PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy – Representative Institutions

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Civics Chapter 19 Democracy – Representative Institutions

SST Guide for Class 7 PSEB Democracy – Representative Institutions Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words.

Question 1.
What do mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
When all the adult electorates of the country have the right to vote, it is called Universal Adult Franchise. Sex, religion, caste, property do not become basis for discrimination.

Question 2.
Explain two stages of election process in India.
Answer:
1. Declaration of election date. In our country, the President or the Governor brings the election ordinance and on this basis, the Election Commission decides the election date.

2. Election of Candidates. Different political parties declare their candidates for different electoral areas which they think are popular enough to win the elections. Sometimes independent candidates supported by the political parties also participate in the election process.

Question 3.
Which government is known as representative government?
Answer:
In democracy, the citizens elect their representatives who make the government. These representatives make the policies and frame the laws. Such government is known as representative government.

Question 4.
What is the importance of representation in Democracy?
Answer:
In democracy there is the rule of the public. The population is so big that all citizens cannot directly participate in the administration. So they choose their representatives who make the government and indirectly it is the public’s own rule.

Question 5.
Who is authorised to cast vote in India?«
Answer:
Every person who is 18 years or more has the right to vote in India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
What is the difference between two party system and multiparty system?
Answer:
When there are two main political parties in a country then it is called two.party system. This type of system is in America and England. In multiparty system, there are many parties. India has this kind of system.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
What is the importance of representative system?
Answer:
There is a great importance of political parties in representative democracy. Most experts think that democracy is not possible without political parties. Every political party tries to make its own government. These parties put forward their programmes and policies before the general public. The party that makes the government, executes its programmes and policies. The opposition parties criticise the government and thus control its activities. Thus opposition also has a great role in representative democracy.

Question 2.
What is a secret ballot paper? What is its importance?
Answer:
Secret ballot is the basis of democracy. People do not want any interference in their right to vote and elect representatives. Nobody wants to disclose his/her choice. So, secret ballot is done for electing representatives. In India, there is a principle of ‘one person one vote’. When some person casts his/her vote, he/she needn’t tell anybody in whose favour the vote has been cast. This is called secret ballot. Through secret ballot, the government can be changed without any biased idea or negative thinking.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the importance of opposition party in democracy.
Answer:
The political parties which are not in majority, they cannot make government. So, these parties play the role of opposition. In democracy, the opposition has a great role to play. It is said if the opposition parties become weak, the democratic system can come to an end. On the contrary, if the opposition is allowed to work properly then democracy becomes strong. Infact the opposition represents the weaknesses of the government. The opposition not only criticizes the government but also tries to build healthy public opinion. Without its criticism, the government can become non accountable and dictator. The opposition keeps a regular control over the government by controlling its activities. Thus, the opposition does not let the government violate the rights of the citizens.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 4.
Write the functions of the political party.
Answer:
The following are the functions :
1. Contesting the elections and making the government: The most important function of political parties is to contest the elections. The objective is to run the administration. So, these parties choose their candidates and start their election campaign. They bring out their manifestoes and help to build public opinion. The party which wins the elections, runs the government and is accountable to the people. The parties which cannot make the government, play the role of healthy opposition.

2. To protect public interest: They criticize the policies of the government and give suggestions to improve the policies. So, the opposition protects the interests of the generahpublic.

Question 5.
Write any two functions of the opposition party.
Answer:
The opposition is the spirit of democracy. It stops dictatorship as well as controls the activities of the government. Its role in brief is as follows :
1. Control over ruling party: After victory in general elections the majority party makes the government. The electorates cannot control the government for five years. So, the opposition controls the activities of the government.

2. To stop the dictatorship: Sometimes the ruling party tries to act like a dictator because of its majority. The rights of citizens are violated. At such a situation, the opposition criticizes the government in and outside the Parliament.

3. Coordination in law-making Process: When the government brings ordinance to make laws, then the opposition argues on such ordinance and tries to see that whatever law is made, it is in favour of the general public and the country.

4. Passing the budget: Every year, the budget is presented by the government which give details about the income and expenditure of the government. It is an opportunity when the opposition may criticize the policies of the government. The opposition can compel the government to reduce the rates of taxation.

5. Control over executive: The opposition controls the government through no-confidence motion, attracting the attention motion, etc. The opposition parties keep the ministers on high alert by asking questions in the question hour.

Question 6.
What is the importance of election in democracy?
Answer:
Elections are the basis of democracy. The importance is as follows :

  • All citizens cannot run the government. So, they must elect representatives.
  • The pubic can change government through elections only.
  • The executive is made through the medium of elections.
  • Through elections, the administration becomes stable.

III. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
There is __________ democracy in India.
Answer:
Representative

Question 2.
An independent institution which conduct elections in our country is known as __________
Answer:
Election Commission

Question 3.
An adult of __________ years has right to vote in India.
Answer:
18

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 4.
__________ and country has dual party system.
Answer:
U.S.A.

Question 5.
One citizen one vote is based on the principle of __________
Answer:
equality.

IV. True/False :

Question 1.
In India, now adulthood is attained by the age of 18 years.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
In India, there is two party system.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The opposition not merely criticise the government in Parliament and State Legislature but it also helps to formulate Public Opinion.
Answer:
True

V. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is the age of adulthood in India?
(a) 18 years
(6) 24 years
(c) 22 years.
Answer:
(a) 18 years.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 2.
For how many years Lok Sabha members are elected?
(a) Four years
(b) Two years
(c) Five years.
Answer:
(c) Five years.

Question 3.
When was Indian National Congress established?
(a) 1920
(b) 1885
(c) 1960.
Answer:
(b) 1885.

VI. Activities:

Question 1.
Write name of the President of the Party in power and opposition party in your state.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Write the name of M.LA. of your constituency and discuss with your teacher the development work done by him in your area.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Guide Democracy – Representative Institutions Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In India right to vote is given to those who have age of __________ years or more.
(a) 18
(b) 21
(c) 24
(d) 25
Answer:
(a) 18.

Question 2.
In India, elections are conducted by
(a) Government
(b) Election Commission
(c) Supreme Court
(d) President.
Answer:
(c) Election Commission.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 3.
There are members in the election commisSiOn.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(e) Four
(d) Five.
Answer:
(b) Three.

Question 4.
Election symbols to political parties are allotted by the __________
(a) Government
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Election Commission
(d) President.
Answer:
(c) Election Commission.

Question 5.
Which of these is a function of political parties?
(a) To contest elections
(b) To form government
(c) To create public opinion
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
Which of these is the function of the opposition party?
(a) Control over ruling party
(b) Control over executive
(c) Coordination in law making process
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief note on Election Commission.
Answer:
In India, to conduct elections there has been an independent institution called Election Commission. It is its job to conduct free and fair elections. Its chief is called Chief Election Commissioner who is appointed by the President of India. The Election Commission is responsible for conducting eleetions«at every level like the Parliament, state legislatures, local bodies, etc.

Question 2.
What do you mean by ‘one person one vote’?
Answer:
It means every person is equal in the eyes of law.

Question 3.
What is the strong basis of ‘Universal Adult Franchise’?
Answer:

  • This right is based upon political equality.
  • It is required for true democracy.
  • It makes the government accountable.

Question 4.
What do you mean by by-election?
Answer:
Sometimes when some member of Parliament or state legislature, dies or his seat falls vacant because of his resignation or some other reasons, then the election is conducted for that seat. It is called by-election.

Question 5.
How do the electorates cast their votes?
Answer:
During election time, election booths are maintained in each and every area. The returning officer is the controller of the elections. The names of adult citizens are entered in the register of electorates. The electorates turn by turn cast their votes by showing their identity cards. These days the voting is done through electronic voting machines.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 6.
Write brief note on the following :
Answer:
1. Filing of nominations and taking back the names. The candidates approved by the political parties file their nominations. The returning officer examines these nominations and these are rejected or accepted. The accepted candidates can take back their nomination by fixed date. After that a final list of candidates is prepared and on this basis the voting machines and the election symbols are prepared.

2. Providing election symbols. The national parties had their fixed election symbols. The election symbols are very important for illiterate people because these help to identify the candidates.

3. Election manifestoes. Every political party introduces election manifestoes for victory in the elections. These include their programmes and promises which affect the electorates. The electorates come to know of the programmes and policies to be adopted after the victory of their candidates.

4. Election campaign. It is for the victory of the candidates. They print posters, take out processions, hold public meetings, indulge in door-to-door campaigning and even hold road shows to attract the electorates. It has to be stopped 48 horns before the elections.

5. Counting of votes and the results. At the predetermined hour, the counting is done in front of representatives of the candidates. The candidate who obtains the maximum votes is declared the winner.

Question 7.
What is a political party?
Answer:
The combination of people who have been together on the basis of a unified political ideology is called a political party. Any person can become a member of any political party.

Question 8.
What are the two types of political parties in India?
Answer:
In India there are’ two types of political parties. National parties and state parties. They work countrywide. If a political party has its influence in four or five states, then the Election Commission grants it the status of national party, e.g. Congress, BJP, BSP, CPI, etc. But some parties have influence in one or two states. These are called state parties like Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab.

Question 9.
Which is the oldest political party in India?
Answer:
Indian National Congress which was established in 1885.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Question 10.
What is joint government or what is coalition government?
Answer:
If a single party fails to get majority, then if makes government with the help and cooperation of other parties. Such a government is called coalition government. First time this government was made in 1977. From 1999 to 2004 also, there was a coalition of 13 political parties. Even these days also, the UPA government at the Centre is a coalition government. In coalition government, members of different parties get a chance to become ministers which is not possible under normal circumstances.

Question 11.
What is the difference between the general elections and mid-term elections?
Answer:
General elections are those which are conducted after five years but if the . legislature is prorogued and re-elections are conducted, it is called mid-term elections.

Question 12.
Give any two policies of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
The following are the main policies :

  1. The most important policy of this party is to reduce the rich-poor gap. In other words this party wants democratic socialism.
  2. According to this party, there should be no discrimination on the basis of religion. All religions should be respected equally.
  3. The party believes in agro-based industrialisation for the development of agriculture. The policy of this party is to develop the means of irrigation.
  4. To create means of employment in rural areas for removing poverty.
  5. To establish friendly relations with the foreign countries and to reduce conflicts with them amicably.
  6. To promote foreign trade for improving economic situation of India.

PSEB 7th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Democracy - Representative Institutions

Democracy – Representative Institutions PSEB 7th Class SST Notes

  • Modern Democracy: It is representative democracy. The reason is that modem states are large in size and their population is more. In such a situation, whole of the population cannot participate in the administr;. .ion directly. So it chooses representatives which run the government.
  • Right to Vote: It is the right of the people to cast their votes or to choose their representatives. In India ‘One Person One Vote’ principle gives way to ‘Universal Adult Franchise’. .
  • Secret Ballot: The modem elections are fought through secret ballot. It means
    that every citizen casts his vote by his own sweet will. He cannot be compelled to disclose his vote cast. ‘
  • Candidate: The person who fights election is called candidate. They are of two types—one belonging to a political party and the other having no relation with any political jaarty.
  • Election Process: The elections are conducted under the supervision of Election Commission. A special process is adopted for this which includes declaration of election date, filing nominations, examination of nominations, campaigning, voting, counting and declaration of results.
  • Election Symbol: Every political party has a special symbol. Even independent candidates are given symbols. These symbols are given by election commission and these help to identify the candidate in a better way.
  • Election Campaign: It is the most decisive part of the election process. The public meetings are conducted, manifestoes are declared, promises on posters are pasted everywhere and the public is given the information about the policies of the political parties if voted to power.
  • Election Manifesto: Every political party tries to tell the public what will it do if voted to power. This is called election manifesto.
  • Importance of free and fair election: The Election Commission ensures that the elections should be free and fair, only then the right candidates can be elected. The public gets a capable and popular govt, and the democracy becomes strong.
  • Political Parties: People coming together for the attainment of identical political objectives make political parties.
  • Functions of Political Parties: Making public opinion, educating the people politically, contesting the elections, framing the government, criticising the government, creating coordination among the public and government are the main functions of the political parties.
  • Single Party, Two Party and Multiparty System: In India there-is multiparty system because there are more than two parties contesting the elections.
  • Role of opposition: The opposition controls the activities of the government by criticising it and stops the government from becoming a dictator.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 18 Democracy and Equality Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.