PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB India in the Eighteenth Century Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Name any four regional powers which rose in the 18th century.
Answer:
South Indian Powers. Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan from Mysore.
North Indian powers. Bengal, Avadh, Bundelkhand, Mathura, Punjab.

Question 2.
Give an account of the rise of Avadh in 18th century.
Answer:
Saadat Khan. He was the founder of free state of Avadh. He became the Subedar of Avadh in 1722 A.D. under the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. He improved the economic conditions of the state. He gave special attention towards agriculture. In 1739 A.D. he died.

Safdarjung: After the death of Saadat Khan, Safdarjung became the king. In 1754 A.D., he won the areas of Rohelkhand. In 1775 A.D. he died.

Shujauddaula and Asaf-ud-Daulah. After this, Shujauddaula and Asaf-ud-Daulah became the rulers of Avadh. The English Governor-General Warren Hastings compelled Asaf-ud-Daulah to enter into treaty of Faizabad. He even compelled Asaf-ud-Daulah to increase the amount payable to the English army. In 1797 A.D. Asaf-ud-Daulah died.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
How did the Sikhs rise to power in the 18th century?
Answer:
In the 18th century, there was a long struggle between Mughals and the Sikhs. This struggle made the Sikhs very powerful.
Sikhs Under Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The Mughals were very cruel towards Sikhs. Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji decided to make Sikhs brave warriors. So, to fulfil this objective he founded ‘Khalsa Panth’ in 1699 A.D. After this, there were many battles between the Sikhs and the Muslims. These include the first and second battles of Anandpur Sahib, the battles of Chamkaur Sahib and Khidrana. In the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, two elder sons of Guruji Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh became martyrs. In 1705 A.D., Guruji defeated Mughals in the battle of Khidrana/Muktsar. In 1708 A.D., Guruji left for his heavenly abode. Before this, he gave the leadership of Sikhs to Banda Bahadur.

Sikhs Under Banda Bahadur. Banda Bahadur started his victories in 1709 A.D. from Kaithal. After this, he won Samana, Kapuri and Sadhaura. Banda Bahadur decided to take revenge of the martyrdom of sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. So, he won Jalalabad, Karnal, Panipat, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Kalanaur and Pathankot. In this way he established the Sikh’s state in Punjab. He made Lohgarh his capital. In 1715 A.D., the Mughals captured Banda Bahadur and his companions. They were sent to Delhi where on 19th June, 1716, they were put to death.

Cruelty on Sikhs by Punjab Governors
1. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Abdus Samad Khan the governor of Punjab in 1716 A.D. He killed numerous Sikhs during his administration period. So, Mughal emperor gave him the designation of the ‘Sword of the State’.

2. In 1726 A.D., the son of Abdus Samad Khan, Zakaria Khan was appointed the Punjab Governor. He adopted a strong policy to crush the Sikhs. He killed Sikhs in great number. In his administration personalities like Bhai Mani Singh, Mehtab Singh, Bhai Taru Singh and Haqiqat Rai were put to death. But he didn’t succeed in crushing the Sikhs.

3. In 1745 A.D., the son of Zakaria Khan, Yahiya Khan became the governor of Punjab. He also continued with the crushing policy. He attacked the Sikhs in Kahnowal (Gurdaspur). During this attack, seven thousand Sikhs were killed and 3000. Sikhs were made prisoners. This incident is known as ‘First Holocaust’.

4. In 1748 A.D., Mir Mannu became the governor of Punjab. He also killed Sikhs in great number. But still the Sikhs organised themselves as a powerful identity.

The invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali and the establishment of an independent Sikh state in Punjab. Ahmad Shah Abdali was the ruler of Afghanistan. He attacked the Punjab eight times. In 1765, the Sikhs captured Lahore and declared themselves free. But because of lack of some leaders they organised themselves into small groups. These groups were called ‘Misls’. These were 12 in number. Every Misl had a chief, but at the end of 18th century the chief of Shukarchakiya Misl Maharaja Ranjit Singh organised the Misls and established a free state in Punjab.

Question 4.
How did Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan make Mysore powerful?
Answer:
Hyder Ali. Hyder Ali became the ruler of Mysore in 1761 A.D. He made the administration of Mysore very efficient. He respected all the religions. He appointed many Hindus on high posts. He fought many battles with Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad, rulers of Karnataka and with the English. There were two battles between English and Hyder Ali known as Anglo-Mysore battles. In the first, Anglo-Mysore battle Hyder Ali defeated the English very badly. In 1780 A.D., there was second battle. The battle was continuing when he died. –

Tipu Sultan. After the death of Hyder Ah, his son Tipu Sultan became the ruler of Mysore. He was also a capable ruler like his father. He was also known as the Tiger of Mysore’. He was a great patriot. He wanted to end the tyrannical rule of the English. So, he modernized his army. In 1799 A.D., in the fourth battle of Mysore with the English, he was killed.

Question 5.
Discuss the role of Shivaji in establishing the Maratha Empire.
Answer:
Shivaji was a great patriot. He wanted to establish a free Hindu state by finishing the tyrannical Mughal rule.
Initial Victories .

  1. The first victory was of the^Toran Fort (1646 A.D.). In 1648 he occupied Sinhgarh, Purandhar, and Konkan forts.
  2. He killed Jawli chief Chand Rao and occupied Jawli also.
  3. The increasing power of Shivaji made the Sultan of Bijapur a worried person. So, he sent his general Afzal Khan to kill Shivaji. Afzal Khan wanted to kill Shivaji but he himself was killed attempting this. At last, Shivaji and the Sultan of Bijapur entered into a treaty.

Battle with Mughals. Now Shivaji started attacking the Mughal-occupied areas. Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan to control Shivaji but he made him run away from Pune. Now, Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh and Prince Muazzam. Jai Singh snatched many forts from Shivaji and compelled him to enter into a treaty. Shivaji reached Agra where he was imprisoned, but he ran away and reached successfully to Maharashtra. In 1674, he attained the title of ‘Chhatrapati’. He continued his battles with Mughals and won the areas of Jinji, Vellore and Tanjore. In 1680, he died.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Muhammad Shah ruled from ________
Answer:
1719 A.D. to 1748 A.D.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 2.
Murshid Quli Khan was the ________ of Bengal and Orissa.
Answer:
Subedar

Question 3.
Hyder Ali was the ruler of ________
Answer:
Mysore

Question 4.
Saadat Khan became the Subedar of Avadh in ________ AD.
Answer:
1722

Question 5.
Shivaji was the founder of ________ empire.
Answer:
Maratha

Question 6.
Gokul was the leader of ________
Answer:
Jats

Question 7.
Banda Singh Bahadur‘s original name was
Answer:
Lachhman Das.

III. Write True or False for each statement:

Question 1.
Farrukhsiyar became the ruler of Delhi.
Answer:
True

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 2.
Murshid Quli Khan was the Subedar of Avadh.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Nizam-ul-Mulk founded the state of Hyderabad.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Shivaji was succeeded by his brother Raja Ram.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Balaji Rao became third Peshwa in 1740 A.D.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Badhan Singh was the successor of Gokul.
Answer:
False

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 7.
Banda Singh Bahadur established a Sikh state in Punjab.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns:

Question 1.

Column A Column B
1. Bahadur Shah A. died in 1739 A.D.
2. Shuja-ud-din B. on 20 April 1627.
3. Hyder Ah C. died in 1712 A.D.
4. Tipu Sultan was known D. as the Tiger of Mysore.
5. Shivaji was born E. died in 1782 A.D.
6. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji F. was on 22 Dec. 1666 A.D.
7. Khalsa Panth G. was founded on 13 April 1699 A.D.

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Bahadur Shah C. died in 1712 A.D.
2. Shuja ud din A. died in 1739 A.D.
3. Hyder Ah E. died in 1782 A.D.
4. Tipu Sultan was known D. as the Tiger of Mysore.
5. Shivaji was born B. on 20 April 1627.
6. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji F. was on 22 Dec. 1666 A.D.
7. Khalsa Panth G. was founded on 13 April 1699 A.D.

V. Activity :

Question 1.
On the outline map of India, mark the extents of kingdoms that declared themselves independent during the Mughal empire in the 18th century.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of Indian Map.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide India in the Eighteenth Century Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When was the third battle of Panipat fought?
(a) 1750 A.D.
(b) 1755 A.D.
(c) 1761 A.D.
(d) 1766 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1761 A.D.

Question 2.
Why was Mughal Empire declined?
(a) Depleted financial and military resources
(b) Increasing power of nobles
(c) Peasant and Zamindari rebellions
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
When did Nadir Shah attack and capture city of Delhi?
(a) 1739 A.D.
(b) 1741 A.D.
(c) 1737 A.D.
(d) 1743 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1739 A.D.

Question 4.
How many times Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India from 1748 till 1761 A.D.?
(a) Two
(b) Five
(c) Seven
(d) Four.
Answer:
(b) Five.

Question 5.
Which of these groups of nobles was there in Mughal court?
(a) Irani’s
(b) Turani’s
(c) Both a and b
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Both a and b.

Question 6.
Which of these emperors was killed by Mughal nobles?
(a) Aurangzeb
(b) Farrukh Siyar
(c) Shah Alam II
(d) Ahmad Shah.
Answer:
(b) Farrukh Siyar.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who were latter Mughals?
Answer:
The Mughals who ruled after the death of Aurangzeb were called latter Mughals. They were so powerless and incapable that they could not control the far off states of the Mughal Empire.

Question 2.
Write one reason for the rise of independent states in India in 18th century.
Answer:
In 1707, A.D., the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died and in the period of his weak successors many powers established their independent states.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 3.
How did Murshid Quli Khan increase his power?
Answer:
Murshid Quli Khan increased his power by annexing Bihar and Orissa to his state.

Question 4.
Write the names of two successors of Bengal ruler Murshid Quli Khan.
Answer:
Two successful successors were Shuja-ud-din and Aliwardi Khan.

Question 5.
Where and when did Alivardi Khan rule?
Answer:
Alivardi Khan ruled over Bengal from 1740 to 1756 A.D.

Question 6.
Who established the free state of Hyderabad and when?
Answer:
This state was founded by Nizam-ul-mulq-Asifjah in 1724 A.D.

Question 7.
Write two works of Hyderabad Nizam.
Answer:

  1. He established law and order and brought important improvements in the administration.
  2. He treated Hindus and Muslims equally.

Question 8.
Give any one reason for the decline of Hyderabad state.
Answer:
In 1748 the powerful ruler Nizam Asifjah died. His successors proved incapable and the state declined.

Question 9.
Who was the founder of the independent state of Awadh? What was his designation?
Answer:
The founder was Saadat Khan, he had the designation of Buhran-ul-Mulk.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 10.
Write some important works of Saadat Khan, the independent ruler of Awadh.
Answer:
Saadat Khan introduced a new land policy that greatly benefited the farmers.

Question 11.
Who was the successor of Saadat Khan? (the ruler of Avadh)? Write his one success.
Answer:
The successor of Saadat Khan was his nephew and son-in-law Safadar Jung. He annexed Allahabad to his state.

Question 12.
Write the names of two famous foreign invaders of 18th century. When did they invade India?
Answer:
The two famous foreign invaders were Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. Nadir Shah invaded India in 1739 A.D. and Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India five times from 1748 to 1758 A.D.

Question 13.
Which ruler ended the Misl rule in Punjab? To which Misl did he belong?
Answer:
Maharaja Ranjit Singh ended the rule of Misls and established a powerful state of Punjab. He belonged to Shukarchakia Misl.

Question 14.
Write names of two free rulers of Mysore state.
Answer:
Two free rulers were Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.

Question 15.
Who were Peshwas? Who was the very first Peshwa?
Answer:
The prime minister in Maratha kingdom was called Peshwa. Under Sahuji, Peshwas became the real rulers of the Maratha Kingdom. The very first Peshwa was Balaji Vishwanath.

Question 16.
When did Balaji Vishwanath become Peshwa? Write his one achievement.
Answer:
He became Peshwa in 1713 A.D. He got Shahuji’s mother released from the Mughal custody.

Question 17.
Write two successors of Balaji Vishwanath.
Answer:
Baji Rao I and Balaji Baji Rao.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 18.
Write one weakness of Marathas.
Answer:
The Maratha sardars were jealous of each other. Because of this hatred their state declined.

Question 19.
Write any one success of Baji Rao I?
Answer:
Peshwa Baji Rao I won many states and expanded the Maratha state upto Delhi.

Question 20.
Write the names of Jat leaders who struggled against Mughal&
Answer:
The main Jat leaders were Gokul, Raja Ram and Churaman.

Question 21.
When was Shivaji born?
Answer:
In 1627 A.D.

Question 22.
Who was Shaista Khan?
Answer:
He was the maternal uncle of Aurangzeb. He was a capable army general. Aurangzeb appointed him the Governor of South.

Question 23.
Write about the Treaty of Purandhar.
Answer:
The Treaty of Purandhar took place between Mughal general Raja Jai Singh and Shivaji. According to this treaty, Shivaji had to accept the subordination of the Mughals and gave 23 forts to Mughals.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 24.
What was the name of Bijapur official who was sent against Shivaji?
Answer:
His name was Afzal Khan. He was sent by the Sultan of Bijapur.

Question 25.
When did Shivaji ascend the throne? What designation did he attain?
Answer:
Shivaji sat on the throne in 1674 arid he assumed the designation of ‘Chhatrapati’.

Question 26.
Who was the faujdar of Sirhind at the time of Banda Bahadur and in which battle did Banda Bahadur kill him?
Answer:
At that time Wazir Khan was the faujdar of Sirhind. Banda Bahadur killed him in the battle of Chapparchiri.

Question 27.
How did Shivaji kill Afzal Khan?
Answer:
Afzal Khan wanted to kill Shivaji by fraud. So, he invited Shivaji to meet alone. He also told him that he wanted to enter into a treaty with Shivaji, but Shivaji came to know of his conspiracy. He wore iron cover under his clothes and took a dagger with him. Both of them embraced each other. Afzal Khan tried to put a knife into Shivaji’s stomach but Shivaji quickly put the dagger into his tummy and killed Afzal Khan.

Question 28.
Describe the confrontation of Shivaji with Shaista Khan.
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb wanted to demolish the increasing power of Shivaji. He appointed Shaista Khan, his maternal uncle as the Governor of South. Shaista Khan captured many Maratha forts within 2-3 years and also captured Pune. Shaista Khan had to spend some time in Pune because of rainy season. Shivaji took this opportunity and entered Pune in the form of the marriage party along with 400 soldiers. Towards midnight they attacked the residence of Shaista Khan. In this attack Shaista Khan’s son and his 40 soldiers were killed. With this win Shivaji’s honour increased far and wide.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 29.
Who were the parties in the 3rd battle of Panipat and what were its results?
Answer:
The 3rd battle of Panipat took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali and Marathas in 1761 A.D. Ahmad Shah Abdali emerged victorious.

Question 30.
What was the main reason for 3rd battle of Panipat?
Answer:
Marathas had expanded their empire upto Punjab in North India. The ruler of Afghanisthan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, considered Punjab a part of his ruled area. So, to punish Marathas he fought against them in the battlefield of Panipat.

Question 31.
Write any one reason for the defeat of Marathas in the third battle of Panipat.
Answer:
In the battle, the military system of Marathas was not good. Abdali was a skilled general. He made a strategy because of which the Marathas could not get any help from the South side. So, they were defeated.

Question 32.
Write one result of third battle of Panipat.
Answer:
The Maratha power ended because most of their soldiers and generals were killed.

Question 33.
When did Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao die?
Answer:
He died in 1761 A.D. The main reason behind his death-was the Maratha defeat in the 3rd battle of Panipat.

Question 34.
Describe in brief about the latter Mughals.
Answer:
The incapable successors of Aurangzeb are called latter Mughals. The description is as follows :
1. Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712): He ruled for six years but could not control Marathas and Sikhs. He died in 1712.

2. Jahandar Shah: The son of Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah sat on the throne. He ruled for few months. During his administration the Sayyed brothers Hussain Ali and Abdul became very powerful. They wanted to make Jahandar Shah a puppet. When they couldn’t succeed in their efforts, they killed Jahandar Shah.

3. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719): After Jahandar’s death his nephew Farrukhsiyar sat on the throne. He was a king in name only. The real authority was in the hands of Sayyed brothers, Hussain Ali and Abdul. In 1719 A.D. the Sayyed brothers killed him also.

4. Muhammed Shah: Mohammed Shah was another famous ruler. He ruled from 1719-1748 A.D. During his period the influnce of Sayyed brothers had decreased. But he did not try to organise his empire. So, the powerful governors of different parts of the country established their independent states.

5. Bahadur Shah Zafar: He was the last Mughal emperor who was thrown out by the English and the Mughal empire ended.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 35.
Describe the rise and fall of Bengal state.
Answer:
Bengal state was a rich state of Mughal empire. Its governor was Murshid Quli Khan. After the death of Aurangzeb, Murshid Quli Khan established a free state in Bengal. The development of Bengal under these rulers is as follows :
1. Murshid Quli Khan: He was the founder of Bengal state. He increased his power by combining Bihar and Orissa between 1714 and 1718 A.D.

2. Other rulers: Other famous rulers were Shuja-ud-din (1727-1739), Sarfaraz (1739) and Alivardi Khan (1740-1756). All these rulers established law and order in the state. They worked for the development of agriculture, trade and industry. Thus, the Bengal state became very rich.

3. Decline of the state: The Bengal rulers worked for the development of the state. But didn’t pay attention to the defence of the state. As a result, the Bengal state declined.

Question 36.
Describe the rise and fall of Hyderabad state.
Or
Describe the main successes of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the ruler of Hyderabad.
Answer:
Hyderabad was a South Indian state under the Mughal Empire. In 1724 A.D., Nizam-ul-Mulk Asifjah founded an independent state. He showed his faithfulness, towards the then Mughal ruler, Mohammed Shah but it was just on the surface.

Successes of Asifjah. Asifjah was a successful ruler. He established law and order in his state. He treated his Hindu subjects well. He made his army strong and defended his state from powerful Marathas. He died in 1748.

Decline of the state : The successors of Asifjalf were weak and incapable. So, they couldn’t preserve their freedom for a long time.

Question 37.
Write a note on Banda Bahadur.
Answer:
Banda Bahadur was born on 27th October 1670 in Poonch sector (Jammu). His real name was Lachhman Das. He came in contact with Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Deccan. He was impressed by Guruji and called himself “Guru ka Baiida”. Guruji gave him the designation of “Bahadur”. Thus, he was called Banda Bahadur. On the order of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, he came to Punjab and led the Sikhs. He took revenge from Governor of Sirhind Wazir Khan because he was responsible for the death of the sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Infact, he tried to win all those places where the rulers had tried to torture Guruji. But in the end he was caught. On 19th June, 1716, he was put to death in Delhi. His martyrdom is written in golden words in the history of Punjab.

Question 38.
Write about the rebellion of Jats and Rajputs during the period of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
The period of Aurangzeb was very disturbed. The main reason of the rebellions was the wrong and curel policies of Aurangzeb.
1. The Jats. The Jats turned rebels in 1669 A.D. They killed Mughal governor. The emperor suppressed them very firnjly but the Jats remained uncontrollable.
2. Rajputs. Aurangzeb made Rajput his detractors because of his orthodox and strict policies. As a result, Aurangzeb had to fight a long battle with the Rajputs of Mewar and Marwar. Veer Durga Das of Marwar damaged the Mughal army by indulging in Guirrella warfare.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century

Question 39.
Describe the administrative .system of Marathas (Shivaji).
Answer:
Shivaji had founded a free Maratha state. He founded an efficient administrative system in his state.

The main features were as given ahead :

  • Raja: The chief of whole administration was Raja. He was called ‘Chhatrapati’. The Raja had many rights. He could do any work as per his sweet will. He has appointed a council of eight ministers (Asthapradhan).
  • Asthapradhan: It was a council of eight ministers. The highest minister of Asthapradhan was known as ‘Peshwa’.
  • Land arrangement: Shivaji made a new land arrangement to give salaries to soldiers as well as other expenses. He got the whole land measured. There were two taxes known as Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Chauth was charged to defend the people from Mughals.
  • Judicial system: Shivaji was justice lover. He established panchayats to deliver justice at village level.

India in the Eighteenth Century PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Rise of new states: In the 18th century, whatever remained of Mughal empire, many new states emerged. The main were Bengal, Hyderabad, Avadh, Punjab, Mysore and Maratha state.
  • Marathas: The most powerful group of India after the decline of Mughals.
  • Ashtha Pradhan: The council of eight ministers in the period of Shivaji.
  • Peshwa: Chief of Ashtha Pradhan.
  • Punjab: In Punjab, the Gurujis established Sikh Panth. After 10th Guru Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Bahadur established a Sikh state in Punjab.
  • Bengal: In Bengal, the Mughal Subedar Murshid Quli Khan established an independent state. At last the English captured it.
  • Avadh: The founder of the free state of Avadh was Saadat Khan. The nawabs of Avadh gave birth to “Lucknow Culture”.
  • Mysore: In Mysore, Hyder Ali founded an independent state. He snatched the authority from Mysore’s Hindu King Nanjaraj.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 17 India in the Eighteenth Century Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.