# PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 8 The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 20-25 words:

Question 1.
Who was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He was not a worthy son of his father. He was a pleasure-loving ruler.

Question 2.
Why were the Sikhs defeated in the battle of Mudki?
The Sikhs lost the battle of Mudki because of the following reasons :

• Lai Singh escaped from the battle-field when the Sikh army was about to win.
• As compared to the English, the Sikhs had very small military resources.

Question 3.
When was the battle of Sabhraon fought and what was its result?
Or
When was the battle of Sabhraon fought?
The battle of Sabhraon was fought on February 10, 1846. Because of the treachery of Teja Singh and Lai Singh, the Sikhs lost the battle. As a result, the English army crossed the Sutlej river without any hurdle.

Question 4.
What was the matter of Suchet Singh’s treasury?
Dogra Sardar Suchet Singh was in the service of Lahore Darbar. At the time of his death, he was at Ferozepur. He left behind fifteen lakh rupees there. Because he had no issue, the Lahore Darbar claimed its right on this amount. But the English Government wanted to take this matter to the court.

Question 5.
On April 21, 1846 a herd of cows blocked the way of a European gunner at Lahore. The gunner attempted to kill the cows. Hearing this news, the Hindus and the Sikhs rose against the English. .

Question 6.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire? Who was the Governor-General of India at that time?
The Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in 1849. Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.

Question 7.
What steps were taken by Chattar Singh against the Britishers?
The British charged Chattar Singh, the governor of Hazara that he was the head of the conspiracy for the expulsion of the British from the Punjab. The British officer Canora refused to obey the orders of Chattar Singh unless backed by Captain Abbot. Canora not only refused to obey Chattar Singh’s order, but also ordered his Havaldars to fire upon Sikh soldiers and shot dead two of them. In retaliation, the Sikh infantry shot dead Canora. Captain Abbot accused Chattar Singh of murder of Canora. This convinced Chattar Singh that Abbot might go to the extent of ruining him. Chattar Singh decided to resign. He had no choice but to rise in revolt against the British.

It was thus mainly due to the intrigues of Captain Abbot that Chattar Singh was forced to rise in revolt against the British on 11th September, 1848. He and his son went over to the side of Dewan Mul Raj against the British. Sher Singh also won the support of the major portion of the Sikh troops.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Discuss the causes of the Bhairowal Treaty.
According to the Treaty of Lahore, a contingent of British forces was kept at Lahore for the protection of the Maharaja and the citizens of Lahore. But with the passage of time, Lord Hardinge planned to keep the English troops at Lahore. Maharani Jindan agreed to it. So a meeting of the Sardars and the Ministers of the Lahore Darbar was called, In it, only those terms of the Governor-General were announced on the basis of which the ministers of the Darbar agreed to keep the English troops at Lahore even after 1846 A.D. Thus the British entered into another treaty with the Sikhs on December 12, 1846 A.D. This treaty is known as the Treaty of Bhairowal.

Question 2.
Write any four terms of the Bhairowal Treaty.
Following were the four main provisions of the Treaty of Bhairowal :

1. The administration of Lahore was entrusted to a body of eight Sikh Sardars who were the supporters of the English. They were to carry on this duty till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh.
2. The Governor-General appointed a British Resident at Lahore.
3. The Council of Regency was to work according to the advice of the British Resident.
4. Rani Jindan was ousted from the Punjab. She was given a pension of one lakh rupees annually.

Question 3.
Write about the importance of the Bhairowal Treaty.
The Treaty of Bhairowal has great importance in the history of the Punjab and India.

1. By this treaty, the British became the real masters of Punjab. The British Resident was given unlimited powers. Henry Lawrence was appointed as the first British Resident at Lahore.
2. According to this treaty, Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was first interned at Sheikhupura and then sent to Benaras.

Question 4.
After the First Anglo-Sikh war, why did the British not annex Punjab to their empire? White any three causes.
The English did not occupy the Punjab after the First Anglo-Sikh War for the following reasons.

1. The Sikh forces lost the battles of Mudki, Ferozeshah and Sabraon but Lahore, Amritsar and Peshawar were still under them. Had the English occupied the Punjab, they would have to face the Sikh forces there.
2. Had the British occupied the Punjab, they would have to spend much money for the establishment of peace and order in the Punjab,
3. Lord Hardinge did not annex the Punjab because he was of the new that the state would prove a good buffer state between Afghanistan and British India.
4. According to Lord Hardinge, Punjab was not economically profitable state at that stage. Hence the Treaty of Bhairowal was then entered into with the Sikhs.

Question 5.
After the Treaty of Bhairowal how did the British treat Queen Jindan?
The Treaty of Bhairowal deprived Rani Jindan of her political rights. She was ousted from the Lahore Darbar. She was arrested and sent to Sheikhupura. She was first given a pension of 1,50,000 rupees annually. It was reduced from 1,50,000 to 48,000 rupees annually. Thereafter, she was exiled to Benaras. Thus she was badly treated by the English. As a result, the Sikhs were annoyed and rose against the English.

Question 6.
What do you know about Maharaja Dalip Singh?
Maharaja Dalip Singh was the last Sikh ruler of Lahore State. At the time of the First Anglo-Sikh War, he was a minor. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal of 1846, a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration of the Lahore Darbar. It was to run the administration till the maturity of Maharaja Dalip Singh. But the Sikh forces lost the Second Anglo-Sikh War. As a result of it, Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and given a pension of 50,000 pounds annually and sent to England. Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Question 1.
Discuss the causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1845-46. Following were its causes :
1. The British policy of Encirclement of the Lahore Kingdom. Ever since the time of Ranjit Singh, the British were making schemes for the conquest of the Punjab. They had built cantonments around the Sikh kindgom. Politically and diplomatically, they had half encircled the Sikh kingdom. They had already occupied Ferozepur and established a military cantonment there. They had brought Sindh and Shikarpur under their sphere of influence. After Ranjit. Singh’s death, their dream of conquering Punjab acquired more clear and definite shape. Naturally, such designs of the British alarmed the Sikh army in particular and the people of the Punjab in general.

2. Anarchy in the Punjab. Soon after the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839 A.D., there prevailed anarchy in the Punjab and within a span of about four years, many of his sons and relatives were put to sword. Now the Khalsa army was all powerful and it became a problem for the Lahore Durbar to keep it under control. With the army being all in all, nobody’s life was safe. All the important chiefs and courtiers were afraid of the Khalsa army. It was in their best interest to engage the army in some war so as to weaken its power.

3. Defeat of the British in the First Afghan War. In the First Afghan War, the English fought with Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842 A.D. The English suffered a defeat. This encouraged the Sikhs to wage a war against the British. They had begun to think that the English were not invincible. If the Afghans could teach them a lesson, why not the Sikhs who had humiliated the Afghans in the times of Ranjit Singh.

4. Annexation of Sindh to the British Empire. The British annexed Sindh to their Empire in 1843 A.D. This incident brought the imperialistic designs of the English in the limelight. It was clear that the English would now try to annex the Punjab. It was difficult for the English to maintain their control over Sindh unless they annexed the Punjab too.

The annexation of Sindh brought their aggressive designs to the forefront and the Sikhs naturally became suspicious of the English.

5. Ellenborough’s plan to capture Punjab. The British, in fact, had been planning to occupy the Punjab much before their war with the Sikhs actually began. After the annexation of Sindh to the British Empire, Lord Ellenborough planned to capture the Punjab. To materialise this plan, the English began to make elaborate military preparations. When the Sikhs came to know about the intentions of the British, the Sikhs also began to make preparations for War.

6. Military Activities of the British. The prevailing anarchy in the Punjab encouraged the English to start making elaborate military preparations. They began to station their army men in large numbers near the Sutlej.

It is said that on the boundaries of the Sutlej in 1836 A.D., there were only 2500 British soldiers. Their number rose to 14,000 in 1843. Besides this, the English had stationed a large number of their troops at Ferozepur, Ludhiana and Ambala. Not only that, the English had begun to collect boats to cross the Sutlej. All these activities of the English made the Sikhs more suspicious and they began to feel that the English wanted to grab the Punjab.

7. The dispute over the treasure of Suchet Singh. Dogra Sardar Suchet Singh was in the service of Lahore Darbar. At the time of his death, he was at Ferozepur. He left behind fifteen lakh rupees there. Because he had no issue, the Lahore Darbar claimed its right on this amount. But the English Government wanted to bring this matter to the court. At this the Sikhs rose in revolt against the English.

8. Dispute over Mauran Village. Dhanna Singh, a native of the village Mauran situated in the Nabha State, was in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh; who being pleased with him, wrote to Jaswant Singh the Raja of Nabha to grant him the village Mauran as Jagir. In return, the Maharaja granted him a number of villages for life to Jaswant Singh’s sister. After the death of Dhanna Singh, his son Hukam Singh succeeded him. But Devinder Singh, the new ruler of Nabha, sent his troops to the village and seized Hukam Singh’s property worth about two lakh rupees and occupied the village. The Lahore Darbar demanded the restoration of the village. But the English Government rejected the claim of the Lahore Darbar and said that Jaswant Singh’s grant to Dhanna Singh had been illegal.

9. Provocation of Major Broadfoot. The appointment of Major Broadfoot as the British Resident at Ludhiana in place of Mr. Clark added fuel to the fire. He was hard-headed and hot-tempered. Immediately after taking charge of his post, he declared that Maharaja Dalip Singh’s territories South of the Sutlej would be considered under British rule. This declaration aroused the anger of the Sikh chiefs beyond limit and they began to feel that a war with the British was unavoidable.

10. Plans of Lai Singh and Rani Jindan. Lai Singh and Rani Jindan planned to incite the Sikh army against the British. They made the Sikh army to think that the British were determined to capture Punjab after occupying Sindh.

11. Immediate Cause: Crossing of the Sutlej by the Sikhs. The excited Sikh forces made up their mind to settle their scores with the British. Thus, between December 11 and 14 in 1846 A.D., the Sikh soldiers in large numbers began to cross the Sutlej river. The English were already waiting for the Sikhs to first begin the war. As soon as the Governor-General Lord Hardinge got the information that the Sikh forces had crossed the Sutlej, he also declared a regular war against the Sikhs on December 18, 1845 A.D.

Question 2.
Write about the events related to the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The First Anglo-Sikh war began on December 18,1845 A.D. and ended on February 10, 1846 A.D. Following were the main events of this war:
1. The Battle of Mudki: Immediately after crossing the Sutlej, the Sikh army advanced towards Ferozepur.
It was led by Lai Singh. On the other side, the English forces under Sir Hugh Gough left Ludhiana to defend Ferozepur. On December 18, 1845, both the armies came into collusion with each other at Mudki, a place about twenty miles from Ferozepur.

The Khalsa army had 40,000 soldiers and 150 guns. The English army had 10,000 soldiers and 48 guns. When the victory of the Sikhs was in sight, Lai Singh, the commander of the Sikh army, deserted them and withdrew from the scene leaving the army all alone. Consequently, a victory was changed into a defeat and the Sikhs had to retreat from the battle-field. Although the English came out victorious in this battle, yet the war proved very costly to them also. About 215 of their soldiers were killed and about 657 were wounded. The Sikhs also suffered a heavy loss of life and 17 guns.

2. Battle of Ferozeshah. After the battle of Mudki, the English army advanced towards a place called Ferozeshah which was about 12 miles away from the Sutlej.

At this place the forces of Sir Hugh Gough were joined by another English contingent under Sir Johan Little. A fierce battle was fought between the two sides on December 21,1845 A.D. The Sikhs fought so bravely that the English forces became nervous. But here also the Sikh Commanders like Teja Singh proved traitors and left the Sikh army without a leader, with the result that the English forces advanced forward and occupied the Sikh positions on December 22. Thus because of the treachery on the part of the Sikh military commanders, another victory was converted into a defeat. About 8000 Sikh soldiers were killed in this battle and they lost about 73 guns. The English also suffered a heavy loss. Their 694 men were killed and about 1721 were wounded.

3. Battle of Baddowal. On January 21,1846, the Sikhs under the command of Ranjodh Singh Majithia crossed the river Sutlej and set the English military camp at Ludhiana on fire. In a fierce battle at Baddowal near Ludhiana, the Sikhs under the leadership of S. Ranjodh Singh defeated the British who were under the command of Sir Henry Smith.

4. Battle of Aliwal. Soon after the battle of Badowal, reinforcements reached the English. Ranjodh Singh tried to block the way of the English by attacking Jagraon and Ghungrana. But the English advanced and defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal on January 28, 1846 A.D.

5. Battle of Sabraon. The last and most decisive battle between the Sikhs and the English was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. at Sabraon. The Sikhs fought the battle bravely and put the English army in trouble for sometime. The Sikh soldiers, unlike their treacherous commander Teja Singh, were prepared to conquer or die for the glory of the Khalsa. But while the soldiers did everything, the Sikh commanders with the honourable exception of Sham Singh Attariwala, remained inactive or proved traitors. In fact, the army commanders were not as much afraid of the Sikh defeat as of their victory. That is why, perhaps, they were hatching conspiracies after conspiracies.

Under such conditions, the Sikh soldiers suffered a great loss and about 8 to 10 thousand of them were killed. Sham Singh Attariwala also met a hero’s death in this battle. The English loss was 320 dead and 2,083 wounded.
The battle of Sabraon was decisive. After this victory, the British army crossed the Sutlej and occupied Lahore on February 20, 1846 A.D.

Question 3.
Discuss the terms of the First Treaty of Lahore.
On 9th March, 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the British and the Lahore Durbar. Its main terms were as under:

1. All the Sikh territories lying south of the river Sutlej were handed over to the British.
2. The -Jullundur (Jalandhar) Doab was likewise annexed by the British to their own dominions.
3. An indemnity of one and a half crore rupees was imposed upon the Lahore Darbar, which it was not able to pay. So it had to hand over to the British in lieu of it all the hill areas between the rivers Sutlej and Beas, and also Kashmir and Hazara.
4. The Darbar would disband the rebellious forces, keeping only 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry. Thirty four guns which the British had lost to the Sikhs, were restored to them.
5. The British troops would be allowed a free passage through the Punjab when necessary.
6. Dalip Singh was recognised as minor king of Lahore, Maharani Jindan was to be his Regent and Lai Singh the Prime Minister of the Lahore kingdom.
7. An adequate British force would be stationed at Lahore for the protection of the Maharaja. The force would be recalled in December 1846.
8. The British Government would respect the bonafide rights of the Jagirdars in Lahore Darbar territories.
9. The British would be at liberty to retain any part of the state property in the forts situated in the ceded territories by paying for it a fair compensation.

Question 4.
Explain the Treaty of Bhairowal.
According to the Treaty of Lahore, the English army was to withdraw from the Punjab after December, 1846 A.D., but in view of the troubled conditions of the Punjab and being afraid of the Sikh army, many Sikhs and people of other classes did not want that the English should withdraw from the Punjab. So, another treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs on December 16, 1846 A.D. which is called the Treaty of Bhairowal. This treaty was signed with the English by Maharani Jindan and the ruler of the Lahore Darbar.

Following were its main terms :

1. The administration of Lahore was entrusted to a council of eight Sikh Sardars who supported the English. They were to carry on this duty till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a minor.
2. The Governor-General appointed a British Resident as the head of this Council.
3. The Council of Regency was to work on the advice of the British Resident.
4. Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was given a pension of 1$$\frac{1}{2}$$ lakh rupees annually.
5. For the protection of the Maharaja, and the establishment of law and order, the British forces would stay in Lahore.
6. The Lahore Darbar would pay Rs. 22 Lakhs a year to meet the expenses of the British forces which would continue staying in Lahore.
7. Besides at Lahore, the British troops could be stationed in Sikh fortresses, the occupation of which the Governor-General might feel necessary for the protection of the Maharaja’s interests.
8. The terms of this treaty would be considered valid till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a minor.

Importance: The Treaty of Bhairowal has great importance in the history of the Punjab and India

• With this treaty, the English became the real masters of the Punjab. The British Resident was given unlimited powers. Henry Lawrence was appointed as the first British Resident at Lahore.
• According to this treaty, Rani Jindan was ousted from Lahore. She was first interned at Sheikhupura and then sent to Benaras.

Question 5.
Write the causes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought in 1848-49. The English came out victorious in it. As a result, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Following were the main causes of this war:
1. Restlessness of the Sikh Soldiers. The Sikh soldiers had to suffer a defeat in the
First Anglo-Sikh War. But they knew it well that their defeat was not because they were in any way weaker than the English soldiers but it was due to the treachery of their commanders. Now they wanted to wipe off that disgrace by fighting another war with the English.

2. British Policy of Speedy Reforms. In order to increase their influence in the Punjab, the English, especially Henry Lawrence, the English Resident at Lahore, tried to bring about some social reforms. Laws were framed one after other to end the practice of Sati, to ban the killing of female children and to effect changes in the Zamindari system. Although these reforms were desirable, yet they were brought about in such a haste that the people took them as an undue interference in their religious and social life.

3. Harsh Treatment with Lai Singh and Rani Jindan. The harsh treatment which the English meted out to Rani Jindan enraged the Sikhs. Their anger further increased when the Queen Mother, Rani Jindan was dubbed as a conspirator. She was first sent to Sheikhupura and then exiled to Benaras. The pension of Rani Jindan was reduced from Rs. 1^ lakhs to 48,000 rupees in the first instance and then to? 12,000 annually. Besides, the English also meted out a harsh treatment to the Prime Minister Lai Singh. Such a treatment with Rani Jindan and Lai Singh was too much for the Sikhs to tolerate. So once again, they were forced to take up arms against the English to safeguard their rights.

4. Appointment of British Officers on High Posts. According to the Treaty of Bhairowal, the real powers of the Lahore Kingdom had come in the hands of the English. So they began to appoint English officers on high posts. The Sikh chiefs took this policy of the English as an insult to them. They wanted to free the Punjab from the English yoke.

5. Reduction in the number of Sikh Soldiers. The number of men in the Sikh army ran into lakhs but according to the Treaty of Lahore, their number was reduced to 20 thousand infantry and 12 thousand horsemen. Thus, thousands of soldiers who were disbanded became opponents of the English. Not only this, those soldiers who were kept in service were to be paid lesser salaries. Thus the entire fchalsa army turned against the British. It was filled with anger and began to prepare for another showdown.

6. Revolt of Diwan Mulraj of Multan. After the death of his father, Mulraj became the Governor of Multan in 1844 A.D. He used to pay a tribute of Rs. 12 lakhs a year to the Lahore Darbar in lieu of this post. But, after the Treaty of Bhairowal in December 1846 A.D., the English took over the administration of Lahore. They increased this tribute to Rs. 18 lakhs and also asked him to surrender l/3rd of his territory. Mulraj could not tolerate all this injustice. So he expressed his desire to resign. The English quickly appointed Sardar Kahan Singh as the Governor of Multan. Diwan Mulraj handed over the charge of Multan to the new Governor. The soldiers of Diwan’Mulraj rose in revolt against the English and Diwan Mulraj recaptured Multan. This event led to the revolt against the English in the whole of the Punjab.

7. Revolt of Bhai Maharaj Singh. Bhai Maharaj Singh was the follower of Sant Bhai Bir Singh of Naurangabad. He rose in revoltragainst the English to protect the Sarkar-e-Khalsa. So Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, ordered to put him behind the bars. But he could not be arrested. At the request of Mulraj, he alongwith his 400 horsemen marched towards Multan. But he left Mulraj and joined hands with Chattar Singh Attariwala and his son Sher Singh.

8. Revolt of Chattar Singh of Hazara. Chattar Singh was the Governor of Hazara under the Lahore Government. The English also forced him to rise in revolt. An English officer, Captain Abott, instigated the Afghans of Hazara to revolt against the Sikh State. This British policy of hatching conspiracies led Chattar Singh to take up arms against them in August, 1848 A.D. and join hands with Mulraj.

9. Revolt of Sher Singh. Sher Singh, the son of Chattar Singh who had been sent by the Lahore Government to suppress the revolt of Multan also joined the forces of his father and Mulraj in September 1848 A.D. Thus the revolt against the English spread all over the Punjab. Sher Singh appealed to all the Sikhs to join the rebels to oust the English from the Punjab.

10. Invasion of Punjab by the English. Lord Dalhousie wanted to wage a war against the Sikhs on one pretext or the other and annex the Punjab to the British Empire. Under this policy, he allowed small upsurges by Mulraj, Chattar Singh and Sher Singh to take the form of a big rebellion so that the English could find an excuse to grab the Punjab. The English forces under the command of Lord Hugh Gough crossed the river Sutlej on November 9, 1848 and reached Lahore on 13 November. These forces were engaged in suppressing the rebellion. Thus the Second Anglo-Sikh War began.

Question 6.
Explain the events of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War began in November 1848 after the English forces had crossed the river Sutlej. Following were the main events of this war :
1. The Battle of Ram Nagar. The first battle of the Second Anglo-Sikh War was fought at Ram Nagar. The Commander of the English forces, Lord Hugh Gough crossed the Ravi with his army on November 16, 1848 A.D. and reached the banks of the Chenab on November 22 and stood face to face with Sardar Sher Singh. A battle followed between the two forces at Ram Nagar but without a decision.

2. The Battle of Chillianwala. The English forces under the command of General Gough reached Chillianwala on January 13, 1849 A.D., where the Sikhs had entrenched themselves strongly. A fierce battle was fought at this place in which both the sides had to suffer heavy losses, yet without any outcome. Many brave Sikh warriors laid down their lives in this battle and they had to lose 12 guns also. But the English losses in this battle were even greater than those of the Sikhs. Their tally was 602 dead and 1,651 wounded.

3. The Battle of Multan. Multan had come under the control of Diwan Mulraj since April 1848 A.D. But in December, 1848 an English General, Whish laid a siege to Multan. Diwan Mulraj gave a tough fight to the English for some time but one day suddenly a shell hit his ammunition store and set it on fire. Because of this terrible loss, Diwan Mulraj could not fight any longer. He surrendered on January 22, 1849 A.D. The victory of Multan wiped out to a great extent the disgrace the English had suffered at Chillianwala.

4. The Battle of Gujrat, February 21, 1849 A.D. (Imp.). After the Battle of Chillianwala, the transfer of Lord Gough and the appointment of Sir Charles Napier had been ordered. But before Napier reached“the place of action, Lord Gough had already attacked the Sikhs. After the victory of Multan, the forces of General Whish joined those of General Gough which raised the strength of the English forces to 25,000 and the number of their guns rose to 100. On the other hand, the Sikh army was 61,500 strong and they had 61 guns with them.

A battle between both the forces took place on February 21,1849 A.D. at Gujrat on the banks of the Chenab. This battle was very fierce. Akram Khan, son of Dost Mohammed, the ruler of Afghanistan also joined hands with the Sikhs. Because both the sides made extensive use of guns in this battle, so many historians call it as the “battle of guns”. Shelling continued for three hours but the Sikhs had to leave their positions. At last, on March 13, 1849 AD. the Sikh chiefs surrendered. Thus the Second Anglo-Sikh War came to an end.

Question 7.
Write the results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War proved destructive for the Sikhs.

Following were its mains results :
1. Annexation of Punjab into the British Empire. The Sikhs were completely defeated in this war. By a proclamation, Lord Dalhousie declared that the Punjab was annexed into the British Empire. Maharaja Dalip Singh was dethroned and the Punjab became a part of the British Empire.

2. Punishment to Mulraj and Maharaj Singh. Mulraj was held responsible for the murder of the two English officers, Agnew and Anderson. Mulraj was exiled to Andaman Islands (Kala Pani). On December 29, 1849. Maharaj Singh was arrested. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Singapore prison.

3. Disbanding of the Khalsa Army. The Khalsa Army was disbanded and the lands of many Sikh Chiefs were confiscated. The soldiers of the disbanded army were allowed to join the British army.

4. Appointment of the British officers in the Punjab. After the Second Anglo- Sikh War, the English officials were appointed on high posts in place of the Hindus, the Sikhs and the Muslims. They were given handsome salaries and allowances.

5. Establishment of a Frontier Force. Henry Lawrence, with the help of Edwards and Nicholson, constituted a Board for the administration of the frontier territories. A frontier force was also raised which consisted of infantry, horsemen, artillery and elephants. The English pulled down the old and outdated forts and constructed new ones and cantonments in their place.

6. Establishment of a Board of Administration. Lord Dalhousie constituted a Board of Administrators to administer the Punjab. Henry Lawrence was the Chairman of this Board. This Board consisted of three members. They were collectively responsible for running the administration of the Punjab. The members of the Board were given extensive powers in administrative and judicial matters. Many reforms were introduced by this Board. Roads and canals were constructed and a new postal system was introduced.

7. Cordial relations with the Sikh Chiefs. The rulers of Patiala, Nabha, Jirid, Kapurthala and Faridkot had helped the English in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The English gave them big rewards for their services. The English also resolved not to annex their states into the British Empire.

Question 8.
How did the Britisher’s annex Punjab?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839 A.D. After him, there was no capable leader of the Sikhs who could lead them. The Sikh army captured power in its hands. Taking advantage of such circumstances, the English fought two wars with the Sikhs. The Sikh forces fought bravely in these wars. But because of the treachery of their commanders, they lost the battles. In 1849, after the Second Anglo-Sikh war, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

The following two wars were fought between the Sikhs and the English.
1. First Anglo-Sikh War. The English had been anxious to annex the Punjab to their empire. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the English found an opportunity to fulfil their desire. They started collecting their army on the other side of the river Sutlej. The Sikh leaders were enraged to see the preparations for war being made by the English. The Sikh forces crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and came near Ferozepur. Thus the First Anglo-Sikh War started. Teja Singh, the Commander of the Sikh Army and Wazir Lai Singh joined hands with the English. Because of their treachery, the Sikh forces lost the battles at Mudki and Ferozeshah.

The Sikh forces took courage and crossed the river Sutlej and reached Ludhiana. They attacked the English. Here the English faced a defeat. But because of the treachery of Gulab Singh, the Sikhs had to face defeat at Aliwal and Sabraon. In March, 1846 A.D., a treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs. According to this Treaty of Lahore, the Sikhs had to pay 1 j crore rupees as war indemnity to the British. A British army was stationed at Lahore to maintain law and order in the Punjab during the minority of Maharaja Dalip Singh.

2. Second Anglo-Sikh War and annexation of Punjab into the British Empire. In 1848, the Second Anglo-Sikh War broke out. The immediate cause of the war was the revolt of the governor of Multan Dewan Mulraj. On 19th April, 1848 Mulraj handed over the administration of Multan to two British officials. The people of Multan got excited to see the British officials. So they revolted and murdered the British officials. The whole of Punjab revolted against the British rule. At last, the British declared war against the Lahore kingdom on November 16, 1848. The most important battles of this war were the Battle of Ram Nagar (22 November 1848), Battle of Multan (December 1848), Battle of Chillianwala (January 13, 1849), Battle of Gujrat (February 1849). The Battle of Ram Nagar was not a decisive battle. The Sikhs had to face defeat at Multan, Chillianwala and Gujarat. In 1849, the Sikhs accepted their defeat. After this Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Activity:

Question 1.
1. Show the towns of Mudki, Ferozeshah, Baddowal, Aliwal and Sabraon on the map of Punjab.
2. Show the battlefield of the First Anglo-Sikh war on the map of Punjab.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The Anglo-Sikh Wars and Annexation of Punjab Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
What was the main cause of the First Anglo-Sikh War?
Rani Jindan and Lai Singh, being afraid of the Sikh army, wanted to engage it in a war against the British.

Question 2.
Where were the four main battles of the First Anglo-Sikh fought?
Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal and Sabraon.

Question 3.
Mention any one clause of the Treaty of Lahore (9 March, 1846 A.D.).
The British annexed the plains and the mountain region of Punjab between the Sutlej and the Beas.

Question 4.
Give any one cause of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Treaty of Lahore and Treaty of Bhairowal had given a severe blow to the Sikh prestige.

Question 5.
What were the four main battles of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?

1. Battle of Ram Nagar,
2. Battle of Multan,
3. Battle of Chillianwala and
4. Battle of Gujrat.

Question 6.
Mention any one consequence of the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
Punjab was annexed to the British Indian Empire on 29 March, 1849 A.D.

Question 7.
Give any one reason responsible for the downfall of the Sikh power.
Ranjit Singh’s successors were unworthy.

Question 8.
Give any one reason for the annexation of the Punjab by the English.
They realised that the Punjab could serve as a very good consumer market for British goods.

Question 9.
How did Lord Dalhousie justify the annexation of the Punjab”? Give any one argument.
Lord Dalhousie charged the Sikhs of violating the terms of the treaty of Bhairowal.

Question 10.
Give any one argument against the annexation of the Punjab.
The murder of just four British officers in Punjab was given undue importance by Lord Dalhousie.

Question 11.
What treatment was meted out to Maharaja Dalip Singh after the annexation of Punjab by the British?
Dalip Singh was given a pension of 50,000 pounds and sent to England.

Question 12.
What arrangement was made for the administration of Punjab after its annexation in 1849?
A Board of Administration of three members was established to govern Punjab.

Question 13.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
On 25 March, 1849.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The last and most decisive battle between the British and the Sikhs was fought on February 10, 1846 A.D. at __________
Gujrat

Question 2.
By the Treaty of Bhairowal 16 December 1846, the administration of Lahore was entrusted to a ________ they were to carry on this duty till Maharaja Dalip Singh was a ________.
Council of 8 Sardars, minor

Question 3.
The Battle of Gujrat, February 1849 has been called as the ________.
“Battle of Guns”

Question 4.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War came to an end on ________.
13 March, 1849

Question 5.
Lord Dalhousie constructed a Board of ________ to administer the Punjab after the annexation of the Punjab.

True or False :

Question 1.
Kharak Singh was the successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
True

Question 2.
Because of the treachery of Teja Singh and Lai Singh the Sikhs lost the Battle of Sabraon.
True

Question 3.
The British did not annex any territory of Punjab by the First Treaty of Lahore (March 1846).
False

Question 4.
Henry Lawrence was appointed the Chairman of the Board of Administration.
True.

Match the following :

Question 1.

 A B 1. Chattar Singh (a) Last Sikh ruler of Lahore State 2. Dalip Singh (b) Prime Minister 3. Bhairowal (c) Treaty 4. Kashmir (d) Gulab Singh 5. Lai Singh (e) Governor of Hazara.

1. (e)
2. (a)
3. (c)
4. (d)
5. (b).

Question 1.
Describe the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The English had been anxious to annex the Punjab to their empire. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the English found an opportunity to fulfil their desire. They stationed their army on the other side of the river Sutlej. The Sikh leaders were enraged to see the preparations for war being made by the English. The Sikh army crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and reached near Ferozepur. Thus the First Anglo-Sikh War started. Teja Singh, the Commander of the Sikh army and Wazir Lai Singh joined hands with the English. Because of their treachery, the Sikh forces lost the battles at Mudki and Ferozeshah, The Sikh forces took courage and crossed the river Sutlej and reached Ludhiana. They attacked the English. Here the English faced a defeat.

But because of the treachery of their commanders, the Sikh army had to face defeat at Aliwal and Sabraon. In March, 1846 A.D., a treaty was signed between the English and the Sikhs. According to the Treaty of Lahore, the Sikhs had to pay 1, crore rupees as indemnity to the British. A British army was kept in Lahore to maintain law and order in the Punjab during the minority of Maharaja Dalip Singh.

Question 2.
Write a short note on the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War broke out in 1848 A.D. The immediate cause of the war was the revolt of the governor of Multan, Dewan Mulraj . On 19th April, 1848 A.D. Mulraj handed over the administration of Multan to two British officials. The people of Multan were excited to see the British officials and they rose in revolt and murdered the British officials. The whole of Punjab revolted against the British rule. At last, the British decided to declare a war against the Lahore Kingdom. The most important battles of this war were Battle of Ram Nagar (22 November, 1848), Battle of Multan (December 1848), Battle of Chillianwala (January 13, 1849), Battle of Gujrat (February, 1849). The Battle of Ram Nagar was not a decisive battle. The Sikhs had to face defeat in the battles of Multan, Chillianwala and Gujrat. In 1849, the Sikhs surrendered completely. After this, the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the annexation of the Punjab.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839. After this, there was no capable leader who could lead the Sikhs. All the ruling powers came in the hands of the Sikh army. The English took advantage of this opportunity. They conspired with some Sikh military officials. They began to strengthen their fortifications. They also increased the number of their soldiers. Thus they were preparing for the war. They fought two wars with the Sikhs. The Sikhs fought bravely in both the wars but were defeated because of the treachery of their military commanders and the officials. After the first Anglo-Sikh war, the English occupied the territory of Jalandhar Doab of Punjab and stationed their own army in place of the Sikh arm;/. But in 1849, after the second war, Lord Dalhousie annexed the whole of Sikh Kingdom of Punjab to the English empire.

Question 4.
What were the four causes of the First Anglo-Sikh War?

1. The main cause of 1st Anglo-Sikh war was that Lai Singh and Rani Jindan had instigated the Sikh army against the British.
2. Lai Singh and Rani Jindan convinced the Sikh army that the British were determined to occupy the Punjab after capturing Sindh.
3. The British had gathered more than 35,000 soldiers at Ludhiana.
4. The British increased their army in Sindh and made a bridge of boats across the river Sutlej to cross it. All these events made the Sikhs to believe that the British wanted to capture Punjab. Under these circumstances, the Sikh army crossed the river Sutlej in 1845 and the 1st Anglo-Sikh war began.

Question 5.
What were the results of the First Anglo-Sikh war?

1. The British secured the territory of Jalandhar Doab.
2. Dalip Singh was appointed as Maharaja and a Council of Regency comprising of eight members was established to run the administration.
3. Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the Resident at Lahore.
4. The Sikhs had to pay 1~ crore rupees as the war indemnity to the British. The Lahore Darbar had only Rs. 50 lakhs in its treasury. So it sold away the province of Jammu and Kashmir to Raja Gulab Singh.
5. It was decided to keep the British army in Lahore. The Khalsa Darbar was required to pay Rs. 22 lakhs rupees annually for its maintenance.
6. The strength of the Sikh army was reduced to only 20,000 foot-soldiers.

Question 6.
Describe any four reasons responsible for the downfall of the Sikh kingdom in Punjab.

1. Ranjit Singh was an arbitrary ruler. All the powers of the state were concentrated in his hands. After his death, his unworthy successors could not control the vast kingdom efficiently.
2. Ranjit Singh followed a weak policy towards the British. The British took advantage of it and were ultimately successful in annexing the Punjab.
3. The administration of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was based on strong army. After Ranjit Singh’s death, the Sikh army took all powers in its hands. The Sikh chiefs tried to weaken the Sikh army and incited it to wage war against the British.
4. In some battles, during the First and the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikh forces were about to win the war. But because of the treachery of their commanders, their victory was converted into a defeat.

Question 1.
What were the causes and results of the Second Anglo-Sikh War?