PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 15 Religious Developments

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Religious Developments Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Which Mughal ruler founded the new sect Din-I-Illahi
Answer:
Mughal ruler Akbar founded Din-i-Illahi.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Advait?
Answer:
It means ‘God and Soul’ are one.

Question 3.
Name main sects of Islam.
Answer:
Two sects of Islam are :

  1. Ulemas
  2. Sufi.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Write the names of the founders of Chisti and Suhravandi sects.
Answer:
Founder of Chisti Sect-Khawja Muinuddin-Chisti.
Founder of Suhravardi Sect-Makhdoom Bahauddin Zukkariya.

Question 5.
What do you know about Ramanuja?
Answer:
Ramanuja was a Tamil Brahamana, who preached Vaishnavism in South India. He taught his followers to worship Vishnu. According to him one should worship God with love and devotion and not perform meaningless practices.

Question 6.
When and where did Ramanand was born?
Answer:
Ramananda was born at Paryag (Allahabad) in 14th century.

Question 7.
Who was Chitanya Mahaprabhu?
Answer:
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He was born in I486 in the Nadia village of Bengal. He started the system of Kirtan. Chaitanya was a famous religious teacher who became a devotee of Krishna and preached in Bengal during the period of the Sultanate.

Question 8.
When and where did Prophet Mohammad was born?
Answer:
Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 A.D. at Mecca.

Question 9.
When and where did Guru Nanak Dev ji was born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev ji was bom in Talwandi in 1469.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 10.
Where did Ravidas was born?
Answer:
Saint Ravidas was bom at Banaras.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The teachings of __________ are contained in the Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Question 2.
__________ founded a new faith named Din-i-Ilahi.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 3.
Saint Kabir was disciple of __________
Answer:
Ramananda

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Bhakti Saints preached in the __________ of the people.
Answer:
language

Question 5.
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the __________ of Sikhism.
Answer:
Founder

Question 6.
Hazrat Khawaja Muin-ud-din was bom in __________
Answer:
Central Asia

Question 7.
__________ founded Khalsa Panth in 1699 A.D.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa Panth.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The Chisti and Suhrawardi were not the popular Sufi Silsilahs.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The Dargah of Nizam-ud-din Auliya is at Ajmer.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Mira Bai popularized Ram Bhakti.
Answer:
False

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 5.
Alwars popularised devotional songs of Shaivism.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji started the practice of Langar.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns :

Question 1.

Column A Column B
1. Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji (a) A Tamil Brahman, bora on
2. Ravi Das Ji was bom at (b) Allahabad
3. Ramananda Ji was born at (c) Nadia in 1486 in Bengal
4. Ramanuja Ji was (d) Banaras
5. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji was bom in (e) 15 April, 1469 A.D. at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi. now called Nankana Sahib
6. Prophet Mohammad was born (f) in Mecca in 570 A.D.

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Sri Gum Nanak Dev Ji (e) 15 April, 1469 A.D. at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi. now called Nankana Sahib
2. Ravi Das Ji was born at (d) Banaras
3. Ramananda Ji was born at (b) Allahabad
4. Ramanuja Ji was (a) A Tamil Brahman, bora on
5. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji was bom in (c) Nadia in 1486 in Bengal
6. Prophet Mohammad was born (f) in Mecca in 570 A.D.

V. Activities :

Question 1.
Draw a picture of any four Bhakti and Sufi. Saints in your notebook. Write about their main teachings.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 2.
Visit a Gurdwara. Write what you saw there? How did you feel?
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Religious Developments Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Shankara was born in in 8th century.
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Kerala
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Karnataka.
Answer:
(b) Kerala.

Question 2.
Shankara advocated the philosophy of
(a) believe in different souls
(b) Advaita
(c) believe in one soul
(d) illusion of world.
Answer:
(b) Advaita.

Question 3.
Ramanuja was born in Tamil Nadu in century.
(a) 11th
(b) 8th
(c) 10th
(d) 9th.
Answer:
(a) 11th.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 4.
Virashaiva movement was initiated by
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Krishna
(c) Basavanna
(d) Shankra.
Answer:
(c) Basavanna.

Question 5.
Which of these was the Saint of Maharashtra?
(а) Janeshwar
(b) Eknath
(c) Namdev
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 6.
Humanist idea says that __________
(a) Treating all humans equally
(b) Sharing everyone’s pain
(c) Giving privilege to nobles
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(c) Giving privilege to nobles.

Question 8.
Muslim scholars developed a holy law called ………………
(a) Penal law
(b) Shariat
(c) Civil law
(d) Public law.
Answer:
(b) Shariat.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 9.
The genealogy of Sufi teachers was known as
(a) Genealogical ancestors
(b) Ancestral post
(c) Silsilas
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Silsilas.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe briefly the main saints of the Bhakti movement.
Answer:
During the medieval period many saints were bom in different parts of India. They included Saint Ramanuj, Ramanandji, Saint Kabir, Saint Ravidas Ji, Sri Guru Nanak Devji and Chaitanya Mahaprabhuji.
1. Ramanuj Ji: The word ‘Bhakti’ means love or devotion of God. It stands for oneness of the devotee’s soul with the Supreme Soul or God. The doctrine of Bhakti was not a new movement. In the South, the early Tamil saints and Swami Ramanuja had preached Bhakti. In the north India the Bhakti movement started in 11th and 12th centuries.

His main teachings were as follows :

  • The relationship between God and the man is based on love.
  • One should worship God with love and devotion.
  • One should not perform meaningless practices, fasts and rituals.
  • Nobody is high or low in the eyes of God.
  • Caste distinctions are man-made as such they are meaningless.

2. Ramanandji: His birth place is Allahabad^JIe preached Rambhakti’ in 14th century. He was the follower of Swami Raghwananda. He preached the worship of ‘Ram-Sita’. He criticized blind faiths and meaningless practices. He was the first preacher who included women as his follower.

3. Saint Kabir. Saint Kabir belonged to Banaras. He had faith in the prayer of God. He was against untouchability. He tried his best’ to fill the gap between Hindus and Muslims:

Religious Doctrines:

  • He never believed in religious differences. He said, “God has many names and to fight on his names is foolishness.”
  • He stressed more on love for God.
  • He stressed more on purification of heart.
  • He condemned idol worship.

4. Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded Sikhism. Following were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji :

  • All men are equal.
  • God is one: Only love and true devotion can take us close to him.
  • He protested against the caste differences and persuaded his followers to . come and eat in a common kitchen. People belonging to different castes took their meal in this common kitchen … (langar).
  • He had no faith in “Bairag on Sanyas”. He advocated the life of a householder.

5. Namdevji: Namdevji was the famous saint of Maharashtra. He preached that God was formless, omnipotent and omnipresent. He inspired people to lead a pure life. He was dead against caste system, pilgrimages, form worship, yajnas, sacrifice system and fasting. His holy poetry has been given a place in Sri Guru Granth Sahibji.

6. Guru Ravidasji: Guru Ravidas Ji was born in Banaras. He believed in the worship of one God. He was dead against caste system, pilgrimages and fasting. He believed in ‘Simran’ (to pray God) and to live a pure life. Many people became the followers of his great thinking.

7. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: He was bom in 1486 in the Nadia village of Bengal. He started the system of Kirtan. Chaitanya was the famous religious teacher who became a devotee of Krishna and preached in Bengal during the period of the Sultanate.

8. Mirabai: Mirabai was a princess of Rajasthan. She gave up her life of luxury and became a devotee of Lord Krishna. She wrote holy songs in praise of Lord Krishna and propagated Krishna Bhakti.

Question 2.
Describe in detail about Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of Sikhism. The ten Gurus are Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Angad Dev Ji, Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Guru Hargobind Ji, Guru Har Rnd Singh Ji. The Sikhs pray in Gurdwaras.

The five distinguished characteristics of the Sikhs.

  1. Kes (Hair)
  2. Kangha (Comb)
  3. Kara (Iron Bangle)
  4. Kirpan (Dagger)
  5. Kachhera (Underwear).

The religious book of the Sikhs.
Adi-Granth is the religious book of the Sikhs.
When Guru Gobind. Singh Ji left for his heavenly abode, he gave the message that the Sikhs should consider holy Guru Granth Sahibji as their Guru from now onwards.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 3.
Describe Sufi Movement and Sufi Saifits.
Answer:
Sufism was a reform movement within Islam which laid emphasis on toleration, free thought and liberal ideas.

Main teachings of Sufism:

  • The Sufis lay emphasis on the principle of ‘tauba’ (repentance) and ‘tawakku (trust in God).
  • Love and devotion are the means of coming nearer to God.
  • Prayers, fasts and rituals are useless.
  • There can be many paths to reach God.
  • They preached religious tolerance.
  • They emphasized respect for all human beings.
  • It is necessary to follow the teachings of a pir or Guru.
  • Devotional music is one way of coming close to God.

Sufi Saints: The most famous is Sheikh Muinuddin-Chishti of Ajmer. Other famous Sufi Saints are Sheikh Qutb-ud-din Bhakhtiar Kaki, Baba Farid, Hazrat Nizam-ud-din Auliya and his disciple Nasir-ud-din Chiragi.

Question 4.
Describe Hindu religion during Saltanate period.
Answer:

  1. Shaivism: During 9th century Sri Shankaracharya established Shaivism. His followers are known as Shaivs and they follow the prayers of Lord Shiva.
  2. Vaishnavism: The followers of Vaishnavism worshipped Sri Ram and Sri Krishna. Ramanandji preached ‘Ram Bhakti’ and Chaitanya preached Krishna Bhakti.

Question 5.
Who were Ulemas?
Answer:
Ulemas were the religious leaders of Muslims. They recited the ‘Quran’, ‘Hadis’ and other religious scriptures. They sermonized about leading a religious and pure life.

Question 6.
Write about the life, travels (Udasis) and teachings of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Brief history of life. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s birthday is on 15 April, 1469 and birthplace is Talwandi. These days it is called Nankana Sahib. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu Ram Ji and mother’s name was Tripta Devi Ji. The name of his sister was Bibi Nanaki. Guruji was married to the daughter of Batala resident Sri Mulchand. Her name was Sulakhani Devi Ji. At that time his age was 14 years. Two sons were bom to him named Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

After marriage Guruji went to Sultanpur to his sister Bibi Nanaki. Here he got a job at Daulat Khan’s godown. Guruji went to Bein river to take a bath daily. Once he went to Bein river and did not come out for three days. The period gave him true enlightenment and Guru uttered these words-‘Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Muslman’.

Udasis:

  1. Sri Guru Nanak Devji started his Udasis after his enlightenment. He wanted to show the right path of living to the lost mankind. In his first Udasi he went to Sayyedpur, Talumba, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Haridwar, Banaras, Gaya, Kamrup, Decca and Jagannathpuri.
  2. In his second Udasi he went to South India and Sri Lanka.
  3. His third Udasi was upto Kailash Parbat, Ladakh, Hasan Abdal, etc.
  4. In his fourth Udasi, Guruji went to Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, etc.
  5. After this Guruji came to Kartarpur and continued to preach good conduct to people in Punjab. Some historians called it the fifth Udasi of Guruji.

Teachings:

  • God is one.
  • God is creator of Universe.
  • All men are equal.
  • God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
  • Dispose your ‘Ego’ off.
  • Guru is great.
  • Always pray to God (Naam Simran).
  • Don’t believe in shallow and false customs and traditions.
  • Discrimination on the basis of caste is meaningless.
  • Man must lead a pure life.

Guru Nanak Devji in Kartarpur: Guruji spent the last 18 years of his life in Kartarpur. Before he left for his heavenly abode in 1539, he appointed Bhai Lahna as his successor.

Guruji’s Literature: Includes Japuji Sahib, Asa Di War, Var Majh, Var Malhar, Barah Maha.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 7.
Explain in brief the religious and communal development in south India during medieval period.
Answer:
Main Religions. During medieval period in south India most people followed Hinduism. They worshipped gods and goddesses. Many kings were also patrons of Buddhism and Jainism. During this time the Christianity and Islam etc. religions were also prevalent in India.

Religious Communities. Many religious movements were born during this period. There were ‘Alwar’ and ‘Nayanar’ saints. While Nayanars worshipped Lord Shiva, Alwars worshipped Lord Vishnu. The Lingayat community was very popular, The followers worshipped Shivling.

Great Saints. The great saints during this period gave the message of attaining knowledge. The famous saint Shankaracharya gave the massage of ‘Adwait Philosophy*, which means that God and his creation are one and the same. Saint Ramanuja was another saint of Bhakti movement. He was Tamil Brahmin. He gave the serman of adopting the path of worship. He said in very uncertain terms that to worship God, it is necessary to have love and faith in mind. Madhavji was the worshipper of Lord Krishna. He propagated Vaishnavism in 13th century. He believed that knowledge, action and worship are the three important means to attain salvation. He gave the sermon of leading a simple and pure life.

Question 8.
Write short notes on the followings :
1. Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Answer:
Udasis or Travels of Sri Guru Nanak Devji :

  • Sri Guru Nanak Devji started his Udasis after his enlightenment. He wanted to show the right path of living to the lost mankind. In his first Udasi he went to Sayyedpur, Talumba, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Haridwar, Banaras, Gaya, Kamrup, Decca and Jagannathpuri.
  • In his second Udasi he went to South India and Sri Lanka.
  • His third Udasi was upto Kailash Parbat, Laddakh, Hasan Abdal, etc.
  • In his fourth Udasi, Guruji went to Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, etc.
  • After this Guruji came to Kartarpur and continued to preach good conduct to people in Punjab. Some historians called it the fifth Udasi of Guruji.

2. Basic Tenets of Islam
Answer:
Basic tenets of Islam :

  • There is no God except ‘Allah’ and Mohammad is his ‘Paigambar’.
  • Every Muslim should bow to ‘Allah’ (Namaz) five times daily.
  • Every Muslim should fast in the month* of ‘Ramzan’.
  • Every Muslim must make a pilgrimage to *Mecca’ once in his lifetime.
  • Every Muslim must give a donation (Zakat) out of his pure earnings.

3. Basic Tenets of Sikhism.
Answer:
Basic tenets of Sikhism:

  • God is one.
  • God is creator of Universe.
  • All men are equal.
  • God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
  • Dispose of your ‘Ego’.
  • Guru is great.
  • Always pray to God (Naam Simran).
  • Don’t believe in shallow and false customs and traditions.
  • Discrimination on the basis of caste is meaningless.
  • Man must lead a pure life.

Question 9.
What are the five sacred emblems of Sikhism?
Answer:
Kes, Kangha, Kara, Kachhera and Kirpan are five sacred emblems of Sikhism.

Question 10.
Mention the names of main Bhakti saints of India.
Answer:
Ramanuja, Ramananda, Saint Kabir, Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Namdeva Ji, Guru Ravi Das Ji, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Ji, Mirabai etc.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 11.
What do you know about Bhakti Movement? What were the basic principles?
Answer:
The word ‘Bhakti’ means love or devotion of God. It stands for oneness of the devotee’s soul with the Supreme Soul or God. The doctrine of Bhakti was not a new movement. In the South, the early Tamil Saints and Swami Ramanuja had preached Bhakti. In the north India the Bhakti movement started in 11th and 12th centuries.

Chief Features of the Bhakti Movement or Main Teachings of the Bhakti Reformers :
The Bhakti saints or reformers taught that :

  1. The relationship between God and the man is based on love.
  2. One should worship God with love and devotion.

Question 12.
What is the contribution of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great saint of Bhakti Movement. He was born in Talwandi in 1469 A.D. These days this place is in Pakistan and is known by the name of ‘Nankana Sahib’.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. Following were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and his contribution to Bhakti movement :

  1. All men are equal.
  2. The God is one. Only love and true devotion can take us close to him.
  3. He protested against the caste differences and persuaded his followers to come and eat in a common kitchen. People belonging to different castes took their meal in this common kitchen (langar).
  4. He had no faith in “Bairag or Sanyas”. He advocated the life of a householder.

Question 13.
Give an accojunt of religious system and cults during the Mughal period.
Answer:
The Muslims followed Islam and as the ruling class was Muslim, the administration was based on Muslim culture, but Akbar the great adopted the policy of religious tolerance. He was impressed by the liberal ideas of Sufi saints. It is said that Akbar even traveled to Amritsar. In 1575 A.D., he built an Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur SikrL He also started a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi. The Bhakti movement also changed the outlook of the people. After Akbar’s death, Jahangir and Shah Jahan adopted the same religious policy but Aurangzeb reversed this policy, which adversely affecfed the Mughal empire. But we can say that the Mughal period was a period of transformation on the religious side.

The ideas of Bhakti and Sufism spread throughout the length and breadth of India. It had a great effect on the country.

  • It created a spirit of love and affection among different sections of the Indian society.
  • It created a spirit of religious tolerance. Consequently,the Hindus and the Muslims came closer to one another.
  • Both the Sufis and Bhakti teachers taught in the common language of the people. As a result different regional languages developed during this period.
  • Some new religious sects like the Kabir Panth and Sikhism grew as a result of this movement.
  • The caste system became less rigid.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 Religious Developments

Question 14.
What do you know about the Sufi Movement? What were the basic principles of this movement?
Answer:
Sufism was a reform movement within Islam which laid emphasis on toleration, free thought and liberal ideas.
The founding of “Chishti Silsila”. In Ajmer Khwaza Muinuddin Chisti founded ‘Chishti Silsila’. Similarly in Multan Makhdoom Bahauddin Zukkariya foimded ‘Suhravardi Silsila’. Both these ‘silsilas’ had separate religious beliefs.
Main techings of Sufism

  1. The Sufis lay emphasis on the principle of tauba’ (repentance) and ‘tawakkuT (trust in God).
  2. Love and devotion are the means of coming nearer to God.
  3. Prayers, fasts and rituals are useless.
  4. There can be many paths to reach God.
  5. They preached religious tolerance.
  6. They emphasized respect for all human beings.
  7. It is necessary to follow the teachings of a pir or Guru.
  8. Devotional music is one way of coming close to God.

Question 15.
What do you know about the Hindu religion?
Answer:
During this period, Hindu religion was the most followed religion. Many Gods and Goddesses were worshipped. During Rajput period, this religion developed increasingly. Both Shaivism and Vaishnavism were popular in north India. The followers of Shaivism worshipped Lord ‘Shiva’ and ‘Maa Durga’. The followers of Vaishnavism worshipped Lord Vishnu’ and Maa Laxmi’. The followers of Shakti also worshipped many gods and godesses. The important goddesses were Maa Parvati, Maa Durga, Maa Lakshmi, Maa Saraswati, Maa Chandika and Maa Ambika. During this period the influence of Buddhism and Jainism had declined.

Religious Developments PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Main Religions of the World: Hinduism, Buddhism Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism.
  • Islam: This religion was founded by Prophet Hazrat Mohammad. The main scripture of Islam is The Quran’, which includes the directions about different aspects of life.
  • Sikhism: This religion was founded by Sri Guru Nanak Devji. After him, nine Gurujis developed the Sikh Panth. The main scripture of this religion is ‘Sri Guru Granth Sahibji’. ,
  • Sufism: Sufism is the liberal form of Islamic religion. The followers of this religion were known as ‘Pirs’. They used black coloured blankets, which were called Sufi, so these Pirs were called Sufis.
  • Bhakti Movement: To do away with the religious and social evils, there was a Bhakti movement, in India during the medieval period. The main feature of this movement was that it was not propagated by any one great man, but by different holy men in different areas. But still the principles of the Bhakti- movement were the same everywhere.
  • Hinduism: The main classification was Shaiv and Vaishnavs. Shaivism was founded by Shankaracharyaji in 9th century. The main founders of Vaishanvism were Sri Ramanandji and Chaitanya Mahaprabhuji.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 15 Religious Developments Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.