PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History
SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:
Name the words and the language from which the word Punjab has been derived. Write its meaning also.
The word Punjab is a combination of two words
These two words are of Persian language.
The meanings of these words are five rivers. These five rivers are:
What was the impact of the partition of India on Punjab?
After the partition of India, Punjab was partitioned into two parts. The western part of Punjab was transferred to Pakistan and eastern part became East Punjab province of independent Republic of India.
In which period of Indian history was Punjab called ‘Saptsindhu’ and why?
The Punjab was called Saptsindhu during the Vedic period of Indian history. During that period, Punjab was a region of seven rivers.
Write the names of the five passes situated in the western ranges of the Himalayas.
The five passes of the North-West mountain ranges are —Khyber, Tochi, Gomal, Kurram and Bolan.
If Punjab had no Himalayas in the North, what type of area would it have been?
Had there been no Himalayas in the north of Punjab, it would have been a cold and dry region. There would have been no farming.
What is the meaning of ‘Doab’?
The territory between two rivers is known as the Doab. There are five Doabs in the Punjab.
How was the Doab Bist Jalandhar named? Write the names of any two famous cities of this area.
Doab Bist Jalandhar is the region between the rivers Beas and Satluj. By joining the first letters of the names of the rivers Beas and Satluj, the word. Bist is formed. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the two famous cities of this region.
Why is the Doab Bari called Majha? What are the residents of this area called?
The Bari Doab is situated in the central Punjab. The word Majha means inner or the centre and that is why it is called the Majha. The people living in this region are called Majhels or Majahis.
Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words:
Write any four advantages of the Himalayas.
The following are the main four benefits of the Himalayan mountains:
- The rivers of Himalayas flow during the whole year. They make the land of the Punjab fertile.
- There are dense forests in the Himalayan mountains. These forests provide many herbs and large quantities of wood.
- The high snow-covered peaks of the Himalayas protect India from the attacks of foreign invaders from the North.
- The Himalayan mountains check the monsoon winds and help in bringing rains.
Write briefly about any three Doabs.
- The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. It is not a fertile region for farming.
- The Chhaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum.
The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.
- The Rachna Doab. It is the region between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is a very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the important towns of this Doab.
How did the rivers of Punjab affect the course of its history?
The rivers of Punjab always stopped the march of the invaders of India. When the rivers were in flood in the rainy season, they expanded in the vast area and it became impossible to cross them. Undoubtedly, it was the reason that Alexander was held back for many days on the banks of river Jhelum before crossing it because it was in flood. These rivers proved unsurmountable hurdles for many invaders.
The rivers of Punjab had also been used as the natural boundaries for administrative purposes. The Mughal rulers divided the areas of the administrative units like Sarkars, Parganas, and Subas by adopting the rivers as the boundaries. The rivers of Punjab had made its land fertile and brought its people wealth and prosperity. Had the rivers not brought the alluvial soil from the high mountains to the plains, Punjab would not have any fertile land.
Give information about the boundaries of Punjab in different periods of Indian history.
The boundaries of the Punjab territory varied from time to time throughout its history.
- According to the Rig-Veda, the boundaries of Punjab included the regions covered by the rivers Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Saraswati.
- During the Mauryan and Kushaii periods, the boundaries of Punjab extended upto Hindukush mountain ranges and Taxila.
- During the Sultanate period (1206-1526), the boundaries of Punjab extended from Lahore to Peshawar. During the Mughal period (1526-1707), the Punjab was divided into two provinces, namely, Lahore Suba and Multan Suba.
- During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the boundaries of Punjab extended from the river Satluj to Peshawar.
- The British named the territory of Lahore kingdom of Maharaja Dalip Singh (son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) as the Punjab after annexing it to the British Indian Empire.
- After the partition of India, a major part of die Punjab was transferred to Pakistan.
- On the basis of language, Punjab was divided into three states, namely Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
How did the Himalayan mountains influence the history of Punjab?
The Himalayas influenced the history of Punjab in the following manner:
- Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab remained the Gateway of India for centuries since ancient times due to the North-Western mountain ranges of the Himalayas. The foreign invaders crossed the passes of these ranges to invade India.
- The Problem of the North-West Frontier: The security of North-West Frontier of India had always remained a major problem for the rulers of India. Those rulers, who failed to ensure the security of North-West Frontiers, suffered heavy losses. ,
- Protection against Foreign Invasions: It was impossible to cross the high ranges of the Himalayas from north. Consequently, Punjab remained secure in the north for a long time since nobody could invade from the northern side.
- Economic Prosperity: The rivers, originating in the Himalayas, replenished her plains with fertile soil from year to year. Consequently, the plains of Punjab were counted among the most fertile lands of the world.
Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:
Describe the mountain ranges of the Himalayas and its North-Western hills.
The landscape of Punjab had numerous features. The boundaries df Punjab make a triangle. They extend from the Himalayas in the north o Sindh and to Rajasthan in the south. They touch the Sulaiman mountain ranges in the west and in the opposite direction in the east, reach upto river Yamuna.
The Himalayas and North-West Mountains: The description of the geographical features of the Punjab is as follows:
(A) The Himalayas. There are a number of Himalayan ranges in Punjab. There are many important valleys in these ranges. The average width of Himalayan ranges in the Punjab is 250 kilometres. However, these ranges are not very high.
These ranges can be divided into three parts on the basis of their average height, which are:
- the Great Himalayas,
- the Middle Himalayas and
- the Outer Himalayas.
1. The Great Himalayas. In the east, the mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas reach upto Nepal and Tibet. In its western part, it is again called the Great Himalayas. The Great Himalayas separate the Punjab regions of Lahul-Spiti and thstrict of Kangra from Kash mir. The scenic Kulu Valley and Rohtang Pass are situated in these ranges. These ranges rise from 5851 metres to 6781 metres. These mountain ranges are always covered with snow.
2. The Middle Himalayas. They are popularly known as the Pangi mountain ranges. These ranges start from Rohtang Pass. They cover the valleys of Chamba and Dharamshala. They extend from Kashmir to the districts of Rawalpindi, Gujrat and Jhelum. These ranges rise upto a height of 923 metres and are called ‘Mountains of Dholadhar’.
(B) North-West Mountains. The North-West Mountains form the western part of the Himalayas in Punjab. These mountains include the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges. They have not high rising ranges. The most important feature of these ranges is the presence of a number of passes in them which link India with the other parts of Asia. Among these passes, the Khyber Pass is the most important. It is 1100 metres above the sea level and links Kabul with Peshawar. It remained a major entry point to India for the invaders. Apart from Khyber, there are Kurram, Tochi, Gomal and Bolan Passes. All these Passes are to the south of Khyber and link Afghanistan with India. The Bolan Pass is in the south extreme of the Sulaiman Mountain range from where begins the Kirthar Mountain range. Bolan Pass is a wider pass. It permits transit between Quetta City and Afghanistan.
Describe the Plains of Punjab.
The people of the plains of Punjab are prosperous. For Punjab, its plains were like a stage, where the drama of history was played. They are spread between the river Indus in the North-West and river Yamuna in the South-East.
These plains are counted among the most fertile plains in the world.
(A) The two regions of the Plains. The plains of Punjab are divided into two regions: The Eastern -plain and the Western Plain. The plains surrounded by Yamuna and Ravi rivers are called the Eastern plains. They are very fertile. They are also densely populated. The plains between Ravi and Indus rivers are called Western plains. They are less fertile as compared to the Eastern Plains.
(B) Five Doabs. The word ‘Doab’ is a Persian word which means two waters or two rivers. Hence, the territory between two rivers is called Doab. The plains of Punjab consist of five Doabs. It was during the reign of Akbar that Punjab was divided according to the boundaries of its Doabs for the first time and since then its administrative boundaries have been retained. The naming of each Doab is quite interesting and done on a very scientific basis. The name of a Doab is formed by joining the first letters of those two rivers between which the plain to be named is situated.
The description of these Doabs is as follows:
- The Sindh Sagar Doab. The region situated between the rivers Indus and Jhelum is called the Sindh Sagar Doab. It is not a very fertile region. Jhelum and Rawalpindi are the important cities of this Doab.
- Rachna Doab. This area situated between the rivers Ravi and Chenab is quite fertile. The important towns of this Doab are Gujranwala and Shekhupura.
- Bist-Jalandhar Doab. This Doab consists of the plains situated between the rivers Beas and Satluj. It is a very fertile area. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the leading cities of this Doab. It is also the most popular Doab. Its popularity can be judged from the fact that its local people mean to talk about Punjab whenever they use the single word Doab or Bist-Jalandhar Doab.
- Bari Doab. The territory between the rivers Beas and Ravi is called the Bari Doab. It is also a fertile region. It is popular as Majha as it refers to central location of the area in the Punjab. The two most famous cities of Punjab, namely, Amritsar and Lahore, are situated in this Doab.
- Chaj Doab. The territory between the Chenab and Jhelum is called Chaj Doab. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.
(C) Malwa and Bangar. The wide plain situated between the rivers Satluj and Yamuna is a part of Punjab. The plain can be divided into two parts namely, Malwa and Bangar.
- Malwa. The area extending from the banks of river Satluj to the banks of river Yamuna is called Malwa. Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda etc. are the prominent cities of Malwa. The area is known in Punjab as Malwa and the people belonging to this area are called Malwais. The area got its name from the name of a republican tribe called Malava, which lived here during the ancient period of Indian history.
- Bangar or Haryana. This region extends from river Ghaghar to river Yamuna. Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Hissar are the prominent cities of this area. This area has. great historical importance because numerous battles which influenced the course of Indian history, were fought here.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Important Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in one word or one line:
What is meant by Sapt Sandhu?
Sapt Sandhu means land of seven rivers.
Which Mughal ruler had divided the Punjab into two provinces?
The Mughal ruler Akbar the Great divided the Punjab into two provinces.
By what name was the Punjab called during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
The Punjab was called ‘Lahore Kingdom’ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
When did the British annex Punjab?
The British annexed Punjab in 1849.
When did the division of Punjab take place on linguistic basis?
The Punjab was divided into two states namely, Punjab and Haryana in 1966 on linguistic basis.
Name any four major tribes which invaded Punjab after crossing the passes of the north-west ranges of Himalayas.
The four main tribes were the Aryans, Sakas, Greeks and Kushans.
Name the four main cities of Terai region (foothills) of the Himalayas in Punjab.
The four main cities of the Terai region are Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur.
In which two parts are the plains of Punjab divided?
The plains of Punjab are divided into two parts namely, Eastern Plains and Western Plains.
Why are the plains of Punjab called ‘Real Punjab’? Give any one reason in support of the claim.
The plains are fertile and are the main cause of prosperity of Punjab.
Name any two Doabs of the Plains of Punjab.
- Bist-Jalandhar Doab,
- Bari Doab.
Name the rivers which surround the Malwa region in the Punjab.
The rivers Satluj and Ghaghar surround the Malwa region.
How did the plains influence the history of Punjab? Describe any one influence.
The prosperity of the Punjab encouraged the foreign invaders to attack the Punjab.
Name any four places in Punjab where historic battles took place.
Tarian, Panipat, Peshawar and Thanesar.
Write any one influence of the rivers on the history of Punjab.
The rivers acted as a great hurdle in the path of invaders of Punjab.
What is the meaning of the term “Doab”?
Territory between two rivers.
The plains of the Punjab consisted of how many Doabs before its partition in 1947?
Give the names of the provinces of the Punjab during the rule of Emperor Akbar.
Lahore and Multan.
Give the name of the Governor-General of India who annexed Punjab in 1849.
How the Tarai region of Punjab played an important role in the history of Sikhs? Give one example.
The Sikhs took shleter in the forests of Terai whenever Punjab was attacked by the invaders.
Give the names of the rivers in the Indian part of Punjab.
Satluj, Beas and water of Ravi.
Fill in the blanks:
The word Punjab is derived from __________ Persian words __________ and __________
Two, Panj, Aab
The Punjab was called ___________ during the Vedic period of Indian history.
The territory between two rivers is known as the ___________
The Sindh Sagar Doab is the region between the rivers and ___________
The Punjab was called _____________ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Multiple Choice Questions:
Who annexed the Punjab in the British Empire?
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) John Lawrence.
Which province was the gateway of India?
Short Answer Type Questions
What role did the Punjab play in the history of India?
The Punjab played an important role in the history of India due to its special geographical location. It became the cradle of Indian civilization. The oldest ancient culture (Indus Valley Civilization) flourished in the Punjab. The Aryans made it the centre of their political sway. They composed their sacred books like the Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharta, Ramayana etc. in the Punjab. Punjab was the the Gateway of India.
All the invaders upto the medieval period came to India by passing through Punjab. Hence, people of Punjab had to fight numerous battles to hold back the advancing invaders, Apart from this, Punjab was the birthplace of Hinduism and Sikhism. Guru Nanak Dey Ji gave his divine message on this very land. It was here that Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa Panth and successfully resisted the Mughal oppression. Banda Singh Bahadur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh hold prominent places in the history of India.
Give a brief description of the geographical division of Punjab keeping in view the history of Punjab.
The geographical features of Punjab can be divided into three parts, keeping in view the history of Punjab:
- Himalayas and the North-West Mountain ranges.
- The Terai region (foothills).
- The Plains.
The mighty Himalayas form the boundary of Punjab in the north. The high rising peaks of the Himalayas are always covered with snow. The Himalayas hìve three ranges which run parallel to one another. There are numerous passes in the North-West ranges through which the invaders, traders and religious preachers had been corning to India since ancient times. The second geographical division of Punjab is Terai region. It is sandwiched between the mountains and the plains of Punjab. The population in this region is small.
The most important geographical division of Punjab is its plains, which are very fertile. They extend from river Indus in the north-west to river Yamuna in the southeast. It is formed by the fertile soil deposited by the rivers from the Himalayas. It is the cause of the prosperity of Punjab since ancient times.
How did the geographical features of Punjab influence the history of Punjab?
Each geographical feature of Punjab had influenced differently the history of Punjab.
- The passes of the North-West Mountain Ranges of Himalayas allowed passage to numerous invaders. Hence, the security of the North-west region remained a major problem for every ruler. On the other hand, the snow-capped high rising peaks of the Himalayas in the north of Punjab provided perfect security from all the possible invaders from the northern side.
- The distinctive culture of Punjab is a gift of the Himalayas standing in the North and the West of Punjab.
- The prosperity and wealth of Punjab had always attracted greedy invaders. Consequently, Punjab had to face their invasions frequently.
- The Terai region provided shelter to the Sikhs during their hard times. The Sikhs saved themselves and courageously faced the oppressive rulers.
Who annexed the Punjab to the British Empire and when? Describe the role of the Punjab in the freedom struggle of India.
Dalhousie (1848-1856), the Governor-General of India, annexed the Punjab to the British Indian Empire in 1849. The Punjab made commendable contribution to the freedom struggle of India. Baba Ram Singh started the Kuka Movement in Punjab. He was the first to oppose the British rule. The people of Punjab began the freedom struggle during the 20th century by starting, Gaddhar Movement, Gurudwara Movement, Babbar Akali Movement, Naujwan Sabha (Martyr Bhagat Singh’s Movement), Akali Movement, Praja Mandal Movement etc. Martyr Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life on the gallows for the sake of his motherland. The heroes of freedom struggle like Madan Lai Dhingra, Kartar Singh Sarabha and Udham Singh laid down their lives for the freedom of India. Ultimately, in 1947, India became free.
Describe the main features of Mountain Valleys (Tilhat) or Terai region (Foothills) in Punjab.
The Terai region of Punjab is situated below the hills of Himachal Pradesh and of Punjab. This region is 308 to 923 metres high above the sea level. It presents a different look from the rest of the Himalayan regions in Punjab because of its meadows and valleys. The areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and some areas of Ambala district are parts of this region. It is mostly a hilly area. CSnsequently, the region is not much fertile. The water borne diseases rapidly spread here during the rainy season. It has a small population. The people of the region are forced to work hard for their livelihood. This hard life has made them strong and sturdy.
How far have the plains influenced the history of Punjab?
- Punjab had always remained a prosperous state because its plains are fertile. The wealth and prosperity of Punjab always attracted the greedy invaders from outside Punjab.
- Many historic battles were fought in the plains of Punjab. Peshawar, Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Sirhind, Bhatinda, Bhera, Kari, Tarrain, Panipat etc. witnessed major decisive battles. The three major decisive battles, the Battles of Panipat took place in Punjab.
- The people of Punjab were made to fight numerous battles because of the geographical location of the plains of Punjab. They suffered numerous atrocities at the hands of invaders. For example, Timur was notorious for his inhuman atrocities, which he inflicted on the people of Punjab.
- The people of Punjab developed the qualities of bravery and courage due to their involvement in frequent wars which they were made to fight.
- The Aryans developed Hinduism in Punjab. During the medieval period, this very land had the honour of being the birthplace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji who gave his spiritual message in a very simple language.
Long Answer Type Question
“The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab.” Justify this statement with your arguments.
The Himalayas stand high like a huge wall on the northern side of Punjab. The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab:
1. Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab had remained the Gateway of India for centuries because of the North-West ranges of Himalayas. First of all, the Aryans from Iran crossed the North Western mountain passes and invaded India. They faced strong opposition of the people of Punjab. But they ultimately settled in this region.
2. The Problem of North-West Frontiers: The protection of North-West Frontiers had always remained a major problem for the Indian rulers. The Indian rulers were forced to spend a large amount of money for the protection of these frontiers.
3. Protection against the attacks of foreigners: The Northern ranges of the Himalayas are very high and always remain covered with snow. Therefore, Punjab remained safe from the attacks of the foreigners from the northern side.
4. Economic Prosperity: The Punjab has remained a prosperous region due to the Himalayas. The rivers of Himalayas replenished the upper soil of its land. Consequently, Punjab plains were counted among the most fertile regions of the world.
5. The Trade Relations with Foreign Countries: The passes in the north-west ranges served as trade routes to the foreign countries. The merchants from West Asian and Central Asian countries visited India by these trade routes. The Punjabi traders also visited their countries.
6. Distinctive Culture of Punjab: The Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals and Afghans came to India crossing the passes of North-West Himalayas. Their different languages like Arabic, Persian, Turkish, etc. mixed with Sanskrit based local languages and dialects. This fusion of different cultures gave birth to the distinctive culture of Punjab which is now full of Indian and foreign features.
Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History PSEB 10th Class SST Notes
- Punjab (meaning). The word Punjab is derived from two Persian words, Pan (Five) and Aab (water or river) meaning five waters or rivers. Thus the Punjab is the region of five waters.
- The ancient names of Punjab. The Punjab was known by different names during different periods of history. The ancient names of Punjab were:Saptsindhu, Panjnad, Lahore Suba, the North-Western Frontier Province, etc.
- The Geographical Divisions. From the geographical point of view, Punjab can
be divided into three divisions:
1. The Himalayas and its North-West ranges,
2. The foothills or Terai region and
3. The Plains.
- The Malwa Region. The Malwa region is surrounded by the rivers Satluj and Ghagghar. In the ancient times, the ‘Malava’ tribe lived here. The region is named Malwa after the name of that tribe.
- The effects of the Himalayas on the history of the Punjab. The Punjab was the “Gateway of India” due to the existence of a number of passes in the North-West ranges of the Himalayas. During the medieval period, all the invaders came through these passes to invade India.
- The Plains of Punjab. The plains of Punjab are very fertile. The prosperity of Punjab encouraged foreign invaders to attack India.
- The influence of rivers of Punjab on its history. The rivers of Punjab were a hurdle in the path of the invaders. They also played the role of providing natural boundaries. The Mughal rulers had adopted river boundaries as the administrative divisions like Parganas, Sarkars and Subas.
- Terai Region. The Terai region is covered with dense forests. The Sikhs took shelter in these forests during their hard times (Dark Period of their history). They organised themselves and increased their military strength and effectively faced the oppressive rulers.
- The different Castes and Tribes of Punjab. The people of different castes and tribes lived in the Punjab. The prominent tribes, sects and the castes in the Punjab were the Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, Khatris, Aroras, Gujjars, Arians, etc.
Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 1 Physical Features of the Punjab and their influence on its History Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.