PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Who was Behlol Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Behlol Lodhi was the Sultan of Delhi from 1450 to 1489. He established the rule of the Lodhi dynasty.

Question 2.
Describe any one quality of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was a good soldier.

Question 3.
Describe two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:

  1. Ibrahim Lodhi himself was an Afghan (Pathan) but he failed to understand the freedom-loving nature and habits of the Afghans, his own tribesmen.
  2. He abandoned the policy of his father and grandfather and tried to discipline the Afghans. He failed miserably in his policy.

Question 4.
When did Babur conquer Punjab and whom did he defeat in this battle?
Answer:
Babur won a victory in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Delhi Sultan.

Question 5.
Define the classes into which the Muslim society was divided.
Answer:
The Muslim society was divided into three classes:

  1. Amirs (nobles) high ranking commanders, Ulemas and Sayyids (Muslim clergy)
  2. Middle Class and
  3. the Slaves.

Question 6.
What do you know about the Ulemas?
Answer:
The Ulemas were the leaders of Muslim religious class. They were scholars of Arabic and religious literature.

Question 7.
What was the difference between the food of the Hindu and the Muslim societies?
Answer:
The food of Amirs, high-ranking military officers, Sayyids, Sheikhs, Qazis and Muslim priests was rich and non-vegetarian. But the food of the Hindus was simple and mostly vegetarian.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 8.
Who were the Sayyids?
Answer:
The Sayyids claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad. This class is highly respected in the Muslim society.

Question 9.
Describe the Muslim Middle Class.
Answer:
The Muslim Middle Class consisted of middle-ranking government officials, soldiers, traders and farmers. Their financial condition was good. In the Muslim society, the people holding the government posts were considered as the members of the middle class of the society.

Question 10.
Describe the dress of the Muslim women.
Answer:
The Muslim women wore shirts, ghaghras, and tight pajamas, covering their whole body. They covered their whole body with a cloak called Burka.

Question 11.
Describe the sources of entertainment of the Muslims.
Answer:
The main sources of entertainment of Muslim nobles, Amirs and military commanders were polo, horse riding, dance and music. The game of chess was equally popular among the Amirs or the Upper Class and the poor section of Muslim society or the Lower Class.

Question 12.
What is meant by Social Classes?
Answer:
A society is generally divided into different classes having their separate characteristics.

Answer the following questions in about 30-50 words :

Question 1.
Describe the religious policy of Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
According to Muslim historians, Sikander Lodhi was an intelligent ruler, who believed in welfare of his subjects and impartial justice. However, Dr. Indu Bhushan Banerjee strongly opposes this view. According to him, he did justice only to the Muslim section of his subjects. He was a highly oppressive ruler and adopted the policy of intolerance in case of his Hindu subjects. He demolished numerous temples and forcibly converted many Hindus to Muslim faith. Millions of Hindus became victims of his atrocities.

Question 2.
Describe the administration of Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
Sikander Ledhi was a powerful ruler. He centralized his administration and kept all the nobles and feudal lords under his strict control. He appointed Daulat Khan . Lodhi as Nazim of Punjab. The boundaries of Punjab extended from Bhera to Sirhind at that time. Dipalpur was an important Suba of the Punjab province. However, Dipalpur was under nominal control of Lodhi Emperor.

Sikander Lodhi worked for public welfare and considered it his main duty to solve the problems of his subjects. Unfortunately, he adopted this policy only in case of his, Muslim subjects. But he did not treat Hindus well.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 3.
Describe the revolts during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
The following two major revolts took place against the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.

  1. The Revolt of Afghans (Pathans). Ibrahim Lodhi tried to discipline the freedom-loving Afghan tribesmen. The Afghans did not tolerate it. They, therefore, rose in revolt under the leadership of Alam Khan, an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to crush their revolt.
  2. Revolt in Punjab. Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab. He was also an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. He was annoyed by the stiff, obstinate and suspicious attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. As a result, Daulat Khan Lodhi decided to free himself from the control of the Emperor and started conspiring against him. He invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India to achieve his own aim.

Question 4.
Why did Dilawar Khan Lodhi go to Delhi? How did Ibrahim Lodhi treat him?
Answer:
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position regarding his relations with his father Daulat Khan. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severely punish his father Daulat Khan for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture, which were inflicted on the rebels and afterward, even he was imprisoned by the Sultan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi.

On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts; the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.

Question 5.
Describe the Sayyidpur attack of Babur.
Answer:
Babur marched towards Sayyidpur (Emnabad) after occupying Sialkot. A large army stationed at Sayyidpur offered a stiff resistance to the cavalry of Babur. However, Babur won the battle. The defeated army was mercilessly killed. The people of Sayyidpur were also subjected to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves. Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his ‘Babur Vani’.

Question 6.
Write about Babur’s invasion of India in 1524 A.D.
Answer:
In 1524, Babur attacked India for the fourth time. Alam Khan, the real uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, appealed to Babur to help him in occupying the throne of Delhi. Even the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, another relative of Ibrahim Lodhi, had sought the help of Babur against Ibrahim Lodhi. Consequently, Babur, passing through Bhera reached Lahore. On reaching Lahore, Babur learnt that Daulat Khan had been driven out of Lahore by the army of Delhi before his arrival.

Babur immediately took revenge of the defeat of Daulat Khan by defeating the army of Delhi. In the meantime, misunderstanding developed between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur at Dipalpur. Daulat Khan was expecting th&t Babur would appoint him as the governor of Punjab after his victory. But Babur gave him only the territories of Jalandhar and Sultanpur. The disappointed Daulat Khan was infuriated. He ran away to hilly areas in order to raise an army to take revenge of his insult at the hands of Babur. However, the situation took a new turn when Babur entrusted Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi and left for Kabul to strengthen his army and make more preparations for another invasion of India.

Question 7.
What efforts were made by Alam Khan to conquer Punjab?
Answer:
Babur entrusted the charge of Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi at the end of his fourth expedition before returning to Kabul. Later, Alam Khan Lodhi planned to grab the whole of Punjab. However, his dream was shattered when Daulat Khan defeated him and turned him out of Punjab. Alam Khan Lodhi again went to seek protection of Babur. He signed a treaty with Babur. According to the terms of the treaty, Alam Khan Lodhi promised Babur to help him to occupy the throne of Delhi. Alam Khan assured Babur that after occupying Punjab, he would accept the suzerainty of Babur over Punjab. However, Alam Khan failed in his plans. Ultimately, Alam Khan helped Daulat Khan against Ibrahim Lodhi. This time again he failed to achieve his goal and all his plans to grab Punjab were ruined.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 8.
Describe the strategy of war between the army of Ibrahim Lodhi and of Babur at Panipat.
Answer:
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections.

  1. Advance Wing
  2. Central Wing
  3. Left-Wing and
  4. Right Wing.

There were 500 elephants also in his army.

Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.

Question 9.
Write a note on the Amirs and Sardars.
Answer:
The Amirs and high-ranking commanders belonged to the upper section of the Muslim society. They were given ranks and titles. The commanders were paid in the form of land grants called ‘Iqtas’ from where they collected land revenue. They were free to spend land revenue as they liked.

The commanders always remained involved in wars. They were engaged in making plans to free themselves from the control of the Delhi ruler in one way or the other. They ‘ did not look after the local administration, which was a part of their official duty. They spent their wealth on a life of luxury and debauchery. They lived in big mansions with many wives. They had many male and female slaves.

Question 10.
Write about the religious leaders of the Muslims.
Answer:
There were two sections of Muslim high clergy.

  1. Ulemas. They belonged to religious class of the Muslim society. They were authorities on Arabic and religious literature,
  2. Sayyids: Apart from the Ulemas, there was a class of Sayyids in the Muslim religious society. They claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad.

Both the Sayyids and the Ulemas had a thorough knowledge of the law governing the Muslim society.

Question 11.
Describe the slave class.
Answer:
The lowest class in the Muslim society included persons like weavers, potters, laborers, slaves and eunuchs. The prisoners of war^ were made slaves. They were also exported to the other countries. The eunuch slaves were employed to serve the royal ladies in the harems. The women slaves were like an object of amusement for satisfying the whims of the Amirs and high ranking commanders. Such women received shelter, food and clothing in return. Their condition of life depended upon the mercy of their owners.

Question 12.
What were the food habits of the Muslims?
Answer:
The food habits of Upper Section of Muslim Society. The Muslims were mostly non-vegetarians. The upper section of Muslim society included Amirs, high ranking commanders, Sayyids, Sheikhs, priests and Qazis. They enjoyed delicious food, spices and chillies in excess. The ‘Pulao’ and ‘Korrma’ were their most favourite delicacies. Among sweets and desserts, they liked puddings of ground flour (Halwa) and syrups (sharbats). It was a normal habit with the members of the upper class to take drugs.

The food of common Muslims. The common Muslims were non-vegetarians. The baked cakes of wheat (chappati) and roasted meat were their staple diet. The cooked food | was also available in the bazaars. Most of the Muslim artisans loved to take mashed curd (lassi) along with their meals.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 13.
Write about the dress of the Muslims.
Answer:

  1. The Upper-Class Muslims wore costly and gaudy dresses. Their clothes were made of silk and fine cotton. The Amirs wore elongated headgear (Pagadi). They called their headgear ‘Cheera’.
  2. The Dress of the Slaves of the Nobles. They wore girdle (special cloth) covering abdomen. They kept a handkerchief and wore red slippers. They wore ordinary headgears.
  3. The Muslim Clergy. They wore cotton clothes. They wore headgears of seven yards long cloth. The Sufis wore loose gowns.
  4. The common Muslims. They wore shirts and pyjamas. They also wore shoes and socks.
  5. The Muslim women. A Muslim woman wore blouse, ghagra and narrow pyjama. For purdah, Burqa was used.

Question 14.
Mention the position of women in the Muslim society.
Answer:
A description of condition of the Muslim women in the sixteenth century is given below :

  1. They did not enjoy a respectable position in the Muslim society.
  2. The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
  3. The Pardah system was rigorously observed. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rUral areas.
  4. The women of the families of the common people working in the houses of upper-class people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called Zenana Khanpa. They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Pardah.

Question 15.
Write about the caste system prevalent before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The Hindu society was divided into different castes or classes before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The main castes were: Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. Apart from these main castes, there were numerous sub-castes.
1. Brahmans. The Brahmans had become totally- negligent of their duties and responsibilities towards the society and worked for their personal interests. They indulged in flattery of the ruling class to serve their own interests. They-also had great influence on the common man. The common people were trapped in numerous superstitions due to the influence of Brahmans.

2. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The condition of the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas was comparatively better.

3. Shudras. The condition of Shudras was very miserable. They were hated and treated as untouchables. There was no harmony between the upper castes and the lower castes in the Hindu society.

Question 16.
Write about the army administration of Babur and of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections.

  1. Advance Wing
  2. Central Wing
  3. Left-Wing and
  4. Right Wing.

There were 500 elephants also in his army.

Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.

Answer the following questions in about 100-120 words :

Question 1.
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The political condition of the Punjab was very miserable before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (i.e. in the beginning of the 16th century). The Punjab was known as the Lahore Province (Suba) in those days and formed the part of the Delhi Empire. However, the glory of Delhi Empire had declined by that time. As a result, the Punjab administration was weak and inefficient.

The brief description of political condition of Punjab in the beginning of the 16th century was as ahead:
1. Despotic Rule. In the beginning of 16th century, Punjab was ruled by the despotic rulers. All the Delhi Sultans of this period from Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi, were despots. They believed in the doctrine of Divine Right of the King and considered themselves as the representatives of God on the earth. All the powers of the Empire were concentrated in their hands. How can one expect that rights of common man were safe during the rule of such despots.

2. Political Anarchy. The country had been reduced to an arena of intriguet u, ^ ,£l the reign of the Lodhis. The last years of the reign of Sikander Lodhi witnessed revolts all over the Empire. During the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, there were frequent revolts in his kingdom. All his commanders and courtiers were busy in conspiring against him. The provincial governors were either trying to establish their independent kingdoms or joining the camps of contenders to the throne of Delhi. Such a state of anarchy worsened the condition of Punjab. It was a historic fact that no ruler could effectively rule Delhi without his control over the Punjab. Hence, all the Subedars were watching the situation in Punjab keenly. The governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, was making every effort to establish his independent control over Punjab. A spirit of revolt was rising among the people of Punjab due to the selfish policies of the incapable rulers.

3. Lawlessness. In.the beginning of the 16th century, there was complete lawlessness in the Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry making. The government officers were corrupt. There was no hope for any one to get justice in such a situation. The condition of the period is also reflected in the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib Ji said that justice had taken wings. Guru Sahib Ji further revealed that there was not a single man ,who would do job without taking bribe. The ruler himself sought gratification to deliver justice. Sikander Lodhi tried to deliver justice but he adopted this approach only for his Muslim subjects.

4. Wars. The Punjab was reduced to a battle-ground. Every ambitious noble was making efforts to establish his control over Punjab, so that he could occupy the throne of Delhi. The intrigues and ambitions of military commanders, Subedars, and courtiers led to numerous clashes. During the period, a tussle between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi continued for a long time. Babur invaded the Punjab five times during 1519-1526 A.D.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
Describe Babur’s conquest of Punjab.
Answer:
The victory of Babur over Punjab was the outcome of the first battle of Panipat. It was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. Babur won this battle and occupied Punjab.

Babur’s invasion. Babur left Kabul for India in November 1525, with his twelve thousand soldiers. He defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi at Lahore on his march towards Delhi. The Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi proceeded towards north-west along with an army of one lakh soldiers against Babur. His army was divided into four wings, namely, the advance guard, central division, right-wing and left-wing. There were five hundred elephants in his army. The rival armies stood face to face in the battlefield of Panipat.

Beginning of the Battle. There was no attack from either side for eight days. Ultimately, on April 21, 1526, the army of Ibrahim attacked Babur’s forces. Babur started his attack by continuously firing his cannons. It was a new situation and experience for the Delhi army. Immediately afterward, the right and left Talugma wings of Babur’s army attacked Delhi army. It was followed by a strong charge of the middle wing of Babur’s army consisting of cavalry on the centre of Delhi army. In this manner, Delhi army was encircled from all sides. They could move neither forward nor retreat. The elephants of Ibrahim’s army were terrified and injured by the gunshots. They trampled their own soldiers of Delhi army under their feet. Within no time, the ground of Panipat was flooded with corpses of the killed soldiers. By the end of the noon, on the same day, the battle was over. The dead body of Ibrahim was found lying among numerous corpses of Rajput soldiers who were bodyguards of the dead Sultan. This battle completed the occupation of Punjab by Babur.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one word or one line :

Question 1.
What was the political condition of Punjab under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi?
Answer:
The Punjab had been reduced to an arena of intrigues under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 2.
Why did Ibrahim Lodhi summon Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi?
Answer:
Ibrahim summoned Dault Khan to Delhi to punish him.

Question 3.
Why did Daulat Khan send his son Dilawar Khan to the Sultan of Delhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi had thought that the Sultan of Delhi would punish him severely.

Question 4.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi invite Babur to attack India?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi wanted to establish his own independent rule over Punjab.

Question 5.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi turn against Babur?
Answer:
Babur did not appoint him the ruler of whole of the Punjab after his victory.

Question 6.
Where did Daulat Khan fight Babur?
Answer:
Daulat Khan fought a battle with Babur at Malout but was defeated.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 7.
Write down the words in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the political condition of the Punjab of early 16th century.
Answer:
The king was like a lion, judicial officers were dogs.

Question 8.
When was Babur’s first attack on Punjab made?
Answer:
Babur first attacked on Punjab in 1519 A.D.

Question 9.
Why did Babur went to conquer Punjab?
Answer:
He wanted to occupy the throne of Delhi after conquering Punjab.

Question 10.
When was the First Battle of Panipat fought?
Answer:
21 April 1526 A.D.

Question 11.
Who was Alam Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 12.
Who were the religious leaders of the Muslims in the early 16th century?
Answer:
Ulemas and Sayyids.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 13.
What was the condition of the Shudras?
Answer:
They were hated and treated as untouchables.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom in _________
Answer:
1469 A.D.

Question 2.
The First Battle of Panipat was fought in _________
Answer:
1526 A.D.

Question 3.
In the beginning of the 16th century A.D., the Hindu Society was divided into ____________ main castes.
Answer:
Four

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 4.
The Ulemas were the leaders of the Muslim ________ class.
Answer:
Religious

Question 5.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his_______________.
Answer:
“Babur Vani”.

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Daulat Khan was the Subedar of
(a) Bihar
(b) Peshawar
(c) Rohirkhand
(d) Punjab.
Answer:
(d) Punjab.

Question 2.
The strength of army of Ibrahim Lodhi in the battle ground of Panipat was
(a) One lakh
(b) 50000
(c) 20000
(d) 70000.
Answer:
(a) One lakh.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the political condition of Punjab of-early sixteenth century.
Or
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev JL
Answer:
In the early sixteenth century, the condition of the Punjab was very deplorable. It was called Lahore province and was a part of the Delhi Empire in those days. The Sultans of Delhi (Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi 1451 to 1526) were despots. Anarchy spread in Punjab under their rule. The whole atmosphere was poisoned with conspiracies. There was naked dance of lawlessness in the whole of Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officials were corrupt and openly neglected their duties. There was no hope of getting justice in such a situation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that justice had taken wings. Bhai Gurdas had also described the corruption and maladministration of this period.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
What was the cause of struggle between Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi and Daulat Khan Lodhi in the beginning of the sixteenth century? What steps did Ibrahim Lodhi take to check Daulat Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. In name, he was subordinate to Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi but he was virtually acting as an independent ruler of Punjab. He won over Alam Khan Lodhi, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, to his side through secret negotiations, wherein he assured Alam Khan Lodhi his help in acquiring the throne of Delhi. When Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about this secret plot. he summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi. Daulat Khan sent his son Dilawar Khan Lodhi in his place to clarify his position. When Dilawar Khan Lodhi arrived in Delhi, Ibrahim Khan Lodhi imprisoned him. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison and reached back Lahore to join his father. Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India in order to take revenge upon Ibrahim Lodhi for his act.

Question 3.
Describe the struggle between Babur and Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India, Daulat Khan expected that Babur would appoint him the governor of Punjab after his victory. However, Babur gave him the territory of Jalandhar and Sultanpur only. As a result, he raised the banner of revolt against Babur. It soon led to a battle between them in which Daulat Khan and his son Ghazi Khan were defeated. After that, Babur returned to Kabul after entrusting his Indian possessions to Alam Khan. The moment Babur turned his back, Daulat Khan chased out Alam Khan, who at that time, represented Babur in Punjab, and declared himself the ruler of Punjab instead. Alam Khan visited Babur at Kabul and invited him to invade India. Babur again invaded India for the fifth time in 1525 and imprisoned Daulat Khan. Daulat Khan was later pardoned but he died soon after.

Question 4.
Describe the struggle between Babur, the Badshah of Kabul, and Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi.
Or
Describe the first battle of Panipat. What was the significance of this battle in the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Babur marched towards Delhi after defeating Daulat Khan Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi also left Delhi with an army of one lakh soldiers to cross swords with Babur. They fought the battle at Panipat on April 21, 1526. Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi, was defeated and killed in the battle. Babur, the Padshah of Kabul, reached Delhi with his victorious army and unfurled his flag of victory over Delhi. With that Delhi Sultanate came to an end and the rule of the Mughal dynasty began. Hence, the battle of Panipat decided the fate of Punjab and also of whole of India. (Refer to the point Beginning of the Battle in answer to Question 2 of Section C of this very chapter for the details of the battle of Panipat).

Question 5.
Describe the condition of the Hindu society of the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam. Sikandar Lodhi killed a Brahmin named ‘Bodhan’ because he had resisted conversion to Islam. It is also a part of local oral history that once Sikandar Lodhi had planned to kill all the Hindus who had assembled at Kurukshetra in a religious fair. However, he refrained from executing his plans due to the fear of mass revolt of the Hindus against him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 6.
Describe the various classes of sixteenth-century Muslim society.
Answer:
The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into following three classes:

  1. Upper class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders, and powerful feudal lords, etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the sultans and high-ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim Society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.
  2. Middle class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle-ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim Society.
  3. Lower class. The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the social condition of the Muslims in the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
1. The Punjab remained under the control of the Muslim rulers from 11th to 16th century. During the reign of those Muslim rulers, many Muslims came and settled in Punjab. They married women of Punjab, which included the slave women and concubines. Many low caste people of Punjab embraced Islam due to the fear of Muslim rulers and also the influence of Sufi saints. Many Persian (Iranian) and Afghan tribes came to Punjab and made it their home. Hence, by the beginning of sixteenth century, there was a substantial increase in the Muslim population of Punjab. Their position was far better than those of the Hindus in the Punjab. The reason for their comparatively better position was the rule of Muslim kings over Punjab for a long time. Besides, only Muslims were appointed on high jobs in the Muslim government.

2. The Classes of Muslim Society. The Muslim society was divided into the following three classes:
1. Upper Class. The high-ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’, etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was spent in luxury and merry-making. The upper-class people lived in palaces or mansions. They indulged in drinking and kept numerous women for their different types of amusements. The Ulemas enjoyed great respect in the society. They had indepth knowledge of Quran and Arabic language. As a result, they wielded great influence in the Muslim royal courts.

2. Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in this class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.

3. Lower Class. The artisans, domestic servants, male and female slaves etc. formed the lower class of the Muslim society. The standard of living of this section of Muslim society was very low. They worked hard to earn their livelihood. The artisans like weavers, goldsmiths, ironsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, etc. could hardly earn two square meals by even putting in hardwork throughout the day. The domestic servants and slaves served the high class of the Muslim society.

Question 2.
Describe the condition of Muslim and Hindu women in the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
1. Condition of Women. The condition of women in Punjab was pitiable in the beginning of the sixteenth century. They were rated as feeble, hopeless, weak and inferior to men. They were treated as slaves in their own homes. They were cursed to live in subordination to men. Among some of the Rajput clans, the birth of a girl was considered as an ill-omen and she was killed at the time of birth. Even the condition of Muslim women was not good. They were rated as the objects of amusement for men.

2. Irrational Social Traditions. Numerous irrational social traditions were current in contemporary society which hindered the overall growth of women.
Some of the worst traditions and customs were:
Practice of Sati, Female infanticide, Child Marriage, Johar, Purdah System, Polygamy, Sati practice, etc.

According to Sati practice, whenever the husband of a woman died, she burnt herself alive on the pyre of her dead husband. If any woman refused she was maltreated by the whole society. All the facilities of life were denied to her.
Johar: ‘Johar’ was a tradition popular among the Rajput women. According to this tradition, the Rajput women immolated themselves in order to safeguard their honour.

Purdah system: The Purdah system was prevalent among both the Hindu and Muslim women. The Hindu women covered their faces with their chunnis or saris and Muslim women.wore Burkas.

Polygamy: The custom of polygamy was very popular among the Muslims. The Emperor and high-ranking officers kept many women for their amusements and fun. Female education was totally neglected. Only the women of royal family received some education. The rest of women folk remained illiterate. There were other numerous restrictions on women. For example, they were not permitted to move out of their homes freely and they remained trapped in the four walls of their houses. Their movements outside their houses were strictly restricted.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 3.
Describe in brief the intrigues of Daulat Khan Lodhi in Punjab.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the son of Tatar Khan. Sikander Lodhi had appointed his reliable and near relative Tatar Khan as the governor of Punjab because of the sensitive situation in Punjab Province. After the death of Tatar Khan, his son Daulat Khan was appointed as governor of Punjab. During the lifetime of Sikander Lodhi, Daulat Khan remained loyal to Delhi Sultans but after the death of the Sultan, he started conspiring against the Delhi Sultanate with an aim to establish his independent control over Punjab.

1. Intrigues against Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about the plots of Daulat Khan Lodhi against him. He summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi to clarify his position. But the Sultan Daulat Khan was guilty. Hence, he sent Dilawar Khan, his son, in his place to Delhi to represent him. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He tried to convey him the message that he could severely punish those who dared to conspire against him.

Afterwards, he imprisoned Dilawar Khan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison. On reaching Lahore, he told Dault Khan about all the happenings. Daulat Khan was quick to realise the danger of facing a real conflict with Ibrahim Lodhi. Therefore, first of all, he immediately declared himself as an independent ruler of Punjab. Further, in order to strengthen his position, he sought the help “of Babur, the ruler of Kabul, and sent his son Dilawar Khan to him for negotiations. Dilawar Khan assured Babur of the full support of his father. Babur was desirous of becoming the ruler of India. He had earlier invaded India a couple of times with the same aim.

Hence, he found his dream of ruling India becoming true, when he received the offer of Daulat Khan. He marched towards India with full strength and easily occupied Lahore. However, when he proceeded further, he faced a strong opposition of the Afghan leaders. He ordered his army to indulge in loot and plunder at Lahore. Soon after, Dipalpur and Jalandhar were also looted. After conquering Punjab, Babur made Daulat Khan the Subedar of Jalandhar and entrusted the rest of Punjab to Alam Khan Lodhi, who was also made a representative or Vakil of Babur in India.

2. Daulat Khan’s Revolt against Babur. Daulat Khan had expected that Babur would declare him an independent ruler of Punjab. He was shocked and infuriated when Babur declared him the Subedar of Jalandhar only. He raised the banner of revolt against Babur along with his son Ghazi Khan. Babur easily crushed his revolt. Daulat Khan escaped to the hills of Shivaliks to save his life. When Babur left India, Daulat Khan came down from the Shivalik hills. He occupied a major portion of Punjab after defeating the armies of Alam Khan and Ibrahim Lodhi.

3. Defeat of Daulat Khan and his death. Babur was keeping an eye on the activities of Daulat Khan Lodhi. When he learnt that Daulat Khan had occupied Punjab again, he left Kabul in November 1525 to invade India. On reaching Lahore, he learnt that Daulat Khan Lodhi was camping at Malout near Hoshiarpur. Hence, Babur immediately attacked Malout. Daulat Khan was not able to resist the attack and lost the battle. He was imprisoned and sent to Bhera but he died before reaching there.

Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Political Condition. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. The political condition of Punjab was not good at the time of his birth. The rulers of Punjab were weak and divided and fought among themselves. The Punjab was passing through a phase of chaos and external aggressions.
  • Social Condition. The social condition of the Punjab during the period was miserable. The Hindu society was divided into castes and sub-castes. The condition of women was pitiable. The rulers were fanatics. The people were of low moral character. They were ignorant and superstitious.
  • Lodhi Rulers. Punjab was under the rule of the Lodhis. The rulers of this dynasty were Behlol Lodhi (1450-1489), Sikander Lodhi (1489-1517) and Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526).
  • The Punjab under Ibrahim Lodhi. The Punjab was the centre of intrigues during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi. The Subedar (Governor) of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India.
  • Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur. During the fifth invasion of Babur on India, Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Subedar of Punjab, fought against Babur. Daulat Khan Lodhi was defeated.
  • The victory of Babur over Punjab. The First Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526. In this battle, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and Babur occupied Delhi and Punjab.
  • Muslim Society. The Muslim society was divided into three classes namely, the Upper Class, Middle Class and the Lower Class. The leading military commanders, Iqtadars, Ulemas and Sayyids were included in the Upper Class. In the Middle class, the traders, farmers, soldiers and low ranking government officers were included. The Lower Class comprised artisans, slaves and household servants.
  • Hindu Society. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Hindu society was divided into four main castes, which were the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The goldsmiths, ironsmiths, weavers, carpenters, tailors, potters etc. were counted among the lower castes. The Jats formed an important sub-caste.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 2 Political and Social Conditions of the Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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