PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji Textbook Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in 10-15 words:

Question 1.
Name the Guru whowas earlier known as Bhai Lehna Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna Ji was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dey Ji.

Question 2.
Define Lagar System.
Answer:
The Langar system or Pa1lgat refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction, like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food. Guru Amar Das Ji had made a rule according to which no body would come in his presence without first partaking food in the Pangat.

Question 3.
Name the Guru who laid the foundation of Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji laid the foundation of a large well (Baoli) in GoindwaL

Question 4.
Name the Guru whom Akbar visited.
Answer:
Akbar met Guru Amar Das Ji at Goindwal.

Question 5.
Write two objectives of the Masand System.
Answer:
The two aims of Masand System were as follows:

  1. To collect the donations for the development work relating to Sikh religion.
  2. To organise the Sikhs.

Question 6.
Who was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs? Vhich city was founded by him?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs and Guru Sahib built the city of Ramdaspur (Amritsar).

Question 7.
When and who laid the foundation of Sri Harimandir Sahib?
Answer:
The foundation stone of Sri Harimandir Sahib was laid in 1589 A.D. by the renowned Sufi Saint of his times, Miari Mir.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 8.
What is the significance of four doors on the four sides of Sri Harimandir Sahib?
Answer:
The significance of erecting the doors in all the four directions in Sri Harimandir Sahib is to indicate that Sri Harimandir Sahib is open to all classes, all the religions and all the castes without any discrimination.

Question 9.
Name the four cities established by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the following four cities:

  1. Tarn Taran,
  2. Kartarpur,
  3. Hargobiridpur and
  4. Chheharta.

Question 10.
Define the meaning of ‘Daswandh’.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji made many rules for Masand System. The most important rule was about ‘Daswandh’. According to it, the devotees were required to donate tenth part of their income to the Guru for religious activites. It was called Daswandh.

Question 11.
Why was the Adi Granth Sahib compiled?
Answer:
The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled to provide a collection of authentic Bani (hymns) of Guru Sahiban for the proper guidance of the Sikhs. Guru Arjan Dev Ji wanted to provide a true religions book to ensure that Sikhs could receive the true knowledge of Guru Bani and might not be cheated by the false writings written in the name of Guru Sahibs.

Question 12.
What do you know about Langar System?
Answer:
The Langar System or Pangat was started bydGuru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued the system With full devotion. This system proved to be a powerful agency for popularising the Sikh religion.

Question 13.
What was preached by Guru Angad Dev Ji to the Sikhs through the Sangat System?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the message of peace and brotherhood and dealt a severe blow to the caste system among the Sikhs.

Question 14.
What was the contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji towards Langar system?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji further promoted the Langar system or Pangat, which was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This system worked with the voluntary support of his Sikh followers. Bibi Khiwi, wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji, managed the Pangat System with full devotion.

Question 15.
Write about the wrestling ground established by Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Angad. Dev Ji believed that the physical fitness was essential for the intellectual development of the Sikhs. Hence, in order to develop physical health of his Sikh followers, Guru Sahib established a gymnasium at Khadoor Sahib. Guru Sahib organised there wrestling matches regularly.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 16.
What do you know about Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
The city of Goindwal is situated on the bank of river Beas. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed here a Baoli, a large oblong tank of water. This Baoli has eighty four steps with landing places. Guru Sahib had decreed that whoever would reverently repeat the Japuji Sahib on every step shall escape from wandering in the wombs of the eighty four lakhs of living .creatures. In the course of time, Goindwal became an important centre of Sikh pilgrimage.

Question 17.
Write the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about Caste System.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was strongly against untouchability and discriminations based on Caste System (Jati System). Guru Sahib considered those people foolish and ignorant who believed in Jati System and untouchability. Guru Sahib had instructed the Sikhs to condemn untouchability and Caste System.

Question 18.
What were the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about the Sati System?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the practice of Sati. Guru Sahib told that a widow who had burnt herself alive on the pyre of her dead husband could not be called a true Sati. According to him, a widow who preferred to live her life in the memory of her dead husband could be called a true Sati.

Question 19.
What reforms did Guru Amar Das Ji introduce for marriage, birth and death ceremonies?
Answer:

  1. Guru Amar Das Ji replaced the ceremony of Pheras (going around the fire pit in Hindu marriage) with-the ceremony of Lavan in Sikh marriages.
  2. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of singing the ‘Anand Bani’ at the time of birth and marriage.
  3. Guru Sahib instructed the Sikhs to say the prayers to God and chant the name of God on all the sad occasions or .death ceremonies.

Question 20.
Write about the importance of Ramdaspur or Amritsar.
Answer:
The Sikhs got their own city of pilgrimage and an important business centre with the founding of Ramdaspur or Amritsar. With the passage of time, the city of Ramdaspur or Amritsar greatly contributed to the development of the Sikh community.

Question 21.
Write about the Baoli Sahib (water source) of Lahore.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji had constructed a large well (Baoli) in Dubbi Bazaar in Lahore. It became a place of pilgrimage for his Sikh followers.

Question 22.
What was the need of compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib by Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji wanted that his Sikhs should be benefited from the true and divine hymns of Guru Sahiban for which he found it necessary to make available a true and sacred religious book. Therefore, Guru Sahib compiled Adi Granth Sahib and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib for the spiritual benefit of his Sikh followers.

Question 23.
Write two social reforms brought about by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji brought about the following social reforms:

  1. Guru Sahib tried to encourage widow remarriage.
  2. Guru Sahib prohibited the use of liquor and intoxicants by his Sikh followers.

Question 24.
Write about the relationship between Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar had very friendly relations with Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The opponents of Guru Arjan Dev Ji tried to poison the ears of Akbar against Guru Sahib, but Akbar rebuffed them. Due to Guru Sahib’s advice, Akbar remitted the land tax of the farmers of Punjab during the year of bad harvests.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 25.
Why did Jahangir want to kill Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:

  1. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir was jealous of the rising popularity of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
  2. He was perturbed (troubled) by the fact that like the Hindus, many Muslims were coming under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Thus, the Mughal Emperor Jahangir wanted to put to death Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 26.
Write the importance of the swords of ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji put on two swords and called them ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’. The ‘Miri’ sword represented the leadership of Guru Hargobind Ji over the Sikhs in their worldly affairs. The sword ‘Piri’ indicated the leadership of Guru Sahib in spiritual matters of the Sikhs.

Question 27.
How did Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji fortify the city of Amritsar?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji raised a thick wall all around the city of Amritsar. Guru Sahib also constructed a fort called ‘Lohgarh’ within the city and garrisoned it.

Answer the following questions in 30-50 words:

Question 1.
Describe the Baoli Sahib (water sources) at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji completed the work of construction of the Baoli at Goindwal, which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib told his Sikh followers that whosoever would recite the hymns of ‘JupJi Sahib’ with full devotion on each of the 84 steps, he would become free from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh types of lives (Yonis) and achieve Moksha (Salvation). Indu Bushan Banerjee says that the Baoli played a significant role in the history of Sikh religion. The Baoli of Goindwal became a popular place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. The Gurudwara Baoli Sahib stands there.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of the Manji System and why was it started?
Answer:
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji. The number of his Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Amar Das Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pieces. The Manji system had great significance in the history of Sikh religion. Dr. G.C. Narang says that this work of Guru Sahib consolidated the foundations of Sikh religion and helped to spread Guru’s teachings in all parts of the country.

Question 3.
What reforms were introduced in marriage ceremonies by Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
At the time of Guru Amar Das Ji, the influence of caste system was dominating the people of Punjab. The people considered it against their religion to marry outside one’s own caste. Guru Sahib believed that such a tradition had divided the people. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to break the caste barriers and permitted inter-caste marriages. Guru Sahib also reformed the marriage ceremonies. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of Lavan in place of Pheras. Bhai Jetha Ji (Guru Ram Das Ji) wrote the Lavans on the advice of Guru Amar Das Ji.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 4.
How did Guru Angad Dev Ji separate the Sikhs from the Udasi sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, had founded the Udasi sect. He praised the life of an ascetic (monk or sanyasi). This idea of spiritual ascetic life was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to the Sikhs that the Sikh religion was a religion of the householders and not of the monks who broke the family ties for their spiritual life. There was no place for ascetics in the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib also declared that a Sikh who adopted a life of an ascetic was not a true Sikh. In this manner, Guru Sahib separated the Sikhs from the Udasis and consolidated the foundations of Sikh religion.

Question 5.
Write about the Anand Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had composed fresh Bani called Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib had composed the Anand Sahib at the time of birth of his grandson named Anand. It has forty hymns. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed his Sikh followers to sing Anand Sahib on the happy occasions in their lives like birth, marriage or any other similar occasion. After the composition of Anand Sahib, the need of Vedic hymns for Sikh community completely ended. The Sikhs sing the hymns of Anand Sahib on the occasions of happiness in their lives upto this day.

Question 6.
Write about the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura. This city is now called Amritsar. Guru Ram Das Ji had started the work of digging of two Sarovars (ponds) called Amritsar and Santokhsar in 1577. Guru Sahib found that it was difficult to look after the work of construction of the ponds from Goindwal. Hence, Guru Sahib decided to camp at the site of construction at Amritsar. His followers started visiting him at his camping site and some of them also stayed there, which led to the rise of a small township. This township was lovingly named Ramdaspur.

Guru Ram Das Ji tried to provide all the amenities to his followers who were staying there because of their devotion to him. Guru Sahib also established a small market there. That market became popular as ‘Market of Guru Ji’ or ‘Guru Ka Bazaar’. In this manner, the city became an important place of pilgrimage and trading centre for the Sikhs and contributed in a significant way to the growth of Sikh religion.

Question 7.
Write about Sri Harimandir Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji had raised Sri Harimandir Sahib in the centre of the Sarovar Amritsar after the final union of Guru Ram Das Ji with the Divine Power. Sufi fakir, Mian Mir laid the foundation stone of Sri Harimandir Sahib in 1589. Guru Sahib had constructed doors in each of the four directions of Sri Harimandir Sahib. It was done to declare that the doors of Sri Harimandir Sahib were open to the people of all the castes and religions without distinction. Baba Budda Ji supervised the work of construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib and completed it in 1601. In 1604, Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Baba Budda Ji was appointed as the first Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Sri Harmandir Sahib is the main centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. According to one scholar, “Amritsar is for the Sikhs what Mecca is for the Muslims.”

Question 8.
What do you know about Tarn Taran Sahib?
Answer:
The town of Tarn Taran was founded by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Tarn Taran has great significance in the history of Sikhs. Tarn Taran is an important place of pilgrimage like Amritsar for the Sikhs. A large number of Sikh pilgrims come to Tarn Taran and take bath in the Sarovar. It was because of Tarn Taran that the Jats of Majha region of Punjab adopted Sikh religion during the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Jats of the Majha region proved to be most courageous and fearless while fighting against the Mughals in the battles. Indu Bushan Banerjee remarks that the history of the Sikhs took a new turn with the entry of the Jats into Sikh religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 9.
What were the benefits of the Masand system for the Sikh religion?
Answer:
The Masand System played an important role in the development and organisation of the Sikh religion. The importance of the Masand System for Sikh religion was as under:
1. The system ensured regular and fixed donations for the Guru Gaddi. With a fixed income from donations, Guru Sahib was able to undertake much constructive work for the development of Sikh religion. Guru Arjan Dev Ji not only built tanks at Amritsar and Santokhsar, but also built new cities, constructed ponds, dug wells, etc.

2. Masand System, not only ensured fixed donations, but also, helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion more enthusiastically. Earlier, the work of spread of religion was done through Manji system. It was confined only to the Punjab during those days. However, Guru Arjan Dev Ji appointed Masands even outside Punjab. It helped in the spread of Sikh religion even outside.

3. Guru Sahib started holding his own court when he had an assured income through Masand System. The Masands and the devoted Sikhs brought donations and gifts to the court of Guru Arjan Dev Ji on every Baisakhi day and bowed their heads before him to seek his blessings. Gradually, the court of Guru Sahib acquired the status of a court of an emperor for the Sikhs and Sikh Sangat started calling Guru Arjan Dev Ji as Sachcha Padshah (The True Emperor) out of love and devotion for him.

Question 10.
Write about the daily life of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji had changed his lifestyle according to his‘New Policy’. According to his new daily routine, after taking his bath early morning, Guru Sahib visited Sri Harimandir Sahib to give religious instruction. After the discourse, the Langar was served every day. After the Langar, Guru Sahib used to take rest for some time before leaving for hunting. Guru Hargobind Ji had instructed Abdul and Nathmal to sing songs of heroism (songs of vir rasa) on high notes in order to infuse courage into the Sikh Sangat. Guru Sahib organised special troupes of singers (Dhadis). In this manner, Guru Sahib created a new awareness among the Sikhs and created in them the spirit of courage.

Question 11.
What do you know about the ‘Akal Takht’?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji used to give religious instructions at Sri Harimandir Sahib. Guru Sahib had constructed a new building called ‘Akal Takht’ (the Throne of Supreme God) in the western part of the premises of Sri Harimandir Sahib to give advice to the Sikhs in the worldly matters. There was raised a platform about 12 feet high. Guru Sahib used to solve the military and political problems of the Sikhs while sitting there. Guru Sahib also listened to heroic songs (songs of vir rasa) from his followers at Akal Takht. Guru Sahib also imparted physical training to his Sikh followers hear Akal Takht.

Question 12.
Throw light on any four measures taken by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs after Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s demise in 1539. His period proved to be a blessing for the rise of Sikhism.

Guru Sahib contributed to the rise of Sikhism by doing the following work:

  1. Improvement of Gurumukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurumukhi script. .In order to popularise Gurumukhi, Guru Sahib wrote ‘Bal Bodh’ to help children to learn the alphabet or Gurumukhi.
  2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and other Writings. Guru Angad Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write a Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to know the true instructions of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote his own Bani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
  3. Langar System. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued Langar system with full devotion. It helped in reducing the ill-feelings based on caste system among the people and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.
  4. Founding of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

Question 13.
How was Masand system useful for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Refer to answer in 70-75 words to question no. 9 of section B.

Question 14.
Write a note on the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The Mughal Emperor Akbar had very cordial relations with Guru Arjan Dev Ji. However, Jahangir the next Mughal emperor, abandoned the policy of toleration after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was on the lookout for an opportunity to give mortal blow to Sikh religion. In the meantime, Prince Khusro, the son of Jahangir, revolted against his father. After being defeated at the hand of his father, Khusro came to Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Sahib blessed him. Jahangir imposed a fine of two lakh rupees on Guru Sahib on the charge of helping rebellious Khusro. Guru Sahib showed his inability to pay. As a result, Guru Sahib was detained and subjected to severe torture. It infuriated the Sikhs. The Sikhs learned that the only course then left open to them was to rise in arms for the protection of their religion.

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words:

Question 1.
What is the contribution of Guru Angad Sahib to the development of Sikh religion?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion in 1539 after Guru Nanak Dev Ji. His period proved to be a blessing for the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib contributed to the development of the Sikh religion in the following manner:
1. Improvement in Gurumukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurumukhi script. In order to popularise Gurumukhi, Guru Sahib wrote ‘Bal Bodh’ to help the children learn the alphabet of Gurumukhi. The Gurumukhi was a common language of the people of the region. It helped in the promotion of Sikh religion. All the religious literature of Sikhism is written in Gurumukhi script.

2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write the Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to follow the true path shown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib himself also wrote Bani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

3. The Langar System. Guru Aiigad Dev Ji continued the Langar system with full devotion. Langar was served to all the people without any distinction based on caste system. It helped in decreasing the feelings of inequality based on caste system and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.

4. Separating the Udasis from the Sikhs. The eldest son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bhai Sri Chand had established the Udasi sect. He had popularised asceticism (Sanyas). The idea of asceticism was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to his followers that the Sikh religion is a religion of householders. There was no place for ascetics (Sanyasis) in it. Guru Sahib declared that those Sikhs, who believed in asceticism, were not true Sikhs. In this manner, by separating Udasis from the Sikh community, Guru Sahib strengthened the Sikh religion.

5. Laid the foundation of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

6. Enforced Discipline. Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained strict discipline in his Sikh community. He turned out Bhai Satta and Bhai Balwand out of Sikh Sangat for breaking discipline. However, on the request of Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. This episode served as a warning to the indisciplined elements in the Sikh community.

It is true that Guru Angad Dev Ji had given a distinct identity to the Sikh religion by making improvements in Gurumukhi script. The Sikh followers got their own separate script and language. The langar system freed the Sikh religion from the influence of caste system. It helped Sikh religion to establish its own separate identity different from the Hindu religion. All the credit goes to Guru Angad Dev Ji for all such developments which made Sikh religion a distinct religion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 2.
What work was done by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikh religion?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji occupies an important place in the history of Sikh religion. The seeds of the religion which Guru Nanak Dev Ji had sowed, sprouted during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji raised a fence around the new religion and saved it from getting absorbed into Hindu religion. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh community to adopt new customs and traditions in their social life, which developed the real traits of Sikh religion.

They were different from the social customs and traditions of the Hindu religion. No doubt, Guru Sahib was a great divine soul. Payne, a scholar, called him an aggressive reformer. Another scholar has praised Guru Sahib as a genius and a man of justice. It is a historical fact that it was during his period that Sikh religion established its distinctive identity.

A brief survey of the work of Guru Amar Das Ji is as follows:
1. Construction of Baoli at Goindwal. Guru Amar Das Ji completed the construction work of Baoli at Goindwal which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib said that a Sikh could get freedom from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh forms of lives by reciting the hymns of Jupji Sahib on each step. The Baoli of Goindwal became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

2. Langar System. Guru Amar Das Ji also made the Langar system popular which helped further in the spread of Sikhism. Guru Sahib made some more rules for Langar System. As per the new rules, whosoever wanted to earn the benefit of participation in Sangat, he must partake Langar with the rest of the Sangat before joining it in the presence of Guru Sahib. While partaking food in the Langar, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishs, Shudras, Kings, common men and people of all castes and tribes sat in one row and partook food.

Langar system propagated the message of Sikh religion in a more forceful and effective manner. It ended the discrimination based on castes. It developed the feelings of unity and equality in the Sikh Sangat. As a consequence, it bound the Sikhs into a strong bond of unity.

3. Collection of the Sayings of Guru Sahiban. Guru Angad Dev collected the true ‘Bani’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and added his own ‘Bani’ also. Guru Angad Dev Ji entrusted the sacred collection to Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji also composed his ‘Bani’ and added to the collection. In this manner, the true ‘Bani’ was preserved in a pure form and later found place in the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’. The grandson of Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji accomplished the ultimate task.

4. Manji System. The number of followers of Sikhism had increased manifold by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji found it difficult to reach all his disciples who were spread over a large area. Guru Sahib divided his spiritual territory into 22 regions. Each region was called a ‘Manji’. Each Manji was a centre of religious preaching and Guru Sahib appointed learned and reliable Sikh devotees to control each Manji.

The establishment of Manji system was an important step in the systematic organisation of the Sikh religion. G.C. Narang in his book ‘Transformation of Sikhism’, remarks that the introduction of Manji System by Guru Sahib had strengthened the Sikh religion and contributed to the spread of Guru’s divine message in different regions of the country in a more effective way.

5. Separation of Sikhs from the Udasis. The Udasi sect of Baba Sri Chand had also become popular in the early period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Guru Gaddi, There was a possibility of Sikh religion losing its identity by being merged with the Udasi sect. It is recognised by many historians that Guru Amar Das Ji had judged the situation and strongly spoken against the main principles of asceticism of Udasi sect, which were against the principles of Sikh religion as founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh Sangat to understand clearly that they would not be able to become true Sikhs, if they adopted the principles of Udasi sect. In this manner, because of the efforts of Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikh religion maintained its separate identity and flourished.

6. Separate Sikh ceremonies. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to discontinue useless customs and traditions. Among the Hindus, it was a tradition of weeping and crying over the death of one’s near ones. Guru Sahib advised his disciples to meditate on God in such situations in one’s life instead of performing useless ceremonies and rites. Guru Sahib also started a new ceremony for marriage which was called Anand Karaj.

7. Composition of Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib composed a new Bani which is called ‘Anand Sahib’. Anand Sahib ended the importance of Vedic hymns for the Sikhs and gave them their own sacred literature.
Thus, the period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Gurugaddi and his sacred literature occupy the most important place in the history of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib constructed a Baoli, introduced Manji System, elaborated the Langar System, and introduced new traditions and customs in the Sikh religion which was well-organised during his days.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 3.
Describe the social reforms introduced by Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
During the times of Guru Amar Das Ji, the society was suffering from many social evils. Guru Amar Das Ji was fully aware of those shortcomings and brought about numerous social reforms.

The main achievements of Guru Amar Das Ji in the field of social reforms are as follow:
1. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Amar Das Ji made efforts to end the evils in the society caused by caste system. Wherever Guru Sahib went, he criticised the differences among the social groups based on caste system. Guru Sahib was of the view that those caste differences were against the wishes of Supreme God and a hindrance in the way of social development. The 19th century leaders of social reform movements had the same views and all their activities to reform social condition were similar to what Guru Amar Das Ji did in the 16th century.

2. Opposed to Untouchability. Guru Amar Das Ji made successful efforts to end untouchability. No untouchability or Jati considerations were permitted and observed in the Langar. People of all castes, tribes and social status sat together and partook food with brotherly feelings. It is said that Emperor Akbar and Raja of Hamirpur partook food in the Langar according to the rules laid down by Guru Amar Das Ji.

3. Supported Widow Remarriage. Widow remarriage was not permitted during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. The widows were forced to live a miserable life after the death of their husbands. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly supported widow remarriage and tried to secure a respectable position for women in the society.

4. Condemnation of the Practice of Sati. Another most shameful social evil was the custom of Sati. The historians believe that it was Guru Amar Das Ji who had raised a voice of protest against the custom of Sati for the first time in the history of India. Even Akbar borrowed the idea of taking some measures against the practice of Sati from Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib declared that a woman was not a true Sati who had burnt herself alive on the pyre of her husband. Guru Sahib opined that a true Sati could be a woman who lived her life in the memory of her dead husband. For that, the widow should lead a highly moral life and purity and spend her time in praying to God.

5. Criticism of Purdah System. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the Purdah System prevalent among the women. Guru Sahib considered purdah as the main hindrance in the development of society. Guru Sahib did not permit purdah for women who volunteered to serve the Langar and wanted to participate in Sangat.

6. Criticism of the Use of the Intoxicants. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to remain away from the intoxicants. In one of his ‘Shabads’, Guru Sahib has strongly criticized the use of liquor. Guru Amar Das Ji guided his followers to pray for forgiveness and become addicted to the spirit of Name. Guru Sahib condemned the addiction to intoxicants. Guru Sahib suggested an alternative of seeking enjoyment in social service.

7. Promotion of Brotherhood among the Sikhs through New Festivals. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikh Sangat to celebrate three main festivals, i.e. Maghi, Diwali and Baisakhi in a new way. On the advice of Guru Sahib, the Sikh Sangat used to gather around the house of Guru Sahib and celebrated those festivals as he directed. This reform played a major role in uniting the Sangat in a strong bond of brotherhood.

8. New Ceremonies concerning Birth and Death. Guru Amar Das Ji a’-o started new and distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage, and death for the Sil ‘ Thncp ceremonies are different from the ceremonies of the Hindus. There was assistance of the Brahmins in performing those ceremonies. These reforms played a major role in imparting a separate identity to the Sikh religion.

It is a historical fact that the reforms undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji had given a new strength to Sikh religion.

Question 4.
What efforts were made by Guru Ram Das Ji for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
The fourth Guru Sahib of Sikh religion was Guru Ram Das Ji. Guru Sahib made the following contribution to the growth of Sikh religion:
1. Laid the foundation of Amritsar City. Guru Ram Das Ji laid on the land bought during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji, the foundation of a city called Ramdaspur. Presently, it is called Amritsar. In 1577, when Guru Sahib started construction work on the two ponds (Sarovars) called Amritsar and Santokhsar, he found that it was not easy to supervise the construction of ponds from Goindwal. Guru Sahib encamped at the construction site. His Sikh devotees also came after him and pitched their tents around the ponds. The camping place developed into a small settlement. That settlement became popular as Ramdaspur. Guru Sahib wanted to provide every facility to his devotees who had followed him to the place out of love for him. Guru Sahib, therefore, invited 52 merchants belonging to 52 different trades and provided all the things required by the settlers. They set up a type of Bazaar which is now called Guru Ka Bazaar. The city soqn acquired the status of an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. They stopped visiting the places of Hindu pilgrimage.

2. Introduction of Masand System. Guru Ramdas Ji needed a large amount of money to complete the construction work of ponds (Sarovars) of Amritsar and Santokhsar. Therefore, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib deputed his trusted Sikh devotees to go to far off places to spread the message of Sikh religion and collect donations. Such devotees were called Masands. Those Masands successfully spread the message of Sikhism and collected large donations. This system played a major role in the spread of Sikh religion to far off places. The Masand system proved to be a link between the Sikh devotees and Guru Sahib and established an emotional bond between them.

3. End of the Conflict with the Udasis. Guru Angad Dev Ji and Guru Amar Das Ji had separated Udasi sect from the Sikh community but Guru Ram Das Ji adopted a kind attitude towards the Udasi sect. According to a tradition, once. Baba Sri Chand, the founder of Udasi sect came to meet Guru Ram Das Ji. During his meeting, Baba Sri Chand asked Guru Sahib that why he had kept a long beard. Guru Sahib gave an answer full of humility when he said that his beard was meant to dust the feet of great personalities like Baba Sri Chand. Baba Sri Chand was highly impressed by the answer of Guru Sahib and he accepted Guru Sahib as superior to him. In this manner, the conflict between the Udasi sect and the Sikh community ended. It immensely helped in the spread of Sikh religion.

4. Social Reforms. Guru Ram Das Ji continued the work of social reforms which was started by Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Sahib continued new ceremonies which were started by Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Sahib also criticised the custom of Sati, encouraged widow remarriage, and introduced new ceremonies to be performed on the occasions of marriage and death.

5. Friendship with Emperor Akbar. Emperor Akbar had adopted the policy of tolerance towards all the religions. He was highly impressed by the teachings of Sikh Guru Sahiban and had great respect and regard for Guru Ram Das Ji. (He had also special regards for Guru Amar Das Ji). It is a part of history that Akbar had pleaded before Guru Sahib to accept the gift of 500 bighas of land. The city of Amritsar flourished on that land afterwards. Similarly, when Punjab suffered from drought, Akbar remitted the land tax during the year of drought on the advice of Guru Ram Das Ji. It gave big relief to the farmers of Punjab.

6. Guru Gaddi made Hereditary. Guru Ram Das Ji made the Guru Gaddi hereditary before his final union with Divine Power. Guru Ram Das Ji appointed his most capable son Arjan Dev Ji as his successor and thus made the Guru Gaddi hereditary. But keeping in view the principles of bestowing the Guru Gaddi as introduced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji maintained the principle of selection based, on merit.

Guru Ram Das Ji had started a new chapter in the history of Sikhism by adopting the principle of heredity for succession to Guru Gaddi. Latif is of the opinion that this step changed the nature of Guru Gaddi. Thereafter, the Sikhs, who followed Guru Sahiban as their spiritual leaders, looked on them as their emperors also. However, the rule established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji that Guru Gaddi was to be conferred on the most capable follower of the Guru was maintained.

Guru Ram Das Ji guided the Sikhs for a shorter period but even within that period, the Sikh religion gained much popularity,

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 5.
What was the contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
The histcfry of Sikh religion entered a new phase with the coming of Guru Arjan Dev Ji to Guru Gaddi. It was the result of his efforts that Sikhs were blessed with Harmandir Sahib Ji and numerous other places of pilgrimage. Not only that, the Sikhs got their first sacred and divine book when Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled the Adi Granth Sahib. The Hindus had their Ramayana, the Muslims their Quran Sharif, the Christians their Bible, and the Sikhs their Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

A brief description of the activities and contributions of Guru Arjan Dev Ji is given as follows:
1. Construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib (Pb. 2013 (I)). Guru Arjan Dev Ji completed the work of construction of Amritsar and Santokhsar Sarovars after the expiry of Guru Ram Das Ji. Guru Sahib constructed Sri Harmandir Sahib in the midst of Amritsar Sarovar. Guru Sahib constructed a door each in all the four directions of Sri Harmandir Sahib. These four doors convey the message that Sri Harmandir Sahib is open to all the religions, castes and tribes without any discrimination. Guru Sahib told his followers that a pilgrimage to Sri Harmandir Sahib would bestow the benefit of 68 places of pilgrimage of the Hindus. In this manner, Sri Harmandir Sahib became one of the most sacred and important rebgious places.

2. Foundation of Tarn Taran. Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Tarn Taran as well. The city was founded in the heart of Majha region. It is also an important place of pilgrimage like Amritsar for the Sikhs. Guru Ji also constructed many other buildings and Sarovars.

3. Construction of Baoli at Lahore. On his tour to Lahore, Guru Arjan Dev Ji got constructed a Baoli in the Dubbi Bazaar. The Baoli soon became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs of the surrounding region.

4. Foundation of Hargobindpur and Chheratta. Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Hargobindpur on the banks of river Beas to celebrate the birth of his son Hargobind Ji. Apart from this he also got a well dug at Chheratta near Amritsar in order to provide water to the local people. Guru Sahib also arranged for six pulleys to draw Water from the well and the area is known after those pulleys as Chheratta.

5. Foundation of Kartarpur, In 1593, Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur and also built a Sarovar in Kartarpur which is called Gangsar.

6. Improvement in the Masand System. Guru Arjan Dev Ji felt the need to improve Masand system. Guru Sahib instructed the Sikh followers to deposit one-tenth (Daswandh) of their annual income with the Masands. The Masands deposited the collections in the main treasury (Guru Ki Golak) at Amritsar on every Baisakhi day. The Masands appointed their representatives to collect donations. Those representatives were called Sangatias. The one-tenth donation was called Daswandh. Apart from the work of collection of Daswandh, the Masands also spread the message of Sikh religion.

7. Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. Gum Arjan Dev Ji bestowed upon the Sikhs a sacred and religious book by compiling the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Ar^an Dev Ji compiled Adi Granth Sahib at Ramsar. Bhai Gurdas Ji assisted Guru Sahib in its compilation. The work of compilation was cofnpleted in 1604. Guru Sahib included the hymns of first four Gurus, followed by the hymns of Bhakti saints and finally the sayings of Bhatt Bahiyan. Guru Arjan Dev Ji also included his own Bani in the holy book.

8. Encouraged Horse Trade. Guru Arjan Dev Ji encouraged the Sikhs to start trading in horses. The Sikhs were benefited from the trading in horses in the following ways:

  • Trading in horses was the most profitable business in those days. As a result, the Sikhs became very rich by trading in the horses. They contributed Daswand regularly out of their income from this trade.
  • The Sikhs became fully trained in making a selection of good horses. It helped them in the long run in organising a Sikh cavalry.

9. Spread of Religious Teachings. Guru Arjan Dev Ji made many people his followers by his religious teachings. Guru Sahib impressed the people with his ideals, teachings, amiable personality, sweet temper, and toleration. Many Muslims also joined the Sikh religion under the influence of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Thus the Sikh religion progressed tremendously under the spiritual leadership of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Adi Granth Sahib, the most sacred book of the Sikhs, was compiled, the cities like Tara Taran, Kartarpur, Hargobindpur, were founded and the Sikh religion was blessed with Sri Harmandir Sahib.

Question 6.
Describe the origin, development and merits of the Masand System.
Answer:
Origin of the Masand System: Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth Guru of the Sikhs, started the Masand System. He felt the need for more money when he was looking after the work of digging of Amritsar Sarovar and Santokhsar Sarovar. Guru Ram Das Ji did not have enough resources. Therefore, Guru Sahib deputed his trusted followers in different directions of the country to collect funds from his Sikh devotees. They were called the Masands or Ram Dasis. These followers were the close confidants of Guru Ram Das Ji. Wherever those followers or Masands went, they collected the donations and spread the message of Sikh religion.

Progress of the Masand System: Guru Arjan Dev Ji made improvements in the Masand system and made it an institution that was more effective. Before the period of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the donations to earlier Guru Sahiban were not fixed and were irregular. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had started construction work of many buildings and Sarovars for which he required a fixed and regular inflow of cash. Apart from this, it had become difficult to collect the donations from numerous Sikh followers whose number had increased manifold. Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave a proof of his superior managing skill by providing the solution for the existing problems of organization of the Sikh religion.

Guru Sahib improved the organization of Masand system by taking the following measures:

  1. Guru Sahib fixed the amount of donation to be made by his Sikh devotees to him. Guru Sahib enjoined upon his devotees to donate one-tenth of their annual income for the maintenance of Langar.
  2. Gum Sahib appointed his representatives, who were called the Masands for the collection of Daswandh from his Sikh devotees. The Masands deposited the collections in the treasury of Gum Sahib (Gum Ki Golak) at Amritsar on Baisakhi day every year. The receipts were issued to the Masands for the donations received at Amritsar.
  3. The Masands had appointed their representatives who were called the Sangtias, to collect the Daswandh. The Sangtias collected the Daswandhs from far off places and deposited them in the treasury of the Guru.
  4. The Sangtias and Masands considered it a sin to use even a single penny out of the donations for personal use. Gum Sahib had already ordained on this issue that whosoever embezzled the money of Daswandh, would become the victim of physical sufferings.
  5. The Masands did not confine their activities only to the collection of Daswandhs, they also employed their energies for spreading the message of the Sikh religion. Gum Sahib ensured at the time of appointment of a Sikh as a Masand that he had a high moral character and deep faith in the Sikh religion.

Importance and Benefits of the Masand System: The Masand system played an important role in building and consolidation of the Sikh religion. The importance of Masand System for the Sikh religion can be given as follows:
1. The donations to Guru Gaddi became fixed and regular. It helped Guru Sahib to continue with his constmction work. Gum Sahib founded not only the Sarovars at Amritsar and Santokhsar but also built many cities, ponds, wells etc with the regular donations. The constmctive work of Guru Sahib contributed in a significant way to the spread and popularity of Sikh religion.

2. On the one hand, the Masand System ensured a regular income to the Guru Ji and on the other, it popularised the Sikh religion in an effective manner. Earlier, Manji System carried out the work of spread of the Sikh religion. The Manji system had confined its activities to the Punjab region. Guru Sahib appointed Masands even outside Punjab. It resulted in the spread of Sikh religion in other parts of the country because the Masands collected not only the Daswandh but also devoted their energies for spreading the message of Sikh religion.

3. Guru Sahib started holding his own court with the regular donations received in the form of Daswandh. The Masands and devoted Sikhs brought donations and gifts to the court of Guru Arjan Dev Ji on every Baisakhi and bowed their heads before him to seek his blessings. Gradually, the court of Guru Sahib acquired the status of a court of an emperor and the Sikh Sangat started calling Guru Arjan Dev Ji as Sachcha Padshah (The True Emperor) out of love and devotion for him.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe the ‘New Policy’ of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji, the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Hargobind Ji adopted a ‘New Policy’. The main feature of his new policy was to make the Sikhs peace loving as well as courageous and fearless.

The main features of the ‘New Policy’ of Guru Hargobind Ji are the following:
1. The Royal Insignias and the title of ‘Sachcha Padshah’: Guru Hargobind Ji adopted, the title of ‘Sachcha Padshah’ and put on a number of royal insignias in line with his ‘New Policy’. Guru Sahib started wearing princely dress and discontinued using the saintly headgear and woollen beads (sayli) which were the symbols of saints and fakirs. Guru Sahib put on two swords and a crest (kalgi) in place of woollen beads (sayli) and saintly headgear. Guru Sahib also kept bodyguards for self-defence just like the princes of the contemporary times.

2. Miri and Piri: Guru Hargobind Ji had become the military leader of the Sikhs besides being their spiritual leader. From then onwards, Guru Sahib was ‘Mir’ (Militatry Commander) and ‘Pir’ (Religious Leader) of the.Sikhs. Guru Sahib put on two swords to represent his new role as ‘Mir’ and ‘Pir’ of his Sikhs. Guru Sahib named one sword as ‘Piri’ and the second as ‘Miri’. Guru Sahib gave special attention to the physical fitness of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib encouraged his Sikh followers to take exercise regularly, to participate in wrestling bouts, to go on hunting and to receive training in horse riding. Guru Sahib thus transformed his saintly followers into saint soldiers by adopting his ‘New Policy’.

3. Construction of Akal Takht: Guru Hargobind Ji took upon himself the responsibility of guiding the worldly activities of his Sikh followers apart from his role of being their true Guru in the sphere of spiritual life. Guru Sahib imparted, spiritual knowledge at Sri. Harmandir Sahib. In order to guide the Sikhs in their worldly affairs, Guru Sahib built Akal Takht (Throne of Supreme God-The Timeless) near Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Sahib listened to the military and political problems of the Sikhs while sitting on a raised platform 12 feet high at the Akal Takht.

4. Raising of Army: Guru Hargobind Ji raised an army for self-defence of the Sikhs. There were numerous professional soldiers and volunteers in his army. The fearless and courageous Jats of Majha region volunteered to join his army. According to one estimate, Guru Sahib had 800 horses, 300 horse riders, and 60 musketeers. Guru Sahib was served by a contingent of 500 such volunteers who did not seek any salary. Besides this army, Guru Sahib was also served by a separate contingent of Afghan (Pathan) soldiers headed by Painda Khan.

5. Keeping of Horses and Arms: Guru Hargobind Ji took special measures to make his ‘New Policy’ successful. Guru Sahib advised his Sikh followers to make donations of horses and arms as far as possible. Consequently, Guru Sahib collected many horses and a large number of arms.

6. Fortification of Amritsar: Guru Hargobind Ji raised a thick wall around the city of Ramdaspur (Amritsar) for its defence and security. The fort of Lohgarh was built and stocked with armaments and other military provisions.

7. New Daily Routine: Guru Hargobind Ji also made changes in his daily routine. According to his ‘New Policy’ his new daily routine was that after taking his bath early in the morning, Guru Sahib visited Sri Harmandir Sahib to give religious instruction. After the discourse, the Langar was served every day under his supervision. After the Langar, Guru Sahib used to take rest for some time before leaving for hunting. Guru Hargobind Ji had instructed Abdul and Nathamal to sing songs of heroism (songs of vir rasa) on high notes in order to infuse courage in the Sikh Sangat. Guru Sahib organised special troupes of singers (Dhadis). In this manner, Guru Sahib raised a new awareness among the Sikhs and made them brave and fearless.

8. Inculcated the spirit of Self-Defence: The core of the ‘New Policy’ was to inculcate’ the spirit of self-defence among his Sikh followers. Therefore, the aim of raising the army was neither to grab the Jand of others nor to intimidate any one. No doubt, Guru Sahib valiantly fought battles against the Mughals, but in no way, those battles were motivated by any lust for territory. Rather they were genuine efforts for self-defence and survival.

Question 8.
Besides adopting the New Policy what other measures were taken by Guru Hargobind Ji for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji was the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the fifth Guru Sahib. Guru Hargobind Ji was bom on June, 1595 in village Wadali in District Amritsar. Guru Sahib was a precocious child. Guru Sahib became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs after the martyrdom of his father, the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji in 1606 and successfully guided the course of Sikh religion upto 1645. Gum Sahib made significant contribution, to the development of Sikh religion by adopting the ‘New Policy’ and winning battles against the Mughals.

A brief survey of the contribution of Gum Hargobind Ji to Sikhism is given as under:
1. Stay at Kiratpur: The king of Kahlur, Raja Kalyan Chand, was a follower of Guru Sahib. The Raja had given land to Gum Gaddi. Gum Sahib built a city called Kiratpur on that land. Gum Sahib made the city his abode in 1635. Gum Sahib lived the last ten years of his life at Kiratpur and spent his time in spreading the message of Sikh religion.

2. Conversion of Hill Chiefs to Sikhism: Gum Hargobind Ji converted many people from hilly regions to Sikh religion. Many hill chiefs had accepted Sikhism under his influence. However, the people of hilly region did not continue to follow the Sikh religion for a long period. The royal families reverted to their old practices of idol worship and other related ceremonies. Such practices were not permitted by Sikh religion.

3. The Religious Tours of Guru Hargobind Ji: Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor, became a friend of Guru Hargobind Ji when he released Guru Sahib from his confinement in Gwalior fort after realising his mistake. Guru Sahib undertook religious tours during that period of peace. Guru Sahib first visited Amritsar and then Lahore. At Lahore, Guru Sahib raised Gurudwara Dera Sahib in the memory of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. From Lahore, Guru Sahib went to Kashmir passing through Gujranwala and Bhimbar (Gujarat). Guru Sahib had made many followers in Kashmir. Guru Sahib inaugurated ‘Sangat’ in Kashmir. Bhai Sewa Das was deputed as representative of Guru Sahib in the ‘Sangat’.

Guru Sahib visited Nankana Sahib also. On his return journey from there, Guru Sahib spent some time at Amritsar. Guru Sahib also visited Nanakmatta (Gorakhmatta) in Uttar Pardesh. The yogis at Nanakmatta ran away from the city on seeing the grandeur of the entourage of Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Sahib stayed there for some time to propagate the message of Sikh religion and reactivated the Sangat system. On his way back to Punjab, Guru Sahib also toured Malwa region of Punjab. Guru Sahib returned to Amritsar after staying for sometime at Dharauli Bhai (Ferozepur)

4. Deputed Religious Preachers: Guru Hargobind Ji remained involved in the battles upto 1635. Due to his pre-occupation, Guru Sahib deputed his eldest brother Bhai Gurditta (a saintly person with a big following) for preaching and spreading Sikh religion. Bhai Gurditta sent his four representatives named Bhai Almast, Phul, Gauda, and Balu Hasan for this task. Almast spread the message of Sikh religion in Nanakmatta and Dacca; Gauda and Phul in Doab and Malwa and Balu Hasan in Kashmir, Hazara, and Pathohar. Guru Sahib also sent Bhai Bidhi Chand to Bengal, Bhai Gurdas to Kabul and then to Benaras for preaching the Sikh faith.

5. Appointment of Guru Har Rai Ji as Successor: Guru Hargobind appointed his grandson Har Rai (son of Bhai Gurditta) as his successor before joining with the Divine Power.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 9.
Describe the work of Guru Har Rai Ji in the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib took over the Guru Gaddi after Guru Hargobind Ji’s demise. Guru Har Rai was a kind-hearted and a peace-loving person.

A brief description of the history of the Sikhs during the period of Guru Har Rai Ji (1645-1661) is given below:
1. Contribution-to Sikh Religion: Guru Har Rai Ji abandoned the policy of wars and always followed the policy of peace. Guru Sahib followed the footprints of Guru Nanak Dev Ji throughout his life. Guru Sahib spent most of his time at Kiratpur and extensively popularized Sikh religion. Guru Sahib always encouraged people to live a religious life and taught them to follow the true path. Guru Sahib made the following contribution to Sikh religion:

  1. Guru Sahib organised a religious congregation every morning and evening to spread the message of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib always stressed upon his followers to lead a pious life.
  2. Guru Sahib had converted numerous people to Sikh religion. The prominent persons among his new followers were Bairagi Bhagat Gir (Bhagat Bhagwan), Bhai Sangatia, Bhai Gauda and Bhai Bhagat.

Guru Har Rai Ji deputed many preachers to different places for the propagation of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib renamed Bairagi Bhagat Gir as Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan and sent him to spread the message of Sikh religion in the eastern part of the country. It is said that Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan Ji was such a powerful preacher that he established 360 centres (gaddis) in India, which are still functioning. Another important person who was converted to Sikh religion under the influence of Guru Har Rai Ji was Sangatia of Kartarpur.

He was renamed as Bhai Pheru. Bhai Pheru Ji was entrusted with the responsibility of preaching the Sikh faith in the central Punjab. It is said that Bhai Pheru established many centres (gaddis) and it was he who took the true message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to the common man in ,true sense during the period of Guru Har Rai Ji. Guru Har Rai Ji himself toured numerous, places in Punjab and converted many people to the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib preached mainly at Kartarpur, Mukandpur (Jalandhar), Dosanjh, and in Malwa region. The Sikh religion made much progress under Guru

2. Blessed Phul and his Descendants. It is said that while Guru Har Rai Ji was on his religious tour, Guru Sahib stayed fear some time in the village Nathana in Malwa region. While Guru, Sahib was staying at Nathana, two real brothers, Kala end Karam Chand often used to visit him. One day, Kala brought his nephews, Sandali and Phul along with him .before Guru Sahib. During the meeting, Guru: Sahib observed that Phul was patting; his stomach. Guru Sahib inquired the cause bf suehian act by Phul. Kala explained, to Guru Sahib that Phul could not speak. Kala told that Phul was patting his stomach, to convey that he was hungry. Guru Sahih heing a kind-hearted person, highly moved. Guru Sahib blessed him with a boon that Phul would become famous and wealthy and his horses would , i sdonki water on the banks of Yamuna.,

Guru Sahib also announced that the descendants of Phul would rule for many generations and their fame and prosperity would continue to increase as long as they (continued to follow the preachings of Guru. Sebib. It is said that Kala also brought his own children on the persuasion of his wife to seek boon for them. Guru Sahib also blessed them. Guru Sahib blessed Kala, thah his children would own. large tracts of land and they would not pay tribute to anyone. The blessings of Guru, Sdhib bore fruit. The descendants of Phul ruled over Nabha, Jind, and Patiala kingdoms for 200 years and became famous as Phulkin.

3. Guru Har Rai Ji’s help to Dara Shikoh: Guru Har Rai Ji was a peace loving person send avoided wars and controversies. However, Guru Sahib got involved in irrt a tjAditical controversy during’the later part of his life. The reason of the trouble was his friendship with the Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shahjahan.

A war of succession took place among the sons of Shahjahan in 1657-58. Aurangzeb , emerged Victorious and Dara Shikoh, who was a strong claimant to the Mughal throne; suffered a humiliating defeat. Dara Shikoh ran away to Punjab along with ’his family. Dara Shikoh had acquaintance with Guru Sahib. Therefore, he visited; Guru Sahib to seek his blessings and help. Guru Sahib was a kind-hearted and peace-loving person. Guru Sahib did not provide any military help to the prince. However, Guru Sahib blessed him and allowed him to stay with him for some time.

4. Summons to Guru Har Rai Ji from Delhi. After his accession to the throne, Aurangzeb wanted to learn about the actual nature of the help given by Guru Sahib to Dara Shikoh. Aurangzeb also believed that the Sikh religion was anti-Islam. Hence, he summoned Guru Sahib to Delhi. Guru Sahib did not gq to Delhi but sent his son, Ram Rai to the court of Aurangzeb at Delhi as vjiis representative. Aurangzeb wanted to establish that some of the contents of the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ were against the principles of Islam. In order to prove his point, Aurangzeb pointed out a verse in ‘Asa Di Var’ by Guru Nanak Dev JL ’|he meaning of the verse was,

“The clay of a Musalman may find its Way into the kiln of a potter, who makes vessels and bricks out of it. It cries out as it burns.’ i Ram Rai tried to save hitnself from the wrath of diehard Aurangzeb and interpreted it by changing the wording of the verse. Ram Rai explained that the word “Musalman’ was wrongly written by the scribe. He declared that the actual word in the verso was ‘baiman’ i.e. a faithless or a cheat. Aurangzeb felt happy. He awarded a Jagir to Ram Rai in Dehradun. Ram Rai saved himself from the wrath of Aurangzeb but it pained Guru Sahib, when he found that his son had not stood by his convictions as demanded by the Sikh religion.

5. Nomination of Har Krishan Ji as Successor to Guru Gaddi: Guru Har Rai Ji did not pardon Ram Rai for his lack of conviction and for cowardice. Hence, Guru Sahib denied him the right to succeed him to Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib excommunicated him from the Sikh community and selected his five years old son Har Krishan Ji as his successor. Guru Sahib finally merged with the Divine Power on October 6, 1661, after occupying the Guru Gaddi for seventeen years.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 10.
What was the contribution of Guru Har Krishan Ji to the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji was born on July 7, 1656 at Kiratpur. The name of his mother was Mata Sulakhani and of his father, Guru Har Rai Ji. Guru Sahib became the eighth Guru of the Sikhs in 1661. Guru Sahib was hardly five years Old when he took over Guru Gaddi. Guru Har Krishan Ji is fondly remembered as Child Guru or ‘Child Saint’ due to his tender age at which he became the eighth Guru of the Sikhs.

The main events of the period of Guru Har Krishan Ji are described as follows:
1. A meeting with Brahmin Lai Chand: Guru Har Krishan Ji was a very intelligent child. Guru Sahib had intuitive power with mystic awareness. It is a part of oral history that Guru Sahib onCe met a Brahmin called Lai Chand. Hie Brahmin, Lai Chand was very proud of his knowledge. Lai Chand tried to put questions to Guru Sahib on the contents of Gita with the aim of testing his intellect. Guru Sahib answered all his queries in such an intelligent and mature manner that the Brahman was very astonished and was left speechless.

2. Hostility of Ram Rai. Guru Har Krishan Ji faced the hostility of his dissatisfied brother Ram Rai. Ram Rai was confident of succeeding to the Guru Gaddi on being the eldest son of Guru Har Rai Ji, the seventh Guru. He was not ready to compromise with the loss of his claim over Guru Gaddi, which he himself had lost due to his cowardice. Hence, he prayed to Aurangzeb for justice. Aurangzeb was busy in suppressing the revolts against his rule at that time. He, at first, therefore, did pot give any importance to the pleadings of Ram Rai but; after some time he tried to exploit the conflict between the estranged brothers with the aim of crushing the Sikh movement. Aurangzeb called Guru Har Krishan Ji to Delhi to present the proof of his right to Guru Gaddi.

3. Guru Har Kishan Ji at Delhi. Guru Har Kishan Ji continued to spread the message of Sikh religion and reached Delhi. Guru Har Kishan Ji stayed in the house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. The house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh was six miles away from the Red Fort of Delhi in a village Raisina. In order to test the proverbial intelligence of the young Guru Sahib, Jai Singh hid his chief queen among his female servants who were wearing similar dresses. He requested Guru Sahib to take his seat in the lap of the chief queen. Guru Sahib looked at all the women and located the chief queen, and sat in her lap. Mirza Raja Jai Singh was astonished to watch the talent of observation of young Guru Sahib. The Gurudwara Bangla Sahib now stands there in his memory.

4. Final Union with the Divine Power. Guru Har Kishan Ji suffered an attack of small pox. Guru Sahib had learnt from intuition that he would soon leave for his final journey. Guru Sahib asked for a coconut and five paisas, circled them thrice, and spoke, “Baba Bakala”. Just after giving his last message, Guru Sahib merged himself with the Divine Power. It was on March 30, 1664, when Guru Sahib gave his last message. Gurudwara Bala Sahib stands on the banks of river Yamuna in his memory.

Question 11.
Describe the travels of Malwa undertaken by Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji started his tour of Malwa region in 1673. Guru Sahib’s wife Mata Gujari and his son Gobind Ji also accompanied him.
1. Guru Sahib made his first stop at Saifabad. It was his second visit to this place. The people of Saifabad gave a warm welcome to Guru Sahib. They arranged for the stay of Guru Sahib and his family in a fortress. Guru Sahib stayed there for three months. When Guru Sahib left the place for onward journey, Saifudin presented a strong horse to Guru Sahib and a camel buggy for Mata Gujari Ji.

2. After leaving Saifabad, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji visited villages and cities situated in Malwa and Bangar regions of Punjab. According to one scholar, Guru Sahib visited ten places. The main places, which Guru Sahib visited were Mulowal, Khiyala, Maund, Talwandi Sabo, Bhatinda, etc. All these places have Gurudwaras in the memory of the visit of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. Guru Sahib got dug a well at Mulowal in order to overcome the scarcity of water in the region. Other villages, which Guru Sahib visited were quite backward in many respects. Guru Sahib helped those villages to overcome their hardships. Guru Sahib toured those regions from 1673 to 1675 and spread the message of Sikh religion among the people.

Effects: The tours of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji immensely influenced the people of the Malwa region.

  • The landlords of Malwa region started treating the farmers humanly under the influence of the polite nature of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
  • Guru Sahib had established many centres of religious preaching at different places. His impressive personality and sweet voice swayed the people of the region and they adopted Sikh religion.
  • A new awareness came among the people of the region due to his religious discourses. They were imbued with new religious fervour and became fearless and courageous. The rising enthusiasm and unity among his Sikh followers started giving nightmares and headaches to the Mughal administration.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his Teachings Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word:

Question 1.
What was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
The earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji was Bhai Lehna.

Question 2.
What was the name of the father of Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji)?
Answer:
The name of the father of Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji) was Pheruman.

Question 3.
To whom was Bhai Lehna married?
Answer:
Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji) was married to Bibi Khivi.

Question 4.
Who had established the Udasi Sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, established the Udasi Sect.

Question 5.
Which place was the centre of religious activities of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Khadoor Sahib in Amritsar district.

Question 6.
Where was Guru Amar Das Ji born and when?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was born in 1479 A.D. in Village Basarke in district Amritsar.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe one difficulty which Guru Amar Das Ji faced on occupying Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
He was faced with the opposition of Bhai Dattu and Bhai Dasu.

Question 8.
How many children did Guru Amar Das Ji have?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had two sons and two daughters.

Question 9.
How many steps were constructed in the Baoli (Large Well) at Goindwal?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli at Goindwal.

Question 10.
Which Guru Sahib had started Manji system?
Answer:
Guru Amar Dass Ji started the Manji system.

Question 11.
Write about any one major contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji completed the construction of Goindwal.

Question 12.
Which three festivals were selected by Guru Amar Das Ji for the Sikh community to celebrate?
Answer:
Baisakhi, Maghi, and Diwali.

Question 13.
When did Guru Amar Das Ji make the final union with the Divine power?
Answer:
Guru Amar Dass Ji made the final union with Divine Power in 1574.

Question 14.
Who had made the Guru Gaddi hereditary?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji declared that after Guru Ram Das Ji, the Guru Gaddi will be hereditary.

Question 15.
What was the name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
The name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji was Bibi Bhani.

Question 16.
Write about anyone important contribution made by Guru Ram Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded and developed the holy city of Amritsar.

Question 17.
What WAS the earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar?
Answer:
The earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar was Ramdaspur.

Question 18.
Write the names Of two Sarovars (Large ponds) constructed by Guru Ram Das.JL.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji got dug two Sarovars namely, Santokhsar and Amritsar.

Question 19.
By, what name did the bazaar founded by Guru Ram Das Ji around Amritsar become famous?
Answer:
“Guru ka Bazaar”.

Question 26.
When was Guru Arjan Dey Ji born and where?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1563 A.D. at Goindwal.

Question 21.
Why did. Guru Bam Das Ji not consider Bhai Prithi Chand worthy of succession to Guru Gaddi lifter him?
Answer:
Bhai Prithi Chand was a cheat, greedy and intriguer.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 22.
Describe any one difficulty which Guru Arjan Dev Ji encountered on coming to Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
Gum Sahib fa|ed animosity and opposition of his eldest brother Bhai Prithia.

Question 23.
Write the nime of Guru Sahib who w§s the first martyr.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 24.
Write any ode effect of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdona of Guru Arjan Dev Ji provoked the Sikhs to rise in arms.

Question 25.
Which tyro nerSOns had assisted Guru Arjan Dey Ji in the execution of his plans for the construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib?’
Answer:
Bhai Buddha Ji and Bhai Gurdas Ji.

Question 26.
When was the Construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib completed?
Answer:
In 1601A.D.

Question 27.
Which three cities were founded by Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru. Arjan Dev Ji’ laid the foundations of Tam Taran, Hargobindpur, and Kattarpur.

Question 28.
What were the Representatives of Guru Arjan Dev Ji called?
Answer:
The representatives of Guru Arjan Dev Ji were called the Masands.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 29.
Who Completed the work of compilation of ‘Adi Granth Sahib’?
Answer:
Guru Arjari Dev Ji.

Question 30.
Where was Adi Granth Sahib placed?
Answer:
Adi Granth Sahib was placed in Sri Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar.

Question 31.
How many hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji have been included in Adi Granth sahib
Answer:
976 Hymns.

Question 32.
From whom did Guru Hargobind Ji receive the training in the use of arms and knowledge of religion?
Answer:
Bhai Buddha Ji.

Question 33.
Write any one cause for the adoption of “New Policy’’ by Guru Hargobind
Answer:
For self-defence of the Sikh community.

Question 34.
Which four places emerged as sacred cities for the Sikh religion by the time of Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Goindwal, Amritsar, Tam Taran, and Kartarpur.

Question 35.
Which four Sikh institutions had played a major role in the consolidation and progress of Sikh religion?
Answer:
The institutions of Pangat, Sarigat Manji System and Massand System.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 36.
Write the names of any four Commanders of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Pheru, Bhai Jetha and Bhai Paindal

Question 37.
Which two singers were instructed by Guru/Hargobind Ji to sing heroic songs (via rasa) on high notes in his, presence?.
Answer:
Nathamal and Abdullah.

Question 38.
Write any one cause which resulted the confinement of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Jahangir was irritated by his New Policy

Question 39.
Why was the title of “Band! ciihor Baba” (a holy deliverer) given to Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Gum Sahib got released 52 Rajput chiefs imprisoned in the Gwalior Fort

Question 40.
How many battles werefoU’g&tr between the Sikhs and fhfe Mughals during the period of Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Three battles

Question 41.
Write the names of four main missionary preachers of the period of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Almast, Phul, Gonda and BalujHas&an.

Question 42.
Write the name of father of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Baba Gurditta Ji.

Question 43.
Write the names of any four new missionary preachers, deputed by Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Bairagi Bhagat Gir, Bhai Sangt^a, Bhai Gauda and Bhai Bhagtu.

Question 44.
Give the names of three prominent preachers appointed by Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Bhagat Bhagwan Ji (Bairagi Bhagat Gir); Bhai Pehru, Bhai Gaudh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 45.
Where did Guru Har Krishan Ji stay While on his way tb Delhi for preaching?
Answer:
At the house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Guru Angad Dey Ji collected the teachings of _________ and wrote them in ___________ script.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Gurmukhi

Question 2.
Guru Amar Das Ji constructed a large well _________at _________
Answer:
Baoli, Goindwal

Question 3.
Guru Ram Das Ji constructed a large pond called _________
Answer:
Amritsar

Question 4.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded the cities of _________ and _________
Answer:
Taran Taran, Kartarpur

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 5.
Guru Hargobind Sahib put on two swords which he called one of _________ and the other of _________
Answer:
Miri, Piri.

True or False:

Question 1.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji started Manji System.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji was the 9th Guru.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji did not include the hymns of Bhakti saints in the Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
False

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 4.
Sri Harmandir Sahib is one of the most sacred and important places of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Guru Har Rai Ji did not abandon the policy of war.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Guru Har Rai Ji nominated Har Krishan Ji successor to Guru Gaddi.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji did not visit Assam.
Answer:
False.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the institution of Guru and Sikh (Guru and his follower) established?
Answer:
A brotherhood of Sikh community had been fully evolved before the final union of Guru Nanak Dev Ji with the Divine Power. Guru Nanak Dey Ji took special care to perpetuate the Sikh community. Guru Sahib appointed his most devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor before he breathed his last. Bhai Lhna ascended the Guru Gaddi under the name Guru Angad Dey Ji after the final union of Guru Nanak Dey Ji with the

Divine Power. In this manner, Guru Sikh tradition was evolved and gradual it was firmly established. The tradition of Guru Panth (Guruship of Guru Gaddi) became the most revered institution in the history of the Sikh religion.

Question 2.
Why had Guru Nanak Dev Ji appointed Bhai Lehna to Guru Gaddi in place of his own sons by completely setting aside their claims?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dey Ji had two sons, named Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Das. Guru Sahib did not appoint either of them W Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib preferred to appoint his devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru Gaddi. Guru Sahib had special reasons to turn down the claims of his sons to Guru Gaddi, which were as follow:
1. A perfect householder’s life for a Sikh was one of the important principles of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dey Ji. However, Baba Sri Chand was an ascetic and Baba Lakhmi Das was too worldly. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna had sincerely followed the teachings of Guru Nanak Dcv Ji and lived a life of a perfect householder.

2. The humility and service to the Guru with complete devotion were the core principles of the creed of Guru Nanak Dcv Ji. Baba Sri Chand was devoid of these very qualities in his personality. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna was a perfect model of humility and complete surrender to Guru Sahib.

3. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in the superiority of the Vedas, Shashtras and the Brahmin class. Guru Sahib did not consider Sanskrit as a sacred language. However, Baba Sri Chand Ji had deep faith in Sanskrit language, the Vedas and the Shastras.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 3.
Describe the position of Langar System and its importance during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
The expansion and promotion of the Langar System by Guru Angad Dev Ji had beneficial results. The Langar System became an important and effective method of propagation of Sikh religion. Secondly, it turned up as an institution for the shelter of the poor people and thirdly, it became a powerful agency for preaching and popularity of the principles of Sikh religion. There were already numerous similar institutions that worked on charity of some individuals but Langar system was probably the first institution of its own kind which depended on. the collective donations and gifts of the whole Sikh community. It ended the feelings of high and low rooted in the principles of caste system and inculcated the feelings of unity and brotherhood among the members of the Sikh community.

Question 4.
Which incident of the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji revealed Guru Sahib as a strict disciplinarian?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji set an effective example of discipline in the Sikh community for his devotees. According to the oral history, there were two famous players of Rabab (a string musical instrument) named. Satta and Balwant in the service of Guru Sahib. Both of them became proud of their artistic skills and started overlooking the instructions of Guru Sahib. They also started boasting that the popularity of Guru Sahib was due to their mastery over ragas and way of singing of the Guru Bani. They even went to the extent of claiming that the popularity of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was due to the melodies of Mardana. Guru Sahib banished them from his place due to their indiscipline and overbearing attitude. However, on the pleading of his devoted follower Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. It left a deep impression on the minds of the Sikhs. Consequently, the importance of discipline was honoured in Sikh religion very strictly.

Question 5.
How did Guru Amar Das Ji become the follower of Guru Angad Dev Ji? How had Guru Amar Das Ji received the Guru Gaddi?
Answer:
Before adopting Sikh religion, Bhai Amar Das, one day, got a chance to listen to divine Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which was being sung by Bibi Amro, the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so impressed and captivated by the divine hymns that he immediately sought the audience of Guru Angad Dev Ji and adopted Guru Angad Dev Ji as his Guru. From then onwards, Guru Amar Das Ji stayed with Guru Angad Dev Ji at Khadoor Sahib from 1541 to 1552 and devoted himself completely to the service of Guru Angad Dev Ji. During the chilly winter of Punjab plains, Bhai Amar Das Ji used to fetch water in an earthen pitcher from the river Beas for the bath of Guru Angad Dev Ji early in the morning.

Once on his way back to Guru Sahib’s house, Bhai Amar Das Ji stepped on a thorn and stumbled. The pitcher fell making a loud noise. A sleeping woman, a wife of a washerman on the wayside of his path, was awakened from her sleep and lamented with a taunt that the old man might be the homeless Amro. Guru Angad Dev Ji learnt about this episode. Guru Sahib immediately called Bhai Amar Das Ji in his presence and ordained, “From now on Amar Das shall not remain homeless, rather he shall be a shelter to numerous homeless.” In March 1552, Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed Guru Amar Das Ji as his successor. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji became the third Sikh Guru.

Question 6.
Describe the progress of Langar System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced some new rules for Langar system. According to the new rules, no one was expected to join the Sangat of Guru Sahib without partaking food in the Langar. The women, who served in the Langar, were not allowed to observe Purdah. It is said that even Emperor Akbar took food in the Langar following all the rules before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. The Langar was open to people from all the sections of the society without any consideration of religion, caste and tribe. The Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaish, Shudras and people of all other castes sat together and partook food served equally to all. It gave a strong blow to the caste, colour, and racial considerations, which were quite dominating at that time. It developed the feeling of equality among the followers of Guru Sahib. No doubt, Langar system had definitely bound the Sikh community in a common bond of unity and brotherhood and developed the feeling of equality among them thereby.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 7.
Describe the progress of Manji System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced the Manji System. The number of the Sikhs had increased tremendously by his times. However, Guru Sahib was quite advanced in age and he, therefore, found it difficult to reach his Sikhs spread far and wide in order to preach his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his religious domain into 22 provinces. Each province was called ‘Manji’. Each ‘Manji’ was further divided into local centres called ‘Piris’. The Manji System played an important part in the history of Sikh religion. G.C. Narang is of the view that the contribution of Guru Sahib Ji to Manji System consolidated the base of Sikh religion and facilitated in a great way the spread of Sikh religion in all parts of the country.

Question 8.
“Guru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer.” Give any four arguments in support of the above statement.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib strongly criticised the principles of Caste system. Guru Sahib declared that the class differences were totally unacceptable to Supreme God. Therefore, no caste or class considerations were observed in Langar System.
  2. The practice of Sati was very common in the times of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib strongly condemned the evil of Sati.
  3. Guru Sahib also denounced the prevailing Purdah system in very strong terms. Guru Sahib considered Purdah a great hindrance in the growth of society.
  4. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to keep away from the use of intoxicants.

Question 9.
Write about the contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the progress of Sikh religion (Panth).
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Guru Sahib of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib had contributed to the progress of the Sikh religion in the following ways:

  1. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Sri Harmandir Sahib in the holy city of Amritsar.
  2. Guru Sahib founded the cities of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur.
  3. Guru Sahib compiled the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib. He appointed Bhai Buddha Ji as the first Chief Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
  4. The Sikhs made voluntary donations for langar and Guru Ki Golak. But they were uncertain and irregular. Guru Sahib fixed the contribution of Sikh community equivalent to one tenth of its annual income. Guru Sahib also deputed his trusted Sikhs for the collection of donations from his Sikh disciples. Such representatives of Guru Sahib were called the Masands.

Question 10.
What is the importance of the Adi Granth Sahib in the history of the Sikh religion?
Answer:
The compilation of Adi Granth Sahib provided the strong foundation for the Sikh religion. Adi Granth Sahib became the most reliable and holy book of the Sikhs. All the social ceremonies concerning the life of the Sikhs, like birth, marriage, initiation to adulthood, death, etc. were performed in divine presence of the Adi Granth Sahib. The Sikhs who had deep faith in the holiness of Adi Granth Sahib, developed a feeling of being one with the fellow believers, giving rise to class consciousness and ultimately to the rise of a distinct Sikh’Panth. Later, the holy book was raised to the status of Guru itself and the holy book became the Guru of the Sikh religion. The Sikhs and numerous other people believe that the hymns of Guru Granth Sahib are divine utterances.

Question 11.
Write the historical significance of Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Adi Granth Sahib is the holy book of the Sikhs. It was not written with any historic perspective or motive. However, it has great historical importance also. It is one of the major sources of the political, social, religious, economic and cultural history of the 16th and 17th century Punjab. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had severely condemned the rule of Lodhis and oppression of Babur over the people of Punjab in his sayings. It is a source of information about the dominance of caste system, the exploitation of women, and other shortcomings of Indian society like irrational customs, rites and traditions during those days. The religion had lost its sanctity. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had declared “No one is a Hindu or a Muslim,” suggesting that religion had lost its actual meaning and people were treading a wrong path.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 12.
Write down any four causes of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The circumstances which led to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji were as follows:

  1. Intolerant Religious policy of Jahangir. Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor, was hostile to Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He was planning to convert him to Islam or to kill him.
  2. The Enmity of Prithia. Guru Ram Dass Ji had appointed Guru Arjan Dev Ji as his successor because Guru Sahib was much impressed with the intelligence and ability of Bhai Arjan Dev Ji. However, Bhai Prithi Chand did not like his decision. Prithi Chand started conspiring against Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
  3. The Grandeur of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s court. The Guru Sahib held a splendid court. The Sangat had also increased the grandeur of his court and out of their respect and love for him had started addressing him as their “Sacha Padshah”. The Mughal emperor could not tolerate all these developments so he decided to take some severe action against him.
  4. The penalty imposed on Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Jahangir imposed a penalty on Guru Sahib and detained him. The fanaticism of Jahangir crossed all limits and he passed the orders to execute Guru Sahib by inflicting tortures on his person.

Question 13.
What was the reaction against the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji caused fundamental changes in the attitude of the Sikhs.
1. Guru Sahib had left a parting message for his son Guru Hargobind that read, “The day is approaching fast when Good and Evil will clash Let him (Guru Hargobind Ji) sit fully armed on the throne and maintain army to the best of his ability.” The last message of Guru Sahib was the starting point of the military policy of the Sikhs. The Sikh religion of ‘Saints’ became the religion of ‘Saint Soldiers’ (Sant Sipahis) with rosary in one hand and a sword in the other.

2. Before the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the Sikhs and the Mughals had very cordial relations. However, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji injured the religious feelings of the Sikhs and they developed ill-will against the Mughal rule in their hearts.

3. The Sikh religion became more popular due to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sikh followers of Guru Sahib were now all out to sacrifice their lives for the cause of their religion. There is no doubt that the martyrdom of Guru Sahib had given a new direction to the history of Sikh religion.

Question 14.
Write any four important aspects of the personality and character of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji was a man of high character and pleasing manners. The four main aspects of his personality are as under:

  1. Guru Sahib was a successful organizer and religious leader. Guru Sahib vigorously spread the message of Sikh religion and gave an organised form to the Sikh community by making necessary reforms in the Masand System.
  2. Guru Sahib was a great builder. Guru Sahib completed the work of building the city of Amritsar, constructed Sri Harmandir Sahib, and founded cities like Tarn Taran, Hargobindpur etc. Guru Sahib also constructed a Baoli at Lahore.
  3. Guru Sahib completed the work of compilation of Adi Granth Sahib.
  4. Guru Sahib was a great social reformer. Guru Sahib encouraged widow remarriage and checked the use of intoxicants among the Sikhs. Guru Sahib also established a centre where free medicines and clothes were provided to the sick.

Question 15.
Name any four cailses which forced Guru Hargobind Ji to adopt the “New Policy”.
Answer:
1. Hostility and Interference of the Mughals. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir adopted the policy of oppression towards Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Consequently, it became necessary for the next Guru Sahib, Guru Hargobind Ji to adopt New Policy for the defence of the Sikh religion.

2. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. It became clear to the Sikhs after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji that they had to bear the arms along with the rosaries for the protection of Sikh religion. Hence, Guru Hargobind Ji adopted the New Policy with the same aim in view.

3. Parting Message of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. In his last message, Guru Arjan Dev Ji had instructed the Sikhs to bear arms. Hence, Guru Hargobind Ji started imparting the training in arms along with spiritual knowledge to the Sikhs.

4. Entry of the Jats in Sikhism. Guru Hargobind Ji was encouraged to adopt the new policy on the entry of Jats in the Sikh religion. The Jats were freedom loving by nature and had great aptitude for fighting battles.

Question 16.
Write briefly the contribution of Guru Hargobind Ji to Sikhism.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib put on two swords when he occupied Guru Gaddi. One sword represented his Miri and the other his Piri. With that, Guru Sahib became the political leader as well as a religious guide of the Sikhs.
  2. Guru Sahib also erected a new building near Sri Harmandir Sahib. The new building is called Akal Takh’t. Guru Sahib imparted the training in arms to the Sikhs.
  3. Jahangir imprisoned Guru Hargobind Ji in the fort of Gwalior. Soon after, he learnt that he had taken a wrong decision. He released Guru Sahib. However, Guru Sahib persuaded Jahangir to release all the Rajput kings imprisoned in the Gwalior fort.
  4. Guru Sahib also fought battles with the Mughals. The Mughal emperor Shahjahan sent army against Guru Sahib three times. Guru Sahib fought against them very bravely. The Mughal army lost all three battles.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 17.
Write any four contributions of Guru Har Rai Ji to the Sikh religion.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib regularly organised religious meetings in the morning as well as in the evening everyday for spreading the message of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib encouraged people to adopt a religious way of life.
  2. Guru Sahib converted many people to Sikh religion. The prominent among them were: Bairagi Bhagat Gir, Bhai Sangtia, Bhai Gauda, and Bhai Bhagtu.
  3. Guru Sahib deputed Sikh preachers to spread the message of the Sikh religion to distant places. One of his prominent preachers, who was earlier a Bairagi Sadhu became his follower. He changed his name from Bhagat Gir to Bhagat Bhagwan. He established 360 centres (gaddis). Some of those centres are still active.
  4. Guru Sahib himself actively preached the message of Sikh religion in different parts of the Punjab.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was one of those great saints of the world who sacrificed their lives for the sake of their religion. The circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Sahib were as follow:
1. Fanaticism of Jahangir. Jahangir became the Mughal Emperor in 1605. He hated the Sikhs. He had similar feelings for Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He wanted that either Guru Sahib should become a Musalman or else be put to death. He definitely played a big role in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Hostility of Prithia. Guru Ram Das Ji had appointed Guru Arjan Dev Ji as his successor to Guru Gaddi because Guru Sahib was convinced of his intelligence and ability. Prithia, the elder brother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, did not relish the decision of Guru Ram Das Ji. Then Prithia started conspiring against Guru Arjan Dev Ji in league with the governor of Punjab and his finance minister Chandu Shah. It is true that Prithia had died before the martyrdom of Guru Sahib but it was he who had done the maximum damage to Sikh religion by infusing hatred in the hearts of Mughals against Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

3. Splendour of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s Court. The Sikhs had grown rich by the blessings of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sangat set up a magnificent court for Guru Sahib, where Guru Sahib continued with his religious activities. The Sangat started addressing Guru Sahib as “Sachcha Padshah” out of love and devotion for him. Jahangir could not tolerate the rising strength of Sikh community within his empire. Hence, the Emperor decided to act against Guru Sahib.

4. Case of Prince Khusro. Khurso, the eldest son of Emperor Jahangir, was once even considered for succession to the throne of Mughal Empire by Akbar himself. Prince Khusro revolted against his father Emperor Jahangir. The Mughal army chased him. Khurso came to Punjab and sought shelter with Guru Sahib whom he considered as a friend of his grandfather Akbar. Guru Sahib, a saintly figure, expressed good wishes for Khusro. However, the Mughal Emperor took this act of Guru Sahib as a political offence and decided to sentence Guru Ji to death.

5. Hostility of Chandu Shah. Chandu Shah was a high ranking official of the Mughal administration in Punjab. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had declined to marry the daughter of Chandu Shah to his own son on the suggestion of Sikh Sangat. Chandu Shah felt insulted and tried to instigate Akbar against Guru Sahib with the motive of taking revenge. Akbar held Guru Sahib in high esteem and considered himself as a friend of Guru Sahib. Akbar did not give any importance to the grumbling of Chandu Shah. Chandu Shah did not stop conspiring against Guru Sahib. After the death of Akbar, Chandu Shah instigated Jahangir and convinced him that Guru Sahib had helped the rebellious Prince Khusro. Jahangir had already decided to end the religious movement of Guru Sahib. The instigation by Chandu Shah further provoked Jahangir to take a strong step against Guru Sahib.

6. Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji had compiled the Adi Granth Sahib. The enemies of Guru Sahib told Jahangir that Guru Sahib had included such matter in the holy book which was against Islam. Jahangir asked Guru Sahib to remove all such matter from Adi Granth Sahib, which was supposed to be against Islam. Guru Sahib clearly told Jahangir that he was not going to delete anything from the Adi Granth Sahib as there was no such matter in it which could be considered against any religion. Then Jahangir proposed to Guru Sahib to add something in Adi Granth Sahib in praise of Prophet Muhammad. Guru Sahib refused to oblige Jahangir and told him that nothing could be incorporated in the Adi Granth except as directed by the Divine Voice itself. Jahangir was infuriated by such a reply.

7. Penalty imposed on Guru Sahib. The religious fanaticism of Jahangir reached its peak due to the reasons given above. Jahangir issued an order to put Guru Sahib to death by torture. Later, he changed his own orders and asked the Guru Sahib to pay a penalty of two lakh rupees. Guru Sahib refused to pay even a single paisa as penalty and claimed that all the money with him was meant only for the poor and orphans. Jahangir was enraged and again issued orders for the torture and execution of Guru Sahib.

Martyrdom. Guru Sahib was subjected to horrible physical torture. Guru Sahib was made to sit on red-hot iron plate and then hot sand was poured on his body. Guru Sahib was also made to enter boiling water. Finally, in May 1606 Guru Sahib was martyred. According to Sikh scholars, when Guru Sahib was being tortured, one day Guru Sahib expressed a desire to take bath in a river. When Guru Sahib entered the river Ravi, he suddenly disappeared.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Question 2.
Discuss the importance of martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev Ji had far reaching effects on the history of Sikhism.

  1. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave birth to militant spirit among the Sikhs.
    The Sikh community was transformed into a sect of aggressive fighters for the cause of religion from being a community of pious and peace loving people. They had been transformed into Sant Sipahis.
  2. Earlier, the Mughals and the Sikhs had very cordial relations but the martyrdom of Guru Sahib had hurt their religious sentiments and they became the bitter enemies of the Mughal rule.
  3. The martyrdom of Guru Sahib raised the prestige and popularity of the Sikh religion. The Sikhs were bent upon the protection of their religion by all means.

Indeed, the martyrdom of Guru Sahib turned a new leaf in the history of Sikh religion. It transformed peace-loving saintly Sikhs into Sant Sipahis. “The martyrdom of Guru Sahib convinced the Sikhs that they must arm themselves and fight if they want to live.”

Question 3.
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. What is the importance of his martyrdom in the history of Sikh religion?
Answer:
The following circumstances (causes) were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji:
1. Increase in the tension between the Mughals and the Sikhs. The relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were quite cordial during the reign of Emperor Akbar but they became bitter enemies of each other during the reign of Emperor Jahangir. Jahangir had martyred Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sikhs had, as a result, rose in arms for the protection of their religion. It created much bitterness between the Mughals and the Sikhs which ultimately resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji in the reign of Aurangzeb.

2. Intolerant Religious Policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. He had started suppressing his Hindu subjects and imposed numerous restrictions on them. He tried to convert them to Islam forcibly. The oppression perpetrated by Aurangzeb on his innocent and weak subjects moved the heart of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji and Guru Sahib resolved to save humanity from the atrocities of the fanatic ruler which resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. It was the second martyrdom in the history of Sikh religion.

3. Propagation of Sikh Religion. Guru Teg Bahadur Ji, following the footsteps of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, propagated the message of Sikh religion by undertaking extensive tours in different regions of India. Aurangzeb could not tolerate the rising popularity of Sikh religion. Aurangzeb developed jealousy in his heart against Guru Sahib.

4. Hostility of Ram Rai. It was complained that Ram Rai, the elder brother of Guru Har Rai Ji projected the religious activities of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji as against the Mughal rule. This led Aurangzeb to summon Guru Sahib to Delhi to justify his religious activities and it resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Sahib.

5. Appeals of Kashmiri Brahmins. The condition of the Kashmiri Brahmans had become miserable due to the oppression of Muslim rulers. The governor of Kashmir was trying to convert Kashmiri Brahmans to Islam forcibly. The Kashmiri Brahmans appealed to Guru Sahib for protection. Guru Sahib was moved by the miseries of the Brahmans and found that the situation demanded a big sacrifice for the protection of religion.

Guru Sahib advised Kashmiri Brahmans to convey his following message to Aurangzeb:
“Guru Teg Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru is seated on the throne of Great Guru Nanak, who is the protector of the Hindu faith and religion. First make him a Musalman and then all the people, including ourselves, will, of our own accord, adopt your faith.”

The Kashmiri Brahmans conveyed the message of Guru Sahib to the fanatic Mughal ruler. Guru Sahib decided to visit Delhi. The Mughals martyred Guru Sahib in Delhi.

Importance. The martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji is very important in the history of Sikh religion. The following points may reveal its significance:

  1. Maintained the Tradition of Sacrifices for Religion. Guru Teg Bahadur Ji maintained the tradition of Guru Sahibans to sacrifice their lives for the protection of religion by setting example of his own martyrdom.
  2. Led to the Creation of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh Ji learned from the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji that the religious oppression by the Mughals would not end as long as they were ruling over India. The only answer was to destroy their rule. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa at Anandpur Sahib in 1699 to end the oppression of the Mughals.
  3. Feelings of hatred and revenge against the Mughals, The whole Punjab was filled with feelings of hatred and revenge against the Mughal rule because of the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
  4. Gave a Fatal blow to the Mughal Empire. The martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji gave a fatal blow to the very existence of the Mughal Empire. The Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh Ji continued to struggle bravely against the Mughal Empire and ultimately destroyed its existence in Punjab.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Activity:

Question 1.
Show the main historical places of Punjab in the given map of Punjab.
Answer:
PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji 1

Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Guru Angad Dev Ji. The second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji collected the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and wrote them in Gurumukhi script. This contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji proved to be the first step towards the writing of ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote ‘Vani’ in the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The institutions of Sangat and Pangat were well maintained during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das was the third Sikh Guru who remained on Guru Gaddi for twenty-two years. Guru Sahib shifted his headquarters from Khadoor Sahib to Goindwal. At Goindwal, Guru Sahib constructed a large well (Baoli) where his followers (Sikhs) took a bath on religious festivals. Guru Amar Das Ji introduced a simple marriage ceremony which is called ‘Anand Karaj’. The number of his Sikh followers increased rapidly during his period.
  • Guru Ram Das Ji. The fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das Ji started the. work of preaching his faith from Ramdaspur (present Amritsar). The foundation of Amritsar was laid during the last years of Guru Amar’Das Ji. Guru Ram Das Ji got dug a large pond called Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar. The Guru Sahib needed a large sum of money to construct the Sarovars (ponds) at Amritsar and Santokhsar. For this purpose, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib also made Guru Gaddi hereditary.
  • Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Sikh Guru. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar. Guru Sahib also founded the cities of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur. The fifth Guru Sahib also wrote the first Divine book of the Sikhs (Birs dictated to Bhai Gurdas), Adi Granth Sahib Ji’ and placed it in Sri Harmandir Sahib. Baba Budda Ji was appointed as the Head Granthi at Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji consolidated the Sikh religion by sacrificing his life for the protection of the Sikh religion.
  • Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Hargobind Ji was the sixth Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib adopted the ‘New Policy’. According to this policy, Guru Sahib became the religious as well as the political leader of the Sikhs. Guru Sahib constructed Akal Takht, which stands before Sri Harmandir Sahib. Guru Sahib also gave to the Sikhs the training in the use of arms.
  • Guru Har Rai Ji and Guru Harkrishan Ji. Guru Har Rai Ji and Guru Harkrishan Ji ascended the Guru Gaddi successively after Guru Hargobind Ji. Their period is called the period of peace in the history of Sikh religion.
  • Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The ninth Guru, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was a peace loving person like Guru Nanak Dev Ji.He was ready for self sacrifice like Guru Arjan Dev Ji and courageous and fearless like his father Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji preached his religion fearlessly. By sacrificing his life, Guru Sahib brought a new revolution in the history of the Sikh religion.
  • Masand System. Masand is a Persian word. The meaning of the word is higher place or raised status. During the period of Guru Ram Dass Ji, the masands were called Ramdas. Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave the system an organised form. As a result, Guru Sahib started receiving regular donations from his Sikh followers for his religious activities.
  • Compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib. The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled and written by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Dev Ji dictated the contents of Adi Granth Sahib and his devoted follower Bhai Gurdas noted it down. The Adi Granth Sahib was completed in 1604 A.D..
  • Wearing of two swords of Miri and Piri. Guru Hargobind Sahib put on two swords which he called one of Miri and the other of Piri. His sword of Miri symbolized his leadership of the Sikh followers in worldly affairs. The Piri sword represented his leadership ,of the Sikhs in spiritual affairs.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 4 Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji to Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.