasion demanded.
The great transformation took place in 1699, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa. Guru Sahib had created the Khalsa due to following reasons:
1. Contribution of the first Nine Guru Sahibans. The creation of Khalsa was the culmination of the work started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. G.C. Narang remarks, “The harvest which ripened in the time of Guru Gobind Singh had been sown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and watered by his successors. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had called upon the people to fight against injustice and for freedom from tyranny. After Guru Nank Dev Ji, the second, the third and the fourth Gurus consolidated the work begun by the first Guru. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had given to the Sikhs a holy book, a code and a treasury. He was addressed as “Sacha Padshah”. Guru Hargobind by his New Policy converted the Sikhs into saint-soldiers. The first four Guru Sahibs and the 8th Guru were peace loving but they did not make any changes in the basic policies of the other Gurus. The 9th Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji enjoined upon his followers to be brave, fearless, and courageous. By creating Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, completed the process begun by his predecessors. In fact, all the elements of Khalsa are traceable in the doctrines given by the predecessors of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
2. Oppression ofAurangzeb. The atrocities committed by the Mughals on the Sikhs went on increasing during the period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Aurangzeb demolished Hindu temples and removed Hindus from the government services. He imposed more unjust taxes and restrictions on them. The most oppressive measure was the forcible conversion of the Hindus to Islam. The helpless Hindus had submitted helplessly to the continuous oppression. In fact, the very existence of Hindu religion in the Punjab was in danger. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was, severely opposed to any kind of oppression and had firmly resolved to fight against it. It was one of the main causes which led Guru Sahib to create Khalsa and to raise a strong army of the Sikhs.
3. Evil of Caste System. The Indian society was infested with social evils. The most crippling social evil was Caste System. The feelings of high and low caste were the major hurdles in achieving national unity. There was a big gulf between the Shudras and the Upper Classes in the society. There was a dire need of unity in the society. Guru Gobind Singh Ji furnished its solution by creating a united Khalsa. Guru Sahib wanted that the Khalsa should emerge as a united whole, dropping out all the caste considerations.
4. Aptitude of the Jats. The Jats had adopted Sikh religion in large numbers. The Jats were brave, fearless and had an inborn talent for battles. Guru Gobind Singh Ji needed a well-organised army to destroy the enemies of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib, therefore, encouraged the war loving Jats to adopt Sikh religion. Guru Sahib wanted to organise his followers and thus created the Khalsa.
5. Opposition of Hill Chiefs against Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Before the creation of Khalsa Panth, Guru Gobind Singh Ji had explored the possibility of raising a joint front against the oppressive Mughal Empire. Guru Sahib had learnt it from his experience that he could not bank upon the undependable hill people. Guru Sahib realised that the solution to the problem lay in raising their own army. Hence, Guru Sahib created the Khalsa.
6. To Strengthen Sikh Religion. One of the causes of the creation of Khalsa by Guru Sahib was that the people belonging to the factions of Meenas (Prithia’s sympathizers), Dhir Malia’s, and Ram Rai’s groups had been creating troubles for the Guru Sahibans before the period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted to save the Sikh religion from such dishonest people and to establish discipline within the Sikh community. Guru Sahib, therefore, established the Khalsa Panth.
7. Corruption in the Masand System. The Masands were very helpful in the spread of the message of Sikh religion, during the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, gradually many shortcomings crept into the Masand System. The Masands started exploiting the Sikh ,devotees instead of guiding them on the right path. They had started misusing the donations and gifts for the Sikh Panth. A more disciplined organisation like the Khalsa was the need of the hour.
8. Need of a New Organisation. By the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Sikh community had acquired its own language, distinctive script, their own spiritual guide and their own original holy book. Now they were in need of a new organization. Guru Gobind Singh Ji fulfilled this need by creating the Khalsa.
9. Aim of the Life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote ‘Bachitra Natak’ which is his autobiography. It states that Guru Sahib aimed at spreading the message of Sikh religion all over the worlds finish the oppression and protect the saints and noble souls. It was not possible to “achieve such an aim without organising an army of devoted soldiers. As a result, Guru Sahib created the Khalsa Panth.
What was the significance of creation of the Khalsa’?
The creation of Khalsa was an epoch-making event in the history of the Sikhs. In the words of Dr. Hari Ram Gupta, a distinguished historian of Punjab, “The creation of Khalsa was an epoch-making event in the religious and political history of the country.”
The significance of creation of Khalsa can be studied, as under:
1. Completion of the work of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. All his successors worked with great devotion for the progress of the Sikh religion. Guru Gobind Singh Ji completed the works started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji by creating the Khalsa.
2. End of the Masand System. The fourth Guru Sahib, Guru Ram Das Ji had started Masand system. The Masands had done commendable work by spreading and popularising the Sikh religion during the early years of their existence. However, by the period of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, the Masands had degraded themselves by becoming selfish, greedy, and corrupt. Hence, Guru Gobind Singh Ji instructed his Sikhs to snap all their ties with the Masands, Consequently, the Masand system ended.
3. Importance of Khalsa Sangat Enhanced. Guru Gobind Singh Ji granted the right to Khalsa Sangat to prepare the Khande Ka Pahaul and of investiture for the new entrants to the Khalsa Panth. The Khalsa Sangat was also entrusted with the right to take decisions in a democratic way. Therefore, the importance of the Khalsa Sangat increased.
4. Rise in the number of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji united the Sikh« into a common bond of brotherhood, the Khalsa, by the investiture ceremony of Amrit’ from Khande Ka Pahaul. Guru Sahib Ji ordained, that from then onwards, any five Khalsa Sikhs could perform the investiture ceremony of ‘Amrit’ and admit the followers to Khalsa Panth. Consequently, the membership of the Sikh community increased by leaps and bounds.
5. Infused a New Spirit among the Sikhs. The Sikhs were filled with a new spirit of sacrifice by the creation of the Khalsa Panth. They started calling themselves the ‘Singhs’ (lions). By feeling like lions and being addressed as Singhs, their fears and cowardice disappeared. They started maintaining high moral standards in their conduct. Further, they felt themselves united with the end of caste considerations among them.
6. Brave and successful struggle against the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh Ji had infused the Sikhs with a spirit of courage and fearlessness. Guru Sahib made his sparrows to tear hawks and his single burly soldier was ready to cross swords with one lakh soldiers. It actually happened in the battle of Chamkaur Sahib when forty Sikhs crossed swords with thousands of Mughal soldiers. As a result of the foundation of the Khalsa, the Sikhs successfully fought many battles against the Mughals’from 1699 to 1708.
7. Battles between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Hill Chiefs. The creation of Khalsa alarmed the hill chiefs. Especially, Bhim Chand of Bilaspur was highly perturbed and terrified by the military activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Bhim Chand made alliance with the other hill chiefs in order to counter the rising power of Guru Sahib. As a result, Guru Sahib was compelled to fight battle against them.
8. Distinctive symbols of the Sikh Community. By the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Sikhs had acquired their exclusive sacred towns for pilgrimages. The Sikhs had their own holy book in ‘Adi Granth Sahib’. The Sikhs had by then their own distinctive festivals and customs. After the creation of Khalsa, they were given their own five sacred Ks. In this manner, they acquired distinctive outer symbols also, which made them a distinct religious sect.
9. Saviour of the Hindu Religion. Aurangzeb was cruelly oppressing the Hindus. The Singhs or the Khalsa offered him a stiff resistance. The people of other religions were much impressed by their examples and took courage to start a series of revolts against Aurangzeb. In this manner, the Hindu religion was saved from extinction especially in the North India.
10. End of Superstitions. The Khalsa did not accept the useless beliefs of the Hindus. The Khalsa stopped practising the Hindu ceremonies concerning sacrifices, Yajnas, fasting, Idol worship, etc. In this manner, with the coming of Khalsa, the clouds of superstitions and ignorance were cleared.
11. Popularity of the Democratic Principles. Guru Gobind Singh Ji initiated his Five Piyaras into the Khalsa Panth and then himself stood before them and asked them to initiate him into the Khalsa. Guru Sahib also ordained that any five Khalsas could initiate a person into the Khalsa Panth by performing the ceremony of initiation (Baptism).The Guru Sahib thus based the Khalsa Panth on sound democratic principles.
12. Rise of Political Power of the Sikhs. With the creation of the Khalsa, the spirit of heroism, fearlessness, courage, and self-sacrifice became alive forever among the Sikhs. Therefore, even after Guru Gobind Singh Ji had left the mortal world, the struggle of the Sikhs continued with the same force against the tyranny of the Mughals. Ultimately, they occupied a large part of the Punjab under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. They were severely persecuted by the Mughal governor of Lahore for some years after the death of Banda Bahadur, but they survived by establishing their reputation of being a courageous community which was firm in its resolve to destroy the Mughal power in the Punjab. By 1762, the powerful Sikh chiefs were able to establish their small independent states called the Misls.
Describe the Post Khalsa period battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
During the Post Khalsa Period Guru Gobind Singh Ji remained involved in the battles for a long time. A brief description of those battles is as follows:
1. The First battle of Anandpur Sahib 1701 A.D. The hill chiefs were perturbed by the creation of the Khalsa. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur issued warning to Guru Gobind Singh Ji that either Guru Sahib should vacate Anandpur Sahib or pay the rent for his total stay in Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib declined to accept his unreasonable demand. Bhim Chand made a joint front with the other hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib boldly faced their attack and defeated them though he had a small army. After their defeat, the hill chiefs sought the help of Mughal army and again attacked Anandpur Sahib. They were again badly defeated. In desperation, they offered a peace treaty, which Guru Sahib accepted. According to the terms of the treaty, Guru Sahib retired to Nirmoh, which was two kilometres away from Kiratpur.
2. Battle of Nirmoh (1702). Raja Bhim Chand had learnt from his experience that it was not possible for him to destroy the Sikh power. Hence, he tried to seek the help of Mughals. In 1702, from one side, Raja Bhim Chand and from the other direction, the Faujdar of Sirhind with his Mughal army attacked Nirmoh. The Gujjars of surrounding areas also joined in the attack. The Sikh army fought their enemies with great courage. The fight continued for full one day and a night. Finally, the Sikh army succeeded in repulsing the attack.
3. Battle of Satluj (1702). Guru Sahib decided to leave Nirmoh after his victory in the battle of Nirmoh. Guru Sahib had hardly crossed the river Satluj, when the enemy armies again attacked the Sikhs. The battle continued for four hours in which Guru Sahib and the Sikhs emerged victorious.
4. Battle of Basoli. Guru Sahib came to Basoli after crossing the river Satluj. Even here,the army of Bhim Chand came chasing after him. The army of the Sikhs again defeated the army of Bhim Chand. As the Rajas of Basoli and Jaswan were the admirers of Guru Sahib, Bhim Chand found it in his own interest to sign a treaty with Guru Sahib. The treaty was signed in the middle of 1702. As a result, Guru Sahib came back to Anandpur Sahib. For next one year, Guru Sahib did not fight any battle.
5. The Second battle of Anandpur Sahib. The hill chiefs felt uncomfortable and did not relish the fact that Guru Sahib was stronger and more influential than them. Hence, they formed a joint front and asked Guru Sahib to vacate Anandpur Sahib. When Guru Sahib declined straightaway to accept their unreasonable demand, the hill chiefs reacted by attacking Anandpur Sahib. They suffered a humiliating defeat this time again. Now Bhim Chand and his allies adopted a new strategy to avenge their repeated defeats and sought the help of the Mughals. The Faujdar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, brought his army.
Combined armies of Wazir Khan, the hill chiefs and the Gujjars attacked Anandpur Sahib. The Sikhs repulsed the attack on Anandpur Sahib. The enemy army besieged Anandpur Sahib and Mughal army cut off all the communication to Anandpur Sahib. The Sikh army faced starvation. The Sikhs suggested to Guru Sahib to vacate Anandpur Sahib but Guru Sahib refused to accept their suggestion. At that juncture, 40 Sikhs deserted Guru Sahib. Finally, on December 21, 1704, on the persuasion of Mata Gujari Ji, Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib.
6. Battle of Shahi Tibbi. The enemies occupied Anandpur Sahib after Guru Gobind Singh Ji had left if. They chased Guru Sahib. By the orders of Guru Sahib, Udai Singh along with his 50 Sikhs blocked the march of the big army of the enemy at Shahi Tibbi. All the Sikhs achieved martyrdom at Shahi Tibbi after killing thousands of enemy soldiers.
7. Battle of Sarsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji proceeded further and reached the banks of river Sarsa. The enemy continued pursuing Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib deputed his devoted Sikh, Bhai Jeevan Singh Rangreta to check the advance of enemy forces. The Sikhs gave them a tough fight and caused them heavy losses.
At that time, the river Sarsa was in flood. However, Guru Sahib and his undaunting Sikhs plunged into the river along with their horses. Some of the Sikhs were swept away in the river. Some precious Sikh literature was also lost in the flood. During such a confusing situation, Mata Gujari Ji and two younger’Sahibzadas, SaKibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh were separated from the main party.
8. Battle of Chamkaur Sahib 1705. After crossing the river Sarsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Chamkaur Sahib. Guru Sahib camped in a mud house of a landlord of the village. The enemy army came in his pursuit and besieged the place. At that time, only 40 Sikhs and two Sahibzadas, Sahibzada AJit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh were present there with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib gave the enemies tough fight even then. The three Piyaras and both the Sahibzadas achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib was left with only five Sikhs. The situation was very unfavourable for Guru Sahib. On the persistent request by the Sikhs, Guru Sahib vacated the place and moved to the jungles of Machchiwara. Guru Sahib reached Khidrana after passing through Alamgir, Dina, etc.
9. Battle of Khidrana 1705. The battle of Khidrana was the last battle of Guru Sahib. Those forty Sikhs, who had given him disclaimer (Badhawa) in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib returned to him and joined the battle. Guru Sahib had two thousand Sikhs, who fought with an army of ten thousand Mughal soldiers. The forty Sikhs with him, who had realised their folly, showed exemplary courage and valour and achieved martyrdom fighting against the Mughals. The Guru Sahib was so much impressed by their bravery that he forgave them for their previous fault. Guru Ji blessed them and granted them salvation or Mukti and named Khidrana as Mukatsar in their memory.
What do you know about Guru Gobind Singh Ji as a man?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji occupies a very high place in the history of Sikh religion and also of India. Guru Sahib was epitome of supreme sacrifices, literary scholarship, a model of courage, forbearance, patience, high moral character and a practical leader of men. Guru Sahib was a rare combination of multiple qualities.
A brief description of Guru Sahib as a complete human being can be given as follows:
1. Impressive Personality. Guru Sahib had a charming and impressive personality. Guru Sahib was tall, fair, with a broad forehead and muscular body. There was a unique glamour on his face. Guru Sahib always carried weapons. Guru Sahib adorned his headgear with a crest (kalgi). Guru Sahib is fondly and respectfully called ‘Kalgidhar Dashmesh’ due to his imposing gait. It was not possible for a mortal being to escape his mesmerizing influence. Guru Sahib was affable, gentle and cheerful by nature. Guru Sahib possessed the qualities of patience, confidence and forbearance.
2. A dutiful son and an ideal father. Guru Sahib was a dutiful son and an ideal father. By helping his father, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, in finding the right person to end the oppression of the Mughals by saying, “Who is more worthy than you, who is generous, holy and brave,” Guru Sahib proved that he was a dutiful son. Guru Sahib sacrificed all his sons for the protection of the religion. His two younger sons were bricked alive. His two elder sons achieved martyrdom. All the four died in the service of the Khalsa Panth. Guru Sahib respected the wishes of his mother. It was only on the advice of his mother that Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib.
3. High Moral Values. The life of Guru Sahib was based on high moral values. Guru Sahib never adopted dubious means in his life. Guru Sahib never compromised with falsehood whether it was war or peace time. His moral values earned him ful-fledged devotion of all the Hindus and Muslims. Guru Sahib never valued materialistic pleasures. It is a part of oral history that once a Sikh gifted him costly gold jewellery. Guru Sahib just threw it in the river.
4. Man of Firm Resolve. Guru Sahib was a man of firm determination. The ups and downs of life never made him leave his true path. Guru Sahib was hardly nine years old when his father sacrificed his life. His two younger sons were bricked alive. His two elder sons lost their lives in the battles for the cause of religion. His mother died of a shock at the tragedy of her two young grandchildren. No turmoil in his life succeeded in breaking his resolve to fight against injustice.
5. Tolerant in his Religious views. Aurangzeb had martyred Guru Teg Bahadur Ji just because he was not prepared to embrace Islam. But it did not make Guru Gobind Singh Ji a fanatic like him. Guru Sahib, a real saint, did not become revengeful towards the Muslims. Rather numerous Muslims were his ardent supporters and followers. Pir Muhammad, Buddhu Shah, Nihang Khan, Nabi Khan, Ghani Khan were such Muslims who admired and adored Guru Sahib for his religious tolerance and broadmindedness. There were numerous Turk and Pathan soldiers in his army. Guru Sahib himself made it clear in his Bachitra Natak that he had come on a divine mission to save his people from the wicked and tyrants.
6. A Literary Genius and Saint. Guru Sahib was a saint by nature. Guru Sahib was also a literary genius. Guru Sahib composed numerous verses in Persian, Hindi, and Gurumukhi. The Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Bachitra Natak, Chandi di Var, etc. are his literary achievements. Guru Sahib enjoyed the company of his 52 poets. Guru Sahib was usually engrossed in deep meditation even on his hunting expeditions. Guru Sahib lived peaceful and most fruitful life at Talwandi Saboo. Guru Sahib was a role model for writers like Saina Pat and Bhai Nand Lai.
7. A Complete Man. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a perfect example of a complete man. Guru Sahib was fearless, patient, and courageous. The creation of Khalsa and his literary works stand testimony to his genius. The most imposing and tyrannical Mughal empire of his times could not deter him from his resolves. Guru Sahib had made sacrifice of his four illustrious sons and his father Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. But he did not leave the path of Truth. His secular and rational ideas are well revealed in Zafarnama. Guru Sahib won the hearts of all. Even during his lifetime, Guru Sahib was worshipped as a god. However, Guru Sahib did not like such practice of his followers and had reprimanded them. Guru Sahib was a saint in the real sense and as a man, an epitome of perfection that a man could ever achieve.
Describe the battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana.
The battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana were the two most important battles fought by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Both the battles took place during the Post Khalsa Period of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
1. Battle of Chamkaur Sahib 1705. Guru Sahib vacated Anandpur Sahib, crossed the river Sirsa, and reached Chamkaur Sahib along with his Sikhs. There were only forty Sikhs in his party which reached Chamkaur Sahib. His two Sahibzadas, Sahibzada Ajit Singh, and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh were also with him. Guru Sahib took shelter in a mud fort of Chamkaur Sahib. The enemies followed them there and besieged the fort.
The doughty Sikhs gave them a tough fight. Both the Sahibzadas demonstrated their valor and martial qualities. They achieved martyrdom after slaying many enemy soldiers. Three Piyaras out of the five Piyaras namely, Bhai Sahib Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh, and Bhai Himmat Singh achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib was left with only five Sikhs. The five Sikhs requested Guru Sahib to leave the fort. Guru Sahib left the fort along with Bhai Daya Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh. The remaining Sikh followers continued to fight till they achieved martyrdom.
Guru Sahib moved towards the jungles of Machchiwara and passed through Alamgir, Dina etc. and finally reached Khidrana.
2. Battle of Khidrana 1705(P6. 2011 (A)) Guru Sahib reached the place called Taba near Khidrana, where a large number of Sikhs had already assembled. Those forty Sikhs who had deserted Guru Sahib in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib also joined the followers of Guru Sahib at Khidrana. Mai Bhago had especially arrived to fight along with other Sikhs for Guru Sahib. It is said that nearly two thousand Sikhs had gathered there.
On the other side, with ten thousand soldiers Wazir Khan, the Subedar of Sirhind, came in pursuit of Guru Sahib. On September 29, 1705, a fierce battle was fought at Taba near Khidrana. Guru Sahib and his followers fought the battle with unbelievable courage and valour. They slew the enemy soldiers into pieces in large numbers. The
Mughal soldiers started losing battle because of thirst. Finally, the remaining Mughal soldiers ran away to save their lives. Mai Bhago was badly injured and the forty Sikhs, who had signed a disclaimer (Badawa) achieved martyrdom. It was a complete victory for Guru Sahib and his Khalsa. Guru Sahib appreciated the sacrifices of the forty Sikhs and tore their disclaimer in the presence of Bhai Maha Singh. Guru Sahib prayed for their deliverance and the forty martyrs became the forty Muktas in the history of the Sikh religion. Now Khidrana is called Muktsar in their memory.
In the given map of Punjab, show any four places where battles mere fought by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa and his Personality Important Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in one line or one word:
What was the childhood name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
The childhood name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was Gobind Dass Ji.
Give one main aim of the creation of the Khalsa.
To end the tyranny of the Mughals.
Which kettledrum was made by Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji got manufactured Ranjit Nagara, the victory drum.
Between whom was the first battle of Anandpur Sahib fought?
It was fought between Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Which three different hill chiefs had formed a joint front against Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib?
The Rajas of Bilaspur, Kangra, and Guler.
When did the battle of Bhangani take place?
The battle of Bhangani took place in 1688 A.D.
Write the names of those battles which Guru Gobind Singh Ji had fought during his Pre-Khalsa Period.
The battle of Bhangani in 1688 and the battle of Nadaun in 1690.
How many persons had offered to sacrifice their lives on the command of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the assembly of 1699 at Anandpur Sahib?
Which are the two words attached to the name of each Khalsa men and woman?
The word ‘Singh’ is affixed to the name of each rpale Khalsa and the word ‘Kaur’ to the name of each Khalsa woman.
Give the names of any two battles which Guru Gobind Singh Ji fought during his Post-Khalsa Period.
The First Battle of Anandpur 2. Battle of Chamkaur.
Give the names of the two Sahibzadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji who were bricked alive in a wall.
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh Ji and Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar?
The earlier name of Muktsar was Khidrana.
What does a Khalsa say to the other in salutation when they meet?
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.
At the time of creation of the Khalsa, who was the first person to stand up to sacrifice his life for the Panth?
Daya Ram Khatri.
Where and when did Guru Gobind Singh Ji breathe his last?
Nanded on 7 October, 1708 A.D.
Give the names of any two popular compositions of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Jaap Sahib, Bachitra Natak.
What was the significance of the Battle of Bhangani?
The victory of Bhangani rasied the prestige of Sikh army of Guru Sahib.
What was the earlier name of Muktsar?
Wazir Khan was the Subedar of which place?
When and where was the Khalsa created?
On the Baisakhi Day in 1699 A.D. at Anandpur Sahib.
Fill in the blanks:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji spent first five years of his childhood at____________
Guru Sahib created the Khalsa in ___________
Guru Sahib constructed forts of___________
Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh, Fatehgarh
The first Battle of Anandpur Sahib 1701 was fought between __________ and __________
Bhim Chand of Bilaspur and Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh Ji made the final Union with Supreme God at __________ on __________
Nanded, 7 October 1708 A.D.
Multiple Choice Question:
Where was Khalsa created by Gobind Singh Ji? Give the correct answer:
(c) Anandpur Sahib
(c) Anandpur Sahib
Match the following:
Short Answer Type Questions
Write a brief note on the battle of Bhangani fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Hill Chiefs.
The Hill Chiefs were perturbed by the military preparations of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They, therefore, turned against Guru Sahib. In the meanwhile, an incident took place. Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur showed intentions to route the marriage party of his son through Poanta Sahib, But Guru Sahib, who knew about the bad intentions of the Hill Chief, did not permit him to pass through Poanta Sahib. Bhim Chand took it as his insult and after the completion of the marriage ceremony of his son, he formed a joint front of the hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib.
A fierce battle was fought at Bhangani, a place six miles away from Poanta Sahib. During the course of the battle, the Pathan soldiers (Afghans) and the Udasis deserted Guru Sahib. However, the situation was saved when a contingent of Buddhu Shah’s soldiers reached the battleground just in time. Buddhu Shah and his four sons and his seven hundred followers fought along with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib gave a crushing defeat to the Hill Chiefs. It was the first victory of Guru Sahib in the battlefield.
Write a brief note on the creation of the Khalsa.
In 1699, Guru Gobind Singh Ji called an assembly of his followers at Anandpur Sahib on the Baisakhi day. The assembly was attended by 80,000 people. When all the people present in the gathering settled down, Guru Sahib came on the stage, brandished his sword, and gave a call. “Is there any one who would lay down his life for Dharama?” There was no response for some time. Guru Sahib repeated his call three times. Finally, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and offered himself.
Guru Sahib took him to a tent nearby from where Guru Sahib had given the call. Guru Sahib soon returned with his sword smeared with blood dripping from it. Guru Sahib again asked for another person to sacrifice his life. Then, four persons responded to his call one by one and they were Dharam Das, Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand, and Himinat Rai.
Those five persons, who had offered themselves for sacrifice in response to the call of Guru Sahib, are remembered in the Sikh religion as Panj Piyaras—the Five Beloved Ones. Guru Sahib then gave them the Amrit’ prepared from Khande Ka Pahaul. They were consecrated as Khalsa and they became ‘Singhs’. After that, Guru Sahib himself received the ‘Amrit’ from the Punj Piyaras. In this manner, Guru Sahib Gobind Rai became Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Write four main achievements of Guru Gobind Singh Ji of his Pre- Khalsa Period (1675-1699).
The four main achievements of Guru Gobind Singh Ji of his Pre-Khalsa Period are as follow:
- Raising of Army. Guru Sahib was hardly nine year’s old when his father Guru Teg Bahadur Ji achieved martyrdom. Guru Sahib wanted to save his religion from the tyranny of the Mughals and avenge the martyrdom of his father. Guru Sahib, therefore, raised his own army.
- Construction of Ranjit Nagara. Guru Sahib got constructed a kettledrum and named it Ranjit Nagara. It was beaten whenever Guru Sahib left for hunting.
- Construction of the fort of Poanta Sahib. Guru Sahib visited Nahan on the invitation of the ruler of Nahan Raja Medni Parkash. Guru Sahib got constructed the fort of Poanta Sahib there.
- Battle of Bhangani. In 1688, Raja Bhim Chand along with some hill chiefs attacked Guru Sahib. A fierce battle was fought at Bhangani. Guru Sahib inflicted a crushing defeat on the hill chiefs.
What is the significance (importance) of the creation of Khalsa in the Sikh history?
- With the creation of Khalsa, the Sikhs became a community of Sant Sipahis. Before the creation of Khalsa, the Sikh community was a mere sect of worshippers of True Name. But with the establishment of Khalsa Panth, the use of sword became an inseparable feature of their creed. Gum Sahib had emphasized the importance of sword.
- The number of followers of Guru Sahib started increasing rapidly after the creation of Khalsa.
- The lower castes of Punjab got a new lease of life and their caste barriers were broken with the creation of Khalsa.
- The establishment of Khalsa infused the Sikhs with the spirit of courage and heroism. Even a humble Sikh was transformed into a roaring lion.
Describe any four important features of the personality and character of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji is known for the greatness of his character and personality.
- A Literary Genius. Guru Sahib was a literary genius par-excellence. Guru Sahib had unmatched mastery over Gurumukhi, Sanskrit, Persian and Hindi (Braj Bhasha). Guru Sahib composed standard literary works like Akal Ustat, Bachitra Natak, (Guru Sahib’s autobiography), Chandi di Var, and Zafamama.
- A Great Organiser-, Soldier, and Military Strategist. Guru Sahib was a great organizer, a seasonsed soldier and a military strategist. Guru Sahib created Khalsa to organise the Sikhs.Guru Sahib commanded and fought many battles. Guru Sahib also built numerous forts.
- A Great Saint and a Religious Leader. Above all, Guru Sahib was a great saint and a religious leader. Guru Sahib spread the message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and taught the Sikhs to fight for the protection of their religion.
- A Great Social Reformer. Guru Sahib strongly opposed caste system and fought against other prevalent social evils.
Was Guru Gobind Singh Ji a Nation Builder? Support your answer with any four established facts.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was definitely a nation builder.
- Guru Sahib was a builder par excellence. Guru Sahib raised an edifice on the strong foundation laid by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib did not fight against the Mughals to establish a separate state but fought mainly to end the tyranny and oppression of the Mughals in the country. Guru Sahib did not have any religious contentions against Islam or the Mughals.
- Guru Sahib united the Sikhs in a bond of unity by creating the Khalsa. No class discrimination was observed in Khalsa Panth. Hence, the establishment of the Khalsa Panth was a national institution with the aims of unity and brotherhood of all the Indians.
- Guru Sahib composed the literature for the whole of humanity.
- The social reform activities of Guru Sahib were definitely motivated by the spirit of nation-building.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe in detail the battle of Bhangani,
The battle of Bhangani was fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs. The important Hill Chiefs who fought against Guru Sahib were Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, Raja Kirpal Chand (Katoch) of Kangra, Fateh Shah, the ruler of Srinagar, Raja Gopal Chand of Guler and Raja Kesar Chand of Jasowal. Raja Bhim Chand was the leader of Hill Chiefs.
Causes. The main causes of the battle of Bhangani fought between Guru Sahib and the Hill Chief were, as follow.
1. Guru Sahib had started recruiting his followers in his army. They were being imparted training in horse riding, use of arms and hunting. In addition, Guru Sahib had collected a larger number of weapons. Guru Sahib advised his followers to donate horses and arms in place of cash and kind. The hill chiefs felt uncomfortable with the rising military activities of Guru Sahib.
2. The hill chiefs were ardent believers in Idol worship. But Guru Sahib strongly condemned this practice at Poanta Sahib.
3. The lifestyle of Guru Sahib was highly aristocratic and majestic. The hill chiefs were jealous of him because of his high standard of living. They feared that if Guru Sahib tried to acquire political power, they would stand in no comparison with Guru Sahib.
4. While Guru Sahib was making military preparations in the hill regions, the hill chiefs feared that it could push them into an undesirable conflict with Emperor Aurangzeb.
5. The Sikh followers used to give precious and costly gifts to Guru Sahib. It became a major cause of jealousy of the hill chiefs.
6. The immediate cause of battle of Bhangani was that Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur intentionally wanted to pass the marriage party of his son through Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib knew about the wrong intentions of Raja Bhim Chand and denied him the passage. Raja Bhim Chand took it as his insult and became revengeful. Soon after, he raised a joint front with other hill chiefs and attacked Guru Sahib.
7. Events of the Battle. A huge army under” the leadership of Raja Bhim Chand marched towards Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib also sent his forces to meet the enemy in a battle at Bhangani, a place near Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib faced some problem in the beginning of the battle. However, Guru Sahib gave tough fight evtfn in such a situation. A hard contested battle continued and Guru Sahib suffered some initial reverses. On that every occasion, Buddhu Shah of Sadhora arrived and joined Guru Sahib. The situation completly turned in favour of Guru Sahib after that. The enemy lost confidence and the hill chiefs totally became frustrated. Soon after, a large number of enemy soldiers were chopped off by the swords of the Sikhs and the hill chiefs ran away for their safety.
8. Importance of the Battle.
- The victory at Bhangani raised the prestige of the Sikh army of Guru Sahib.
- Guru Sahib was fully convinced that he could successfully end the tyranny of the Mughals by organizing and training his followers.
- The hill chiefs dropped the idea of fighting against Guru Sahib and decided to cultivate friendship with Guru Sahib.
- After the victory of Bhangani, Guru Sahib decided to leave Paonta Sahib and returned to Anandpur Sahib.
- Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur specifically adopted the policy of friendship towards Guru Sahib. The period of peace and friendship with the hill chiefs was used by Guru Ji to raise the four forts in Anandpur Sahib, which were Anandgarh, Keshgarh, Lohgarh, and Fatehgarh.
Write on the personality and character of Guru Gobind Singh Ji under the headings as given below:
1. An Organiser Par-Excellence
2. A True Saint and a Religious Leader
3. A Social Reformer
4. A Poet and Literary Genius.
An Organiser: Par-Excellence:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great organizer. Guru Sahib had proved his amazing ability as an organiser by creating the Khalsa. Guru Sahib united the scattered Sikh community suffering from the evils of social and religious conflicts into a brotherhood by the creation of Khalsa. Guru Sahib was the first Indian leader, who popularized the principle of democracy and helped Indians to learn to follow the directives of Gurumutta or the directives of Sangat.
As a Saint and Religious Leader:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was first and foremost a great religious leader. Patience and forbearance were the prominent features of his personality. Guru Sahib did not have any grudge against Islam. But he did not favour an attitude of meekly submitting to any kind of tyranny in the nam’e of saintly pursuits. The aim of creation of Khalsa was to end tyranny and oppression. Guru Sahib was a religious leader who respected all other religions as he respected the creed of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Sahib was equally a saintly person. Guru Sahib had firm faith in one Supreme God and attributed all his acts to His name. Being a saintly person, Guru Sahib had never coveted any materialistic or worldly gains.
As a Social Reformer Guru Sahib was a great social reformer. Guru Sahib had strongly condemned the social evils like caste system, idol worship, etc. The Khalsa-Panth was open to people of all castes and tribes without any discrimination. The people who were considered as drudges of humanity, and had lived like slaves of higher classes, became under the inspiring leadership of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, doughty warriors. They took up the responsibility of protection of the country and religion. Guru Sahib had opposed the irrational ceremonies, sacrifices, Yajnas, etc. and helped to reform the society.
As a Poet and a Literary Genius (Scholar) :
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a poet and scholar of high merit. Guru Sahib had mastery over Gurumukhi, Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindi. Guru Sahib enjoyed composing verses in all the languages of his choice. His poetry is alive with the spirit of heroic deeds (Vir rasa) and deep religious and mystic insight. The most popular compositions of Guru Sahib are Jap Sahib, Zafarnama, Chandi di Var, Akal Ustat, and Bachitra Natak. Guru Sahib always enjoyed the company of the scholars and poets.
At Poanta Sahib, Guru Sahib had gathered 52 poets. Guru Sahib even got translated Ramayana and Mahabharta and other ancient books into Hindi and Gurumukhi. While at Talwandi Sabo, Guru Sahib produced numerous literary works and earned the epithet of Guru Ki Kashi for Talwandi Sabo. A large number of scholars had gathered around him at Talwandi Sabo who were highly inspired by the scholarship of Guru Sahib. The most famous Sikh scholars, who were influenced by Guru Sahib, were Saina Pat and Bhai Nand Lai. Saina Pat composed Guru Shoba and Nand Lai composed Zindagi Nama in praise of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Describe the creation of Khalsa.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa in 1699. It is considered as the foremost event in the history of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib took the following steps to create Khalsa:
1. Selection of Panj Piyaras (the Five Beloved Ones). Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the Khalsa Panth on the day of Baisakhi in 1699. Guru Sahib convened an assembly of his Sikh followers at Anandpur Sahib. On that day, his nearly 80000 Sikh followers gathered there. When all the people had settled down, Guru Sahib arrived in the meeting and sat on a raised platform. Guru Sahib brandished his sword and gave a call, “Is there any true Sikh of mine, who is ready to die for Dharma?” First, there was complete silence in the meeting for sometime. Then, Daya Ram Khatri of Lahore stood up and presented himself to the Guru. Guru Sahib took Daya Ram to a nearby tent and returned after sometime with a sword with blood dripping from it. Guru Sahib repeated his call. The second time Dharam Dass Jat of Delhi offered himself. Guru Sahib took him to the tent.
Finally, Guru Sahib, in this way, accepted three more Sikhs one by one. They were Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand, and Himmat Rai. Guru Sahib was actually trying to check the loyalty of the-Sikh followers. Guru Sahib’s followers did not disappoint him. They won Guru Ji’s favour by this event. Finally, Guru Sahib brought all the chosen ones and raised them to the position of Panj Piyaras or the Five Beloved Ones.
2. Khande Ka Pahaul. After choosing his Panj Piyaras, Guru Sahib bestowed upon them the Amrit from Khande Ka Pahaul. For preparing Khande Ka Pahaul, Guru Sahib asked for an iron vessel. The vessel was filled with pure water, some ‘Patasas’ were added, and the water was stirred with a double-edged dagger by one of the Panj Piyaras. The sacred hymns of the Gurus from, the Adi Granth Sahib, namely Jupji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Chaupais and Sawayas were recited simultaneously. The water which was prepared thus was ‘the Amrit’ or the ‘Sacred Water of Immortality’.
The procedure adopted by Guru Gobind Singh Ji was his new procedure to prepare the Amrit. It was first bestowed upon the Panj Piyaras. Then Guru Sahib instructed them to kneel down and gave them the instruction to give a call, “Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Shri Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.” Guru Sahib sprinkled the Amrit on their faces and heads. Guru Sahib called each of them as Khalsa and attached the word ‘Singh’ to their names. After that, Guru Sahib received the Amrit himself from the Panj Piyaras. Guru Sahib then revealed that every step was directed by the Divine Power.
Describe briefly the principles of the Khalsa Panth. Also state the significance of creation of Khalsa.
The Principles of Khalsa Panth.
- The person, who wanted to join the Khalsa Panth, should first receive Khande Ka Pahaul.
- Every Sikh was to add ‘Singh’ (lion) after his name and every woman, ‘Kaur’ after her name.
- The Sikhs were given distinguished marks. They were to wear five Ks. Kesh (unshorn hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (Iron bangles), Kachchera (a pair of shorts), and Kirpan (dagger).
- The Khalsa was to believe in one God and abstain from idol worship.
- Every Khalsa was to take bath in the morning and recite the five prayers of Japji Sahib, Jap Sahib, Anand Sahib, Chaupai, and Sawaya’s.
- Every Khalsa was to earn his livelihood by the right means. Every Khalsa would donate Daswandh for religious activities.
- The Khalsa would not practice the Caste System.
- Every Khalsa would sacrifice everything for the Guru and the Khalsa Panth.
- Every Khalsa was to put on weapons and remain ready to fight for the protection of the Sikh religion.
- The Khalsa was not to use intoxicants and tobacco.
- The Khalsa was to lead high moral life.
- The salutation of the Sikhs was to be Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Shri Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.’
Significance of the creation of the Khalsa
By the creation of Khalsa, the great Guru laid the foundation of a brotherhood which produced in the fullness of time, men of uncommon bravery, unique devotion, and rare spirit of sacrifice. Men like Banda Bahadur, Bhai Mani Singh, Baba Deep Singh, Bhai Taru Singh, and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia were among those which the Khalsa produced within only fifty years of its creation. Secondly, the creation of Khalsa converted Sikhs into a race of saint-soldiers. Though the Sikhs worshipped the Supreme Being at heart, they were ready to take up arms against injustice and oppression.