PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi and Rana Sanga invite Babar to attack on India?
Answer:
The nobles invited Babar to fight the Lodhis because of the following reasons :

  1. The Lodhi kings tried to suppress the power of their nobles who had tried to become independent rulers in different provinces.
  2. Ibrahim Lodhi, the last of the Lodhi kings, was proud, cruel and inefficient.
  3. He also ill-treated Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Goveror of Punjab.
  4. The nobles had thought that after plundering some parts of northern India, Babar, like other invaders, will leave for Kabul and then they would be able to assert their independence.

Question 2.
What do you know about Babar’s conquests?
Answer:
In the first battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D., Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and occupied Delhi and Agra. Rana Sanga became angry with this. As a result, he led a huge army against Babar in the battle of Kanwah. Rana Sanga was defeated in the battle of Kanwah by Babar. With this victory, North India came under complete control of Babar.

Babar also defeated the Rajputs in the battle of Chandri in 1528 A.D. Babar also defeated the Afghans in 1529 A.D. at the battle of Ghaghara. He died in 1530 A.D.

Question 3.
Write about the conquests of Akbar,
Answer:
At the time of Humayun’s death, Akbar was only thirteen years old. He was not a ruler of any part of India. Akbar’s first conflict came with Hemu. He was an ambitious general of one of the Afghan princes. A battle of Panipat was fought between Bairam Khan, the Regent of Akbar and Hemu. Hemu was defeated in the battle of Panipat. Akbar captured Delhi and Agra which the Mughals had lost.

In 1560 A.D., Akbar himself took the reigns of the administration. After that his victories are as under :
1. Victories in North India :

  • Victories over Rajputs. In 1562 A.D., Akbar attacked the Rajputs. The King of Amber, Raja Bihari Mai accepted the subordination of Akbar and married his daughter to him. Besides, other Rajput rulers also accepted the subordination of Akbar e.g. Kalinjar, Marwar, Jaisalmer, Bikaner etc.
  • Struggle of Mewar. The ruler of Mewar Rana Pratap never wanted to . accept the subordination of Akbar. In 1569 A.D. Akbar occupied the capital of Mewar, Chittor. Still Maharana Pratap continued his struggle with the Mughals.
  • Victory over Gujarat. In 1572-73 A.D., Akbar got victory over Gujarat, (in) Victory over Bihar-Bengal. In 1574-76 A.D., Akbar defeated the rulers of Bihar and Bengal and occupied those states.
  • Other victories. Slowly Akbar got hold of Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa, Balochistan and Kandhar.

2. Victories in South India. After north India, Akbar shifted his attention to south India, then in south India he got the following victories :

  • Victory in Bijapur and Golkunda. This was achieved in 1591 A.D.
  • Victory over Khandesh. In 1601 A.D. Sultan Ali Khan of Khandesh accepted the subordination of Akbar. •
  • Control over Ahmednagar. In 1601 A.D., Akbar’s army defeated Chand Bibi of Ahmednagar and took control of the city.
  • Control over Berar. Akbar even took control over the Berar area of south India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 4.
What do you mean by the Agrarian system of the Mughals?
Answer:
In Mughal state, the main source of revenue was Land Tax.

Improvement in the tradition of Land Tax.

  1. The crop produce in some parts of the state was more than the other. The kind of crop too was different, so Akbar managed to collect land tax differently.
  2. The total production of the empire and the total revenue collected on it.
  3. One-third of the production was decided to be the land tax. This helped the peasants a lot.
  4. In case of drought or excessive rains, the land revenue was often remitted.
  5. The land was measured in ‘bighas’.

Classification of Land: Akbar classified the land into four parts :

  • Polaj Land: It was very fertile land. Any crop could be sown on this land at anytime.
  • Parauti Land: On this land, sowing could be done after one or two years.
  • Chhachhar Land: The sowing could be done after three-four years.
  • Barren Land: Sowing could be done after five-six years.

Collection of Land Tax: The land tax collection systems were as follows :

  • Kankut System: According to this system the govt, would collect land tax by approximating the value of the standing crop.
  • Batai System: According to this system when the crop was harvested, then 1/3 part was taken by the govt.
  • Nasak System: According to this system the crop of the whole village was approximated and the land tax was fixed.

The Mughal govt, gave loans to the farmers to make more and more land agriculturable. At the time of drought and flood, the land tax was given exemption.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Tuzuk-i-Babari is the autobiography of ________
Answer:
Babar

Question 2.
The battle of Kanwaha was fought between Babar and ________
Answer:
Rana Sanga

Question 3.
Akbar defeated Hemu in ________
Answer:
1556 A.D, Panipat

Question 4.
Babar wrote ________
Answer:
Tuzuk-i-Babari

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 5.
Abul Fazl wrote ________
Answer:
Akbarnama.

III. Write True or False for each statement :

Question 1.
The Mughals came to India in 1525 A.D.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Daulat Khan Lodhi and Rana Sanga invited Babar to invade India.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Sher Shah Suri was a Mughal ruler.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The Rajputs were very well treated during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
The Deccan policy of Aurangzeb strengthened the Mughal Empire.
Answer:
False

IV. Activities:

Question 1.
On the outline map of India, show the extent of Mughal Empire.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of Indian Map.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 2.
Collect the pictures of Mughal Emperors and paste in your note-book.
Answer:
Do it yourself

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When Akbar came into Power?
(a) 1560
(b) 1558
(c) 1564
(d) 1556
Answer:
(d) 1556.

Question 2.
Who wrote Ain-i-Akbari?
(a) Abul Fazl
(b) Tansen
(c) Raja Man Singh
(d) Todar Mai
Answer:
(a) Abul Fazl.

Question 3.
Mughal tradition of succession was to divide state into ________ of the father.
(a) Sons
(b) Daughters
(c) A & B Both
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Sons.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 4.
Mother of Jahangir was the princess of
(a) Raikot
(b) Amber
(c) Ajmer
(d) Jaisalmer.
Answer:
(b) Amber.

Question 5.
Term Mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a
(a) Jagir
(b) Land
(c) Mansab
(d) Suba.
Answer:
(c) Mansab.

Question 6.
The Mansabdars were required to maintain specified number of
(a) Horses
(b) Cavalry men
(c) Soldiers
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Cavalry men.

Question 7.
Revenue Minister of Akbar was
(a) Todar Mai
(b) Tansen
(c) Abul Fazl
(d) Birbal.
Answer:
(a) Todar Mai.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 8.
Revenue circle with its own schedule revenue rates for individual crops is known as
(a) Mansab
(b) Zat
(c) Zabt
(d) Jagir.
Answer:
(b) Zat.

Question 9.
Whole of the Mughal Empire was divided into “different
(a) Cities
(b) Towns
(c) Faujdars
(d) Subas.
Answer:
(d) Subas.

Question 10.
Subedar of every Suba was supported by officer like
(a) Bakshi
(c) Sadr
(b) Faujdar
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When and between whom was the first battle of Panipat fought? Who was defeated?
Answer:
It was fought in 1526 A.D., between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated in this battle.

Question 2.
Who was Babar? Write in brief about his victories.
Answer:

  • Babar was a good general and he knew how to use his soldiers to the best advantage.
  • Babar had brought artillery from central Asia and this was one of the main reasons for his success.
  • Babar’s cavalry was better trained.
  • The soldiers of Lodhi King were not faithful to him.
  • Babar arranged his soldiers in such a way that they could easily move from one part of the battle to another.

Babar’s Victories. Babar was the founder of the Mughal empire in India. He was a great conqueror who within a period of four years (1526-1529) won four battles:

  1. Battle of Panipat
  2. Battle of Kanwaha
  3. Battle of Chaderi and
  4. Battle of Ghagra.

In these battles, he proved himself to be a great military genius. He was also a great writer who patronised great scholars. His autobiography known as ‘Tuzuk-i-Babari’, in Turkish language, is a great piece of literature. He died in 1530 A.D. and was buried at Kabul in a beautiful grave.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 3.
Who exiled Humayun from India and when? When did he regain his state?
Answer:
Sheh Shah Suri exiled Humayun in 1540 A.D., but Humayun regained his state after defeating his successor Sikandar Suri in 1555 A.D. In 1556 A.D. Humayun died.

Question 4.
Who was Sher Shah? Why was he successful? Why is it said that he might have become a great Sultan?
Answer:
Sheh Shah Suri was an Afghan king. He defeated Humayun and founded the Suri Dynasty.

Reasons of his success:

  1. Sher Shah was a determined man.
  2. Before becoming the ruler, he administered the jagir of his father, so he had the experience of administration.
  3. He was liberal and well-wisher of his people. Sher Shah Suri died in A.D. 1545.

Sher Shah ruled Delhi only for five years. He administered his state well. His land revenue system was of highest order. He did many works for the welfare of the people. His army was well disciplined. Thus we see that Sher Shah did many important works in a brief tenure of his rule. Had he lived for longer period, he would have been the greatest ruler.

Question 5.
What were the features of the administration of Sher Shah Suri?
Answer:
Sher Shah ruled only for a short span of five years (1540-45 A.D.) but even during such a short period, he had achieved so much that it is said that he might have become a great Sultan.

There are many reasons for his success or greatness :
1. Man of Great Qualities: He was a great military genius and clever statesman. He duped Humayun several times and ultimately defeated him.

2. Administrative Reforms: Sher Shah was successful because he was a great administrator. He appointed efficient and honest officers to administer his state well. He treated all his subjects alike and even appointed Hindus on high posts.

3. Gearing up the Revenue Administration: Sher Shah got the whole land measured. A new assessment was made in order to fix a just tax. Land revenue was fixed at nearly one-third of the produce. Land revenue could be paid both in cash or in kind.

4. Reforming the Military Administration: Sher Shah fully knew that if he wanted to be successful he must organize his army on a strong footing. As such, he organized his army into a strong military force. .

5. Construction of Roads and Highways: Sher Shah built several good roads for promoting trade and commerce for the safe travel of the public.

Question 6.
Who made Altbar sit on the throne and when?
Answer:
It was Bairam Khan in 1556 A.D.

Question 7.
Who was Bairam Khan? When did Akbar depose him from his post?
Answer:
Bairam Khan was patron of Akbar. He was deposed in 1560 A.D. by Akbar.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 8.
Name the main features of Akbar’s Rajput policy.
Answer:
Akbar captured the Rajput kingdoms of Gwalior, Ajmer and Malwa. These conquests brought him into the neighbourhood of the Rajput kingdoms. Akbar was very far-sighted. He realised that there could be no permanent Mughal rule in India without the help and loyalty of Rajput princes. So he made friends with them. He entered into marital alliances between his family and various Rajput royal families. He himself married a number of Rajput princesses. They became his sincere friends, trusted advisers and his loyal and gallant comrades on the battlefield. Rhagwan Dass and Man Singh were his famous Rajput generals. But the Rana of Mewar, Rana Partap did not relent to Akbar.

Question 9.
Write about the central administrative system of Akbar/Mughals.
Answer:
The description is as follows :
1. King. King was the chief of administration. He had many assistants to help him, e.g. Wakil, Diwan-i-Ala, Mir-Bakshi, Sadar-i-Sadur, Qazi-ul-Qazat and Khan-i- Saman.

2. Wakil. He was the prime minister of the state. He would give information to the emperor about chief happenings. He would always carry out the orders of the emperor.

3. Diwan-i-Ala was the finance minister. He would take care of income-expenditure account of the state. He would also make laws about the taxes.

4. Mir Bakshi. He would keep records of Mansabdars. He would distribute salary to them. He would also take care of military institutions.

5. Sadar-i-Sadur. He was the chief of department of religious affairs. He would keep an account of religious affairs and educational institutions.

6. Qazi-ul-Qazat. He would give his opinions to emperor on Islamic laws for delivering the justice.

7. Khan-i-Saman. He would take care of the royal family and factories.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on the state administrative system of Akbar/Mughals.
Answer:
Akbar had divided his empire into 15 states for running his administration properly. The main state officials were as follows.

  • Subedar: He was the highest official of the state. His main function was to keep law and order in the state.
  • Diwan: He was the chief of finance of the state. The accounts of income-expenditure of state were under his department.
  • Bakshi: He would take care of military arrangements as well as horses.
  • Sadar: He would prepare details about saints, seers, peers and fakirs.
  • Waqiyanavis: He was the chief of detective department.
  • Kotwal: He was the police official. His main function was to maintain peace and order in the city.

Question 11.
Write a comment on the local administration of the Mughals/Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar had divided his empire into states and states were further sub-divided into districts, parganas and villages :
1. Administration of District :

  • Faujdar: He was the chief administrator of the district. He would carry out the orders of the Badshah and maintain law and order.
  • Amil-Guzar: His main function was to collect taxes.
  • Bitikchi and Khazandar: Both these official were the assistants of Amil Guzar.

2. Administration of Parganas:

  • Shiqdar: To maintain law and order in the pargana.
  • Amil: To collect land tax.
  • Potdar and Qanungo: Both these were assistants of Amil.

3. Administration of Villages: Most villages were administered by Panchayats. These developed the villages and take care of the village conflicts. ‘Chowdhary’, ‘Muqqadam’ and ‘Patwari’ were the assistants of Panchayat.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 12.
Write a short note of Mansabdari System.
Answer:
The Mansabdari system was the most important feature of the Mughal administration. The Mansab means rank. Each noble was given a mansab or rank and was called the mansabdar. The mansab or rank was based on the numbers of mounted soldiers at the command of the officers. Each mansabdar was required to perform any civil and military duty as was assigned to him by the emperor. Mansab was not hereditary. Hence it could not be passed on to his descendants. Thus every mansabdar owed his allegiance to the emperor.

Classes of Mansabdars. In the period of Akbar, Mansabdars had 33 classes. The lowest mansabdar had 10 soldiers and the highest mansabdar had 10,000 soldiers in his subordination.

Duties of Mansabdars. Mansabdars were appointed by the emperor at the recommendation of Mir Bakhshi. He could be put to any work. The salary was also given according to his class. He could be promoted as well as denoted in status as well as salary.

Question 13.
What do you know about Nur Jahan? What was her importance in Jahangir’s Court?
Answer:
Nur Jahan was a talented woman. Her original name was Mehr-un-Nisa. Jahangir married her in 1611 A.D. She set the fashion in dress and manners at the court. She had a great consideration in the Mughal court. She had a great influence in the administration. There was hardly any affair of importance in which she was not consulted. Jahangir fell ill for a long period. During this period she became a real ruler of the empire. Her name was associated with Jahangir on coins and privy seals.

Question 14.
“The reign of Aurangzeb (1658-1707) is described as the most disturbed among Mughal emperors.” ‘Why?
Answer:
The reign of Aurangzeb is described as the most disturbed due to the following reasons or facts :
1. Aurangzeb was a Sunni Muslim bigot. He ill-treated the followers of other religions. He ill-treated even the Sufi Saints.

2. Aurangzeb imposed Zazia on all the non-Muslim subjects particularly on the Hindus. He also destroyed their temples.

3. Aurangzeb martyred the ninth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji at Delhi. As a result, the Sikhs became sworn enemies of the Mughals.

4. The Rajput rulers of Mewar and Marwar also rose against the Mughals because they were discontented by the policies of Aurangzeb.

5. To conquer the Deccan states of Bijapur and Golkunda, Aurangzeb remained away from his capital for full 25 years (1682-1707 A.D.) His absence from his capital encouraged disruptive forces and gave rise to discontentment among the people.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 15.
How were the Marathas able to build up a strong and independent state? Was Aurangzeb able to control their rebellion?
Answer:
Following were the reasons for the establishment of an independent state of the Marathas.
1. Geographical reasons: Marathas lived in the hilly region of Maharashtra. They got natural forts on the hills. These forts helped them to establish an independent state.

2. Impact of Bhakti Movement: The Marathas were greatly benefited by the conversings of Bhakti movement in Deccan. The mutual differences of Marathas were reduced and a sense of brotherhood originated among them.

3. Political experience: After the decline of Delhi Sultanate, a number of small states were established in Deccan. They had a close look of the political life, which brought an awakening among them.

4. Hard workers: Marathas were the inhabitants of the hilly region. They struggled to earn their living. This habit of hard work made them brave.

5. Leadership of Shivaji: They were fortunate enough to have the leader like Shivaji. He united the scattered Marathas community and established a strong and independent state.

Rebellion of Marathas: The Marathas had become a great power. Aurangzeb wanted to crush them but could not succeed. In 1674 Shivaji declared himself an independent ruler. After Shivaji’s death, his son Shambhaji sat on throne. In 1689, Aurangzeb killed Shambhaji and occupied Maratha areas but Marathas continued their struggle under Raja Ram and afterwards his queen Tarabai. In 1707 A.D. after the death of Aurangzeb, Marathas reoccupied a large area of Mughals.

Question 16.
Describe the Sikh struggle against the Mughals during and after the administration of Aurangzeb. _
Answer:
The struggle of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji: After Sri Guru Har Krishanji, Sri Guru Teg Bahadurji became the 9th Guru. He was against the anti-Hindu policies of Aurangzeb. So Aurangzeb was annoyed with Guruji. Guruji raised his voice against Aurangzeb when he tried to demolish the gurdwaras and he also spoke against Aurangzeb when he tried to expel the citizens who were having soft corners for the Guruji. Guruji was brought to Delhi and was asked to convert to Islam. Guruji declined and then he was severely tortured and he was martyred in Delhi’s Chandni Chowk in 1675 A.D.

Struggle of Guru Gobind Sahib Ji. Sri Guru Gobind Sahibji became the 10th Guru and continued his struggle against Mughal cruelty. In 1699 A.D., he founded the ‘Khalsa Panth’ and after that there was a struggle between the Sikhs and the Mughals. Guruji’s two elder sons Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh became martyrs. Guruji’s younger two sons Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh were buried alive in the wall at Sirhind.

Struggle of the Sikhs after Aurangzeb’s death. In 1707 A.D., Aurangzeb died. His successor Bahadur Shah tried to establish friendly relations with Sikhs but the Faujdar of Sirhind Wajir Khan sent a Pathan who by deception put knife into Guruji’s stomach. Guruji’s soul became one with God in 1708 A.D. After that the struggle continued under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur

Question 17.
Comment on the Deccan policy of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
Aurangzeb spent almost 25 years of his life in south India. He was a Sunni Muslim. So, he wanted to crush the independent Shia states of Bijapur and Golkonda in south India. These states helped Marathas against Mughals, so he wanted to crush the power of Marathas also.

In 1686 A.D., Aurangzeb occupied Bijapur and in 1687 A.D., he occupied Golkunda also. Shivaji died in 1680 A.D. but still Marathas continued their struggle. Aurangzeb failed to crush Marathas. In 1707 A.D., he died.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 18.
What were the causes that brought about the break-up of the Mughal empire?
Answer:
Following were the causes that brought about the break-up of the Mughal empire :

  • The successors of Aurangzeb were weak rulers.
  • The Mughal empire met with financial troubles.
  • Mughal administration was no longer as efficient as it used to be under Akbar.
  • The military administration of the Mughals had also become weaker.
  • Mughal India showed little awareness to the discoveries which the new science of Europe was revealing to Europeans.

Question 19.
Write about the visits of Europeans during Mughal period in India.
Answer:
During the period of Jahangir many European traders came to India. William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe were the main visitors.

William Hawkins stayed in India for three years (1608-1611 A.D.). Based on his reports the British government established a factory in Surat in 1612 A.D.

Sir Thomas Roe was an English man who visited the court of Jahangir as an Ambassador from King James I. He remained at Agra for three years hoping to obtain some sort of permanant agreement with regard to trade which would place the English commerce in East Indian waters upon a sound basis. But he failed in his object. Sir Thomas Roe had left a very interesting account of his travels and experiences in India. He also left a wonderful account of king’s life and about the splendour and magnificence of the imperial court.

Question 20.
Describe the political condition of India during the Babar’s invasion.?
Answer:
The political condition was very pitiable. There was no centralized authority. The states were always fighting with each other.

  • The magnificence of Delhi Sultanate had declined. It was limited to Delhi and its nearby areas.
  • In Mewar, Rana Sanga had become quite powerful.
  • The Governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi was thinking of taking revenge from Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • The rulers of Bengal and Bihar had also became powerful.
  • In South India, there were many states. Vijaynagar was the main kingdom. Bahmani Kingdom was also divided into many parts.

Question 21.
Write notes on each of the following :
1. Humayun
Answer:
Humayun: Humayun was the eldest son of Babar. He sat on the throne in 1530 A.D. He was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, in 1540 A.D. in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj. He spent almost 15 years in Persia. He succeeded in getting back his throne in 1555 A.D. but next year he died.

The following were the difficulties that he had to face at the time of accession :

  • Although Babar had conquered a vast territory in India and founded a Mughal dynasty but he did not live long enough to make it secure against his enemies. So Humayun faced with trouble from the beginning.
  • Being new to India the Mughals had difficulty in consolidating their position.
  • The Afghan nobles attacked the newly founded kingdom because they wanted them to leave India.
  • Bahadur Shah was the ruler of Gujarat and Sher Shah an ambitious Afghan king also threatened Delhi.

2. Jahangir
Answer:
Jahangir: Jahangir was the son of Akbar the Great. After the death of Akbar in 1605 A.D., he sat on the throne. He sent a military expedition against the son of Maharana Pratap-Rana Amar Singh. But afterwards, made peace with him on liberal terms and thus ended the long struggle between the Mughals and Mewar state.

The main events of his ruling period are as follows :

  1. He faced a rebellion from his son Khusro but he crushed this rebellion.
  2. Jahangir subjected Guru Arjan Devji to death penalty in a false case and after torture for five days, Guruji became martyr in 1606 A.D.
  3. Another important event was the marriage to Noor Jahan. He gave Nur Jahan the name of ‘Noor Mahal’ (Light of the Palace).
  4. In the court of Jahangir two diplomats from England, Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came. They had come to India in order to obtain trading facilities.
  5. Jahangir’s reign was most peaceful because :
    (a) There were not too many campaigns in the reign of Jahangir.
    (b) The struggle between Akbar and Rana of Mewar too was brought to an end by Jahangir.
    (c) In order to create peace in the country Jahangir adopted the policy of matrimonial relations with Rajputs. .
    (d) The struggle of the Mughals with Ahmednagar state, which had become a cause of anxiety, also came to an end.

This brought peace in the whole kingdom. Contrary to it, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb had to face many revolts and wars. This was the main cause of disturbance during their reigns.

3. Shah Jahan.
Answer:
Shah Jahan: Shah Jahan was the son of Mughal emperor Jahangir. His real name was Khurram, He sat on the throne in 1628 A.D., after the death of Jahangir. He ruled for almost 29 years.

Some main events of his ruling period are as follows :

  • The Bundels from hilly areas declared a rebellion. Shah Jahan sent a big army to crush this rebellion and compelled Jhujhar Singh to sign a treaty with Mughals.
  • In 1628 A.D, Shah Jahan celebrated the occasion of Noroz and organised a big lunch on this occasion.
  • He was in deep love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. When she died on 7th June, 1631, Shah Jahan went into deep depression.
  • Shah Jahan was very fond of building magnificent buildings. He is known as an Engineer King. His reign is called the golden age of Mughal architecture. He is reminded even today for his two things the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne. He had built the Taj Mahal in memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal.

The Peacock Throne was a golden jewel-studded throne which he used. It was later looted by Shah of Iran and taken to his country. Other beautiful buildings built by Shah Jahan were Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Red Fort at Delhi and Red Fort at Agra. Shah Jahan built a new city Shah Jahanabad as his capital.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 22.
Give an account of the main features of Shah Jahan and Jahangir’s rule.
Answer:
1. Shah Jahan (1628-1657 A.D.): Shah Jahan was the son of Mughal emperor Jahangir. His real name was Khurram. He sat on the throne in 1628, after the death of Jahangir. He ruled for almost 29 years.

Some main events of his ruling period are as given ahead :

  • The Bundels from hilly areas declared a rebellion. Shah Jahan sent a big army to crush this rebellion and compelled Jhujhar Singh to sign a treaty with Mughals.
  • In 1628 A.D., Shah Jahan celebrated the occasion of Noroz and organised a big lunch on this occasion.
  • He was in deep love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. When she died on 7th June, 1631, Shah Jahan went into deep depression.
  • Shah Jahan was very fond of building magnificent buildings. He is known as an Engineer King. His reign is called the golden age of Mughal architectures. He is reminded even today for his two things the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne. He had built the Taj Mahal in the memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal.

The Peacock Throne was a golden jewel-studded throne which he used. It was later looted by Shah of Iran and taken to his country. Other beautiful buildings built by Shah Jahan were Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Red Fort at Delhi and Red Fort at Agra. Shah Jahan built a new city Shah Jahanabad as his capital.

2. Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.). Jahangir was the son of Akbar the Great. After the death of Akbar in 1605 A.D., he sat on the throne. He sent a military expedition against the son of Maharana Pratap-Rana Amar Singh. But afterwards; made peace with him on liberal terms and thu3 ended the long struggle between the Mughals and Mewar state.

The main events of his rutirig period are as follows:

  • He faced a rebellion from his son Khusro but he crushed this rebellion.
  • Jahangir subjected Guru Arjan Devji to death penalty in a false case and after a torture for five days. Guruji became martyr in 1606 A.D.
  • Another important event was marriage to Noor Jahan. He gave Nur Jahan the name of ‘Noor Mahal’ (Light of the Palace.).
  • In the court of Jahangir two diplomats from England, Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came. They had come to India in order to obtain trading facilities.
  • Jahangir’s reign was most peaceful because ;
    (a) There were not too many campaigns in the reign of Jahangir.
    (b) The struggle between Akbar and Rana of Mewar too was brought to an end by Jahangir.
    (c) In order to create peace in the country Jahangir adopted the policy of matrimonial relations with Rajputs.
    (d) The struggle of the Mughals with Ahmednagar state, which had become a cause of anxiety, also came to an end.

This brought peace in the whole kingdom. Contrary to it, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb had to face many revolts and wars. This was the main cause of disturbance during their reigns.

Question 23.
Illustrate how Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari are used to reconstruct history.
Answer:
These are two famous creations of ‘Abul Fazl’. These books tell us about the court of Akbar, his victories, his administration, his social, economic and religious policy, art and architecture.

Question 24.
What do you mean by Mansabdari System?
Answer:
The Mughal rulers appointed the members of different classes in the administration. These appointees were known as Mansabdars under the Mansabdari system, court used to fix the post, income and the position of a Mansabdar. Mansabdar belonged to the civil and military departments of the country.

There were many categories of Zat and Sawar Mansabdar.

  1. The first category: Mansabdars held equal Zat and Sawar i.e. 5000/5000.
  2. The second category: Their sawar mansab was more than the half of their zat mansab i. e. 5000/3000.
  3. The third category: They held their sawar mansab less than the half of their zat mansab i.e. 5000/2000.

Mansabdars were appointed by the Mughal emperors on their own or on the recommendation of the Mir Bakshi. There were 33 categories of the Mansabdars during the reign of Akbar. Its rank was from 10 to 10,000. These could be appointed in any department. They were given their salaries according to their ranks.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Establishment of the Mughal Empire: In 1526 A.D., in the first battle of Panipat, Babar defeated Ibrahim Ijodhi and founded the Mughal Empire in India.
  • Humayun: The Mughal Emperor Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah and the state of North India slipped out of his hands. But after the death of Sher Shah, Humayun regained his lost state.
  • Sher Shah Suri: He was a capable army general and administrator. He built many roads and inns for the welfare of the people of his state. He is known as the predecessor of Akbar the Great.
  • Akbar: Akbar was the son of Humayun. After Humayun’s death in 1556 A.D. Bairam Khan made him wear the crown. He started his winning expeditions with the help of Bairam Khan and founded a powerful Mughal Empire.
  • Jahangir: After the death of Akbar, Jahangir ascended the Mughal throne, but the real authority was in the hands of his wife Nur Jahan.
  • Aurangzeb: He was the last great emperor of Mughal Empire. After his death this empire almost declined.
  • Taj Mahal: A unique contribution of Shah Jahan was in the field of architecture. This building is world famous even today.
  • Abul Fazl: The author of Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari.
  • Glossary: Mughal Mansabdar Zat Sawar.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Media and Democracy Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words.

Question 1.
Write name of the electronic means of advertisement.
Answer:
Radio, television and computers are the main electronic media. Even illiterate people can get the information about the activity of the govt, and on that basis, they can form public opinion.

Question 2.
What do you mean by the Right to information?
Answer:
People can access any such information which affects them either directly or indirectly. It is actually a right to put stoppage to the unfair functioning of some govt, officers or a right to inquire on personal level.

Question 3.
How many types of advertisements are there?
Answer:
These are of two types:

  1. Commercial advertisements.
  2. Social advertisements.

Commercial advertisements increase the demand of commodities while social advertisements help in social service and help to remove social evils.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 4.
What are the main objectives of advertising?
Answer:

  1. To give information about the product, e.g. where to purchase a thing and how to use it.
  2. To induce people to buy a product.
  3. To bring the concerned institution in the eyes of the public.

Question 5.
What do you mean by social advertisement?
Answer:
Through social advertisement, social welfare is promoted. Such advertisements alert the people against different diseases, disasters and vices. These also help to promote national unity and integrity.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
What is there in Commercial advertising?
Answer:
Commercial advertising is attached to the buyers and consumers. Consumers include the buyers of goods like domestic usage goods (foodgrains, grocery, clothes), electronic goods (T.V., Refrigerator). The sellers adopt many means to attract lacs of consumers. The various media are newspapers, magazines, radio, television, internet etc. The oldest way of selling products is of the street hawker. Even today people selling vegetables, fruits use this method. People today resort to direct selling to increase their sales and also take the help of trade fairs etc.

Question 2.
What techniques are used by the advertisers to shape Public attitude towards their products?
Answer:

  1. Through street hawking.
  2. By advertising in newspapers and magazines.
  3. By advertising in radio and T.V.

Question 3.
Give name of some social advertisements related with Public Services.
Answer:
Social issues like family welfare, polio eradication, protection from cancer, AIDS awareness, stopping the female infanticide, commimitte coordination, national unity, blood donation, road safety etc. are the advertisements related to public services.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 4.
What is the need of regulations in advertisement?
Answer:
Advertisement is neither good nor bad but it is such a means which can be misused because it has the power to leave a deep impact on the society, so the advertisement which promotes bad products should be stopped: It can be done only by making proper laws, e.g. in America, there is a legal prohibition on the advertisement of tobacoo. So we can say that laws related to advertisement are very important.

Question 5.
Which ethics are required to be followed by the media?
Answer:

  • To broadcast full-fair information to the public.
  • To promote social welfare.
  • To create awareness among people so that they can become capable citizens.
  • Not to let communal tension prevail.
  • To promote information that should strengthen democracy.
  • To fulfill social responsibility properly.

III. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Media is the __________ to inform the people about the shortcomings of the existing system.
Answer:
means

Question 2.
Main role of Media is to provide __________
Answer:
information

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 3.
__________ means to fulfill one’s responsibilities properly.
Answer:
Morality

Question 4.
Advertising is different on the basis of their __________
Answer:
sales

Question 5.
To increase the ______________ the product is one of the main objectives of commercial advertisement.
Answer:
sales

Question 6.
__________ advertisements are in the favour of candidates and political parties.
Answer:
Commercial.

IV. True/False :

Question 1.
Various means to communicate information and ideas to a group of people is called media.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Press is known as the light-house of democracy.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Types of Advertisement-Commercial advertisement and Social-advertisement.
Answer:
True.

V. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Write name of the electronic means of Media?
(a) Newspaper
(b) Magazine
(c) Television.
Answer:
(c) Television.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 2.
Name the main types of advertisements.
(a) Two
(b) Four
(c) Six.
Answer:
(a) Two

Question 3.
In which country Press is known as ligljt-house of Democracy?
(a) Afghanistan
(b) India
(c) China.
Answer:
(b) India.

VI. Activity:

Question 1.
Paste five pictures of some social advertisements on a chart paper and write 5 sentences each about their importance.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Media and Democracy Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of these is an electronic means of mass media?
(a) Television
(b) Computer
(c) Internet
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 2.
The used in means of mass media keeps on changing all the times.
(a) Technology
(b) Language
(c) Form
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Technology.

Question 3.
Who invented the printing press?
(a) John Logie Berd
(b) Gutenberg.
(c) Graham Bell
(d) Henry Ford
Answer:
(b) Gutenberg.

Question 4.
Who invented Television?
(a) Graham Bell
(b) Gutenberg.
(c) John Logie Berd
(d) Henry Ford
Answer:
(c) John Logie Berd.

Question 5.
Different technologies used in mass media are quite.
(a) Cheap
(b) Expensive
(c) Ancient
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Expensive.

Question 6.
What is used in T.V. studio for mass media?
(a) Lights, Camera
(b) Machines of recording voice
(c) Satellite for transmission
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 7.
Too much is required to get modern techniques of means of mass media.
(a) Money
(b) Humans
(c) Technology
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Money.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 8.
Which of these is the main source of income of T.V. Channels?
(a) Grant
(b) Advertisement
(c) Donation
(d) Government’s help.
Answer:
(b) Advertisement.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by media.
Answer:
Media is a means of contacting with public.

Question 2.
Give some examples of media?
Answer:
Newspapers, Radio, T.V., Cinema, Press, etc.

Question 3.
Which is the most important media?
Answer:
Press, which includes newspapers, magazines, books etc.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 4.
What is the importance of press?
Answer:
It is the most important media of democracy. It includes newspapers, magazines, books etc.

It brings people face to face with national and international news. It also gives information about the ideology, organization and programme of different political organizations.

Question 5.
What is the role of political parties as media?
Answer:
The political parties with the help of meetings, manifestoes, educate the people about the functions and weaknesses of the govt. They inform the public about various social problems. Thus political parties create public opinion and play an important role in expressing the public opinion.

Question 6.
How does the election help in creating balanced public opinion?
Answer:
At the time of elections the political parties inform the people about the deeds and misdeeds of the govt. So the people after listening to the ideas of different parties make their balanced opinion.

Question 7.
Which are the states that have passed the right to information ordinance?
Answer:
First of all it was done in Rajasthan in 2000. After that it has been passed by other states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa and Punjab states.

Question 8.
What is the importance of the right to information?
Answer:
It is an important weapon to check the unlawful act – of corrupt officials.

Question 9.
Write the contribution of advertisement in the process of human development.
Answer:
It has an important role to play as in the field of social welfare and social improvement. It induces and inspires the people to take up such activities which result in the welfare of the whole society.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Media and Democracy

Question 10.
What is the relationship between the media and advertising?
Answer:
There is a deep relationship between the two. It gives information about the activities and events happening in the world. It alerts the public against the functions of the govt. It is the spirit of the democracy because it promotes this system. So media is also called the light house of democracy.

Media and Democracy PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Media: When we contact people through different means, this is called media. For example newspaper, radio, television, cinema, advertisement etc.
  • Media and democracy: Media is the basis of democracy. It shows the inappropriate acts of the Govt, and helps to create healthy public opinion.
  • Press: Press (newspapers, magazines, books etc.) is the most important media. It is known as the light house of democracy.
  • Accountability of Media: It is hoped from the media that it should communicate right and true information to the public. The whole activities should be directed towards public welfare.
  • Right to information ordinance: It means people have the right to get information about such matters which directly or indirectly affect their lives.
  • Advertisement: It means to give information to the people about the whereabout of the commodity, its qualities and workability. The objective is to induce the demand and sales of the commodity.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 21 Media and Democracy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 20 State-Government

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB State-Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words.

Question 1.
Write two qualifications required for the members of legislative assembly.
Answer:

  1. He should be an Indian citizen.
  2. He should not be less than 25 years of age.

Question 2.
What qualifications are required for a Governor?
Answer:

  1. He should be an Indian citizen.
  2. He should not be less than 35 years of age.
  3. He should be mentally and physically sound.
  4. He should not be a member of a state or central legislature or should not be a govt, official.

Question 3.
Who can be the secretary of some department?
Answer:
The departmental secretary is the chief of a govt, department.

Question 4.
Name out, who is the chief minister and governor of your state?
Answer:
Captain Amrinder Singh is the Chief Minister and Mr. V.P. Singh Badnore is the Governor of our State.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 5.
Who is the Executive head of a state?
Answer:
The Governor is the Executive head of a state.

II. Answer the following Questions in 50-60 words

Question 1.
Write in short the functions of the Governor.
Answer:
Although the Constitution gives vast powers to the Governor, yet he is not the real head of the state. He exercises all the powers on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers. If the Governor disagrees with the ministers, he places himself in an awkward position. They would resign and the Governor would be compelled to find an alternative ministry. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Legislative Assembly and not to the Governor.

But it must be noted that the Governor is something more than a mere nominal head or rubber stamp. He has the powers to advise, warn and encourage the Council of Ministers. He functions as the agent of the Centre. He acts as a link between the Centre and the State and is the watchdog of the Constitution.

He has certain functions which he can perform at his discretion.

  • He recommends to the President to declare an emergency in the State.
  • He becomes the real ruler of the State after the emergency is declared in the State.
  • He can appoint a person of his choice as the Chief Minister in case no party in the State Legislative Assembly wins majority of seats.
  • He can send back the bills passed by the State Legislature for reconsideration.
  • He can reserve certain bills for the approval of the President.

Question 2.
Write about the powers and functions of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
The Chief Minister is the real executive head of the State government. He selects his ministers. The Governor must give approval to his list of ministers. The Chief Minister distributes portfolios among the ministers. He reorganizes the Council of Ministers from time to time. He can appoint new ministers and remove the inefficient ones. The Chief Minister is the link between the Governor and the Ministers. He is also the chief advisor to the Governor. The Chief Minister is the leader of the Gis party and also the leader of the State Legislature. The people of the State look upto him for his guidance and development of the State.

Thus, we see that the Chief Minister is the most important figure in the State. He enjoys the same position in the State as the Prime Minister at the Centre. So long as he enjoys the support of majority in the Vidhan Sabha, he has complete control over the State Government. He is the pivot round which the whole Council of Ministers and the total administration revolves.

Question 3.
Give in brief the election procedure of Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council.
Answer:
The State Legislative may consist of one or two chambers or houses. The lower and the more popular house is called the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. It shall not consist of more than 500 and not less than 60 members. The upper chamber is called Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council. The minimum number of members of a Vidhan Parishad shall be forty and the maximum number should not be more than one-third of the total membership of the Legislative Assembly of that state. 5/6 members of Legislative Council are elected by teachers, members of local bodies, MLAs and Graduates. The rest 1/6 members are nominated by the Governor.

Question 4.
Which civil officials (Bureaucracy) run the state administration?
Answer:
In the State there are education, irrigation, transportation, health, sanitation, etc. departments. While ministers are the chiefs of these departments but actually civil servants run these departments who are known as secretaries. They are appointed by Union Public Service Commission or State Public Service Commission. The secretary is the chief advisor of his concerned minister. In the state there is one head of all these secretaries known as Chief Secretary of the State. The office of the secretary is known as the secretariat.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 5.
Give five reasons of Road accidents.
Answer:

  1. Fast speed.
  2. Overtaking.
  3. Not obeying traffic rules and signals.
  4. Drunken driving.
  5. Change of lines.
  6. Overloading.
  7. Low visibility due to rain, fog or snowfall etc.

These are some of the reasons of road accidents.

III. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
__________ is Governor of Punjab State.
Answer:
Shri V.P. Singh Badnore

Question 2.
The State Legislature of Punjab is __________
Answer:
unicameral

Question 3.
Money bill can be introduced in __________ house of State Legislature.
Answer:
lower

Question 4.
The assent of is essential for every type of bill.
Answer:
Governor

Question 5.
The speaker presides over the meeting of the house of State Legislature.
Answer:
lower

Question 6.
__________ is the head of the state.
Answer:
Governor

Question 7.
Tenure of Council of Ministers is __________
Answer:
5 years

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 8.
__________ members of Council of Ministers is nominated by the Governor.
Answer:
All

Question 9.
Maximum number of members of legislative assemble is __________
Answer:
500

Question 10.
Minimum number of legislative council can __________
Answer:
60.

IV. True/False :

Question 1.
In India,we have one Centre Government, 28 State Governments and 8 Union Territories.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
The Lower House of State Legislature is called Legislative Council.
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
Punjab State Legislature is bicameral legislature.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 4.
Governor has main executive power with him.
Answer:
False.

Question 5.
The Right of Property is a fundamental right.
Answer:
False.

V. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
How many states are there in India?
(a) 21
(b) 25
(c) 28.
Answer:
(c) 28.

Question 2.
How many members are in Punjab Legislative Assembly?
(a) 117
(b) 60
(c) 105.
Answer:
(a) 117.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 3.
By whom the Chief Minister is elected?
(a) By President
(b) By Governor
(c) By Speaker.
Answer:
(b) By Governor.

VI. Activities:

Question 1.
Paste the pictures of the Chief Minister and Governor of your State in your note-book and write five sentences about them.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Write the details of some road accident you have seen and write how you helped the injured persons.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide State-Government Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Member of Legislative Assembly is known as
(a) MLA
(b) Chief Minister
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Advocate General.
Answer:
(a) MLA.

Question 2.
Who is the leader of majority party in Legislative Assembly?
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Chief Minister
(c) President
(d) MLA.
Answer:
(b) Chief Minister.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 3.
__________ works as the representative of President in the state.
(a) Chief Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) Governor
(d) MLA.
Answer:
(c) Governor.

Question 4.
Which of these is the level of government?
(a) Local level
(b) State level
(c) Central level
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 5.
Which of these is the chief minister of Haryana?
(a) Manohar Lai Khattar
(b) Bhajan Lai
(c) Bansi Lai
(d) Om Prakash Chautala.
Answer:
(a) Manohar Ltd Khattar.

Question 6.
Who runs the state government?
(a) Governor
(b) Chief Minister
(c) Speaker
(d) Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
(6) Chief Minister.

Question 7.
Who asks questions to ministers in Legislative Assembly?
(a) Chief Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) MLA
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) MLA.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 8.
__________ is the head of the state.
(a) Governor
(b) Chief Minister
(c) Speaker
(d) President.
Answer:
(a) Governor.

Question 9.
Who appoints the Governor?
(a) State Government
(b) Central Government
(c) Parliament
(d) Election Commission.
Answer:
(b) Central Government.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many States are there in India?
Answer:
28.

Question 2.
What are the three organs of Central/State Govt.?
Answer:
Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.

Question 3.
What are the main functions of the three organs of the State Govt.?
Answer:

  1. Legislature makes laws.
  2. The executive executes these laws.
  3. The Judiciary punishes the violators.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 4.
What is the difference between Union list and State list? What is the common list or Concurrent list?
Answer:
There is division of powers among the Centre and the States. All important subjects are in the Union list, like defence, external affairs, currency, railways. The important subjects for the state like, agriculture, land revenue, jails, local self Govts, are in the state list. There are certain common subjects which are written in the concurrent list.

Question 5.
When does a bill become law?
Answer:
After the bill is passed in the State Legislature it is sent to the Governor for signature. It becomes a law only after the Governor puts his signature.

Question 6.
Write the powers and functions of the State legislature.
Answer:

  1. It can make laws on subjects given in state list.
  2. The council of ministers is accountable to the state legislature and has to answer all the queries.
  3. It can even pass a no-confidence motion.
  4. If the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) passes a resolution by a majority of 2/3rd of its members, the Union Parliament can abolish or re-establish the Vidhan Parishad. Thus, the life of the Vidhan Parishad depends upon the will of the Vidhan Sabha.

Question 7.
What are the functions of the Speaker?
Answer:

  1. He is the Chairman of all meetings of the Legislative Assembly.
  2. He gives permission to present bills.
  3. He is responsible for discipline in the assembly.

Question 8.
How is the Governor of a state-appointed?
Answer:
The Governor is appointed by the President of India. The President can appoint the same person as Governor for more than one state. The President acts on the advice of the Prime Minister while appointing the Governors.

Question 9.
How is the Council of Ministers appointed as well as the Chief Minister?
Answer:
The Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of Chief Minister. The Chief Minister along with other ministers forms the Council of Ministers. Sometimes the Chief Minister heads the coalition govt, because no single party gets absolute majority. Sometimes such person becomes Chief Minister who is not a member of either house. In such a case, he has to become a member within six months.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 10.
Write a commentary on the construction of Council of ministers and their process of functioning.
Answer:
Construction / Composition: Three types of ministers are there :

  1. Cabinet Ministers,
  2. Ministers of State,
  3. Deputy Ministers.

Functioning: The Council of Ministers work in coordination as a team. They are accountable to the State Legislature jointly as well as individually. It means even if a no-confidence motion is passed against one minister, the whole Council has to resign. If the Chief Minister resigns, it is considered as the resignation of the whole Council of Ministers.

Question 11.
Name five states of India having Bi-cameral legislature.
Answer:
Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pardesh.

Question 12.
Give the discretionary powers of a Governor.
Answer:
The Governor has certain powers which he can use at his own discretion.
(a) He recommends to the President to declare emergency in the state.
(b) He becomes a real ruler of the state after the emergency is declared in the state.
(c) He can appoint a person of his choice as a Chief Minister if no party in the state Legislative Assembly can win a majority of seats.
(d) He can send back the bills passed by the State Legislature for reconsideration.
(e) He can reserve certain bills for the final approval of the President.

Question 13.
What type of ministers are there in the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Three types of ministers: Cabinet ministers who hold important portfolios, deputy ministers and the ministers of state who help the Cabinet ministers to perform their duties.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 State-Government

Question 14.
What do you know about the term of the State Legislature?
Answer:
1. Council of Ministers: The period is 5 years, but if the Chief Minister resigns or dies, then the Council of Ministers also comes to an end. The no-confidence motion in the legislature can also put an end to the period of Council of Ministers.

2. State Legislature: Its period is also of 5 years but it can be dissolved by the Governor early also. During emergency, its period can be increased by 6 months.
The Legislative Council has a period of 6 years, but after every 2 years, 1/3 of its members retire.

State-Government PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • State Legislature: The law-making institution in the state is called Legislature. It has two houses, but in some states, it has only one house. The lower house is known as the Legislative assembly and the upper house is known as the Legislative council.
  • Legislative Assembly: The membership can be a maximum of 500 and a minimum of 60, depending upon the population. To fight its elections, a person should be 25 or more in age and should not occupy an office of profit. Its period is 5 years.
  • Legislative Council: It is the upper and permanent house of Legislature. One-third of its members retire after every two years.
  • State Executive: It includes the governor, the chief minister and the council of ministers.
  • Governor: He is appointed by the President for 5 years. All the executive powers flow from the Governor but actually used by the chief minister.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 20 State-Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy – Representative Institutions

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 19 Democracy – Representative Institutions

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Democracy – Representative Institutions Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words.

Question 1.
What do mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
When all the adult electorates of the country have the right to vote, it is called Universal Adult Franchise. Sex, religion, caste, property do not become basis for discrimination.

Question 2.
Explain two stages of election process in India.
Answer:
1. Declaration of election date. In our country, the President or the Governor brings the election ordinance and on this basis, the Election Commission decides the election date.

2. Election of Candidates. Different political parties declare their candidates for different electoral areas which they think are popular enough to win the elections. Sometimes independent candidates supported by the political parties also participate in the election process.

Question 3.
Which government is known as representative government?
Answer:
In democracy, the citizens elect their representatives who make the government. These representatives make the policies and frame the laws. Such government is known as representative government.

Question 4.
What is the importance of representation in Democracy?
Answer:
In democracy there is the rule of the public. The population is so big that all citizens cannot directly participate in the administration. So they choose their representatives who make the government and indirectly it is the public’s own rule.

Question 5.
Who is authorised to cast vote in India?«
Answer:
Every person who is 18 years or more has the right to vote in India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
What is the difference between two party system and multiparty system?
Answer:
When there are two main political parties in a country then it is called two.party system. This type of system is in America and England. In multiparty system, there are many parties. India has this kind of system.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
What is the importance of representative system?
Answer:
There is a great importance of political parties in representative democracy. Most experts think that democracy is not possible without political parties. Every political party tries to make its own government. These parties put forward their programmes and policies before the general public. The party that makes the government, executes its programmes and policies. The opposition parties criticise the government and thus control its activities. Thus opposition also has a great role in representative democracy.

Question 2.
What is a secret ballot paper? What is its importance?
Answer:
Secret ballot is the basis of democracy. People do not want any interference in their right to vote and elect representatives. Nobody wants to disclose his/her choice. So, secret ballot is done for electing representatives. In India, there is a principle of ‘one person one vote’. When some person casts his/her vote, he/she needn’t tell anybody in whose favour the vote has been cast. This is called secret ballot. Through secret ballot, the government can be changed without any biased idea or negative thinking.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the importance of opposition party in democracy.
Answer:
The political parties which are not in majority, they cannot make government. So, these parties play the role of opposition. In democracy, the opposition has a great role to play. It is said if the opposition parties become weak, the democratic system can come to an end. On the contrary, if the opposition is allowed to work properly then democracy becomes strong. Infact the opposition represents the weaknesses of the government. The opposition not only criticizes the government but also tries to build healthy public opinion. Without its criticism, the government can become non accountable and dictator. The opposition keeps a regular control over the government by controlling its activities. Thus, the opposition does not let the government violate the rights of the citizens.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 4.
Write the functions of the political party.
Answer:
The following are the functions :
1. Contesting the elections and making the government: The most important function of political parties is to contest the elections. The objective is to run the administration. So, these parties choose their candidates and start their election campaign. They bring out their manifestoes and help to build public opinion. The party which wins the elections, runs the government and is accountable to the people. The parties which cannot make the government, play the role of healthy opposition.

2. To protect public interest: They criticize the policies of the government and give suggestions to improve the policies. So, the opposition protects the interests of the generahpublic.

Question 5.
Write any two functions of the opposition party.
Answer:
The opposition is the spirit of democracy. It stops dictatorship as well as controls the activities of the government. Its role in brief is as follows :
1. Control over ruling party: After victory in general elections the majority party makes the government. The electorates cannot control the government for five years. So, the opposition controls the activities of the government.

2. To stop the dictatorship: Sometimes the ruling party tries to act like a dictator because of its majority. The rights of citizens are violated. At such a situation, the opposition criticizes the government in and outside the Parliament.

3. Coordination in law-making Process: When the government brings ordinance to make laws, then the opposition argues on such ordinance and tries to see that whatever law is made, it is in favour of the general public and the country.

4. Passing the budget: Every year, the budget is presented by the government which give details about the income and expenditure of the government. It is an opportunity when the opposition may criticize the policies of the government. The opposition can compel the government to reduce the rates of taxation.

5. Control over executive: The opposition controls the government through no-confidence motion, attracting the attention motion, etc. The opposition parties keep the ministers on high alert by asking questions in the question hour.

Question 6.
What is the importance of election in democracy?
Answer:
Elections are the basis of democracy. The importance is as follows :

  • All citizens cannot run the government. So, they must elect representatives.
  • The pubic can change government through elections only.
  • The executive is made through the medium of elections.
  • Through elections, the administration becomes stable.

III. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
There is __________ democracy in India.
Answer:
Representative

Question 2.
An independent institution which conduct elections in our country is known as __________
Answer:
Election Commission

Question 3.
An adult of __________ years has right to vote in India.
Answer:
18

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 4.
__________ and country has dual party system.
Answer:
U.S.A.

Question 5.
One citizen one vote is based on the principle of __________
Answer:
equality.

IV. True/False :

Question 1.
In India, now adulthood is attained by the age of 18 years.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
In India, there is two party system.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The opposition not merely criticise the government in Parliament and State Legislature but it also helps to formulate Public Opinion.
Answer:
True

V. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is the age of adulthood in India?
(a) 18 years
(6) 24 years
(c) 22 years.
Answer:
(a) 18 years.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 2.
For how many years Lok Sabha members are elected?
(a) Four years
(b) Two years
(c) Five years.
Answer:
(c) Five years.

Question 3.
When was Indian National Congress established?
(a) 1920
(b) 1885
(c) 1960.
Answer:
(b) 1885.

VI. Activities:

Question 1.
Write name of the President of the Party in power and opposition party in your state.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Write the name of M.LA. of your constituency and discuss with your teacher the development work done by him in your area.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Democracy – Representative Institutions Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In India right to vote is given to those who have age of __________ years or more.
(a) 18
(b) 21
(c) 24
(d) 25
Answer:
(a) 18.

Question 2.
In India, elections are conducted by
(a) Government
(b) Election Commission
(c) Supreme Court
(d) President.
Answer:
(c) Election Commission.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 3.
There are members in the election commisSiOn.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(e) Four
(d) Five.
Answer:
(b) Three.

Question 4.
Election symbols to political parties are allotted by the __________
(a) Government
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Election Commission
(d) President.
Answer:
(c) Election Commission.

Question 5.
Which of these is a function of political parties?
(a) To contest elections
(b) To form government
(c) To create public opinion
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
Which of these is the function of the opposition party?
(a) Control over ruling party
(b) Control over executive
(c) Coordination in law making process
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief note on Election Commission.
Answer:
In India, to conduct elections there has been an independent institution called Election Commission. It is its job to conduct free and fair elections. Its chief is called Chief Election Commissioner who is appointed by the President of India. The Election Commission is responsible for conducting eleetions«at every level like the Parliament, state legislatures, local bodies, etc.

Question 2.
What do you mean by ‘one person one vote’?
Answer:
It means every person is equal in the eyes of law.

Question 3.
What is the strong basis of ‘Universal Adult Franchise’?
Answer:

  • This right is based upon political equality.
  • It is required for true democracy.
  • It makes the government accountable.

Question 4.
What do you mean by by-election?
Answer:
Sometimes when some member of Parliament or state legislature, dies or his seat falls vacant because of his resignation or some other reasons, then the election is conducted for that seat. It is called by-election.

Question 5.
How do the electorates cast their votes?
Answer:
During election time, election booths are maintained in each and every area. The returning officer is the controller of the elections. The names of adult citizens are entered in the register of electorates. The electorates turn by turn cast their votes by showing their identity cards. These days the voting is done through electronic voting machines.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
Write brief note on the following :
Answer:
1. Filing of nominations and taking back the names. The candidates approved by the political parties file their nominations. The returning officer examines these nominations and these are rejected or accepted. The accepted candidates can take back their nomination by fixed date. After that a final list of candidates is prepared and on this basis the voting machines and the election symbols are prepared.

2. Providing election symbols. The national parties had their fixed election symbols. The election symbols are very important for illiterate people because these help to identify the candidates.

3. Election manifestoes. Every political party introduces election manifestoes for victory in the elections. These include their programmes and promises which affect the electorates. The electorates come to know of the programmes and policies to be adopted after the victory of their candidates.

4. Election campaign. It is for the victory of the candidates. They print posters, take out processions, hold public meetings, indulge in door-to-door campaigning and even hold road shows to attract the electorates. It has to be stopped 48 horns before the elections.

5. Counting of votes and the results. At the predetermined hour, the counting is done in front of representatives of the candidates. The candidate who obtains the maximum votes is declared the winner.

Question 7.
What is a political party?
Answer:
The combination of people who have been together on the basis of a unified political ideology is called a political party. Any person can become a member of any political party.

Question 8.
What are the two types of political parties in India?
Answer:
In India there are’ two types of political parties. National parties and state parties. They work countrywide. If a political party has its influence in four or five states, then the Election Commission grants it the status of national party, e.g. Congress, BJP, BSP, CPI, etc. But some parties have influence in one or two states. These are called state parties like Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab.

Question 9.
Which is the oldest political party in India?
Answer:
Indian National Congress which was established in 1885.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 10.
What is joint government or what is coalition government?
Answer:
If a single party fails to get majority, then if makes government with the help and cooperation of other parties. Such a government is called coalition government. First time this government was made in 1977. From 1999 to 2004 also, there was a coalition of 13 political parties. Even these days also, the UPA government at the Centre is a coalition government. In coalition government, members of different parties get a chance to become ministers which is not possible under normal circumstances.

Question 11.
What is the difference between the general elections and mid-term elections?
Answer:
General elections are those which are conducted after five years but if the . legislature is prorogued and re-elections are conducted, it is called mid-term elections.

Question 12.
Give any two policies of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
The following are the main policies :

  1. The most important policy of this party is to reduce the rich-poor gap. In other words this party wants democratic socialism.
  2. According to this party, there should be no discrimination on the basis of religion. All religions should be respected equally.
  3. The party believes in agro-based industrialisation for the development of agriculture. The policy of this party is to develop the means of irrigation.
  4. To create means of employment in rural areas for removing poverty.
  5. To establish friendly relations with the foreign countries and to reduce conflicts with them amicably.
  6. To promote foreign trade for improving economic situation of India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Democracy – Representative Institutions PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Modern Democracy: It is representative democracy. The reason is that modem states are large in size and their population is more. In such a situation, whole of the population cannot participate in the administr;. .ion directly. So it chooses representatives which run the government.
  • Right to Vote: It is the right of the people to cast their votes or to choose their representatives. In India ‘One Person One Vote’ principle gives way to ‘Universal Adult Franchise’. .
  • Secret Ballot: The modem elections are fought through secret ballot. It means
    that every citizen casts his vote by his own sweet will. He cannot be compelled to disclose his vote cast. ‘
  • Candidate: The person who fights election is called candidate. They are of two types—one belonging to a political party and the other having no relation with any political jaarty.
  • Election Process: The elections are conducted under the supervision of Election Commission. A special process is adopted for this which includes declaration of election date, filing nominations, examination of nominations, campaigning, voting, counting and declaration of results.
  • Election Symbol: Every political party has a special symbol. Even independent candidates are given symbols. These symbols are given by election commission and these help to identify the candidate in a better way.
  • Election Campaign: It is the most decisive part of the election process. The public meetings are conducted, manifestoes are declared, promises on posters are pasted everywhere and the public is given the information about the policies of the political parties if voted to power.
  • Election Manifesto: Every political party tries to tell the public what will it do if voted to power. This is called election manifesto.
  • Importance of free and fair election: The Election Commission ensures that the elections should be free and fair, only then the right candidates can be elected. The public gets a capable and popular govt, and the democracy becomes strong.
  • Political Parties: People coming together for the attainment of identical political objectives make political parties.
  • Functions of Political Parties: Making public opinion, educating the people politically, contesting the elections, framing the government, criticising the government, creating coordination among the public and government are the main functions of the political parties.
  • Single Party, Two Party and Multiparty System: In India there-is multiparty system because there are more than two parties contesting the elections.
  • Role of opposition: The opposition controls the activities of the government by criticising it and stops the government from becoming a dictator.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Democracy and Equality Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words.

Question 1.
What do you understand by democracy?
Answer:
In democracy, the government belongs to the people, the government runs according to the will of the people. The rule of law prevails in this system. The rights and duties of each and everybody are well defined. The govt, works for the welfare of the people. Abraham Lincoln says, “It is the govt, of the people, for the people and by the people.”

Question 2.
What do you know about the ‘Rule of Law’?
Answer:
It means there are predetermined laws and by-laws which cannot be violated. The government runs according to these rules and these are written in the Constitution of India. The Constitution can be amended by a majority of people’s representatives. The government derives its powers from the Constitution.

Question 3.
What is the importance of Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
Modem democracy is the representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy. The citizens elect their representatives, who run the government and make laws. These are elected through voting. If the government is incapable then it can be changed through the right to franchise. So this right plays a great role in modem democracy.

Question 4.
What is the importance of public opinion in democracy?
Answer:
Public opinion means the will of the people. The policies are formulated on the basis of public opinion. If the government chooses to ignore the public opinion, it loses the general elections and is easily changed.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 5.
In which country there is still ‘Direct Democracy’?
Answer:
In this system, all citizens directly participate in the law making process, as well as government making process. When the population increases, such kind of democracy becomes very difficult to adopt. Still, in Switzerland, there is the existence of direct democracy.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
Write short note on the emergence of democracy.
Answer:
The beginning of democracy was in Athens, city of Ancient Greece. The democracy there is almost 2500 years old. It is said that in Athens, the general public would hold meetings many times in a year. Here, the decisions were taken directly by the people for running the administration. Such democracy is known as direct democracy. At that time it was possible because the population was less and people could gather at one place and take decisions. Direct democracy was possible also because the women, the foreigners and the slaves had no right to participate in the administration. But today direct democracy is not possible.

Question 2.
Where and when democracy emerged?
Answer:
First of all, it was established in Greece in Athens city. The democracy there is almost 2500 years old. The people of Athens would gather many times in a single year and hold meetings. In these meetings they would take decisions about how to run the management of the state.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 3.
Write name of four types of democracy on the basis of classification.
Answer:
1. Presidential type of Government: In this, the President is directly elected by the people. He is the real ruler of the state. So, the President and the ministers are not from a single political party. Such type of presidential form of government is in America. The President here is more powerful than the Indian President.

2. Parliamentary type of Government: In this, the Parliament is the most powerful organ. The President is just for the name only. The real power is in the hands of Prime Minister. All members of the council of ministers are taken from the Parliament or legislatures. So, there remains a co-ordination between legislatures and executives.

3. Unitary type of Government: In it, there is division of powers between the state and the centre. But centre is more powerful than the states. The Indian Constitution is federal in nature. But in times of emergency, the powers of central government increase.

4. Federal Government: Here the Constitution is written and rigid. There is division of power among centre and the states. Every state has its own government. In India also, there is federal government.

Question 4.
Write about any two features of the Democracy.
Answer:
1. Enlightened Citizens: In democracy, all the citizens are aware about their rights and duties. They are matured enough to run the administration efficiently.

2. Matured Leadership: Leaders in democracy are also mature because matured leaders are very much necessary to run democratic system efficiently.

Question 5.
Write your views about Economic and Social Equality.
Answer:
1. Social equality: It means all people are equal in society. Nobody can be discriminated on the basis of place of birth, colour of skin, religion, caste and sex. All people are useful organs of the society. No person can be given special status.

2. Economic Equality: It means there should be no difference between the rich and the poor. No class of the society should be exploited. It also means that means of production should not be limited in the hands of a few people. All should have equal opportunities of earning employment.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 6.
Why democracy is the most popular form of government in modern times?
Answer:
Today most countries in the world have democratic governments. Such government is welfare-oriented and gives special importance to human rights and freedom. All are treated as equal in the eyes of law. The following are the main features that make democracy very popular :
1. Equality: There is no rich, poor, religious or caste division in democracy. All are equal in the eyes of law.

2. Freedom: People are free from every aspect. They can do any business, can live in any area, can express their ideas freely. But in dictatorship, people have to abide by the ruling of the dictator.

3. The process of making decisions: The decision-making process is in the hands of the people. People choose their representatives and send them to legislatures. The majority party makes the government and runs the administration. The govt, works as per the wishes of general public. If the government does not work properly then it can be changed.

4. Active participation by citizens: All electorates can fight elections or cast then- votes according to their wishes. All are equal participants in the administration of the government but in dictatorship it does not happen.

5. To remove altercations: The ideas of others are respected. Nobody is compelled to adopt anything. The ruling party considers the suggestions of opposition parties as important and the opposition party also co-operates with the ruling party. So, ideological differences are cleared amicably.

6. Growth of human dignity: Freedom, equality and fraternity are the main principles of democracy. Here there is political, social as well as economic freedom and equality. The right to employment is available to everybody. The economically weaker sections of the society are given reservations in jobs. So, these steps increase the human dignity.

III. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
In India head of the country is elected for a fixed time (five years) because of this India is called ______
Answer:
Democratic Republic

Question 2.
The nominal executive head of Central Govt, is and heads of State Govt’s are ______
Answer:
President, Governors

Question 3.
Democracy originated in city of ______
Answer:
Athens

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 4.
______ is the country where there is Direct Democracy.
Answer:
Switzerland

Question 5.
The basic principle of Democracy is ______ and ______
Answer:
Rule of law, Accountability.

IV. True/False :

Question 1.
India is a democratic Republic.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Switzerland is the only country where there is Direct Democracy.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
To cast vote is a Universal Adult Franchise to only some persons.
Answer:
False.

Question 4.
In a Democratic country Rule of Law prevails.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 5.
Modern Democracy has emerged firstly in France.
Answer:
False.

V. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Democracy is a government , “of the people, by the people and for the people.” Who spoke these words.
(a) Abrahim Lincoln
(b) Laski
(c) David Fasten.
Answer:
(a) Abrahim Lincoln.

Question 2.
Which is the most popular form of government in modern times?
(a) Dictatorship
(b) Democracy
(c) Military Rule.
Answer:
(b) Democracy

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 3.
How many types of heads of state in parliamentary democratic countries?
(a) Four
(6) Five
(c) Two.
Answer:
(c) Two.

VI. Activities:

Question 1.
Prepare a list of 10 Democratic Countries.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Discuss about the success of Indian Democracy with your teacher.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Democracy and Equality Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
India is a ______ country.
(a) Democratic
(b) Monarchical
(c) Dictatorship
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Democratic.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 2.
In a democracy, power lies in the hands of the
(a) Government
(6) People
(c) Leaders
(d) President.
Answer:
(b) People.

Question 3.
Democracy exists :
(а) In 70 Countries
(б) In Europe only
(c) In the majority countries of the world
(d) In the whole world.
Answer:
(c) In the majority countries of the world.

Question 4.
Which of these is a feature of democracy?
(а) Franchise based on property, qualification
(b) Franchise based on educational qualification
(c) Landlords are the voters
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.
Answer:
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 5.
In ______ democracy, public itself manages the administration.
(a) Direct
(b) Indirect
(c) Referendum
(d) Monarchical.
Answer:
(a) Direct.

Question 6.
______ is more important in democracy.
(a) Election
(b) Referendum
(c) Franchise based on property
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Election.

Question 7.
______ is the real executive of government.
(a) President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Parliament
(d) People.
Answer:
(a) President.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write two features of democracy.
Answer:

  1. The administration is in the hands of people.
  2. The policy decisions are taken according to the wishes of the public.

Question 2.
Write the types of democracy.
Answer:

  1. Direct Democracy.
  2. Indirect or Representative Democracy.

Question 3.
What is the difference between direct and indirect democracies?
Answer:
In direct democracies, people themselves take decisions. But in Indirect democracies, people take decisions through their elected representatives.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 4.
Write the names of chiefs of the country in a democratic setup.
Answer:
The are two types of chiefs given ahead :

  1. The real chief,
  2. Chief in name only or Nominal Chief.

Like in our country, chief in name is President of the country and Governors of the states. And the real chief is Prime Minister of the country and Chief Minister of the state.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Republic?
Answer:
Where the head of the state is elected by the people it is called republic.

Question 6.
Why do we call India a democratic republic?
Answer:
Because in India, the head of the state is elected by people.

Question 7.
What is democratic monarchy?
Answer:
Here the head of the state, is queen or king, which is an inherited status not an elected one. In England such type of democracy exists.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 8.
Write the basic principle of democracy.
Answer:
The basic principle of democracy is based upon right of equahty and freedom.

Question 9.
What is Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
Where all adults have the right to vote without any discrimination.

Question 10.
Write the types of democratic government on the basis of legislature and executive.
Answer:

  1. Presidential form
  2. Parliamentary form.

Question 11.
Write the types of democratic government on the basis of division of powers.
Answer:
Centralised government, federal government.

Question 12.
“Democracy is not just a type but a life in experiment.” Explain.
Answer:
In democracy, there is no discrimination, no rich-poor divide, no female-male divide. Every person can develop his or her personality. Success is not granted on the basis of caste or place of birth. So, Democracy is not just a type of government but a life in experiment.

Question 13.
What do you mean by dictatorial government?
Answer:
The authority is in the hands of a single person or a few persons in such government. The elections are not conducted and the government is not run according to the will of general public. The power is concentrated in the hands of dictator. His word is law. The people have to work according to the will of dictator.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality

Question 14.
Write about the emergence of the principle of equality.
Answer:
Freedom and eqpality are the bases of democracy. These beliefs developed due to England revolution and French Revolution in 17th century and 18th century respectively. In the beginning, the right to vote was available only to rich people but because of the need of time all adults were given the right to vote. This is called the Universal Adult Franchise. It is based on the law of equahty.

In 19th and 20th century, the equahty right of democracy become more prominent. This right was limited earlier to political area only. But now’in economic and social areas, the right to equahty is being emphasized. The people have been given many freedoms also. In this, the freedom of expression is most important.

Question 15.
What do you mean by Parliamentary Democracy?
Answer:
The Parhamentary Democracy is considered the best government but there are certain conditions to make the democracy successful which are as follows :
1. Alert citizens: Public opinion is the basis of democracy. So, the citizens must be very alert. It means that pubhc should be politically mature. Only then they can keep a check on their representatives.

2. Capable leaders: If the government is run by educated leadership, the government will be capable. Only wise voters can elect such leadership.

3. Disciplined citizens and political parties: People need to be disciplined and only then they can criticize the wrong policies of the government and can compel the government to work properly. People must respect each other’s ideas. When the political ideology is different, different political parties come into existence. The representatives of the people are elected through elections. So, the political parties should also be very alert and disciplined.

4. Social and economic equality: There is no difference between the rich and poor. The democracy cannot succeed if there are differences of caste, religion and language.

5. Tolerance: In democracy, there is a rule of majority. So, the ruling party must be tolerant. The opposition should also adopt the policy of tolerance which is a prominent feature of democracy.

Democracy and Equality PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Democracy: It means rule of the general public. The power to administer lies with the public.
  • Freedom and Equality: These are two pillars of democracy.
  • Lawful Administration: It means where the administration runs according to the predetermined Constitution. The chief of the state cannot apply his will over the public and the public reserves the right to question his activities.
  • Direct Democracy: Here the public itself manages the administration which is not possible in this age.
    Indirect Democracy: Here the administration is run by people’s representatives. So the election process is more important in indirect democracy.
  • Democracy and Political Parties: Political parties control the Govt. The opposition criticises the government and controls its activities.
  • Referendum: Its role is major for the success of democracy.
  • Elections: Special place of elections in democracy. People change the incapable government through elections.
  • Adult Franchise: All adults have the right to vote and it is based on the law of equality.
  • Dictatorship: The power of administration is concentrated in a single hand or in a few hands. Elections are not held in such countries and discretionary powers are exercised by the dictator.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB India in the Eighteenth Century Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Name any four regional powers which rose in the 18th century.
Answer:
South Indian Powers. Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan from Mysore.
North Indian powers. Bengal, Avadh, Bundelkhand, Mathura, Punjab.

Question 2.
Give an account of the rise of Avadh in 18th century.
Answer:
Saadat Khan. He was the founder of free state of Avadh. He became the Subedar of Avadh in 1722 A.D. under the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. He improved the economic conditions of the state. He gave special attention towards agriculture. In 1739 A.D. he died.

Safdarjung: After the death of Saadat Khan, Safdarjung became the king. In 1754 A.D., he won the areas of Rohelkhand. In 1775 A.D. he died.

Shujauddaula and Asaf-ud-Daulah. After this, Shujauddaula and Asaf-ud-Daulah became the rulers of Avadh. The English Governor-General Warren Hastings compelled Asaf-ud-Daulah to enter into treaty of Faizabad. He even compelled Asaf-ud-Daulah to increase the amount payable to the English army. In 1797 A.D. Asaf-ud-Daulah died.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
How did the Sikhs rise to power in the 18th century?
Answer:
In the 18th century, there was a long struggle between Mughals and the Sikhs. This struggle made the Sikhs very powerful.
Sikhs Under Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The Mughals were very cruel towards Sikhs. Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji decided to make Sikhs brave warriors. So, to fulfil this objective he founded ‘Khalsa Panth’ in 1699 A.D. After this, there were many battles between the Sikhs and the Muslims. These include the first and second battles of Anandpur Sahib, the battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana. In the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, two elder sons of Guruji Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh became martyrs. In 1705 A.D., Guruji defeated Mughals in the battle of Khidrana/Muktsar. In 1708 A.D., Guruji left for his heavenly abode. Before this, he gave the leadership of Sikhs to Banda Bahadur.

Sikhs Under Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur started his victories in 1709 A.D. from Kaithal. After this, he won Samana, Kapuri and Sadhaura. Banda Bahadur decided to take revenge of the martyrdom of sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. So, he won Jalalabad, Karnal, Panipat, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Kalanaur and Pathankot. In this way he established the Sikh’s state in Punjab. He made Lohgarh his capital. In 1715 A.D., the Mughals captured Banda Bahadur and his companions. They were sent to Delhi where on 19th June, 1716, they were put to death.

Cruelty on Sikhs by Punjab Governors
1. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Abdus Samad Khan the governor of Punjab in 1716 A.D. He killed numerous Sikhs during his administration period. So, Mughal emperor gave him the designation of the ‘Sword of the State’.

2. In 1726 A.D., the son of Abdus Samad Khan, Zakaria Khan was appointed the Punjab Governor. He adopted a strong policy to crush the Sikhs. He killed Sikhs in great number. In his administration personalities like Bhai Mani Singh, Mehtab Singh, Bhai Taru Singh and Haqiqat Rai were put to death. But he didn’t succeed in crushing the Sikhs.

3. In 1745 A.D., the son of Zakaria Khan, Yahiya Khan became the governor of Punjab. He also continued with the crushing policy. He attacked the Sikhs in Kahnowal (Gurdaspur). During this attack, seven thousand Sikhs were killed and 3000. Sikhs were made prisoners. This incident is known as ‘First Holocaust’.

4. In 1748 A.D., Mir Mannu became the governor of Punjab. He also killed Sikhs in great number. But still the Sikhs organised themselves as a powerful identity.

The invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali and the establishment of an independent Sikh state in Punjab. Ahmad Shah Abdali was the ruler of Afghanistan. He attacked the Punjab eight times. In 1765, the Sikhs captured Lahore and declared themselves free. But because of lack of some leaders they organised themselves into small groups. These groups were called ‘Misls’. These were 12 in number. Every Misl had a chief, but at the end of 18th century the chief of Shukarchakiya Misl Maharaja Ranjit Singh organised the Misls and established a free state in Punjab.

Question 4.
How did Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan make Mysore powerful?
Answer:
Hyder Ali. Hyder Ali became the ruler of Mysore in 1761 A.D. He made the administration of Mysore very efficient. He respected all the religions. He appointed many Hindus on high posts. He fought many battles with Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad, rulers of Karnataka and with the English. There were two battles between English and Hyder Ali known as Anglo-Mysore battles. In the first, Anglo-Mysore battle Hyder Ali defeated the English very badly. In 1780 A.D., there was second battle. The battle was continuing when he died. –

Tipu Sultan. After the death of Hyder Ah, his son Tipu Sultan became the ruler of Mysore. He was also a capable ruler like his father. He was also known as the Tiger of Mysore’. He was a great patriot. He wanted to end the tyrannical rule of the English. So, he modernized his army. In 1799 A.D., in the fourth battle of Mysore with the English, he was killed.

Question 5.
Discuss the role of Shivaji in establishing the Maratha Empire.
Answer:
Shivaji was a great patriot. He wanted to establish a free Hindu state by finishing the tyrannical Mughal rule.
Initial Victories .

  1. The first victory was of the^Toran Fort (1646 A.D.). In 1648 he occupied Sinhgarh, Purandhar, and Konkan forts.
  2. He killed Jawli chief Chand Rao and occupied Jawli also.
  3. The increasing power of Shivaji made the Sultan of Bijapur a worried person. So, he sent his general Afzal Khan to kill Shivaji. Afzal Khan wanted to kill Shivaji but he himself was killed attempting this. At last, Shivaji and the Sultan of Bijapur entered into a treaty.

Battle with Mughals. Now Shivaji started attacking the Mughal-occupied areas. Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan to control Shivaji but he made him run away from Pune. Now, Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh and Prince Muazzam. Jai Singh snatched many forts from Shivaji and compelled him to enter into a treaty. Shivaji reached Agra where he was imprisoned, but he ran away and reached successfully to Maharashtra. In 1674, he attained the title of ‘Chhatrapati’. He continued his battles with Mughals and won the areas of Jinji, Vellore and Tanjore. In 1680, he died.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Muhammad Shah ruled from ________
Answer:
1719 A.D. to 1748 A.D.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 2.
Murshid Quli Khan was the ________ of Bengal and Orissa.
Answer:
Subedar

Question 3.
Hyder Ali was the ruler of ________
Answer:
Mysore

Question 4.
Saadat Khan became the Subedar of Avadh in ________ AD.
Answer:
1722

Question 5.
Shivaji was the founder of ________ empire.
Answer:
Maratha

Question 6.
Gokul was the leader of ________
Answer:
Jats

Question 7.
Banda Singh Bahadur‘s original name was
Answer:
Lachhman Das.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
Farrukhsiyar became the ruler of Delhi.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 2.
Murshid Quli Khan was the Subedar of Avadh.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Nizam-ul-Mulk founded the state of Hyderabad.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Shivaji was succeeded by his brother Raja Ram.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Balaji Rao became third Peshwa in 1740 A.D.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Badhan Singh was the successor of Gokul.
Answer:
False

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 7.
Banda Singh Bahadur established a Sikh state in Punjab.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns:

Question 1.

Column A Column B
1. Bahadur Shah A. died in 1739 A.D.
2. Shuja-ud-din B. on 20 April 1627.
3. Hyder Ah C. died in 1712 A.D.
4. Tipu Sultan was known D. as the Tiger of Mysore.
5. Shivaji was born E. died in 1782 A.D.
6. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji F. was on 22 Dec. 1666 A.D.
7. Khalsa Panth G. was founded on 13 April 1699 A.D.

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Bahadur Shah C. died in 1712 A.D.
2. Shuja ud din A. died in 1739 A.D.
3. Hyder Ah E. died in 1782 A.D.
4. Tipu Sultan was known D. as the Tiger of Mysore.
5. Shivaji was born B. on 20 April 1627.
6. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji F. was on 22 Dec. 1666 A.D.
7. Khalsa Panth G. was founded on 13 April 1699 A.D.

V. Activity :

Question 1.
On the outline map of India, mark the extents of kingdoms that declared themselves independent during the Mughal empire in the 18th century.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of Indian Map.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide India in the Eighteenth Century Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When was the third battle of Panipat fought?
(a) 1750 A.D.
(b) 1755 A.D.
(c) 1761 A.D.
(d) 1766 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1761 A.D.

Question 2.
Why was Mughal Empire declined?
(a) Depleted financial and military resources
(b) Increasing power of nobles
(c) Peasant and Zamindari rebellions
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
When did Nadir Shah attack and capture city of Delhi?
(a) 1739 A.D.
(b) 1741 A.D.
(c) 1737 A.D.
(d) 1743 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1739 A.D.

Question 4.
How many times Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India from 1748 till 1761 A.D.?
(a) Two
(b) Five
(c) Seven
(d) Four.
Answer:
(b) Five.

Question 5.
Which of these groups of nobles was there in Mughal court?
(a) Irani’s
(b) Turani’s
(c) Both a and b
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Both a and b.

Question 6.
Which of these emperors was killed by Mughal nobles?
(a) Aurangzeb
(b) Farrukh Siyar
(c) Shah Alam II
(d) Ahmad Shah.
Answer:
(b) Farrukh Siyar.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who were latter Mughals?
Answer:
The Mughals who ruled after the death of Aurangzeb were called latter Mughals. They were so powerless and incapable that they could not control the far off states of the Mughal Empire.

Question 2.
Write one reason for the rise of independent states in India in 18th century.
Answer:
In 1707, A.D., the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died and in the period of his weak successors many powers established their independent states.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
How did Murshid Quli Khan increase his power?
Answer:
Murshid Quli Khan increased his power by annexing Bihar and Orissa to his state.

Question 4.
Write the names of two successors of Bengal ruler Murshid Quli Khan.
Answer:
Two successful successors were Shuja-ud-din and Aliwardi Khan.

Question 5.
Where and when did Alivardi Khan rule?
Answer:
Alivardi Khan ruled over Bengal from 1740 to 1756 A.D.

Question 6.
Who established the free state of Hyderabad and when?
Answer:
This state was founded by Nizam-ul-mulq-Asifjah in 1724 A.D.

Question 7.
Write two works of Hyderabad Nizam.
Answer:

  1. He established law and order and brought important improvements in the administration.
  2. He treated Hindus and Muslims equally.

Question 8.
Give any one reason for the decline of Hyderabad state.
Answer:
In 1748 the powerful ruler Nizam Asifjah died. His successors proved incapable and the state declined.

Question 9.
Who was the founder of the independent state of Awadh? What was his designation?
Answer:
The founder was Saadat Khan, he had the designation of Buhran-ul-Mulk.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 10.
Write some important works of Saadat Khan, the independent ruler of Awadh.
Answer:
Saadat Khan introduced a new land policy that greatly benefited the farmers.

Question 11.
Who was the successor of Saadat Khan? (the ruler of Avadh)? Write his one success.
Answer:
The successor of Saadat Khan was his nephew and son-in-law Safadar Jung. He annexed Allahabad to his state.

Question 12.
Write the names of two famous foreign invaders of 18th century. When did they invade India?
Answer:
The two famous foreign invaders were Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. Nadir Shah invaded India in 1739 A.D. and Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India five times from 1748 to 1758 A.D.

Question 13.
Which ruler ended the Misl rule in Punjab? To which Misl did he belong?
Answer:
Maharaja Ranjit Singh ended the rule of Misls and established a powerful state of Punjab. He belonged to Shukarchakia Misl.

Question 14.
Write names of two free rulers of Mysore state.
Answer:
Two free rulers were Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.

Question 15.
Who were Peshwas? Who was the very first Peshwa?
Answer:
The prime minister in Maratha kingdom was called Peshwa. Under Sahuji, Peshwas became the real rulers of the Maratha Kingdom. The very first Peshwa was Balaji Vishwanath.

Question 16.
When did Balaji Vishwanath become Peshwa? Write his one achievement.
Answer:
He became Peshwa in 1713 A.D. He got Shahuji’s mother released from the Mughal custody.

Question 17.
Write two successors of Balaji Vishwanath.
Answer:
Baji Rao I and Balaji Baji Rao.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 18.
Write one weakness of Marathas.
Answer:
The Maratha sardars were jealous of each other. Because of this hatred their state declined.

Question 19.
Write any one success of Baji Rao I?
Answer:
Peshwa Baji Rao I won many states and expanded the Maratha state upto Delhi.

Question 20.
Write the names of Jat leaders who struggled against Mughal&
Answer:
The main Jat leaders were Gokul, Raja Ram and Churaman.

Question 21.
When was Shivaji born?
Answer:
In 1627 A.D.

Question 22.
Who was Shaista Khan?
Answer:
He was the maternal uncle of Aurangzeb. He was a capable army general. Aurangzeb appointed him the Governor of South.

Question 23.
Write about the Treaty of Purandhar.
Answer:
The Treaty of Purandhar took place between Mughal general Raja Jai Singh and Shivaji. According to this treaty, Shivaji had to accept the subordination of the Mughals and gave 23 forts to Mughals.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 24.
What was the name of Bijapur official who was sent against Shivaji?
Answer:
His name was Afzal Khan. He was sent by the Sultan of Bijapur.

Question 25.
When did Shivaji ascend the throne? What designation did he attain?
Answer:
Shivaji sat on the throne in 1674 arid he assumed the designation of ‘Chhatrapati’.

Question 26.
Who was the faujdar of Sirhind at the time of Banda Bahadur and in which battle did Banda Bahadur kill him?
Answer:
At that time Wazir Khan was the faujdar of Sirhind. Banda Bahadur killed him in the battle of Chapparchiri.

Question 27.
How did Shivaji kill Afzal Khan?
Answer:
Afzal Khan wanted to kill Shivaji by fraud. So, he invited Shivaji to meet alone. He also told him that he wanted to enter into a treaty with Shivaji, but Shivaji came to know of his conspiracy. He wore iron cover under his clothes and took a dagger with him. Both of them embraced each other. Afzal Khan tried to put a knife into Shivaji’s stomach but Shivaji quickly put the dagger into his tummy and killed Afzal Khan.

Question 28.
Describe the confrontation of Shivaji with Shaista Khan.
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb wanted to demolish the increasing power of Shivaji. He appointed Shaista Khan, his maternal uncle as the Governor of South. Shaista Khan captured many Maratha forts within 2-3 years and also captured Pune. Shaista Khan had to spend some time in Pune because of rainy season. Shivaji took this opportunity and entered Pune in the form of the marriage party along with 400 soldiers. Towards midnight they attacked the residence of Shaista Khan. In this attack Shaista Khan’s son and his 40 soldiers were killed. With this win Shivaji’s honour increased far and wide.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 29.
Who were the parties in the 3rd battle of Panipat and what were its results?
Answer:
The 3rd battle of Panipat took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and Marathas in 1761 A.D. Ahmad Shah Abdali emerged victorious.

Question 30.
What was the main reason for 3rd battle of Panipat?
Answer:
Marathas had expanded their empire upto Punjab in North India. The ruler of Afghanisthan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, considered Punjab a part of his ruled area. So, to punish Marathas he fought against them in the battlefield of Panipat.

Question 31.
Write any one reason for the defeat of Marathas in the third battle of Panipat.
Answer:
In the battle, the military system of Marathas was not good. Abdali was a skilled general. He made a strategy because of which the Marathas could not get any help from the South side. So, they were defeated.

Question 32.
Write one result of third battle of Panipat.
Answer:
The Maratha power ended because most of their soldiers and generals were killed.

Question 33.
When did Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao die?
Answer:
He died in 1761 A.D. The main reason behind his death-was the Maratha defeat in the 3rd battle of Panipat.

Question 34.
Describe in brief about the latter Mughals.
Answer:
The incapable successors of Aurangzeb are called latter Mughals. The description is as follows :
1. Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712): He ruled for six years but could not control Marathas and Sikhs. He died in 1712.

2. Jahandar Shah: The son of Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah sat on the throne. He ruled for few months. During his administration the Sayyed brothers Hussain Ali and Abdul became very powerful. They wanted to make Jahandar Shah a puppet. When they couldn’t succeed in their efforts, they killed Jahandar Shah.

3. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719): After Jahandar’s death his nephew Farrukhsiyar sat on the throne. He was a king in name only. The real authority was in the hands of Sayyed brothers, Hussain Ali and Abdul. In 1719 A.D. the Sayyed brothers killed him also.

4. Muhammed Shah: Mohammed Shah was another famous ruler. He ruled from 1719-1748 A.D. During his period the influnce of Sayyed brothers had decreased. But he did not try to organise his empire. So, the powerful governors of different parts of the country established their independent states.

5. Bahadur Shah Zafar: He was the last Mughal emperor who was thrown out by the English and the Mughal empire ended.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 35.
Describe the rise and fall of Bengal state.
Answer:
Bengal state was a rich state of Mughal empire. Its governor was Murshid Quli Khan. After the death of Aurangzeb, Murshid Quli Khan established a free state in Bengal. The development of Bengal under these rulers is as follows :
1. Murshid Quli Khan: He was the founder of Bengal state. He increased his power by combining Bihar and Orissa between 1714 and 1718 A.D.

2. Other rulers: Other famous rulers were Shuja-ud-din (1727-1739), Sarfaraz (1739) and Alivardi Khan (1740-1756). All these rulers established law and order in the state. They worked for the development of agriculture, trade and industry. Thus, the Bengal state became very rich.

3. Decline of the state: The Bengal rulers worked for the development of the state. But didn’t pay attention to the defence of the state. As a result, the Bengal state declined.

Question 36.
Describe the rise and fall of Hyderabad state.
Or
Describe the main successes of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the ruler of Hyderabad.
Answer:
Hyderabad was a South Indian state under the Mughal Empire. In 1724 A.D., Nizam-ul-Mulk Asifjah founded an independent state. He showed his faithfulness, towards the then Mughal ruler, Mohammed Shah but it was just on the surface.

Successes of Asifjah. Asifjah was a successful ruler. He established law and order in his state. He treated his Hindu subjects well. He made his army strong and defended his state from powerful Marathas. He died in 1748.

Decline of the state : The successors of Asifjalf were weak and incapable. So, they couldn’t preserve their freedom for a long time.

Question 37.
Write a note on Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur was born on 27th October 1670 in Poonch sector (Jammu). His real name was Lachhman Das. He came in contact with Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Deccan. He was impressed by Guruji and called himself “Guru ka Baiida”. Guruji gave him the designation of “Bahadur”. Thus, he was called Banda Bahadur. On the order of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, he came to Punjab and led the Sikhs. He took revenge from Governor of Sirhind Wazir Khan because he was responsible for the death of the sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Infact, he tried to win all those places where the rulers had tried to torture Guruji. But in the end he was caught. On 19th June, 1716, he was put to death in Delhi. His martyrdom is written in golden words in the history of Punjab.

Question 38.
Write about the rebellion of Jats and Rajputs during the period of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
The period of Aurangzeb was very disturbed. The main reason of the rebellions was the wrong and curel policies of Aurangzeb.
1. The Jats. The Jats turned rebels in 1669 A.D. They killed Mughal governor. The emperor suppressed them very firnjly but the Jats remained uncontrollable.
2. Rajputs. Aurangzeb made Rajput his detractors because of his orthodox and strict policies. As a result, Aurangzeb had to fight a long battle with the Rajputs of Mewar and Marwar. Veer Durga Das of Marwar damaged the Mughal army by indulging in Guirrella warfare.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 39.
Describe the administrative .system of Marathas (Shivaji).
Answer:
Shivaji had founded a free Maratha state. He founded an efficient administrative system in his state.

The main features were as given ahead :

  • Raja: The chief of whole administration was Raja. He was called ‘Chhatrapati’. The Raja had many rights. He could do any work as per his sweet will. He has appointed a council of eight ministers (Asthapradhan).
  • Asthapradhan: It was a council of eight ministers. The highest minister of Asthapradhan was known as ‘Peshwa’.
  • Land arrangement: Shivaji made a new land arrangement to give salaries to soldiers as well as other expenses. He got the whole land measured. There were two taxes known as Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Chauth was charged to defend the people from Mughals.
  • Judicial system: Shivaji was justice lover. He established panchayats to deliver justice at village level.

India in the Eighteenth Century PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Rise of new states: In the 18th century, whatever remained of Mughal empire, many new states emerged. The main were Bengal, Hyderabad, Avadh, Punjab, Mysore and Maratha state.
  • Marathas: The most powerful group of India after the decline of Mughals.
  • Ashtha Pradhan: The council of eight ministers in the period of Shivaji.
  • Peshwa: Chief of Ashtha Pradhan.
  • Punjab: In Punjab, the Gurujis established Sikh Panth. After 10th Guru Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Bahadur established a Sikh state in Punjab.
  • Bengal: In Bengal, the Mughal Subedar Murshid Quli Khan established an independent state. At last the English captured it.
  • Avadh: The founder of the free state of Avadh was Saadat Khan. The nawabs of Avadh gave birth to “Lucknow Culture”.
  • Mysore: In Mysore, Hyder Ali founded an independent state. He snatched the authority from Mysore’s Hindu King Nanjaraj.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB The Development of Regional Cultures Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Write the names of regional languages of North India during the medieval period (800-1200 A.D.).
Answer:

  1. Regional languages developed more in the Sultanate period. All the Bhakti saints throughout India preached in local languages. These languages further took the form of our present languages.
  2. Braj, Avadhi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bengali, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil developed in this period.
  3. Persian was the national language of this period. Therefore Indian languages were highly influenced by the Persian language. Many Persian words became a part of Indian languages.
  4. During this period, the mixture of the Persian and the Hindi language gave birth to Urdu language.
  5. During the Sultanate period, many Sanskrit scriptures were translated into regional languages.

Question 2.
Write the names of regional languages during the Delhi Sultanate period.
Answer:
These were Braj, Avadhi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bengali, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil.

Question 3.
Who was considered the founder of Punjabi literature?
Answer:
The famous Punjabi Sufi Saint Baba Farid Shakkarganj was the founder of Punjabi literature.

Question 4.
How many Vars did Bhai Gurdas compose?
Answer:
He wrote 39 Vars in Punjabi language. He was a great poet. Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji honoured him by saying that these “Vars” are the key to Sri Guru Granth Sahibji.

Question 5.
Name four famous poets who gave an important contribution to Punjabi literature.
Answer:
Shah Hussain, Bulle Shah, Damodar and Waris Shah.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 6.
Give a brief account of Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Sri Adi Granth Sahib Ji was compiled by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji in 1604 A.D. The hymns that were included of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji , Guru Angad Dev Ji, Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji and Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Later on the hymns of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji were also added in Sri Guru Granth Sahibji. Besides, some Hindu saints and Muslim saints have also contributed to Sri Guru Granth Sahibji. In all these holy hymns, praise and respect have been shown towards God. Sri Guru Granth Sahibji has the highest place in the Punjabi literature.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
_________ was the writer of Geet Govinda.
Answer:
Jaidev

Question 2.
Prithviraj Rabo was written by _________
Answer:
Chand Bardai

Question 3.
Adi Granth Sahib was composed by _________ in 1604 A.D
Answer:
Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Question 4.
Krishan Ray was a famous of Sanskrit and Telugu languages.
Answer:
poet

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 5.
Amir Khusro was a _________ musician and poet.
Answer:
famous.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
Ramanuja, Jaideva were the famous Sanskrit writers of Delhi Sultanate.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Abul Fazle did not write Ain-i-Akbari.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Tansen was the most famous singer of Akbar’s court
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Muhammad Tughluq’s portrait is a fine example of painting during the medieval period.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 5.
The art of music did not flourish under the Rajput rulers.
Answer:
False

IV. Match the following :

Question 1.
table-1
Answer:
table-2

V. Activity:

Question 1.
Write a brief essay on the development of Punjabi literature during the medieval period.
Answer:
1. Baba Farid Shakkarganj (1173-1265): He was a famous Sufi saint of Puryab. He is called the founder of Punjabi literature. He wrote his literature in Lehandi or Multani language. His 112 Salokas and 4 Shabads were given a place in Adi Granth Sahib Ji by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469-1539): He started a new age in Punjabi literature. His literature is great from every angle. He wrote Japuji Sahib, Asa-Di-War, Babarvani. Infact Guruji’s contribution is invaluable.

3. Damodar: Damodar was a contemporary of Akbar. He wrote the story of Heer Ranjha in Lehandi or Multani language. It shows the village culture of his times.

4. Waris Shah (1707-1798): Waris Shah has a pride of place in Punjabi literature. He wrote Heer, which is a great contribution to Punjabi literature.

5. Shah Muhammad (1782-1863): He wrote Jang Nama. He has praised the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. This creation is an invaluable treasure of Punjabi literature.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide The Development of Regional Cultures Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
_________ was a Rajput Ruler.
(a) Akbar
(b) Birbal
(c) Prithviraj Chauhan
(d) Shahjahan.
Answer:
(c) Prithviraj Chauhan.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 2.
Which of these was a strong emotion of Rajputs?
(a) Loyalty
(b) Valour
(c) Friendship
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
_________ females used to sit alive on the funeral pyre of their husbands.
(a) Brahmin
(b) Vaishya
(c) Shudra
(d) Rajput.
Answer:
(d) Rajput.

Question 4.
_________ were a caste of storytellers in temples of North India.
(a) Kathak
(b) Brahmins
(c) Vermans
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Kathak.

Question 5.
Legends of Radha Krishna enacted in folk plays called
(a) Ram Lila
(b) Rasa Lila
(c) Jatak Tales
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(6) Rasa Lila.

Question 6.
Which of these is the patronage of Kathak dance?
(a) Wajid Ali Shah
(b) Prithvi Raj
(c) Alauddin Khalji
(d) Iltutmish.
Answer:
(a) Wajid Ali Shah.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 7.
_________ is recognised as one of six classical forms of dance in country after independence.
(a) Bharatnatyam
(b) Kuchipudi
(c) Manipuri
(d) Kathak.
Answer:
(d) Kathak.

Question 8.
Which of these Mughal emperors was patron of highly skilled painters?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Shahjahan
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 9.
Which of these is included in the term Pir?
(a) Animistic spirits
(b) Sufis
(c) Religious personalities
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did Urdu language come into being?
Answer:
The Turks started Persian language in India but with the passage of time, the Hindi and Persian languages got mixed up and a new language Urdu came into being.

Question 2.
Describe the development of languages during the Mughal period.
Answer:
During the Mughal period, Persian language was the most developed language. So, the Mughal period is known as the Golden age of Persian language. Persian was the official language of the Mughal empire. As a result in Punjab, the Persian language developed very fast. Akbar got the translation done of the Ramayana, Mahabharata from Sanskrit to Persian language, Punjabi and Hindi languages also developed greatly. The Urdu language was also being used.

Question 3.
Throw light on the development of literature during Rajput period.
Answer:
Chand Bardai wrote ‘Prithvi Raj Raso\ The state poet of Bengal, Jaidev wrote the epic ‘Geet Govind’ where there is a description of the love of Radha and Krishna. Kalhan wrote a historical scripture ‘Raj Tarangini’. This scripture gives us the knowledge about Kashmir history. ‘Bilhan wrote ‘Vikramank Dev Charit’. It contains the life history of Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. Another magnificent creation in Sanskrit language is called Katha Sarit Sagar. It is a compilation of stories.

Question 4.
Describe the contribution of the following in the Punjabi language and literature.
Answer:
1. Baba Farid Shakkarganj (1173-1265): He was a famous Sufi saint of Puryab. He is called the founder of Punjabi literature. He wrote his literature in Lehandi or Multani language. His 112 Salokas and 4 Shabads were given a place in Adi Granth Sahib Ji by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469-1539): He started a new age in Punjabi literature. His literature is great from every angle. He wrote Japuji Sahib, Asa-Di-War, Babarvani. Infact Guruji’s contribution is invaluable.

3. Damodar: Damodar was a contemporary of Akbar. He wrote the story of Heer Ranjha in Lehandi or Multani language. It shows the village culture of his times.

4. Waris Shah (1707-1798): Waris Shah has a pride of place in Punjabi literature. He wrote Heer, which is a great contribution to Punjabi literature.

5. Shah Muhammad (1782-1863): He wrote Jang Nama. He has praised the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. This creation is an invaluable treasure of Punjabi literature.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 5.
Describe the development in the field of painting in Punjab during Medieval period.
Answer:
Many pictures related to Guru Sahiban have been found to be painted in old scriptures, the walls of Gurdwaras and palaces. For e.g.-In Goindwal, we find the pictures of those 22 persons of Sri Guru Amar Das Ji who were appointed by him under “Manji pratha” to propagate the religion. These pictures throw light on the development of paintings of that time.

Question 6.
Throw light on the contribution of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the development of Punjabi language and literature.
Answer:
Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great poet of Punjabi language. His creations like “Jap Sahib”, “Bachitar Natak”, “Zafar Nama”, “Chandi-Di-Var” and “Akal-ustat” are very important. All these creations are compiled in Dasham Granth. Chandi-Di-Var is considered an invaluable creation of Punjabi literature.

Question 7.
Describe the development in the field of painting during Mughal period.
Answer:
The Mughals were great patrons of the art of painting.
1. Babar and Humayun had this hobby. Babar got his autobiography illustrated with pictures. Humayun brought two famous painters Abdul Sayyed and Sayyed Ali from Iran to Delhi.

2. Akbar established a different department to develop the art of painting. This department illustrated books with pictures of Mughal rulers. Daswant and Basawan were two famous painters of Akbar’s court.

3. Jahangir was also a great painter. During his period, the art of miniature paintings developed. Ustad Mansur, Abdul Hassan, Faruqh Beg, Madav, etc. were famous painters of Jahangir’s court.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures

Question 8.
Describe the development in the field of music during Mughal period.
Answer:
Except Aurangzeb all Mughal rulers were music lovers. So, this art developed during their administration period.

  1. Babar and Humayun were great lovers of music. Humayun would listen to music for two days in a week.
  2. Akbar had hobby in music. He himself was a singer. He had complete knowledge of “sur” and “taal” of music. In his court, there were high standard musicians like ‘Tansen”. Tansen created many ragas. Besides him, there were Ramdas and Baiju Bawra who were also high-standard singers.
  3. Jahangir and Shah Jahan were also music lovers. Jahangir himself was a great singer. He wrote many Hindi songs. Shah Jahan was fond of Dhrupad songs.
  4. During Mughal’period Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled Sri Guru Granth Sahibji on the basis of classic ragas.

Question 9.
What were the achievements of Rajputs in the field of paintings?
Answer:
The painting was done on papers during Rajput period. The “Pal style” and “Apbrash style” were being used during this period. The pictures in Pal style are found in Buddhist scriptures. The colours used are white, black, red and blue. In Apbrash style the red and yellow colours are used more. Such pictures are found in Jain scriptures and mythological scriptures.

Question 10.
Throw some light on the literary achievements during the Mughals in India.
Answer:
1. The Mughal rulers were themselves great scholars, so; there was development of literature during this period. Babar wrote his autobiography “Babarnama” or “Tuzuk-i-Babari”. This book was written in Turkish language.

2. In the court of Akbar, there were great scholars like Sheikh Mubarak, Abul Fazl and Faizi. Abul Fazl wrote “Ain-i-Akbari” and “Akbarnama” Akbar got the translation done of Sanskrit scriptures like “Ramayana”, “Mahabharata”, “Raj Tarangini”, “Panchtantra”, etc. in Persian language.

3. Jahangir also was a scholar of Turkish, Hindi and Persian languages. He also gave patronage to scholars. Famous Hindi writers in his court were Rai Manohar Das, Bhisham Das and Keshav Das.

4. Shah Jahan was also a literature lover emperor. In his period Abdul Hamid Lahori wrote “Badshahnama” and Muhammad Sadiq wrote “Shahjahanama”.

5. Aurangzeb got a book written named Fatwa-i-Alamgiri which was based on Islamic laws. Besides, during his period Khalif Khan wrote a famous book named “Muntkahab-ul-Lubab”.

The Development of Regional Cultures PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Language and Literature (Sultanate period). During this period, language and literature were greatly developed. A new language Urdu developed by the mixture of Hindi and Persian. Many Muslim scholars studied ancient Hindu scriptures. In this period, many important books were written in Hindi language. Chand Bardai wrote ‘Prithvi Raj Raso’, Malik Mohammed Jaisi wrote ‘Padmawat’, Jaidev wrote ‘Geet Govind’ and Kalhan wrote ‘Raj Tarangini’.
  • Mughal Period Literature. Tuzuk-i-Babri’, ‘Humayun Nama’, ‘Akbar Nama’, ‘Ain-i-Akbari’, ‘Badshah Nama’, etc.
  • Punjabi Literature. During the medieval period, the holy writings of Guru Sahebs and other Punjabi poets enriched the Punjabi culture. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Dasham Granth, the writings of Bhai Gurdas Ji came in this period.
  • Art of Painting. There was development of the art of painting as well. Abdus Samad, Mir Sayyad Ali, Sanwaldas, Jagannath, Tarachand, etc. showed their skill with paint brush. All these painters were during the times of Akbar. Akbar respected them. Similarly Jahangir also respected painters in his court. Mohammad Murad, Ustad Mansur, Agha Raza, Mohammad Nadir were his famous painters.
  • Art of Music. The Mughal period did not lack in the art of music. Babar was a good poet. He created poetry and songs. During the times of Akbar,’ ‘Sangeet Samrat Tansen’ and ‘Baiju Bawara’ gave a new standard to the art of music. Aurangzeb was very much against music. During his period this art declined.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 16 The Development of Regional Cultures Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 15 Religious Developments

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Religious Developments Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Which Mughal ruler founded the new sect Din-I-Illahi
Answer:
Mughal ruler Akbar founded Din-i-Illahi.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Advait?
Answer:
It means ‘God and Soul’ are one.

Question 3.
Name main sects of Islam.
Answer:
Two sects of Islam are :

  1. Ulemas
  2. Sufi.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Write the names of the founders of Chisti and Suhravandi sects.
Answer:
Founder of Chisti Sect-Khawja Muinuddin-Chisti.
Founder of Suhravardi Sect-Makhdoom Bahauddin Zukkariya.

Question 5.
What do you know about Ramanuja?
Answer:
Ramanuja was a Tamil Brahamana, who preached Vaishnavism in South India. He taught his followers to worship Vishnu. According to him one should worship God with love and devotion and not perform meaningless practices.

Question 6.
When and where did Ramanand was born?
Answer:
Ramananda was born at Paryag (Allahabad) in 14th century.

Question 7.
Who was Chitanya Mahaprabhu?
Answer:
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He was born in I486 in the Nadia village of Bengal. He started the system of Kirtan. Chaitanya was a famous religious teacher who became a devotee of Krishna and preached in Bengal during the period of the Sultanate.

Question 8.
When and where did Prophet Mohammad was born?
Answer:
Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 A.D. at Mecca.

Question 9.
When and where did Guru Nanak Dev ji was born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev ji was bom in Talwandi in 1469.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 10.
Where did Ravidas was born?
Answer:
Saint Ravidas was bom at Banaras.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The teachings of __________ are contained in the Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
__________ founded a new faith named Din-i-Ilahi.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 3.
Saint Kabir was disciple of __________
Answer:
Ramananda

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Bhakti Saints preached in the __________ of the people.
Answer:
language

Question 5.
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the __________ of Sikhism.
Answer:
Founder

Question 6.
Hazrat Khawaja Muin-ud-din was bom in __________
Answer:
Central Asia

Question 7.
__________ founded Khalsa Panth in 1699 A.D.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa Panth.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The Chisti and Suhrawardi were not the popular Sufi Silsilahs.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The Dargah of Nizam-ud-din Auliya is at Ajmer.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Mira Bai popularized Ram Bhakti.
Answer:
False

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 5.
Alwars popularised devotional songs of Shaivism.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji started the practice of Langar.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns :

Question 1.

Column A Column B
1. Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji (a) A Tamil Brahman, bora on
2. Ravi Das Ji was bom at (b) Allahabad
3. Ramananda Ji was born at (c) Nadia in 1486 in Bengal
4. Ramanuja Ji was (d) Banaras
5. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji was bom in (e) 15 April, 1469 A.D. at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi. now called Nankana Sahib
6. Prophet Mohammad was born (f) in Mecca in 570 A.D.

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji (e) 15 April, 1469 A.D. at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi. now called Nankana Sahib
2. Ravi Das Ji was born at (d) Banaras
3. Ramananda Ji was born at (b) Allahabad
4. Ramanuja Ji was (a) A Tamil Brahman, bora on
5. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji was bom in (c) Nadia in 1486 in Bengal
6. Prophet Mohammad was born (f) in Mecca in 570 A.D.

V. Activities :

Question 1.
Draw a picture of any four Bhakti and Sufi. Saints in your notebook. Write about their main teachings.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 2.
Visit a Gurdwara. Write what you saw there? How did you feel?
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Religious Developments Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Shankara was born in in 8th century.
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Kerala
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Karnataka.
Answer:
(b) Kerala.

Question 2.
Shankara advocated the philosophy of
(a) believe in different souls
(b) Advaita
(c) believe in one soul
(d) illusion of world.
Answer:
(b) Advaita.

Question 3.
Ramanuja was born in Tamil Nadu in century.
(a) 11th
(b) 8th
(c) 10th
(d) 9th.
Answer:
(a) 11th.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Virashaiva movement was initiated by
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Krishna
(c) Basavanna
(d) Shankra.
Answer:
(c) Basavanna.

Question 5.
Which of these was the Saint of Maharashtra?
(а) Janeshwar
(b) Eknath
(c) Namdev
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 6.
Humanist idea says that __________
(a) Treating all humans equally
(b) Sharing everyone’s pain
(c) Giving privilege to nobles
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(c) Giving privilege to nobles.

Question 8.
Muslim scholars developed a holy law called ………………
(a) Penal law
(b) Shariat
(c) Civil law
(d) Public law.
Answer:
(b) Shariat.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 9.
The genealogy of Sufi teachers was known as
(a) Genealogical ancestors
(b) Ancestral post
(c) Silsilas
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Silsilas.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe briefly the main saints of the Bhakti movement.
Answer:
During the medieval period many saints were bom in different parts of India. They included Saint Ramanuj, Ramanandji, Saint Kabir, Saint Ravidas Ji, Sri Guru Nanak Devji and Chaitanya Mahaprabhuji.
1. Ramanuj Ji: The word ‘Bhakti’ means love or devotion of God. It stands for oneness of the devotee’s soul with the Supreme Soul or God. The doctrine of Bhakti was not a new movement. In the South, the early Tamil saints and Swami Ramanuja had preached Bhakti. In the north India the Bhakti movement started in 11th and 12th centuries.

His main teachings were as follows :

  • The relationship between God and the man is based on love.
  • One should worship God with love and devotion.
  • One should not perform meaningless practices, fasts and rituals.
  • Nobody is high or low in the eyes of God.
  • Caste distinctions are man-made as such they are meaningless.

2. Ramanandji: His birth place is Allahabad^JIe preached Rambhakti’ in 14th century. He was the follower of Swami Raghwananda. He preached the worship of ‘Ram-Sita’. He criticized blind faiths and meaningless practices. He was the first preacher who included women as his follower.

3. Saint Kabir. Saint Kabir belonged to Banaras. He had faith in the prayer of God. He was against untouchability. He tried his best’ to fill the gap between Hindus and Muslims:

Religious Doctrines:

  • He never believed in religious differences. He said, “God has many names and to fight on his names is foolishness.”
  • He stressed more on love for God.
  • He stressed more on purification of heart.
  • He condemned idol worship.

4. Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded Sikhism. Following were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji :

  • All men are equal.
  • God is one: Only love and true devotion can take us close to him.
  • He protested against the caste differences and persuaded his followers to . come and eat in a common kitchen. People belonging to different castes took their meal in this common kitchen … (langar).
  • He had no faith in “Bairag on Sanyas”. He advocated the life of a householder.

5. Namdevji: Namdevji was the famous saint of Maharashtra. He preached that God was formless, omnipotent and omnipresent. He inspired people to lead a pure life. He was dead against caste system, pilgrimages, form worship, yajnas, sacrifice system and fasting. His holy poetry has been given a place in Sri Guru Granth Sahibji.

6. Guru Ravidasji: Guru Ravidas Ji was born in Banaras. He believed in the worship of one God. He was dead against caste system, pilgrimages and fasting. He believed in ‘Simran’ (to pray God) and to live a pure life. Many people became the followers of his great thinking.

7. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: He was bom in 1486 in the Nadia village of Bengal. He started the system of Kirtan. Chaitanya was the famous religious teacher who became a devotee of Krishna and preached in Bengal during the period of the Sultanate.

8. Mirabai: Mirabai was a princess of Rajasthan. She gave up her life of luxury and became a devotee of Lord Krishna. She wrote holy songs in praise of Lord Krishna and propagated Krishna Bhakti.

Question 2.
Describe in detail about Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of Sikhism. The ten Gurus are Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Angad Dev Ji, Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Guru Hargobind Ji, Guru Har Rnd Singh Ji. The Sikhs pray in Gurdwaras.

The five distinguished characteristics of the Sikhs.

  1. Kes (Hair)
  2. Kangha (Comb)
  3. Kara (Iron Bangle)
  4. Kirpan (Dagger)
  5. Kachhera (Underwear).

The religious book of the Sikhs.
Adi-Granth is the religious book of the Sikhs.
When Guru Gobind. Singh Ji left for his heavenly abode, he gave the message that the Sikhs should consider holy Guru Granth Sahibji as their Guru from now onwards.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 3.
Describe Sufi Movement and Sufi Saifits.
Answer:
Sufism was a reform movement within Islam which laid emphasis on toleration, free thought and liberal ideas.

Main teachings of Sufism:

  • The Sufis lay emphasis on the principle of ‘tauba’ (repentance) and ‘tawakku (trust in God).
  • Love and devotion are the means of coming nearer to God.
  • Prayers, fasts and rituals are useless.
  • There can be many paths to reach God.
  • They preached religious tolerance.
  • They emphasized respect for all human beings.
  • It is necessary to follow the teachings of a pir or Guru.
  • Devotional music is one way of coming close to God.

Sufi Saints: The most famous is Sheikh Muinuddin-Chishti of Ajmer. Other famous Sufi Saints are Sheikh Qutb-ud-din Bhakhtiar Kaki, Baba Farid, Hazrat Nizam-ud-din Auliya and his disciple Nasir-ud-din Chiragi.

Question 4.
Describe Hindu religion during Saltanate period.
Answer:

  1. Shaivism: During 9th century Sri Shankaracharya established Shaivism. His followers are known as Shaivs and they follow the prayers of Lord Shiva.
  2. Vaishnavism: The followers of Vaishnavism worshipped Sri Ram and Sri Krishna. Ramanandji preached ‘Ram Bhakti’ and Chaitanya preached Krishna Bhakti.

Question 5.
Who were Ulemas?
Answer:
Ulemas were the religious leaders of Muslims. They recited the ‘Quran’, ‘Hadis’ and other religious scriptures. They sermonized about leading a religious and pure life.

Question 6.
Write about the life, travels (Udasis) and teachings of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Brief history of life. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s birthday is on 15 April, 1469 and birthplace is Talwandi. These days it is called Nankana Sahib. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu Ram Ji and mother’s name was Tripta Devi Ji. The name of his sister was Bibi Nanaki. Guruji was married to the daughter of Batala resident Sri Mulchand. Her name was Sulakhani Devi Ji. At that time his age was 14 years. Two sons were bom to him named Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

After marriage Guruji went to Sultanpur to his sister Bibi Nanaki. Here he got a job at Daulat Khan’s godown. Guruji went to Bein river to take a bath daily. Once he went to Bein river and did not come out for three days. The period gave him true enlightenment and Guru uttered these words-‘Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Muslman’.

Udasis:

  1. Sri Guru Nanak Devji started his Udasis after his enlightenment. He wanted to show the right path of living to the lost mankind. In his first Udasi he went to Sayyedpur, Talumba, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Haridwar, Banaras, Gaya, Kamrup, Decca and Jagannathpuri.
  2. In his second Udasi he went to South India and Sri Lanka.
  3. His third Udasi was upto Kailash Parbat, Ladakh, Hasan Abdal, etc.
  4. In his fourth Udasi, Guruji went to Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, etc.
  5. After this Guruji came to Kartarpur and continued to preach good conduct to people in Punjab. Some historians called it the fifth Udasi of Guruji.

Teachings:

  • God is one.
  • God is creator of Universe.
  • All men are equal.
  • God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
  • Dispose your ‘Ego’ off.
  • Guru is great.
  • Always pray to God (Naam Simran).
  • Don’t believe in shallow and false customs and traditions.
  • Discrimination on the basis of caste is meaningless.
  • Man must lead a pure life.

Guru Nanak Devji in Kartarpur: Guruji spent the last 18 years of his life in Kartarpur. Before he left for his heavenly abode in 1539, he appointed Bhai Lahna as his successor.

Guruji’s Literature: Includes Japuji Sahib, Asa Di War, Var Majh, Var Malhar, Barah Maha.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 7.
Explain in brief the religious and communal development in south India during medieval period.
Answer:
Main Religions. During medieval period in south India most people followed Hinduism. They worshipped gods and goddesses. Many kings were also patrons of Buddhism and Jainism. During this time the Christianity and Islam etc. religions were also prevalent in India.

Religious Communities. Many religious movements were born during this period. There were ‘Alwar’ and ‘Nayanar’ saints. While Nayanars worshipped Lord Shiva, Alwars worshipped Lord Vishnu. The Lingayat community was very popular, The followers worshipped Shivling.

Great Saints. The great saints during this period gave the message of attaining knowledge. The famous saint Shankaracharya gave the massage of ‘Adwait Philosophy*, which means that God and his creation are one and the same. Saint Ramanuja was another saint of Bhakti movement. He was Tamil Brahmin. He gave the serman of adopting the path of worship. He said in very uncertain terms that to worship God, it is necessary to have love and faith in mind. Madhavji was the worshipper of Lord Krishna. He propagated Vaishnavism in 13th century. He believed that knowledge, action and worship are the three important means to attain salvation. He gave the sermon of leading a simple and pure life.

Question 8.
Write short notes on the followings :
1. Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Answer:
Udasis or Travels of Sri Guru Nanak Devji :

  • Sri Guru Nanak Devji started his Udasis after his enlightenment. He wanted to show the right path of living to the lost mankind. In his first Udasi he went to Sayyedpur, Talumba, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Haridwar, Banaras, Gaya, Kamrup, Decca and Jagannathpuri.
  • In his second Udasi he went to South India and Sri Lanka.
  • His third Udasi was upto Kailash Parbat, Laddakh, Hasan Abdal, etc.
  • In his fourth Udasi, Guruji went to Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, etc.
  • After this Guruji came to Kartarpur and continued to preach good conduct to people in Punjab. Some historians called it the fifth Udasi of Guruji.

2. Basic Tenets of Islam
Answer:
Basic tenets of Islam :

  • There is no God except ‘Allah’ and Mohammad is his ‘Paigambar’.
  • Every Muslim should bow to ‘Allah’ (Namaz) five times daily.
  • Every Muslim should fast in the month* of ‘Ramzan’.
  • Every Muslim must make a pilgrimage to *Mecca’ once in his lifetime.
  • Every Muslim must give a donation (Zakat) out of his pure earnings.

3. Basic Tenets of Sikhism.
Answer:
Basic tenets of Sikhism:

  • God is one.
  • God is creator of Universe.
  • All men are equal.
  • God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
  • Dispose of your ‘Ego’.
  • Guru is great.
  • Always pray to God (Naam Simran).
  • Don’t believe in shallow and false customs and traditions.
  • Discrimination on the basis of caste is meaningless.
  • Man must lead a pure life.

Question 9.
What are the five sacred emblems of Sikhism?
Answer:
Kes, Kangha, Kara, Kachhera and Kirpan are five sacred emblems of Sikhism.

Question 10.
Mention the names of main Bhakti saints of India.
Answer:
Ramanuja, Ramananda, Saint Kabir, Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Namdeva Ji, Guru Ravi Das Ji, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji, Mirabai etc.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 11.
What do you know about Bhakti Movement? What were the basic principles?
Answer:
The word ‘Bhakti’ means love or devotion of God. It stands for oneness of the devotee’s soul with the Supreme Soul or God. The doctrine of Bhakti was not a new movement. In the South, the early Tamil Saints and Swami Ramanuja had preached Bhakti. In the north India the Bhakti movement started in 11th and 12th centuries.

Chief Features of the Bhakti Movement or Main Teachings of the Bhakti Reformers :
The Bhakti saints or reformers taught that :

  1. The relationship between God and the man is based on love.
  2. One should worship God with love and devotion.

Question 12.
What is the contribution of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great saint of Bhakti Movement. He was born in Talwandi in 1469 A.D. These days this place is in Pakistan and is known by the name of ‘Nankana Sahib’.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. Following were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his contribution to Bhakti movement :

  1. All men are equal.
  2. The God is one. Only love and true devotion can take us close to him.
  3. He protested against the caste differences and persuaded his followers to come and eat in a common kitchen. People belonging to different castes took their meal in this common kitchen (langar).
  4. He had no faith in “Bairag or Sanyas”. He advocated the life of a householder.

Question 13.
Give an accojunt of religious system and cults during the Mughal period.
Answer:
The Muslims followed Islam and as the ruling class was Muslim, the administration was based on Muslim culture, but Akbar the great adopted the policy of religious tolerance. He was impressed by the liberal ideas of Sufi saints. It is said that Akbar even traveled to Amritsar. In 1575 A.D., he built an Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur SikrL He also started a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi. The Bhakti movement also changed the outlook of the people. After Akbar’s death, Jahangir and Shah Jahan adopted the same religious policy but Aurangzeb reversed this policy, which adversely affecfed the Mughal empire. But we can say that the Mughal period was a period of transformation on the religious side.

The ideas of Bhakti and Sufism spread throughout the length and breadth of India. It had a great effect on the country.

  • It created a spirit of love and affection among different sections of the Indian society.
  • It created a spirit of religious tolerance. Consequently,the Hindus and the Muslims came closer to one another.
  • Both the Sufis and Bhakti teachers taught in the common language of the people. As a result different regional languages developed during this period.
  • Some new religious sects like the Kabir Panth and Sikhism grew as a result of this movement.
  • The caste system became less rigid.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 14.
What do you know about the Sufi Movement? What were the basic principles of this movement?
Answer:
Sufism was a reform movement within Islam which laid emphasis on toleration, free thought and liberal ideas.
The founding of “Chishti Silsila”. In Ajmer Khwaza Muinuddin Chisti founded ‘Chishti Silsila’. Similarly in Multan Makhdoom Bahauddin Zukkariya foimded ‘Suhravardi Silsila’. Both these ‘silsilas’ had separate religious beliefs.
Main techings of Sufism

  1. The Sufis lay emphasis on the principle of tauba’ (repentance) and ‘tawakkuT (trust in God).
  2. Love and devotion are the means of coming nearer to God.
  3. Prayers, fasts and rituals are useless.
  4. There can be many paths to reach God.
  5. They preached religious tolerance.
  6. They emphasized respect for all human beings.
  7. It is necessary to follow the teachings of a pir or Guru.
  8. Devotional music is one way of coming close to God.

Question 15.
What do you know about the Hindu religion?
Answer:
During this period, Hindu religion was the most followed religion. Many Gods and Goddesses were worshipped. During Rajput period, this religion developed increasingly. Both Shaivism and Vaishnavism were popular in north India. The followers of Shaivism worshipped Lord ‘Shiva’ and ‘Maa Durga’. The followers of Vaishnavism worshipped Lord Vishnu’ and Maa Laxmi’. The followers of Shakti also worshipped many gods and godesses. The important goddesses were Maa Parvati, Maa Durga, Maa Lakshmi, Maa Saraswati, Maa Chandika and Maa Ambika. During this period the influence of Buddhism and Jainism had declined.

Religious Developments PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Main Religions of the World: Hinduism, Buddhism Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism.
  • Islam: This religion was founded by Prophet Hazrat Mohammad. The main scripture of Islam is The Quran’, which includes the directions about different aspects of life.
  • Sikhism: This religion was founded by Sri Guru Nanak Devji. After him, nine Gurujis developed the Sikh Panth. The main scripture of this religion is ‘Sri Guru Granth Sahibji’. ,
  • Sufism: Sufism is the liberal form of Islamic religion. The followers of this religion were known as ‘Pirs’. They used black coloured blankets, which were called Sufi, so these Pirs were called Sufis.
  • Bhakti Movement: To do away with the religious and social evils, there was a Bhakti movement, in India during the medieval period. The main feature of this movement was that it was not propagated by any one great man, but by different holy men in different areas. But still the principles of the Bhakti- movement were the same everywhere.
  • Hinduism: The main classification was Shaiv and Vaishnavs. Shaivism was founded by Shankaracharyaji in 9th century. The main founders of Vaishanvism were Sri Ramanandji and Chaitanya Mahaprabhuji.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 15 Religious Developments Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Which was the main occupation of the tribal people?
Answer:
Agriculture was the main occupation of most of the tribes, but many of the tribes liked the occupation of hunting, gathering or animal husbandry.

Question 2.
What do you mean by the Nomad?
Answer:
Tribal people used to migrate from one place to another in search of food and other things to live. They were known as Nomads.

Question 3.
Where did the people of tribal society live?
Answer:
During the medieval period, tribal people lived in the all parts of the Indian subcontinent. For example, the tribes such as Gonds, Bhils, Kolis, Kui, Oraons and Kuki lived in Meghalaya, Ma nipur, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli etc. Few tribes like Gakhar, Khokhar, Arghoon, Langah, Bloach etc. lived in the many parts of Punjab.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Question 4.
Which tribes were lived in Punjab during the medieval period?
Answer:
Few tribes like Gakhar, Khokhar, Arghoon, Langah Bloach etc. lived in many parts of Punjab.

Question 5.
Who was Sufaka?
Answer:
He was the first ruler of Ahom.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Ahom tribe established kingdom in the territories of present _________
Answer:
Assam

Question 2.
_________ was a prosperous kingdom from 15th to 18th century.
Answer:
Gondwana

Question 3.
The people of Ahom tribe belonged to _________ class of China.
Answer:
Tai-Mongolo-id

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Question 4.
Queen Durgawati was famous _________ ruler.
Answer:
Gond.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Societies which does not follow the rules given by brahmins and were not divided into many unequal classes were known as
(a) Urban society
(b) Rural society
(c) Tribal society
(d) Modem society.
Answer:
(c) Tribal society.

Question 2.
Which of these is the feature of tribal society?
(a) United by kinship bonds
(b) Obtained livelihood by agriculture
(c) Have their own different religion, culture and language
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
Which tribe was influential in Punjab in 13thl and 14th centuries?
(a) Gokkhars
(b) Khokhar
(c) Gond
(d) Bhil.
Answer:
(b) Khokhar.

Question 4.
Which of these was the large and powerful tribe of north west?
(a) Balochi
(b) Gonds
(c) Gakkhar
(d) Bhils.
Answer:
(a) Balochi.

Question 5.
Which tribe was living in western Himalaya?
(a) Nagas
(b) Gaddis
(c) Ahoms
(d) Cheros.
Answer:
(b) Gaddis.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Question 6.
Which tribe had their homes in Maharashtra highlands, Karnataka and Gujarat?
(a) Bhils
(b) Gonds
(c) Koragas
(d) Kolis.
Answer:
(d) Kolis.

Question 7.
Who moved over long distance with their animals?
(a) Rural nomadics
(b) Gaddi people
(c) Nomadic pastoralists
(d) Ahoms.
Answer:
(c) Nomadic pastoralists.

Question 8.
Nomadic pastoralists used to exchange their products of wool, ghee, with settled agriculturalists for
(a) Grain
(b) Utensils
(c) Cloth
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Tribal Society?
Answer:
Tribal society is a society which lives very much away from our civilisation i.e. in forests, valley’s and mountains. They have their own culture, language etc. and they never liked to be interfered by any one.

Question 2.
How did the historians write the history of tribal society?
Answer:
During the medieval period, the tribals never maintained any written records about them. They used to perform their social traditions and customs. These customs continued from one generation to another. These social traditions and customs helped the historians to write the history of tribal society.

Question 3.
Where did the Ahom and Naga tribes live?
Answer:
Ahom, Naga, and few other tribes lived in the north-eastern parts of the Indian subcontinent.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Question 4.
Where did the Munda and Santhal tribes live?
Answer:
Munda and Santhal tribes lived in the territories of the present Bihar and Jharkhand.

Question 5.
Where did the Kuli, Brado tribes live?
Answer:
Kuli and Brado tribes lived in the hilly areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Kuli’s also lived in some parts of Gujarat.

Question 6.
What were the main professions of the tribal people?
Answer:
Main profession of the tribal people was agriculture. But many of them still lived in the ancient conditions and that is why they used to do hunting and food gathering. Many of the tribes also did pastoralism in which they used to rear animals for milk, meat and other purposes.

Question 7.
What type of life the nomadic people had during the medieval period?
Answer:
During the medieval period, occupation of the nomads was grazing the animals. Most of the times they moved far away for grazing the animals. They used to earn by animal breeding as well. They used to exchange butter made from milk of animals and wood with corn, clothes, utensils etc. with the farmers. They also moved from one place to another for selling their goods fry loading these goods on their animals.

Question 8.
Explain in brief about the Grocer dynasty.
Answer:
During the medieval period, members of Grocer dynasty were famous as the nomadic merchants among the many other dynasties of the nomadic people. For example, during the times of Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Grocers transported the corn by loading on the bulls to sell in the cities. They transported the eatables on the bulls for the Mughal army during the war time.

Question 9.
What facilities are provided to the tribal people of the Indian Government?
Answer:
Government, of India has provided a number of facilities to tribal people to uplift their social status. A number of vocational training institutions are opened up in the tribal areas. Tribal people are provided with bank loans so that they can improve their economic condition. They are also provided with 7.5% reservation in government jobs and educational institutions. Even many constituencies are reserved for them in Lok Sabha and many State Assemblies.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Question 10.
Give a brief introduction of the life of tribes living in jungles and nomadic tribes.
Answer:
The tribes mostly live in Manipur, Meghalya, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Dadra and Nagar Haweli. These includes tribes like Bheels, Gonds, Ahoms, Kuis, Cohns, Kukis, etc. Generally they live in jungles. The govt, had made many efforts to improve their situation.

Question 11.
Give an account of the Ahoms and their state formation.
Answer:
The Ahom tribe ruled from 13th to 19th century on modern Assam. Their relation was with the Tai-Mongolo-id group of China. They came from China in 13th century. ‘Sufaka’ was the first Ahom ruler of Assam. He ruled from 1228 A.D. to 1268 A.D. The Ahoms defeated many local rulers, which included dynasties like Kachari, Moran and Nagaseta. Thus the Ahoms expanded their state to Brahamputra valley. Their, capital was Gorgoan.

The Ahoms even struggled with Mughals and Bengal states. The Mughals tried to control Assam but could not succeed. At last Aurangzeb captured Gorgoan, but could not keep it for a long time. In 1818 A.D. the people from Burma attacked Assam and the Ahom king ran away. In 1826 A.D. the English reached Assam. They defeated Burmese people and entered into a treaty of ‘Yandaboo’. Thus Assam came under the subordination of the English.

Question 12.
Throw some light on the history of Gonds.
Answer:
This tribe is related to central-India. They live in Western Orissa, Eastern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pardesh, etc. This area is known as Gondwana, because of a large number of Gonds live over here. From 15th to 18th century, many states were established in Gondwana. Rani Durgawati was a famous Gond ruler. Her state was a free state with Jabalpur as the capital. Rani Durgawati was died in battle with Akbar’s army as she refused to accept the subordination of Akbar.

The Gond people have very less necessities of life. Their houses are also very simple. They are also illiterate people.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies

Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Tribal Society: Tribal Society is a society which lives very much away from the modern system and exists in forests, valleys and mountains. They never like to interfere in anyone’s internal matters and never like to be interfered by any one. Against caste system. During the medieval period, a number of tribal societies emerged and they did not obey the rules and customs of caste system.
  • Many occupations: Tribal societies had the main occupation of agriculture but there were few other occupations available for them like hunting, food gathering and pastoralism etc.
  • Many tribes: During the medieval period, many tribes existed in all parts of the Indian subcontinent. Some of them were the Bhils, Gonds, Ahoms, Kuki’s Koli’s, Kui, Oraon etc.
  • Life of the Nomadic groups: Nomads, during the medieval period, lived on rearing of animals. They went far away for grazing their animals. They made both ends with animals breeding. They moved from one place to another for selling their goods by loading on the animals.
  • The Aborn Community: They ruled over Assam. They had come from China. The name of their first ruler was ‘Sufaka’. -They defeated many local tribes.
  • The Gond Tribe: It is a tribe of middle part of India. They are based in states like—western Orissa, eastern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. They established many states from 15th to 18th century. Rani Durgawati was a famous Gond ruler.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 14 Tribes, Nomad and Settled Societies Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Towns, Traders and Craftsmen Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer these questions :

Question 1.
Name any four pilgrimage centres.
Answer:
Nankana Sahib, Amritsar, Kurukshetra, Haridwar, Badrinath, Mathura, Banaras, Jagannath Puri, Dwarka Puri etc. are few of the pilgrimage centres.

Question 2.
Which Guru laid the foundation of Amritsar gnd when?
Answer:
Amritsar is a famous religious place of the Sikhs. It was founded by 4th Guru Sri Guru Ramdas Ji in 1577 A.D. In the beginning, the name of Amritsar was Chak Guru Ramdas. During the time of Sri Guru Ram Das Ji, the work of digging was started on two ponds named Amritsar and Santokhsar, but after Guru Ramdas Ji, fifth Guru Arjan Dev Ji completed this work.

Importance: In 1604 A.D., the placement of Sri Guru Granth Sahibji was done in Sri Harmandar Sahib. In 1609 A.D., Sixth Guru Sri Guru Hargobindji built Shri Akal Takht Sahib in front of Sri Harmandar Sahib. Here, Guruji accepted the gifts of horses and weapons from Gursikhs. Here, discussions were also held on political affairs. Even today, the religious decisions of Sikhs are announced from here. In 1805 A.D., Maharaja Ranjit Singh gave golden covering on the domes of Sri Harmandir Sahib. Since then it has been called ‘The Golden Temple’.

Question 3.
Where the Surat is situated?
Answer:
Surat is a famous port and trading city. It io located in the state of Gujarat. It is a big industrial and trading city. Shivaji plundered it twice and got hold of big riches. During 12th century the Parsis occupied Surat. In 1512 A.D., the Portugese occupied it. In 1573 A.D., Surat came under the control of Akbar and became a major trading city.

In 1612 A.D., the English get many facilities from Emperor Jahangir for trading in Surat. The Portugese, the Dutch and the French also established their trading centres. In 1759 A.D., the English captured the Surat port but they could control it completely in 1842 A.D. The Khwaja-Sahib mosque and nine-Sayyed mosque located here are very famous. The Swami Narain temple and the old Jain temples located here are also very important.

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Amritsar was founded by _________
Answer:
Sri Guru Ramdas Ji

Question 2.
Surat is a _________ city.
Answer:
famous port and trading

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

Question 3.
Nankana Sahib is situated in _________
Answer:
Pakistan

Question 4.
India had many port _________
Answer:
cities.

III. Write True or False against the each statement:

Question 1.
Mohenjodaro was the capital city of Indus valley people.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
In 1629, Shah Jahan made a new capital in Delhi.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Surat was an important pilgrimage centre.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Fatehpur Sikri was the capital town of Mughals.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

Question 5.
Lahore was a commercial town in Medieval period.
Answer:
True

IV. Activity:

Question 1.
Make a list of the following (four each).
(a) Capital towns
(b) Port towns
(c) Commercial towns
(d) Pilgrimage centres
Answer:
(a) Capital towns: Ajmer, Kanauj, Delhi, Agra.
(b) Port towns: Goa, Cochin, Surat, Broach?
(c) Commercial towns: Lahore, Multan, Surat, Ahmedabad.
(d) Pilgrimage centres: Nankana Sahib, Amritsar, Kurukshetra, Haridwar.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Towns, Traders and Craftsmen Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of these is the type of town?
(a) Temple town
(b) Commercial town
(c) Administrative town
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 2.
Which of these was the capital of Chola dynasty?
(a) Thanjavur
(b) Masulipathnam
(c) Surat
(d) Hampi.
Answer:
(a) Thanjavur.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

Question 3.
Kings used to hold courts at _________ to give orders to subordinates.
(a) Temples
(b) Royal courts
(c) Mandapas
(d) Fort.
Answer:
(c) Mandapas.

Question 4.
Who built Rajarajeshvara temple?
(a) Raj Raja IV
(b) Raj Raja I
(c) Sultan of Bijapur
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Raj Raja I.

Question 5.
The process by which cities develop is known as
(a) Civilization
(b) Urbanization
(c) Metropoltian
(d) Modernization.
Answer:
(b) Urbanization.

Question 6.
Pilgrimage centre which slowly developed into townships was
(a) Varindavan
(b) Ajmer
(c) Tiruvannamalai
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 7.
Who gave right to temples to collect taxes from traders?
(a) Kings
(b) Temple authority .
(c) Zamindars
(d) Both (a) or (c).
Answer:
(d) Both (a) or (c).

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give a list of the following during the medieval period.
Answer:

  1. Capital Cities: Lahore, Fatehpur Sikri, Delhi, Agra.
  2. Port Cities: Cochin, Surat, Bharoch, Sopara.
  3. Trading Cities: Delhi, Agra, Surat, Ahmednagar.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

Question 2.
Give two means which give us information about the Mughal administration.
Answer:

  1. The travellogue of Bernier.
  2. The maps prepared by William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe.

Question 2 A.
Write names of any two capital towns of Mughal Empire.
Answer:
Two main capital cities of the Mughal Empire were Delhi and Agra.

Question 3.
How were cities developed?
Answer:
After the development of agriculture, men started living near farms. This gave birth to the concept of villages. When the number of people increased (population), some of these villages became cities. Some of these cities were developed because of the activities of religious personalities, traders, artisans or because of ruling class. These cities, came to be known as capital cities, religious cities, port cities and trading cities.

Question 4.
Give information about the capital cities during the ancient period and the Mughal period. .
Answer:
Ancient period:

  • Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the capital cities of Indus Valley Civilization.
  • During Vedic period, Ayodhya and Inderprasatha were the capital cities.
  • In 600 B.C., 16 states had their own capital cities. The main were Kausambi, Pataliputra and Vaishali.

Rajput Period:

  • Under Rajput rulers, Ajmer, Kanauj, Tripuri, Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, etc. were developed as capital cities.
  • In South India, Kanchi, Badami, Kalyani, Vengi, Devagiri, Manyakhet, Tanjavur and Madurai, etc. were capital cities.

Sultanate and the Mughal periods:

  • During Sultanate period, Lahore and Delhi developed as capital cities.
  • During the dughal period Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri were the capital cities.

Question 5.
In India many port cities were developed. Why?
Answer:
India is sorrounded by the sea on three sides. So, in India many port cities were developed as trading centre.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen

Question 6.
Name two important ports of eastern coast of India during Medieval period.
Answer:
Vishakhapatnam (Modem Andhra Pradesh) and Tamralipti.

Question 7.
Discuss the contribution of traders and artisans in the economic development of India.
Answer:
The Indian traders and artisans gave important contribution in the economic development of India. The Indian artisans were skilled in preparing best quality stock. They were very skilled in textile industry. The cloth prepared by them was world famous whether it was woolen, cotton, silky. The leather goods were also very popular.

In the medieval period, there was development of the art of making alloys. The blacksmiths and’ goldsmiths prepared best quality goods. The traders exported these goods to other countries. And thus, India was turned into a “Golden Sparrow”.

Question 8.
Write about the historical importance of Lahore City.
Answer:
Lahore is a famous city of Pakistan. During the medieval period, it was an important Indian city. During the times of Turk invasion, Lahore was the capital of Hindu ruling dynasty. After that, it remained the capital of Qutub-ud-din Aibak and Iltutmish. Iltutmish later on, made Delhi his capital.

During the times of invasion of Babar, Daulat Khan Lodhi was the Governor of Punjab. During the administration of Mughals, Lahore was«the capital of the state of Punjab. In 1761 A.D., Lahor-e was captured by the Sikhs. In 1799 A.D., Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital. In 1849 A.D. Lahore came under the control of the British. From 1849 to 1947 A.D. Lahore remained the capital of Punjab state. At the time of partition, Lahore! became a part of Pakistan.

Question 9.
Discuss the sources that tell us about towns in Mughal period.
Answer:

  1. The travellogues of a Portuguese visitor named Duarte Barbosa and an English visitor named Ralph Fitch tell us about the cities of that period
  2. The map of Mughal empire in 1629 A.D. shows places like Thatta, Lahore, Surat and Multan. This map was prepared by Hondiu.
  3. The government documents related to the land revenue in the Mughal period give us information about old and new cities.

Towns, Traders and Craftsmen PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Development of Cities: After the development of agriculture, the villages came into existence. The villages expanded and the cities developed.
  • Types of Cities: Cities were of many types such as capitals, temple cities, port cities, trade cities, etc.
  • Traders and Artisans: During the medieval period, the Indian artisans made high quality and high standard goods. The traders exported these goods and India became “The Golden Sparrow’.
  • Surat: Surat was an important industrial and trading town of the medieval period.
  • Lahore: Lahore is located in modern Pakistan. It remained the capital of Punjab for a long time.
  • Amritsar: It is the biggest and the holiest religious place of the Sikhs. In the medieval period, it was an important trading town. Sri Harmandar Sahib located in Amritsar is world famous.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 13 Towns, Traders and Craftsmen Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.