PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi and Rana Sanga invite Babar to attack on India?
Answer:
The nobles invited Babar to fight the Lodhis because of the following reasons :

  1. The Lodhi kings tried to suppress the power of their nobles who had tried to become independent rulers in different provinces.
  2. Ibrahim Lodhi, the last of the Lodhi kings, was proud, cruel and inefficient.
  3. He also ill-treated Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Goveror of Punjab.
  4. The nobles had thought that after plundering some parts of northern India, Babar, like other invaders, will leave for Kabul and then they would be able to assert their independence.

Question 2.
What do you know about Babar’s conquests?
Answer:
In the first battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D., Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and occupied Delhi and Agra. Rana Sanga became angry with this. As a result, he led a huge army against Babar in the battle of Kanwah. Rana Sanga was defeated in the battle of Kanwah by Babar. With this victory, North India came under complete control of Babar.

Babar also defeated the Rajputs in the battle of Chandri in 1528 A.D. Babar also defeated the Afghans in 1529 A.D. at the battle of Ghaghara. He died in 1530 A.D.

Question 3.
Write about the conquests of Akbar,
Answer:
At the time of Humayun’s death, Akbar was only thirteen years old. He was not a ruler of any part of India. Akbar’s first conflict came with Hemu. He was an ambitious general of one of the Afghan princes. A battle of Panipat was fought between Bairam Khan, the Regent of Akbar and Hemu. Hemu was defeated in the battle of Panipat. Akbar captured Delhi and Agra which the Mughals had lost.

In 1560 A.D., Akbar himself took the reigns of the administration. After that his victories are as under :
1. Victories in North India :

  • Victories over Rajputs. In 1562 A.D., Akbar attacked the Rajputs. The King of Amber, Raja Bihari Mai accepted the subordination of Akbar and married his daughter to him. Besides, other Rajput rulers also accepted the subordination of Akbar e.g. Kalinjar, Marwar, Jaisalmer, Bikaner etc.
  • Struggle of Mewar. The ruler of Mewar Rana Pratap never wanted to . accept the subordination of Akbar. In 1569 A.D. Akbar occupied the capital of Mewar, Chittor. Still Maharana Pratap continued his struggle with the Mughals.
  • Victory over Gujarat. In 1572-73 A.D., Akbar got victory over Gujarat, (in) Victory over Bihar-Bengal. In 1574-76 A.D., Akbar defeated the rulers of Bihar and Bengal and occupied those states.
  • Other victories. Slowly Akbar got hold of Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa, Balochistan and Kandhar.

2. Victories in South India. After north India, Akbar shifted his attention to south India, then in south India he got the following victories :

  • Victory in Bijapur and Golkunda. This was achieved in 1591 A.D.
  • Victory over Khandesh. In 1601 A.D. Sultan Ali Khan of Khandesh accepted the subordination of Akbar. •
  • Control over Ahmednagar. In 1601 A.D., Akbar’s army defeated Chand Bibi of Ahmednagar and took control of the city.
  • Control over Berar. Akbar even took control over the Berar area of south India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 4.
What do you mean by the Agrarian system of the Mughals?
Answer:
In Mughal state, the main source of revenue was Land Tax.

Improvement in the tradition of Land Tax.

  1. The crop produce in some parts of the state was more than the other. The kind of crop too was different, so Akbar managed to collect land tax differently.
  2. The total production of the empire and the total revenue collected on it.
  3. One-third of the production was decided to be the land tax. This helped the peasants a lot.
  4. In case of drought or excessive rains, the land revenue was often remitted.
  5. The land was measured in ‘bighas’.

Classification of Land: Akbar classified the land into four parts :

  • Polaj Land: It was very fertile land. Any crop could be sown on this land at anytime.
  • Parauti Land: On this land, sowing could be done after one or two years.
  • Chhachhar Land: The sowing could be done after three-four years.
  • Barren Land: Sowing could be done after five-six years.

Collection of Land Tax: The land tax collection systems were as follows :

  • Kankut System: According to this system the govt, would collect land tax by approximating the value of the standing crop.
  • Batai System: According to this system when the crop was harvested, then 1/3 part was taken by the govt.
  • Nasak System: According to this system the crop of the whole village was approximated and the land tax was fixed.

The Mughal govt, gave loans to the farmers to make more and more land agriculturable. At the time of drought and flood, the land tax was given exemption.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Tuzuk-i-Babari is the autobiography of ________
Answer:
Babar

Question 2.
The battle of Kanwaha was fought between Babar and ________
Answer:
Rana Sanga

Question 3.
Akbar defeated Hemu in ________
Answer:
1556 A.D, Panipat

Question 4.
Babar wrote ________
Answer:
Tuzuk-i-Babari

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 5.
Abul Fazl wrote ________
Answer:
Akbarnama.

III. Write True or False for each statement :

Question 1.
The Mughals came to India in 1525 A.D.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Daulat Khan Lodhi and Rana Sanga invited Babar to invade India.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Sher Shah Suri was a Mughal ruler.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The Rajputs were very well treated during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
The Deccan policy of Aurangzeb strengthened the Mughal Empire.
Answer:
False

IV. Activities:

Question 1.
On the outline map of India, show the extent of Mughal Empire.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of Indian Map.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 2.
Collect the pictures of Mughal Emperors and paste in your note-book.
Answer:
Do it yourself

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When Akbar came into Power?
(a) 1560
(b) 1558
(c) 1564
(d) 1556
Answer:
(d) 1556.

Question 2.
Who wrote Ain-i-Akbari?
(a) Abul Fazl
(b) Tansen
(c) Raja Man Singh
(d) Todar Mai
Answer:
(a) Abul Fazl.

Question 3.
Mughal tradition of succession was to divide state into ________ of the father.
(a) Sons
(b) Daughters
(c) A & B Both
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Sons.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 4.
Mother of Jahangir was the princess of
(a) Raikot
(b) Amber
(c) Ajmer
(d) Jaisalmer.
Answer:
(b) Amber.

Question 5.
Term Mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a
(a) Jagir
(b) Land
(c) Mansab
(d) Suba.
Answer:
(c) Mansab.

Question 6.
The Mansabdars were required to maintain specified number of
(a) Horses
(b) Cavalry men
(c) Soldiers
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Cavalry men.

Question 7.
Revenue Minister of Akbar was
(a) Todar Mai
(b) Tansen
(c) Abul Fazl
(d) Birbal.
Answer:
(a) Todar Mai.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 8.
Revenue circle with its own schedule revenue rates for individual crops is known as
(a) Mansab
(b) Zat
(c) Zabt
(d) Jagir.
Answer:
(b) Zat.

Question 9.
Whole of the Mughal Empire was divided into “different
(a) Cities
(b) Towns
(c) Faujdars
(d) Subas.
Answer:
(d) Subas.

Question 10.
Subedar of every Suba was supported by officer like
(a) Bakshi
(c) Sadr
(b) Faujdar
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When and between whom was the first battle of Panipat fought? Who was defeated?
Answer:
It was fought in 1526 A.D., between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated in this battle.

Question 2.
Who was Babar? Write in brief about his victories.
Answer:

  • Babar was a good general and he knew how to use his soldiers to the best advantage.
  • Babar had brought artillery from central Asia and this was one of the main reasons for his success.
  • Babar’s cavalry was better trained.
  • The soldiers of Lodhi King were not faithful to him.
  • Babar arranged his soldiers in such a way that they could easily move from one part of the battle to another.

Babar’s Victories. Babar was the founder of the Mughal empire in India. He was a great conqueror who within a period of four years (1526-1529) won four battles:

  1. Battle of Panipat
  2. Battle of Kanwaha
  3. Battle of Chaderi and
  4. Battle of Ghagra.

In these battles, he proved himself to be a great military genius. He was also a great writer who patronised great scholars. His autobiography known as ‘Tuzuk-i-Babari’, in Turkish language, is a great piece of literature. He died in 1530 A.D. and was buried at Kabul in a beautiful grave.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 3.
Who exiled Humayun from India and when? When did he regain his state?
Answer:
Sheh Shah Suri exiled Humayun in 1540 A.D., but Humayun regained his state after defeating his successor Sikandar Suri in 1555 A.D. In 1556 A.D. Humayun died.

Question 4.
Who was Sher Shah? Why was he successful? Why is it said that he might have become a great Sultan?
Answer:
Sheh Shah Suri was an Afghan king. He defeated Humayun and founded the Suri Dynasty.

Reasons of his success:

  1. Sher Shah was a determined man.
  2. Before becoming the ruler, he administered the jagir of his father, so he had the experience of administration.
  3. He was liberal and well-wisher of his people. Sher Shah Suri died in A.D. 1545.

Sher Shah ruled Delhi only for five years. He administered his state well. His land revenue system was of highest order. He did many works for the welfare of the people. His army was well disciplined. Thus we see that Sher Shah did many important works in a brief tenure of his rule. Had he lived for longer period, he would have been the greatest ruler.

Question 5.
What were the features of the administration of Sher Shah Suri?
Answer:
Sher Shah ruled only for a short span of five years (1540-45 A.D.) but even during such a short period, he had achieved so much that it is said that he might have become a great Sultan.

There are many reasons for his success or greatness :
1. Man of Great Qualities: He was a great military genius and clever statesman. He duped Humayun several times and ultimately defeated him.

2. Administrative Reforms: Sher Shah was successful because he was a great administrator. He appointed efficient and honest officers to administer his state well. He treated all his subjects alike and even appointed Hindus on high posts.

3. Gearing up the Revenue Administration: Sher Shah got the whole land measured. A new assessment was made in order to fix a just tax. Land revenue was fixed at nearly one-third of the produce. Land revenue could be paid both in cash or in kind.

4. Reforming the Military Administration: Sher Shah fully knew that if he wanted to be successful he must organize his army on a strong footing. As such, he organized his army into a strong military force. .

5. Construction of Roads and Highways: Sher Shah built several good roads for promoting trade and commerce for the safe travel of the public.

Question 6.
Who made Altbar sit on the throne and when?
Answer:
It was Bairam Khan in 1556 A.D.

Question 7.
Who was Bairam Khan? When did Akbar depose him from his post?
Answer:
Bairam Khan was patron of Akbar. He was deposed in 1560 A.D. by Akbar.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 8.
Name the main features of Akbar’s Rajput policy.
Answer:
Akbar captured the Rajput kingdoms of Gwalior, Ajmer and Malwa. These conquests brought him into the neighbourhood of the Rajput kingdoms. Akbar was very far-sighted. He realised that there could be no permanent Mughal rule in India without the help and loyalty of Rajput princes. So he made friends with them. He entered into marital alliances between his family and various Rajput royal families. He himself married a number of Rajput princesses. They became his sincere friends, trusted advisers and his loyal and gallant comrades on the battlefield. Rhagwan Dass and Man Singh were his famous Rajput generals. But the Rana of Mewar, Rana Partap did not relent to Akbar.

Question 9.
Write about the central administrative system of Akbar/Mughals.
Answer:
The description is as follows :
1. King. King was the chief of administration. He had many assistants to help him, e.g. Wakil, Diwan-i-Ala, Mir-Bakshi, Sadar-i-Sadur, Qazi-ul-Qazat and Khan-i- Saman.

2. Wakil. He was the prime minister of the state. He would give information to the emperor about chief happenings. He would always carry out the orders of the emperor.

3. Diwan-i-Ala was the finance minister. He would take care of income-expenditure account of the state. He would also make laws about the taxes.

4. Mir Bakshi. He would keep records of Mansabdars. He would distribute salary to them. He would also take care of military institutions.

5. Sadar-i-Sadur. He was the chief of department of religious affairs. He would keep an account of religious affairs and educational institutions.

6. Qazi-ul-Qazat. He would give his opinions to emperor on Islamic laws for delivering the justice.

7. Khan-i-Saman. He would take care of the royal family and factories.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on the state administrative system of Akbar/Mughals.
Answer:
Akbar had divided his empire into 15 states for running his administration properly. The main state officials were as follows.

  • Subedar: He was the highest official of the state. His main function was to keep law and order in the state.
  • Diwan: He was the chief of finance of the state. The accounts of income-expenditure of state were under his department.
  • Bakshi: He would take care of military arrangements as well as horses.
  • Sadar: He would prepare details about saints, seers, peers and fakirs.
  • Waqiyanavis: He was the chief of detective department.
  • Kotwal: He was the police official. His main function was to maintain peace and order in the city.

Question 11.
Write a comment on the local administration of the Mughals/Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar had divided his empire into states and states were further sub-divided into districts, parganas and villages :
1. Administration of District :

  • Faujdar: He was the chief administrator of the district. He would carry out the orders of the Badshah and maintain law and order.
  • Amil-Guzar: His main function was to collect taxes.
  • Bitikchi and Khazandar: Both these official were the assistants of Amil Guzar.

2. Administration of Parganas:

  • Shiqdar: To maintain law and order in the pargana.
  • Amil: To collect land tax.
  • Potdar and Qanungo: Both these were assistants of Amil.

3. Administration of Villages: Most villages were administered by Panchayats. These developed the villages and take care of the village conflicts. ‘Chowdhary’, ‘Muqqadam’ and ‘Patwari’ were the assistants of Panchayat.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 12.
Write a short note of Mansabdari System.
Answer:
The Mansabdari system was the most important feature of the Mughal administration. The Mansab means rank. Each noble was given a mansab or rank and was called the mansabdar. The mansab or rank was based on the numbers of mounted soldiers at the command of the officers. Each mansabdar was required to perform any civil and military duty as was assigned to him by the emperor. Mansab was not hereditary. Hence it could not be passed on to his descendants. Thus every mansabdar owed his allegiance to the emperor.

Classes of Mansabdars. In the period of Akbar, Mansabdars had 33 classes. The lowest mansabdar had 10 soldiers and the highest mansabdar had 10,000 soldiers in his subordination.

Duties of Mansabdars. Mansabdars were appointed by the emperor at the recommendation of Mir Bakhshi. He could be put to any work. The salary was also given according to his class. He could be promoted as well as denoted in status as well as salary.

Question 13.
What do you know about Nur Jahan? What was her importance in Jahangir’s Court?
Answer:
Nur Jahan was a talented woman. Her original name was Mehr-un-Nisa. Jahangir married her in 1611 A.D. She set the fashion in dress and manners at the court. She had a great consideration in the Mughal court. She had a great influence in the administration. There was hardly any affair of importance in which she was not consulted. Jahangir fell ill for a long period. During this period she became a real ruler of the empire. Her name was associated with Jahangir on coins and privy seals.

Question 14.
“The reign of Aurangzeb (1658-1707) is described as the most disturbed among Mughal emperors.” ‘Why?
Answer:
The reign of Aurangzeb is described as the most disturbed due to the following reasons or facts :
1. Aurangzeb was a Sunni Muslim bigot. He ill-treated the followers of other religions. He ill-treated even the Sufi Saints.

2. Aurangzeb imposed Zazia on all the non-Muslim subjects particularly on the Hindus. He also destroyed their temples.

3. Aurangzeb martyred the ninth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Teg Bahadur Ji at Delhi. As a result, the Sikhs became sworn enemies of the Mughals.

4. The Rajput rulers of Mewar and Marwar also rose against the Mughals because they were discontented by the policies of Aurangzeb.

5. To conquer the Deccan states of Bijapur and Golkunda, Aurangzeb remained away from his capital for full 25 years (1682-1707 A.D.) His absence from his capital encouraged disruptive forces and gave rise to discontentment among the people.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 15.
How were the Marathas able to build up a strong and independent state? Was Aurangzeb able to control their rebellion?
Answer:
Following were the reasons for the establishment of an independent state of the Marathas.
1. Geographical reasons: Marathas lived in the hilly region of Maharashtra. They got natural forts on the hills. These forts helped them to establish an independent state.

2. Impact of Bhakti Movement: The Marathas were greatly benefited by the conversings of Bhakti movement in Deccan. The mutual differences of Marathas were reduced and a sense of brotherhood originated among them.

3. Political experience: After the decline of Delhi Sultanate, a number of small states were established in Deccan. They had a close look of the political life, which brought an awakening among them.

4. Hard workers: Marathas were the inhabitants of the hilly region. They struggled to earn their living. This habit of hard work made them brave.

5. Leadership of Shivaji: They were fortunate enough to have the leader like Shivaji. He united the scattered Marathas community and established a strong and independent state.

Rebellion of Marathas: The Marathas had become a great power. Aurangzeb wanted to crush them but could not succeed. In 1674 Shivaji declared himself an independent ruler. After Shivaji’s death, his son Shambhaji sat on throne. In 1689, Aurangzeb killed Shambhaji and occupied Maratha areas but Marathas continued their struggle under Raja Ram and afterwards his queen Tarabai. In 1707 A.D. after the death of Aurangzeb, Marathas reoccupied a large area of Mughals.

Question 16.
Describe the Sikh struggle against the Mughals during and after the administration of Aurangzeb. _
Answer:
The struggle of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji: After Sri Guru Har Krishanji, Sri Guru Teg Bahadurji became the 9th Guru. He was against the anti-Hindu policies of Aurangzeb. So Aurangzeb was annoyed with Guruji. Guruji raised his voice against Aurangzeb when he tried to demolish the gurdwaras and he also spoke against Aurangzeb when he tried to expel the citizens who were having soft corners for the Guruji. Guruji was brought to Delhi and was asked to convert to Islam. Guruji declined and then he was severely tortured and he was martyred in Delhi’s Chandni Chowk in 1675 A.D.

Struggle of Guru Gobind Sahib Ji. Sri Guru Gobind Sahibji became the 10th Guru and continued his struggle against Mughal cruelty. In 1699 A.D., he founded the ‘Khalsa Panth’ and after that there was a struggle between the Sikhs and the Mughals. Guruji’s two elder sons Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh became martyrs. Guruji’s younger two sons Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh were buried alive in the wall at Sirhind.

Struggle of the Sikhs after Aurangzeb’s death. In 1707 A.D., Aurangzeb died. His successor Bahadur Shah tried to establish friendly relations with Sikhs but the Faujdar of Sirhind Wajir Khan sent a Pathan who by deception put knife into Guruji’s stomach. Guruji’s soul became one with God in 1708 A.D. After that the struggle continued under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur

Question 17.
Comment on the Deccan policy of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
Aurangzeb spent almost 25 years of his life in south India. He was a Sunni Muslim. So, he wanted to crush the independent Shia states of Bijapur and Golkonda in south India. These states helped Marathas against Mughals, so he wanted to crush the power of Marathas also.

In 1686 A.D., Aurangzeb occupied Bijapur and in 1687 A.D., he occupied Golkunda also. Shivaji died in 1680 A.D. but still Marathas continued their struggle. Aurangzeb failed to crush Marathas. In 1707 A.D., he died.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 18.
What were the causes that brought about the break-up of the Mughal empire?
Answer:
Following were the causes that brought about the break-up of the Mughal empire :

  • The successors of Aurangzeb were weak rulers.
  • The Mughal empire met with financial troubles.
  • Mughal administration was no longer as efficient as it used to be under Akbar.
  • The military administration of the Mughals had also become weaker.
  • Mughal India showed little awareness to the discoveries which the new science of Europe was revealing to Europeans.

Question 19.
Write about the visits of Europeans during Mughal period in India.
Answer:
During the period of Jahangir many European traders came to India. William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe were the main visitors.

William Hawkins stayed in India for three years (1608-1611 A.D.). Based on his reports the British government established a factory in Surat in 1612 A.D.

Sir Thomas Roe was an English man who visited the court of Jahangir as an Ambassador from King James I. He remained at Agra for three years hoping to obtain some sort of permanant agreement with regard to trade which would place the English commerce in East Indian waters upon a sound basis. But he failed in his object. Sir Thomas Roe had left a very interesting account of his travels and experiences in India. He also left a wonderful account of king’s life and about the splendour and magnificence of the imperial court.

Question 20.
Describe the political condition of India during the Babar’s invasion.?
Answer:
The political condition was very pitiable. There was no centralized authority. The states were always fighting with each other.

  • The magnificence of Delhi Sultanate had declined. It was limited to Delhi and its nearby areas.
  • In Mewar, Rana Sanga had become quite powerful.
  • The Governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi was thinking of taking revenge from Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • The rulers of Bengal and Bihar had also became powerful.
  • In South India, there were many states. Vijaynagar was the main kingdom. Bahmani Kingdom was also divided into many parts.

Question 21.
Write notes on each of the following :
1. Humayun
Answer:
Humayun: Humayun was the eldest son of Babar. He sat on the throne in 1530 A.D. He was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, in 1540 A.D. in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj. He spent almost 15 years in Persia. He succeeded in getting back his throne in 1555 A.D. but next year he died.

The following were the difficulties that he had to face at the time of accession :

  • Although Babar had conquered a vast territory in India and founded a Mughal dynasty but he did not live long enough to make it secure against his enemies. So Humayun faced with trouble from the beginning.
  • Being new to India the Mughals had difficulty in consolidating their position.
  • The Afghan nobles attacked the newly founded kingdom because they wanted them to leave India.
  • Bahadur Shah was the ruler of Gujarat and Sher Shah an ambitious Afghan king also threatened Delhi.

2. Jahangir
Answer:
Jahangir: Jahangir was the son of Akbar the Great. After the death of Akbar in 1605 A.D., he sat on the throne. He sent a military expedition against the son of Maharana Pratap-Rana Amar Singh. But afterwards, made peace with him on liberal terms and thus ended the long struggle between the Mughals and Mewar state.

The main events of his ruling period are as follows :

  1. He faced a rebellion from his son Khusro but he crushed this rebellion.
  2. Jahangir subjected Guru Arjan Devji to death penalty in a false case and after torture for five days, Guruji became martyr in 1606 A.D.
  3. Another important event was the marriage to Noor Jahan. He gave Nur Jahan the name of ‘Noor Mahal’ (Light of the Palace).
  4. In the court of Jahangir two diplomats from England, Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came. They had come to India in order to obtain trading facilities.
  5. Jahangir’s reign was most peaceful because :
    (a) There were not too many campaigns in the reign of Jahangir.
    (b) The struggle between Akbar and Rana of Mewar too was brought to an end by Jahangir.
    (c) In order to create peace in the country Jahangir adopted the policy of matrimonial relations with Rajputs. .
    (d) The struggle of the Mughals with Ahmednagar state, which had become a cause of anxiety, also came to an end.

This brought peace in the whole kingdom. Contrary to it, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb had to face many revolts and wars. This was the main cause of disturbance during their reigns.

3. Shah Jahan.
Answer:
Shah Jahan: Shah Jahan was the son of Mughal emperor Jahangir. His real name was Khurram, He sat on the throne in 1628 A.D., after the death of Jahangir. He ruled for almost 29 years.

Some main events of his ruling period are as follows :

  • The Bundels from hilly areas declared a rebellion. Shah Jahan sent a big army to crush this rebellion and compelled Jhujhar Singh to sign a treaty with Mughals.
  • In 1628 A.D, Shah Jahan celebrated the occasion of Noroz and organised a big lunch on this occasion.
  • He was in deep love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. When she died on 7th June, 1631, Shah Jahan went into deep depression.
  • Shah Jahan was very fond of building magnificent buildings. He is known as an Engineer King. His reign is called the golden age of Mughal architecture. He is reminded even today for his two things the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne. He had built the Taj Mahal in memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal.

The Peacock Throne was a golden jewel-studded throne which he used. It was later looted by Shah of Iran and taken to his country. Other beautiful buildings built by Shah Jahan were Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Red Fort at Delhi and Red Fort at Agra. Shah Jahan built a new city Shah Jahanabad as his capital.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

Question 22.
Give an account of the main features of Shah Jahan and Jahangir’s rule.
Answer:
1. Shah Jahan (1628-1657 A.D.): Shah Jahan was the son of Mughal emperor Jahangir. His real name was Khurram. He sat on the throne in 1628, after the death of Jahangir. He ruled for almost 29 years.

Some main events of his ruling period are as given ahead :

  • The Bundels from hilly areas declared a rebellion. Shah Jahan sent a big army to crush this rebellion and compelled Jhujhar Singh to sign a treaty with Mughals.
  • In 1628 A.D., Shah Jahan celebrated the occasion of Noroz and organised a big lunch on this occasion.
  • He was in deep love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. When she died on 7th June, 1631, Shah Jahan went into deep depression.
  • Shah Jahan was very fond of building magnificent buildings. He is known as an Engineer King. His reign is called the golden age of Mughal architectures. He is reminded even today for his two things the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne. He had built the Taj Mahal in the memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal.

The Peacock Throne was a golden jewel-studded throne which he used. It was later looted by Shah of Iran and taken to his country. Other beautiful buildings built by Shah Jahan were Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Red Fort at Delhi and Red Fort at Agra. Shah Jahan built a new city Shah Jahanabad as his capital.

2. Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.). Jahangir was the son of Akbar the Great. After the death of Akbar in 1605 A.D., he sat on the throne. He sent a military expedition against the son of Maharana Pratap-Rana Amar Singh. But afterwards; made peace with him on liberal terms and thu3 ended the long struggle between the Mughals and Mewar state.

The main events of his rutirig period are as follows:

  • He faced a rebellion from his son Khusro but he crushed this rebellion.
  • Jahangir subjected Guru Arjan Devji to death penalty in a false case and after a torture for five days. Guruji became martyr in 1606 A.D.
  • Another important event was marriage to Noor Jahan. He gave Nur Jahan the name of ‘Noor Mahal’ (Light of the Palace.).
  • In the court of Jahangir two diplomats from England, Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came. They had come to India in order to obtain trading facilities.
  • Jahangir’s reign was most peaceful because ;
    (a) There were not too many campaigns in the reign of Jahangir.
    (b) The struggle between Akbar and Rana of Mewar too was brought to an end by Jahangir.
    (c) In order to create peace in the country Jahangir adopted the policy of matrimonial relations with Rajputs.
    (d) The struggle of the Mughals with Ahmednagar state, which had become a cause of anxiety, also came to an end.

This brought peace in the whole kingdom. Contrary to it, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb had to face many revolts and wars. This was the main cause of disturbance during their reigns.

Question 23.
Illustrate how Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari are used to reconstruct history.
Answer:
These are two famous creations of ‘Abul Fazl’. These books tell us about the court of Akbar, his victories, his administration, his social, economic and religious policy, art and architecture.

Question 24.
What do you mean by Mansabdari System?
Answer:
The Mughal rulers appointed the members of different classes in the administration. These appointees were known as Mansabdars under the Mansabdari system, court used to fix the post, income and the position of a Mansabdar. Mansabdar belonged to the civil and military departments of the country.

There were many categories of Zat and Sawar Mansabdar.

  1. The first category: Mansabdars held equal Zat and Sawar i.e. 5000/5000.
  2. The second category: Their sawar mansab was more than the half of their zat mansab i. e. 5000/3000.
  3. The third category: They held their sawar mansab less than the half of their zat mansab i.e. 5000/2000.

Mansabdars were appointed by the Mughal emperors on their own or on the recommendation of the Mir Bakshi. There were 33 categories of the Mansabdars during the reign of Akbar. Its rank was from 10 to 10,000. These could be appointed in any department. They were given their salaries according to their ranks.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire - The Mughal Empire

The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Establishment of the Mughal Empire: In 1526 A.D., in the first battle of Panipat, Babar defeated Ibrahim Ijodhi and founded the Mughal Empire in India.
  • Humayun: The Mughal Emperor Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah and the state of North India slipped out of his hands. But after the death of Sher Shah, Humayun regained his lost state.
  • Sher Shah Suri: He was a capable army general and administrator. He built many roads and inns for the welfare of the people of his state. He is known as the predecessor of Akbar the Great.
  • Akbar: Akbar was the son of Humayun. After Humayun’s death in 1556 A.D. Bairam Khan made him wear the crown. He started his winning expeditions with the help of Bairam Khan and founded a powerful Mughal Empire.
  • Jahangir: After the death of Akbar, Jahangir ascended the Mughal throne, but the real authority was in the hands of his wife Nur Jahan.
  • Aurangzeb: He was the last great emperor of Mughal Empire. After his death this empire almost declined.
  • Taj Mahal: A unique contribution of Shah Jahan was in the field of architecture. This building is world famous even today.
  • Abul Fazl: The author of Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari.
  • Glossary: Mughal Mansabdar Zat Sawar.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 11 The Creation of an Empire – The Mughal Empire Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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