PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Textbook Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The class to which the writers belonged in the Muslim society was
(a) Upper Class
(b) Middle Class
(c) Lower Class
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Middle Class.

Question 2.
The worshippers of Goddess Durga were called
(a) Vaishnavas
(b) Shaivas
(c) Sunnis
(d) Shaktas
Answer:
(d) Shaktas.

Question 3.
What was Jaziya?
(a) Religious
(b) Tax
(c) Tradition
(d) Jewel.
Answer:
(b) Tax.

Question 4.
Who were Ulemas?
(a) Labourers
(b) Hindu religious leaders
(c) Muslim religious leaders
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Muslim religious leaders.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 5.
The event of Sachcha Sauda happened in ________
(a) Chuharkana
(b) Rai Bhoi
(c) Haridwar
(d) Sayyidpur.
Answer:
(a) Chuharkana.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The two sects of Islam are Sunni and ________
Answer:
Shia

Question 2.
________ worshipped the God Vishnu.
Answer:
Vaishnavas

Question 3.
The purpose of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life was the welfare of ________
Answer:
whole humanity

Question 4.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave a message of ________ at Kartarpur.
Answer:
Naam Japo, Kirat Karo, Vand Chhako (meditate, work and share)

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 5.
During his stay at Sultanpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji used to bathe in the ________ river
Answer:
Bein.

III. Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Battle of Panipat (i) Chuharkana
2. Sachcha Sauda (ii) 1526 AD.
3. Guru Angad Dev Ji (iii) Taiwandi
4. Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (iv) Bhai Lehna.

Answer:

A

B

1. Battle of Panipat (ii) 1526 AD.
2. Sachcha Sauda (i) Chuharkana
3. Guru Angad Dev Ji (iv) Bhai Lehna.
4. Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (iii) Taiwandi

IV. Differentiate between the following :

Question 1.
Muslim Nobility and Muslim Middle Class.
Answer:
1. Muslim Nobility. The high ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’ etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was .spent in luxury and merry-making. The upper class people lived in palaces or mansions. They indulged in drinking and kept numerous women for their different types of amusements. The Ulemas enjoyed great respect in the society. They had indepth knowledge of Quran and Arabic language. As a result, they wielded great influence in the Muslim royal courts.

2. Muslim Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in the middle class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 2.
Vaishnavas and Shaivas.
Answer:

  1. Vaishnavas: People believing in Vaishnavism worshipped the incarnations of Lord Vishnu i.e. Lord Krishna and Lord Rama. These people were completely vegetarians.
  2. Shaivas: People believing in Shaivism worshipped Lord Shiva. Most of these were hermits. People of Shaivism included Gorakhpanthi, Nathpanthi and Jogis.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was the last ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty?
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty.

Question 2.
Who invited Babur to attack Punjab?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to attack Punjab.

Question 3.
Which religious persons were given state patronage during the Lodhi period?
Answer:
The Ulemas and Sufi Sheikhs were given state patronage during the Lodhi period.

Question 4.
What do you understand by Jaziya?
Answer:
Jaziya was a type of tax which Mughal rulers collected from the non-Muslim population. It lieu of it, rulers took the responsibility of their protection.

Question 5.
What do you mean by pilgrimage tax?
Answer:
Pilgrimage tax was collected from non-Muslims. They gave this tax for visiting their pilgrimage places.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 6.
When and amongst whom was the Battle of Panipat fought?
Answer:
The first Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 7.
Name the two sects of Muslim society.
Answer:
Shia and Sunni.

Question 8.
When and where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. at Rae Bhoe Ki Talwandi. Now it is known as Nankana Sahib.

Question 9.
Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta and father’s name was Mehta Kalu.

Question 10.
Name any two Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Var Malhar, Var Assa, Japji Sahib, Barah Maha etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 11.
What are the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji called?
Answer:
The travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are called Udasis.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the condition of women in early 16th century.
Answer:
In the early 16th century, the condition of women was not good. They were considered lower than males. Their condition in their home was just like a servant. They had to live under the control of males. Few Rajput tribes considered girls a cause of sorrows and even killed them. Women did not enjoy a good status even in the Muslim society. Female was considered only a means of entertainment. They lived a pitiable life from birth till death.

Question 2.
What do you know about the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus, could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further said that God is Self-Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.

3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.

4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of His grace and greatness.

5. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.

Question 3.
Write a note on the middle class during the Lodhi period.
Answer:
Middle Class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim Society.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 4.
Which social evils did Guru Nanak Dev Ji oppose?
Answer:
Guru Ji believed that there is no place of external rituals in true religious reverence of devotion. That’s why Guru Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of Yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also did not accept the methods of Jogis. It had two major reasons-lack of reverence devotion in their behaviour towards God and disagreement towards social responsibilities in their Sanyasi life. Guru Ji did not accept Vaishnav Bhakti and did not give any place to incarnationism in his ideology. Except this, he also criticised the customs of Muslims.

Question 5.
Write a note on the Muslim society during the Lodhi period.
Answer:
1. Upper Class. The high-ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’, etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was spent in luxury and merry-making.

2. Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in this class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.

3. Lower Class. The artisans, domestic servants, male and female slaves etc. formed the lower class of the Muslim society. The standard of living of this section of Muslim society was very low. They worked hard to earn their livelihood. The artisans like weavers, goldsmiths, ironsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, etc. could hardly earn two square meals by even putting in hardwork throughout the day. The domestic servants and slaves served the high class of the Muslim society.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe in detail about social and religious condition of society during Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s era.
Answer:
Social Condition. During 16th century, the social condition of Punjab was quite pitiable. There was discrimination in society. As compared to Hindus, Muslims were better positioned. There was no proper arrangement of education. People were forced to study Persian language. The condition of women was quite bad. The birth of a female child was considered a curse on the family. Due to prevailing superstitions and evils, this age was considered a dark age.

Following was the social and religious condition of Punjab during 16th century.
1. Position of Muslims. From 11th to 16th centuries, Punjab remained under the Muslim rulers. Under these rulers, many Muslims permanently started residing over here. They married with many females including prostitutes and slaves. Many of the low caste Hindus, due to the fear of Muslim rulers, and under the influence of Muslims, adopted their religion. During this time, many Mughals and Iranis settled in Punjab.

So, In the beginning of the 16th century, there was a sizeable amount of Muslims in Punjab. Most of them lived in towns. In the society of 16th century, Muslims were in a better position than Hindus. Its reason was the Muslim rule in Punjab. Muslims were appointed at higher official posts. They were always favoured in every espect. Upper-Class Muslims had certain privileges as well.

2. Classes of Muslim Society. The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into the following three classes :
1. Upper Class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders and powerful feudal lords etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the Sultans and high ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.

2. Middle Class and Lower Class:
Middle class: The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim society.

Lower class: The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.

3. Condition of Hindus. The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam.

4. Status of Women. Following was the condition of women during the sixteenth century :
1. Miserable Condition. The condition of women in Punjab was pitiable in the beginning of the sixteenth century. They were rated as feeble, hopeless, weak and inferior to men. They were treated as slaves in their own homes. They were cursed to live in subordination to men. Among some of the Rajput clans, the birth of a girl was considered as an ill-omen and she was killed at the time of birth.

2. Evils. Many evils prevailed in the contemporary society which hindered the overall growth of women. Some of the worst traditions and customs were-Practice of Sati, Female infanticide, Child Marriage, Johar, Purdah System, Polygamy, etc.

3. Purdah System. The Purdah system was prevalent among both the Hindu and Muslim women. The Hindu women covered their faces with their chunnis or saris and Muslim women wore Burkas.

Polygamy. The custom of polygamy was very popular among the Muslims. The Emperor and high-ranking officers kept many women for their amusement and fun. Female education was totally neglected. Only the women of royal family received some education. The rest of women folk remained illiterate. There were other numerous restrictions on women.

Religious Condition : During 16th century, Hinduism was the major religion of Punjab. Their major principles were based on Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharta, Upnishadas, Gita etc. Hinduism was divided into many sects :

  • Vaishnav Sect: Those who had faith in this sect worshipped Lord Vishnu and his incarnations Lord Rama, Lord Krishna etc. They were completely vegetarians.
  • Shaiv Sect:. The proponents of Shaivism worshipped Lord Shiva. Most of them were hermits which included Gorakhpanthi, Nathpanthi and Jogis.
  • Shakti Sect: The believers of Shakti sect worshipped Goddess Kali and Durga as incarnation of Shakti. They also performed animal sacrifice.

Many of them believed in magic. Many people worshipped their ancestors, Gugga Peer, Sheetla Mata etc. Except these in the mountainous regions of Punjab, there lived many people who believed in Buddhism and Jainism. They believed in non-violence.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 2.
Explain in detail the first Udasi of Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji went first to the east and then to south on his first journey. He started his journey around 1500 A.D. Guru Sahib took along with him an ardent devotee, Mardana on his first journey. Mardana was a good player of Rabab (a stringed musical instrument).

Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the various places which are given below :
1. Sayyidpur. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Sayyidpur from Sultanpur Lodhi. In the beginning of his journey, Guru Sahib converted a carpenter Bhai Lalo. Guru Sahib refused to partake the food provided by Malik Bhago. Guru Sahib refused to take the food because Malik Bhago followed corrupt means and oppressed the poor to earn money.

2. Talumba. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Talumba in district Multan from Sayyidpur. Sajjan Thug, who pretended to be a religious man, lived there. Sajjan was basically a cunning man. Sajjan planned to play his dirty game with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, when Guru Nanak Dev Ji sang his hymns before going to bed, it deeply touched the heart of Sajjan. He fell at the feet of Guru Sahib and pleaded for forgiveness. Guru Nanak Dev Ji pardoned him and accepted him as his follower. After that, Sajjan stopped cheating the people and adopted the path of spreading the message of True Faith. The historian Teja Singh has rightly said, “The criminal’s den became a temple of God worship.”

3. Kurukshetra. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Kurukshetra from Talumba. He found thousands of Brahmins, Saints, and Hindus gathered there on the occasion of solar eclipse. Guru Nanak Dev Ji addressed the congregation, where Guru Sahib laid stress upon the purity of soul in place of giving more importance to the outer purity or purity of physical existence. Guru Sahib taught them the path of honesty, love, and truth.

4. Panipat. Guru Sahib went to Panipat from Kurukshetra. Guru Sahib met Sufi Sheikh Ikul Kabir. The Sufi saint was highly impressed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and became his follower.

5. Haridwar. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Haridwar from Panipat passing through Delhi on his way. At Haridwar, Guru Nanak Dev Ji observed that the people were throwing water upwards facing the sun saying that they were sending water to their ancestors. In order to help the people to see reason, Guru Sahib started throwing water in the opposite direction. When the people inquired about the aim of his such action, Guru Sahib told them that he was watering his fields in the Punjab. The people tried to mock at his reasoning. Then, Guru Nanak Dev Ji sought to reason by questioning that when they could not accept that he could send water a few hundred miles away, then how could they justify their belief that their water offerings were reaching their ancestors millions of miles away? When no one came up with any answer, they became the followers of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

6. Gorakhmatta. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Joshi Math etc. and finally reached Gorakhmatta. Guru Sahib met the followers of Saint Gorakh Nath. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught that they could not attain moksha by piercing their ears, smearing their bodies with ashes, keeping sticks in their hands and abandoning their social responsibilities. The Yogis of Gorakhmatta were so impressed that they changed the name of the place to Nanakmatta.

7. Benaras. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Benaras from Nanakmatta. Guru Sahib met Pandit Chaturdass in Benaras. The teachings and grace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji overwhelmingly impressed Pandit Chaturdass. He submitted before Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with all his followers and all of them became the devotees of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

8. Gaya. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey from Benaras and reached Gaya, the well-known place of pilgrimage of the Buddhists. Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed numerous people of Gaya with his teachings and they became his followers.

9. Assam. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled through Bihar and Bengal and reached Assam. At ‘Dhubri’, Guru Sahib met Shankar Dev. Guru Sahib met a beautiful magician woman named Nooran, whom Guru Sahib taught that the real beauty was of a pure character.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey through Guwahati and Shillong and reached Syhlit. Guru Sahib met Sheikh Jalal at Syhlit. Sheikh Jalal was so impressed by his teachings that he became his follower.

10. Dacca, Cuttack and Jaganath Puri. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Dacca from Kamrup. Guru Sahib had an exchange of ideas with numerous religious leaders there. From Dacca, Guru Sahib passed through Cuttack and reached Jagannath Puri in present Orissa. Guru Sahib watched the performance of aarti (worship of an Idol with lamps and cinders) of Idol of Lord Jagannath, the incarnation of God Vishnu. Guru Sahib preached to the people the uselessness of Idol worship. He preached that God is Omnipresent.

11. Journey of South India. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey to South India. Guru Sahib visited Guntur, Kanchipuram, Trincholopoly, Nagapatnam, Rameshvaram, Trivandrum, and Sri Lanka. The king of Sri Lanka, Shivnabh, was highly impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He became his follower. His Queen and other people accepted him as their Guru. In Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji deputed one of his followers, Jhanda Bedi to continue to spread his message.

The Return Journey. On his return journey from Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited numerous small towns. Finally, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kusali, Bycola, Anumadhyam, Pannar and Pakpattan. At Pakpattan, Guru Sahib met Sheikh Ibrahim, the tenth descendant of Sheikh Farid. Sheikh Ibrahim felt highly elated by listening to the divine talks of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. From Pakpattan, Guru Sahib went to Dipalpur and returned to Sultanpur.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 3.
What do you learn from the life of Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The teachings and life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji served as ideals for all. Guru Sahib was strongly against the narrow views like irrational customs and rites, caste system, racialism, etc. Guru Sahib had deep faith in the True Name and existence of Supreme God and gave this message to all those who sought His grace.

The main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are given below :
1. The Greatness of God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God are as follow :

  • Faith in One Supreme God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed that there is one Supreme God. Guru Sahib did not believe in the incarnation of God. Guru Sahib had called ‘Ram’, ‘Krishna’, ‘Buddha’ etc. as supreme beings but did not accept them as incarnations (Avtars) of God.
  • God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is Formless. According to him, God is Self-Created. Hence, God should not be worshipped in the form of idols made by man.
  • God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. God is present in every living being. Everything exists only because of him.
  • God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji assured humanity that God was compassionate and generous. God comes whenever He is sought. The person, who attributes all his acts to the will of God, God Himself comes to his rescue.

2. The Recitation of True Name (Sat Nam). Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed on the recitation of the True Name. Guru Sahib explained that as a person needed water for washing his body, he needed the recitation of the true name for the purification of his mind.

3. Importance of Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the grace of Guru as most essential for reaching God. The Guru is like a ship which takes the follower across the sea of life. Guru Sahib said one could not realize God without the blessings of the Guru. The Guru is the ladder or a path to reach God.

4. Complete faith in the Principles of Right Conduct (Sat Karma). Guru Nanak Dev Ji told that a person passed through a cycle of births and deaths time and again as a result of the deeds performed by him. A person who did wrong deeds, took birth, again and again, to pay for his evil deeds. On the other hand, a person who performed pious deeds escaped the cycle of births and deaths and achieved moksha.

5. Stress on the life of a Householder. Guru Nanak Dev Ji favoured the life of a true householder. Guru Sahib gave the message that a person should live a right type of life on this earth and try to become pure. Guru Sahib showed by his personal example that a person could attain salvation while leading the life of a householder. Guru Sahib showed that a person could lead a detached and pure life even as a family man.

6. Faith in Love for Humanity. Guru Nan^k Dev Ji did not believe in social differences based on colour and race. To him, all the hujnan beings were the creatures of one and the same God. Hence they were all equal.

7. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised the caste system. For him, no one was a Hindu, Muslim, low or high. According to him, there was fundamental equality and unity among all the castes and religions.

8. Social Service. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the person who did not love and respect all the creations of God, could never achieve God. Guru Sahib asked his followers to serve the society and love humanity selflessly. For him, love for humanity was love for God.

9. Criticism of Idol Worship. Guru Nanak Dev Ji criticised idol worship in very strong terms. According to him, it was useless to worship God in the form of an idol made by a man. For him, the right way to worship God was to recite His Name with full devotion and to realise His presence all around.

10. Criticism of Yajnas, Sacrifices, and Irrational Ceremonies. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. According to him, superficial presentations to God had no place in the worship of God.

11. Attainment of Supreme Bliss (Sach Khand). According to the Guru Sahib, the main aim of life of a human being is the attainment of Supreme Bliss or Sach Khand. The Sach Khand is that state of mind under divine grace wherein all the troubles and fears of a person disappear. A devotee becomes fearless and his troubled mind gets peace. In such a state of mind, the person gets a glimpse of the Supreme Being.

12. Emphasis on Life of Virtue. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message to people to |ead a virtuous life. Guru Sahib gave the following principles for an ideal life : (0 Speak the truth, (ii) Do not steal. (Hi) Live a life of piety, (iv) Never hurt the feelings of fellow beings.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Bibi Sulakhni, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, lived in .
(a) Batala
(b) Amritsar
(c) Bhatinda
(d) Kiratpur Sahib.
Answer:
(a) Batala

Question 2.
Who founded the city of Kartarpur?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(c) Guru Ram Dass Ji
(d) Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
(b) Guru Nanak Dev Ji

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 3.
Sajjan Thag met Guru Nanak Dev Ji at
(a) Patna
(b) Sialkot
(c) Talumba
(d) Kartarpur.
Answer:
(c) Talumba

Question 4.
________ was the mother of Gurvr Nanak Dev Ji.
(a) Sulakhani Ji
(b) Tripta Ji
(c) Nanki Ji
(d) Bibi Amro Ji.
Answer:
(b) Tripta Ji

Question 5.
Babur made Guru Nanak Dev Ji prisoner at :
(a) Sialkot
(b) Kiratpur Sahib
(c) Sayyidpur
(d) Pakpattan.
Answer:
(c) Sayyidpur

Question 6.
Babur defeated ________ in the battle of 1526 A.D.
(a) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(b) Behlol Lodhi
(c) Ibrahim Lodhi
(d) Sikandar Lodhi.
Answer:
(c) Ibrahim Lodhi

Question 7.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from ________
(a) Sialkot
(b) Kiratpur Sahib
(c) Amritsar
(d) Pakpattan.
Answer:
(d) Pakpattan.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 8.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in A.D.
(a) 1269
(b) 1469
(c) 1526
(d) 1360.
Answer:
(b) 1469

Question 9.
Who made Tatar Khan the Nizam of Punjab?
(a) Behlol Lodhi
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(c) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(d) Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
(a) Behlol Lodhi

Question 10.
________ is considered the most famous king of the Lodhi dynasty.
(a) Behlol Lodhi
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(c) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(d) Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
(d) Sikander Lodhi.

Question 11.
________ considered themselves the descendants of Bibi Fatima, daughter of Prophet Mohammad.
(a) Shaikh
(b) Ulema
(c) Sayyid
(d) Quazi.
Answer:
(c) Sayyid

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Babur conquered Punjab in ________ A.D.
Answer:
1526

Question 2.
Sayyids considered themselves descendants of ________, daughter of Prophet Mohammad.
Answer:
Bibi Fatima

Question 3.
Ibrahim Lodhi called ________ to Delhi to punish him.
Answer:
Daulat Khan

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 4.
________ was made the Subedar of Punjab after Tatar Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi

Question 5.
The Muslim Amirs wore elongated headgear called ________
Answer:
Cheera

Question 6.
________ was the son of Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Dilawar Khan Lodhi

Question 7.
The incident when Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent? 20 to serve food to the saints is known as ________
Answer:
Sacha Sauda

Question 8.
________ was the wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Bibi Sulakhani

Question 9.
________ and were the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand

Question 10.
Var Malhar, Var Assa, ________ and ________ were four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Japji Sahib, Barah Maha

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 11.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born at ______________ village near Lahore.
Answer:
Talwandi

Question 12.
Gurudwara Panja Sahib is situated at ________
Answer:
Sialkot.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the controversy regarding the date of birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
According to Janam Sakhi (Biography) by Bhai Bala Ji, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on the day of full moon in the month of Kartik (October-November) in 1469. The modem historians are of the view that he was born in the month of Vaisakh (Baisakhi season—April-May) and support the date April 15, 1469.

Question 2.
Which incident is known as Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
Gum Nanak Dev’s father gave him twenty rupees to start some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent that money in feeding the hungry saints and this incident is famous as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Question 3.
To which place did Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s wife belong? Write the names of their sons.
Answer:
Mata Sulakhani, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, belonged to Batala (District Gurdaspur). They had two sons named Bhai Sri Chand and Bhai Lakshmi Chand.

Question 4.
What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining Enlightenment? Explain their meaning.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that ‘No one is a Hindu or Muslim’. These were the first words, which Guru Nanak Dev Ji uttered after attaining enlightenment. The meaning of his message was that all the Hindus and Muslims were equal. It also meant that Hindus and Muslims had forgotten the real message of their respective religions.

Question 5.
What work was done by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur and under whom?
Answer:
At Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji worked as Bhandari (the store accountant) in a Lodhi Khana (government storehouse) of Subedar Daulat Khan Lodhi.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 6.
Name the four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The four main ‘Banis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are: War Malhar’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’ and ‘Barah Maha’.

Question 7.
What did Guru Nanak Dev Ji preach at Kurukshetra?
Answer:
At Kurukshetra, Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that a person should lay stress more on the purity of his mind and soul than on mere purity of his physical appearance (carnal existence).

Question 8.
Write Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s visit to Benaras.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Benaras from Gorakhmatta. At Benaras, Pandit Chaturdass debated with him on idol worship. Pandit Chaturdass lost the debate. He was convinced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views. He surrendered himself to him and became his follower.

Question 9.
What did Guru Ji preach the Sidhas and Yogis at Gorakhmata?
Answer:
The Sidhas and Yogis smeared their bodies with ashes and led strange ways of life. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave them the message that they would not attain salvation by adopting useless customs like smearing their bodies with ashes, holding sticks, shaving heads, giving up social responsibilities, etc.

Question 10.
Explain Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views on God.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the Supreme God was Formless, Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Eternal. He had both the forms of being absolute (Nirguna) and of (Saguna). The word Vanis is also used for Banis.

Question 11.
What type of sacred thread did Guru Nanak Dev Ji want?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted a sacred thread of pure deeds. According to him, such a sacred thread never breaks, nor is stained.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 12.
What is the meaning of Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is pious deal or in other words a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji made a pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the saints.

Question 13.
Where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born at Talwandi, a village 64 kilometres from Lahore.

Question 14.
Why was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to Sultanpur Lodhi?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was sent to his sister Nanki and brother-in-law Jairam to start any business.

Question 15.
Where was a new spirit of Brotherhood promoted by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started preaching his message at Kartarpur.

Question 16.
Through which two institutions Guru Nanak Dev Ji started a new brotherhood?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started it through two new institutions of Sangat and Pangat.

Question 17.
What was the meaning of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The meaning of Udasis is those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook.

Question 18.
What was the objective of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
To remove superstitions and to help humanity to adopt the right religious path.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 19.
Where is Gurudwara Panja Sahib situated?
Answer:
At Sialkot.

Question 20.
From where Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi? ,
Answer:
From Pakpattan.

Question 21.
At which place Babur imprisoned Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Sayyidpur.

Question 22.
In which of his creation, did Guru Nanak Dev Ji critise the attack of Babur on Sayyidpur?
Answer:
In Babur Vani.

Question 23.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend last 18 years of his life?
Answer:
At Kartarpur.

Question 24.
Where can we find the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God?
Answer:
In Japji Sahib.

Question 25.
What is meant by Langar System?
Answer:
Having food by sitting at one place by every one without any discrimination.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 26.
Who was the first Guru of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 27.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji leave this world?
Answer:
On 22nd September 1539.

Question 28.
Describe any one influence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on the people of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of Punjab started worshipping one God and the Idol worship declined.

Question 29.
Which invasion of Babur was compared to ‘Marriage party of Sins’ by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The third invasion of Babur on India.

Question 30.
When and who founded Kartarpur?
Answer:
Kartarpur was founded in 1526 by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 31.
Who gave the land for the establishment of Kartarpur?
Answer:
It was given by a person named Diwan Kirorimal Khatri.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 32.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thag?
Answer:
At Talumba.

Question 33.
What was the impact of Sajjan Thag’s meeting with Guru Nanak Dev Ji on Sajjan Thag?
Answer:
When he came in contact with Guru Nanak Dev Ji, he left his wrong doings and started propagating the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 34.
How did the name of Gorakhmata change to Nanakmata?
Answer:
At Gorakhmata, Guru Nanak Dev Ji told Nath Yogis about the real objective of life and they accepted the greatness of Guru Ji. Then this place was called as Nanakmata.

Question 35.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend his last days?
Answer:
At Kartarpur.

Question 36.
Give any one teaching of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
God is one and we must worship Him.

Question 37.
What were Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God?
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is One, Formless, Omnipresent and Omnipotent, and Compassionate.

Question 38.
What was the name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Mata Tripta.

Question 39.
To whom was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to take education?
Answer:
Pandit Gopal.

Question 40.
What the incident is known as in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent ₹ 20 to serve food to a group of Faqirs?
Answer:
Sacha Sauda.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 41.
Give the names of the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Srichand and Lakshmichand.

Question 42.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji attain true knowledge?
Answer:
In 1499 A.D.

Question 43.
Who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev Ji during his first Udasi?
Answer:
Bhai Mardana.

Question 44.
Name of which place was changed to Nanakmata?
Answer:
Gorakhmata.

Question 45.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji go during his second Udasi?
Answer:
In the north of India.

Question 46.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji start his third Udasi?
Answer:
In 1517 A.D.

Question 47.
Who did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet at a place called Dhubri?
Answer:
Sant Shankar Dev.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 48.
Who was Behlol Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Behlol Lodhi was the Sultan of Delhi from 1451 to 1489. He established Lodhi dynasty.

Question 49.
Describe any one quality of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was a good soldier.

Question 50.
Describe two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:

  1. Ibrahim Lodhi himself was an Afghan (Pathan) but he failed to understand the freedom-loving nature and habits of the Afghans, his own tribesmen.
  2. He abandoned the policy of his father and grandfather and tried to discipline the Afghans. He failed miserably in his policy.

Question 51.
When did Babur conquer Punjab and whom did he defeat in this battle?
Answer:
Babur won a victory in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Delhi Sultan. ‘

Question 52.
Define the classes into which the Muslim society was divided.
Answer:
The Muslim society was divided into three classes:

  1. Amirs (nobles), high ranking commanders, Ulemas and Sayyids (Muslim clergy)
  2. Middle Class and
  3. the Slaves.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 53.
Write the main terms of treaty between Alam Khan and Babur.
Answer:
The terms of the treaty signed between Alam Khan and Babur were as follow :

  • Babur would provide military help to Alam Khan to acquire the throne of Delhi.
  • Alam Khan would recognise the supremacy of Babur over whole of the Punjab.

Question 54.
What do you know about the Ulemas?
Answer:
The Ulemas were the leaders of Muslim religious class. They were scholars of Arabic and religious literature.

Question 55.
What was the difference between the food of the Hindu and the Muslim societies?
Answer:
The food of Amirs, high ranking military officers, Sayyids, Sheikhs, Qazis and Muslim priests was rich and non-vegetarian. But the food of the Hindus was simple and mostly vegetarian.

Question 56.
Who were the Sayyids?
Answer:
The Sayyids claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad. This class is highly respected in the Muslim society.

Question 57.
Describe the Muslim Middle Class.
Answer:
The Muslim Middle Class consisted of middle ranking government officials, soldiers, traders and farmers.

Question 58.
Describe the dress of the Muslim women.
Answer:
The Muslim women wore shirts, ghaghras, and tight pajamas, covering their whole body. They covered their whole body with a cloak called Burka.

Question 59.
Describe the sources of entertainment of the Muslims.
Answer:
The main sources of entertainment of Muslim nobles, Amirs and military commanders were polo, horse riding, dance and music. The game of chess was equally popular among the Amirs and the poor sections of Muslim society.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 60.
Describe the superstitions observed by the Hindus.
Answer:
Before the times of Guru Nank Dev Ji, the Hindus of Punjab were victims of blind faith and superstitions.

Question 61.
What was the political condition of Punjab under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi?
Answer:
The Punjab had been reduced to an arena of intrigues under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 62.
Why did Ibrahim Lodhi summon Daplat Khan Lodhi to Delhi?
Answer:
Ibrahim summoned Dault Khan to Delhi to punish him.

Question 63.
Who made Tatar Khan the Nizam of Punjab?
Answer:
Behlol Lodhi.

Question 64.
Who is considered the most famous king of the Lodhi dynasty?
Answer:
Sikander Lodhi.

Question 65.
Who was made Subedar of Punjab after Tatar Khan?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi.

Question 66.
Name the younger son of Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Dilawar Khan Lodhi.

Question 67.
During his Punjab invasion of 1519 A.D., which areas were captured by Babur?
Answer:
Bajaur and Bhera.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 68.
When did Babur capture Lahore?
Answer:
1524 A.D.

Question 69.
Between whom the first battle of Panipat was fought?
Answer:
Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 70.
Who called themselves descendants of Bibi Fatima, daughter of Prophet Mohammad?
Answer:
Sayyids.

Question 71.
Who did justice related work?
Answer:
Qazi.

Question 72.
Who were at the lowest level in Muslim Society?
Answer:
Slaves.

Question 73.
What were Hindus considered before Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Jimmy.

Question 74.
Name the religious tax imposed on Hindus.
Answer:
Jaziya.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 75.
Among whom the social evil of Sati prevailed?
Answer:
Among Hindus.

Question 76.
What was the name of elongated headgear which the Muslim Amirs wore?
Answer:
Cheera.

Question 77.
Why did Daulat Khan send his son Dilawar Khan to the Sultan of Delhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi had thought that the Sultan of Delhi would punish him severely.

Question 78.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi invite Babur to attack India?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi wanted to establish his own independent rule over Punjab.

Question 79.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi turn against Babur?
Answer:
Babur did not appoint him the ruler of the whole of the Punjab after his victory.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 80.
Where did Daulat Khan fight Babur?
Answer:
Daulat Khan fought a battle with Babur at Malout but was defeated.

Question 81.
Write down the words in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the political condition of the Punjab of early 16th century.
Answer:
The king was like a lion, judicial officers were dogs.

Question 82.
Why did Babur conquer Punjab?
Answer:
He wanted to occupy the throne of Delhi after conquering Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write in brief the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:

  1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
  2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further teaches that God is Self-Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
  3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.
  4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of His grace and greatness.
  5. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.

Question 2.
Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his Second Udasi (travel)?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There, Guru Sahib visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kulu, Spiti, etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountain and Amarnath Cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 3.
Describe the Sacred Thread ceremony of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread that was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.

Question 4.
What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in his education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sachha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.

Question 5.
Write about the places Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited during his first Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places during his first Udasi :

  1. Guru Sahib went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where Guru Sahib made Bhai Lalo his follower.
  2. Then Guru Sahib visited Talumba, Kurukshetra and Panipat. Guru Sahib gave the message of doing right deeds to the people of those areas.
  3. From Panipat, Guru Sahib reached Haridwar via Delhi. Guru Sahib preached against superstitions at those places.
  4. Then Guru Sahib visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gorakhmatta, Benaras, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup (Assam), Shillong, Dacca, Jaganath Puri and a number of places in South India. Finally, Guru Sahib came back from Pakpattan to Sultanpur Lodhi via Dipalpur.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 6.
Write about the important places visited by Guru Nanak Dev Ji during the third Udasi (travel).
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan. He visited the following places during this Udasi :

  1. Multan,
  2. Mecca,
  3. Madina,
  4. Baghdad,
  5. Tehran,
  6. Qandhar,
  7. Peshawar,
  8. Hassan Abdal and
  9. Gujarat.

Question 7.
Give details of the time spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new city on the banks of river Ravi in 1521. The city was called “Kartarpur” which means ‘a city of God’. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the last eighteen years of his life along with his family members at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan.)

Guru Ji’s work at Kartarpur.

  1. During his stay at Kartarpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed *Var Malhar’, War Majha’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Onkar’, etc.
  2. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the practices of Sangat and Pangat at Kartarpur in a systematic manner. During a session of ‘Sangat’, the followers of the Guru (Sikhs) sat together and meditated and recited hymns of the Guru. In the session of a ‘Pangat’ all the followers of the Guru sat together and partook their meals from a common kitchen (langar). This practice is also called Langar system.
  3. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji prepared himself for the final journey of his life, he appointed his most devoted follower, Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru-gaddi. Bhai Lehna as Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion.

Question 8.
Write on the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled from Kailash mountains in the north to Rameshwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dev Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and customs. Guru Nanak Dev Ji showed them the true religious path.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 9.
What is the social significance of the message given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji had great social significance. His message is for all. Every man and woman can easily follow and understand his teachings. There is no place for caste system or discrimination on religious basis. His teachings gave a setback to the caste system and developed the feeling of brotherhood among the people. Guru Sahib always identified himself with the common man. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly condemned the oppression, injustice, and corruption of contemporary society. Consequently, his teachings removed many evils of the society.

Question 10.
Describe in brief the main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught us :

  1. There is one God. He is omnipresent and omnipotent.
  2. The caste distinctions are meaningless. The rich, poor, Brahmans, Shudras, all are equal.
  3. The right conduct makes a man great.
  4. God should be worshipped with a pure mind.
  5. Guru Sahib gives much importance to True Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the Guru essential for the realisation of God. According to him,‘True Guru acts as a guide in the attainment of the true name of God. Guru is the ladder which enables a man to reach the true goal of his life.”
  6. One should always earn one’s living by right means.
  7. The status of a woman is high. She gives birth to great men. All the women are worthy of highest respect.

Question 11.
Describe the religious policy of Sikandar Lodhi.
Answer:
According to Muslim historians, Sikandar Lodhi was an intelligent ruler, who believed in welfare of his subjects and impartial justice. However, Dr. Indu Bhushan Banerjee strongly opposes this view. According to him, he did justice only to the Muslim section of his subjects. He was a highly oppressive ruler and adopted the policy of intolerance in case of his Hindu subjects. He demolished numerous temples and forcibly converted many Hindus to Muslim faith. Millions of Hindus became victims of his atrocities.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 12.
Describe the administration of Sikander Lodhi.
Answer:
Sikander Lodhi was a powerful ruler. He centralized his administration and kept all the nobles and feudal lords under his strict control. He appointed Daulat Khan Lodhi as Nazim of Punjab. The boundaries of Punjab extended from Bhera to Sirhind at that time. Dipalpur was an important Suba of the Punjab province. However, Dipalpur was under nominal control of Lodhi Emperor.

Sikandar Lodhi worked for public welfare and considered it his main duty to solve the problems of his subjects. Unfortunately, he adopted this policy only in case of his Muslim subjects. But he did not treat Hindus well.

Question 13.
Describe the revolts during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Answer:
The following two major revolts took place against the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
1. The Revolt of Afghans (Pathans). Ibrahim Lodhi tried to discipline the freedom loving Afghan tribesmen. The Afghans did not tolerate it. They, therefore, rose in revolt under the leadership of Alam Khan, an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to crush their revolt.

2. Revolt in Punjab. Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab. He was also an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. He was annoyed by the stiff, obstinate and suspicious attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. As a result, Daulat Khan Lodhi decided to free himself from the control of the Emperor and started conspiring against him. He invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India to achieve his own aim.

Question 14.
Why did Dilawar Khan Lodhi go to Delhi? How did Ibrahim Lodhi treat him?
Answer:
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position regarding his relations with his father Daulat Khan. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severely punish his father Daulat Khan for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture, which were inflicted on the rebels and afterwards, even he was imprisoned by the Sultan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi. On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts; the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.

Question 15.
Describe the Sayyidpur attack of Babur.
Answer:
Babur marched towards Sayyidpur (Emnabad) after occupying Sialkot. A large army stationed at Sayyidpur offered a stiff resistance to the cavalry of Babur. However, Babur won the battle. The defeated army was mercilessly killed. The people of Sayyidpur were also subjected to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves. Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his ‘Babur Vani’.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 16.
Write about Babur’s invasion of India in 1524 A.D.
Answer:
In 1524, Babur attacked India for the fourth time. Alam Khan, the real uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, appealed to Babur to help him in occupying the throne of Delhi. Even the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, another relative of Ibrahim Lodhi, had sought the help of Babur against Ibrahim Lodhi. Consequently, Babur, passing through Bhera reached Lahore. On reaching Lahore, Babur learnt that Daulat Khan had been driven out of Lahore by the army of Delhi before his arrival.

Babur immediately took revenge of the defeat of Daulat Khan by the army of Delhi.,In the meantime, misunderstanding developed between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur at Dipalpur. Daulat Khan was expecting that Babur would appoint him as the governor of Punjab after his victory. But Babur gave him only the territories of Jalandhar and Sultanpur. The disappointed Daulat Khan was infuriated. He ran away to hilly areas in order to raise an army to take revenge of his insult at the hands of Babur. However, the situation took a new turn when Babur entrusted Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi and left for Kabul to strengthen his army and make more preparations for another invasion of India.

Question 17.
What efforts were made by Alam Khan to conquer Punjab?
Answer:
Babur entrusted the charge of Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi at the end of his fourth expedition before returning to Kabul. Later, Alam Khan Lodhi planned to grab the whole of Punjab. However, his dream was shattered when Daulat Khan defeated him and turned him out of Punjab. Alam Khan Lodhi again went to seek protection of Babur. He signed a treaty with Babur. According to the terms of the treaty, Alam Khan Lodhi promised Babur to help him to occupy the throne of Delhi. Alam Khan assured Babur that after occupying Punjab, he would accept the suzerainty of Babur over Punjab. However, Alam Khan failed in his plans. Ultimately, Alam Khan helped Daulat Khan against Ibrahim Lodhi. This time again he failed to achieve his goal and all his plans to grab Punjab were ruined.

Question 18.
Describe the strategy of war between the army of Ibrahim Lodhi and of Babur at Panipat.
Answer:
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections :

  1. Advance Wing
  2. Centre Wing
  3. Left Wing and
  4. Right Wing.

There were 500 elephants also in his army.
Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 19.
Write a note on the Amirs and Sardars.
Answer:
The Amirs and high-ranking commanders belonged to the upper section of the Muslim society. They were given ranks and titles. The commanders were paid in the form of land grants called ‘Iqtas’ from where they collected land revenue. They were free to spend land revenue as they liked.

The commanders always remained involved in wars. They were engaged in making plans to free themselves from the control of the Delhi ruler in one way or the other. They did not look after the local administration, which was a part of their official duty. They spent their wealth on a life of luxury and debauchery. They lived in big mansions with many wives. They had many male and female slaves.

Question 20.
Write about the religious leaders of the Muslims.
Answer:
There were two sections of Muslim high clergy,

  1. Ulemas: They belonged to religious class of the Muslim society. They were authorities on Arabic and religious literature,
  2. Sayyids: Apart from the Ulemas, there was a class of Sayyids in the Muslim religious society. They claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad.

Both the Sayyids and the Ulemas had a thorough knowledge of the law governing the Muslim society.

Question 21.
Describe the condition of slaves and other low classes in the society.
Answer:

  1. The lowest class in the Muslim society included persons like weavers, potters, labourers, slaves and eunuchs. The prisoners of war were made slaves. They were also exported to other countries.
  2. The eunuch slaves were employed to serve the royal ladies in the harems.
  3. The women slaves were like an object of amusement for satisfying the whims of the Amirs and high ranking commanders. Such women received shelter, food and clothing in return. Their condition of life depended upon the mercy of their owners.

Question 22.
What were the food habits of the Muslims?
Answer:
The food habits of Upper Section of Muslim Society. The upper section of Muslim society included Amirs, high ranking commanders, Sayyids, Sheikhs, priests and Qazis. They enjoyed delicious food, spices and chillies in excess. The ‘Pulao’ and ‘Korrma’ were their most favourite delicacies. Among sweets and desserts, they liked puddings of ground flour (Halwa) and syrups (sharbats). It was a normal habit with the members of the upper class to take drugs.

The Food of Common Muslims. The common Muslims were non-vegetarian. The baked cakes of wheat (chappati) and roasted meat were their staple diet. The cooked food was also available in the bazaars. Most of the Muslim artisans loved to take mashed curd (lassi) along with their meals.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 23.
Write about the dress of the Muslims.
Answer:

  1. The Upper Class Muslims wore costly and gaudy dresses. Their clothes were made of silk and fine cotton. The Amirs wore elongated headgear (Paggadi). They called their headgear ‘Cheera’.
  2. The Dress of the Slaves of the Nobles. They wore girdle (special cloth) covering abdomen. They kept a handkerchief and wore red sleepers. They wore ordinary headgears.
  3. The Muslim Clergy. They wore cotton clothes. They wore headgears of seven yards long cloth. The Sufis wore loose gowns.
  4. The Common Muslims. They wore shirts and pyjamas. They also wore shoes and socks.
  5. The Muslim women. A Muslim woman wore shirt, ghaggra and narrow pyjama.

Question 24.
Describe the position of women in the Muslim society.
Answer:
A description of condition of the Muslim women in the sixteenth century is given below :

  1. They did not enjoy a respectable position in the Muslim society.
  2. The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
  3. The Pardah system was rigorously observed. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rural areas.
  4. The women of the families of the common people working in the houses of upper class people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called Janan Khanna. They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Pardah.

Question 25.
Write about the caste system prevalent before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The Hindu society was divided into different castes or classes before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The main castes were: Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.

Apart from these main castes, there were numerous sub-castes.

  1. Brahmans. The Brahmans had become totally negligent of their duties and responsibilities towards the society and worked for their personal interests. They indulged in flattery of the ruling class to serve their own interests. They also had great influence on the common man. The common people were trapped in numerous superstitions due to the influence of Brahmans.
  2. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The condition of the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas was comparatively better.
  3. Shudras. The condition of Shudras was very miserable. They were hated and treated as untouchables. There was no harmony between the upper castes and the lower castes in the Hindu society.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 26.
Discuss the political condition of Punjab of early sixteenth century.
Or
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
In the early sixteenth century, the condition of the Punjab was very deplorable. It was called Lahore province and was a part of the Delhi Empire in those days. The Sultans of Delhi (Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi 1451 to 1526) were despots. Anarchy spread in Punjab under their rule. The whole atmosphere was poisoned with conspiracies. There was naked dance of lawlessness in the whole of Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officials were corrupt and openly neglected their duties. There was no hope of getting justice in such a situation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that justice had taken wings. Bhai Gurdas had also described the corruption and maladministration of this period.

Question 27.
What was the cause of struggle between Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi and Daulat Khan Lodhi in the beginning of the sixteenth century? What steps did Ibrahim Lodhi take to check Daulat Khan Lodhi?
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. In name, he was subordinate to Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi but he was virtually acting as an independent ruler of Punjab. He won over Alam Khan Lodhi, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, to his side through secret negotiations, wherein he assured Alam Khan Lodhi his help in acquiring the throne of Delhi. When Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about this secret plot, he summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi. Daulat Khan sent his son Dilawar Khan Lodhi in his place to clarify his position. When Dilawar Khan Lodhi arrived in Delhi, Ibrahim Khan Lodhi imprisoned him. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison and reached back Lahore to join his father. Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India in order to take revenge upon Ibrahim Lodhi for his act.

Question 28.
Describe the struggle between Babur and Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India. Daulat Khan expected that Babur would appoint him the governor of Punjab after his victory. However, Babur gave him the territory of Jalandhar and Sultanpur only. As a result, he raised the banner of revolt against Babur. It soon led to a battle between them in which Daulat Khan and his son Ghazi Khan were defeated. After that, Babur returned to Kabul after entrusting his Indian possessions to Alam Khan. The moment Babur turned his back, Daulat Khan chased out Alam Khan, who at that time, represented Babur in Punjab, and declared himself the ruler of Punjab instead. Alam Khan visited Babur at Kabul and invited him to invade India. Babur again invaded India for the fifth time in 1525 and imprisoned Daulat Khan. Daulat Khan was later pardoned but he died soon after.

Question 29.
Describe the struggle between Babur, the King of Kabul, and Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi.
Or
Describe the first battle of Panipat. What was the significance of this battle in the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Babur marched towards Delhi after defeating Daulat Khan Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi also left Delhi with an army of one lakh soldiers to cross swords with Babur. They fought the battle at Panipat on April 21, 1526. Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi, was defeated and killed in the battle. Babur, the Padshah of Kabul, reached Delhi with his victorious army and unfurled his flag of victory over Delhi. With that Delhi Sultanate came to an end and the rule of the Mughal dynasty began. Hence, the battle of Panipat decided the fate of Punjab and also of whole of India.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 30.
Describe the condition of the Hindu society of the sixteenth century Punjab.
Answer:
The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam. Sikander Lodhi killed a Brahmin named ‘Bodhan’ because he had resisted conversion to Islam. It is also a part of local oral history that once Sikander Lodhi had planned to kill all the Hindus who had assembled at Kurukshetra in a religious fair. However, he refrained from executing his plans due to the fear of mass revolt of the Hindus against him.

Question 31.
Describe the various classes of sixteenth-century Muslim society.
Answer:
The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into following three classes :
1. Upper class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders, and powerful feudal lords, etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the sultans and high ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim Society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.

2. Middle class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle-ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim society.

3. Lower class. The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Throw light on the childhood of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.

His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart since his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven. Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to learn Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lai with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutubudin.

The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perform his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.

Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in >order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rtipees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.

Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Bhai Sri Chand and Bhai Lakshmi Chand were born to them. Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.

Enlightenment. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every day at the time of bath. One morning, Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time.

Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.

Question 2.
Describe the time period spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur Lodhi.
Answer:
Sometime between 1486-87, the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Sahib to Sultanpur Lodhi with a hope to divert his attention to worldly affairs. Guru Sahib started staying with Shri Jai Ram, his brother-in-law, and the husband of his sister Bibi Nanaki.

Job with Lodhi Khana. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was well-versed in Persian language and arithmetic. Guru Sahib joined as Bhandari (the store accountant) in Lodhi Khana (storehouse), of a Faujdar under Daulat Khan Lodhi on the recommendation of Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib worked very honestly and sincerely. However, a complaint was lodged against him that he was distributing the store-goods among the saints and wanderers without keeping any record. When the records were verified everything was found in perfect order.

The Life of a Householder and Meditation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also brought his family to Sultanpur Lodhi after sometime. Guru Sahib started living a simple and pure family life. It was his routine that Guru Sahib visited the river Kali Bein on the outskirts of the town to take bath and to meditate on the name of God. He gave a part of his earnings in charity to the needy.

Enlightenment. It is recorded in Janam Sakhis, that one morning, as per his routine, Guru Sahib want to take bath in the river Kali Bein. But Guru Sahib disappeared for the next three days. A rumour spread in the town that he had been drowned in the river. All his relatives and well-wishers started worrying about his well-being. However, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had spent those days in deep meditation and on attainment of enlightenment. Guru Sahib had planned to spread the divine knowledge during those days.

After three days, Guru Nanak Dev Ji again returned to Sultanpur Lodhi and kept a mystic silence for some days. When Guru Sahib was persuaded to speak, he uttered his first divine message, “Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Musalman”. Faujdar Daulat Khan, Qazi, and Brahmins sought the explanation of his message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught them that the Hindus as well as the Muslims had forgotten the true tenets of their religions. He said that there was no difference in being a Hindu or Muslim. All were equal before God. Thus, Guru Sahib started preaching his divine teachings with the message of brotherhood and humanity. In order to preach his divine message, Guru Sahib resigned from his worldly job and started his travels.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 3.
Describe the Udasis (Travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
After attaining enlightenment, Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to spread the divine message for the spiritual benefit of humanity. Guru Sahib resigned his job and started his journey dressed as a fakir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted to spread the divine message for which he travelled far and wide. Guru Sahib visited the east, west, north and south of India and blessed the people with his sweet voice and simple teachings. It took him twenty years to complete the whole journey. The historians of the Sikh history call the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji as the ‘Udasis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Aims of the Udasis. The main aim of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to undertake the Udasis was to show the true divine path to misguided humanity. Apart from that, Guru Sahib also aimed at popularising the mode of meditation on God’s Name in order to realise Him. Guru Sahib also aimed at discouraging the irrational rites, customs and superstitions.

The Udasis (Travels or Tours) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. A brief account of his travels divided into three journeys may be studied as under :
1. First Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places on his first journey.
(а) Guru Nanak Dev Ji went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where he made Bhai Lalo his follower.
(b) Afterwards, Guru Sahib went to Talumba (where the cunning Sajjan lived), Kurukshetra, .and Panipat. Guru Sahib encouraged the people to do good deeds.
(c) Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Haridwar from Panipat via Delhi. Guru Sahib criticized superstitions and useless ceremonies.
(d) Next, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Benaras,
Gorakhmatta, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup, Shillong, Dacca and South India. Finally, he came back to Sultanpur Lodhi from Pakpattan via Dipalpur.

2. Second Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There he visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kullu, Spiti etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountains and Amarnath cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.

3. Third Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan finally and reached Sayyidpur. During this journey,

Guru Sahib visited the following places :

  • Multan
  • Mecca
  • Madina
  • Baghdad
  • Tehran
  • Qandhar
  • Peshawar
  • Hassan Abdal and
  • Gujarat.

Question 4.
Explain in detail the concept of God according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The core of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the praise of God (Nirankar). A simple description of the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on God is as follows :
1. There is One God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of “Ek Onkar” which means One Supreme God. It was the core of all his teachings. It was the gist of his teachings or Mool Mantar. The gist of all his divine preaching on the idea of God is represented in his main saying (Mool Mantar). Guru Sahib told that there is one God and He cannot be divided. This message had social and religious importance for the contemporary world. The Muslims prayed to God accepting Prophet Muhammad as His prophet. The Hindus worshipped numerous gods and goddesses by accepting each of them as Supreme form. In his teachings, Guru Sahib strongly denied the concept of the incarnation of Supreme God. On that account, Guru Sahib did not accept Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Muhammad as the incarnations of Supreme God.

2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Formless. He does not have any shape or form (Nirguna) but there are different attributes of God also (Saguna). Hence, the exact perception of God remains beyond the reach of words. God is Self Created, not by time (Altai Purakh), eternal and timeless (Akal Murat). Hence, it will not help, if Supreme God is worshipped only in the form of an idol created out of the perception of a common man. Guru Sahib rightly claimed that an ignorant man did not have the capacity to perceive the real God and neither had the ability to perceive and represent the Supreme God in the form of an idol or a symbol.

3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is omnipresent and omnipotent. Guru Sahib said that He is present everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque. One of his couplets when translated, elaborates thus, “Why to seek one that was created and dies. Seek the only one, who is eternal.”

The being, which is created, will die. The being, which is created, is bound by time. It has a beginning. The thing, which has a beginning, has an end also. However, the Supreme God is Self-Created, that is, he was not created and thus will not end with time. He is Akal Murat, that is not bound by time (start and end) and thus timeless (permanent).

4. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that God is very kind. He helps whenever He is sought. He lives in the hearts of his believers. To Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God was personal and merciful. He helped them who had faith in Him in time of trouble and difficulty.

5. God is Supreme and Great. Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Supreme and Great. It was beyond the capabilities of human beings to understand his Supreme Existence. Only God knows what actually He is. Thus Guru Nanak Dev Ji said, . ‘He, The Great, knows, what can be known on being great.’ ‘A’rtoi sfS1′ tyufHf WJ TF<? W( I’ Many people had tried to explain the greatness of God but none had been successful in revealing His greatness in words.

6. Importance of his edicts (Hukam). The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were full of praise of “Hukam” (rules ordained by God) of God. According to Guru Sahib , every event in the universe takes place as ordained by God (Hukam). Guru Sahib suggested that humanity should accept the sweet will of God as revealed in His Hukam.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 5.
Describe the role of Guru Nanak Dev Ji as a teacher and the founder of the Sikh religion.
Answer:
(A) As a Great Teacher :
1. Preacher of Truth. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great teacher of humanity. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in the thirtieth year of his life. Guru Sahib travelled widely to spread his message. Guru Sahib spread the gospel of Truth in every nook and corner of the Punjab. Everywhere, people were impressed by his personality and message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught to abandon the materialistic desires, selfishness, and greediness and enjoined upon his followers to lead a pious life. Guru Sahib taught those principles which he himself practised in his personal life.

2. A Guru for the Whole Humanity. The teachings of Guru Sahib were not meant for any particular community, place, or nation, rather they are for the whole world. Prof. K.S. Narang opines that his message was not just for one period of time. It is eternal. Guru Sahih’s teachings were so rational and complete that even modern rationalists cannot find any shortcomings in them. The main aim of his teachings was the welfare of the whole humanity. It was only with the spirit of the welfare of the whole humanity that Guru Sahib undertook hard journey to Burma, China, Tibet, Arabia, etc.

(B) As the founder of Sikh Religion: Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. There are some fundamental principles of Sikh religion which are found only in Sikhism but not in Hinduism or Islam. Fpr example, Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the institutions of Sangat and Pangat which were the important features of the new faith. Secondly, Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not appoint his son as successor to Guru-gaddi but gave it to his devotee Bhai Lehna. By this act, the Guru tradition became very significant and the Sikh religion was founded. The Sikh religion continued to develop during the period of next nine Gurus and the Sikh religion established itself as a full-fledged religion.

Question 6.
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The political condition of the Punjab was very miserable before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (i.e. in the beginning of the 16th century). The Punjab was known as the Lahore Province (Suba) in those days and formed the part of the Delhi Empire. However, the glory of the Delhi Empire had declined by that time. As a result, the Punjab administration was weak and inefficient.

The brief description of political condition of Punjab in the beginning of the 16th century was as under :
1. Despotic Rule. In the beginning of 16th century, Punjab was ruled by the despotic rulers. All the Delhi Sultans of this period from Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi, were despots. They believed in the doctrine of Divine Right of the King and considered themselves as the representatives of God on the earth. All the powers of the Empire were concentrated in their hands. How can one expect that rights of common man were safe during the rule of such despots?

2. Political Anarchy: The country had been reduced to an arena of intrigues during the reign of the Lodhis. The last years of the reign of Sikandar Lodhi witnessed revolts all over the Empire. During the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, there were frequent revolts in his kingdom. All his commanders and courtiers were busy in conspiring against him. The provincial governors were either trying to establish their independent kingdoms or joining the camps of contenders to the throne of Delhi. Such a state of anarchy worsened the condition of Punjab. It was a historic fact that no ruler could effectively rule Delhi without his control over the Punjab. Hence, all the Subedars were watching the situation in Punjab keenly. The governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, was making every effort to establish his independent control over Punjab. A spirit of revolt was rising among the people of Punjab due to the selfish policies of the incapable rulers.

3. Lawlessness: In the beginning of the 16th century, there was complete lawlessness in the Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officers were corrupt. There was no hope for any one to get justice in such a situation. The condition of the period is also reflected in the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib Ji said that justice had taken wings. Guru Sahib Ji further revealed that there was not a single man who would do job without taking bribe. The ruler himself sought gratification to deliver justice. Sikandar Lodhi tried to deliver justice but he adopted this approach only for his Muslim subjects.

4. Wars: The Punjab was reduced to a battleground. Every ambitious noble was making efforts to establish his control over Punjab so that he could occupy the throne of Delhi. The intrigues and ambitions of military conynanders, Subedars, and courtiers led to numerous clashes. During the period, a tussle between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi continued for a long time. Babur invaded the Punjab five times during 1519-1526 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Question 7.
Describe Babur’s conquest of Punjab.
Answer:
The victory of Babur over Punjab was the outcome of the first battle of Panipat. It was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. Babur won this battle and occupied Punjab.

Babur’s invasion. Babur left Kabul for India in November 1525, with his twelve thousand soldiers. He defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi at Lahore on his march towards Delhi. The Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi proceeded towards north-west along with an army of one lakh soldiers against Babur. His army was divided into four wings, namely, the advance guard, central division, right wing and left wing. There were five hundred elephants in his army. The rival armies stood face to face in the battlefield of Panipat.

Beginning of the Battle. There were no attack from either side for eight days. Ultimately, on April 21, 1526, the army of Ibrahim attacked Babur’s forces. Babur started his attack by continuously firing his cannons. It was a new situation and experience for the Delhi army. Immediately afterwards, the right and left Talugma wings of Babur’s army attacked Delhi army. It was followed by a strong charge of the middle wing of Babur’s army consisting of cavalry on the centre of Delhi army. In this manner, Delhi army was encircled from all sides. They could move neither forward nor retreat. The elephants of Ibrahim’s army were terrified and injured by the gunshots. They trampled their own soldiers of Delhi army under their feet. Within no time, the ground of Panipat was flooded with corpses of the killed soldiers. By the end of the noon, on the same day, the battle was over. The dead body of Ibrahim was found lying among numerous corpses of Rajput soldiers who were bodyguards of the dead Sultan. This battle completed the occupation of Punjab by Babur.

Question 8.
Describe in brief the intrigues of Daulat Khan Lodhi in Punjab.
Answer:
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the son of Tatar Khan. Sikander Lodhi had appointed his reliable and near relative Tatar Khan as the governor of Punjab because of the sensitive situation in Punjab Province. After the death of Tatar Khan, his son Daulat Khan was appointed as governor of Punjab. During the lifetime of Sikander Lodhi, Daulat Khan remained loyal to Delhi Sultan but after the death of the Sultan, he started conspiring against the Delhi Sultanate with an aim to establish his independent control oyer Punjab.

1. Intrigues against Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about the plots of Daulat Khan Lodhi against him. He summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi to clarify his position. But the Sultan Daulat Khan was guilty. Hence, he sent Dilawar Khan, his son, in his place to Delhi to represent him. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He tried to convey him the message that he could severely punish those who dared to conspire against him. Afterwards, he imprisoned Dilawar Khan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison.^On reaching Lahore, he told Dault Khan about all the happenings.

Daulat Khan was quick to realise the danger of facing a real conflict with Ibrahim Lodhi. Therefore, first of all, he immediately declared himself as an independent ruler of Punjab. Further, in order to strengthen his position, he sought the help of Babur, the ruler of Kabul, and sent his son Dilawar Khan to him for negotiations. Dilawar Khan assured Babur of the full support of his father. Babur was desirous of becoming the ruler of India. He had earlier invaded India a couple of times with the same aim. Hence, he found his dream of ruling India becoming true, when he received the offer of Daulat Khan.

He marched towards India with full strength and easily occupied Lahore. However, when he proceeded further, he faced a strong opposition of the Afghan leaders. He ordered his army to indulge in loot and plunder at Lahore. Soon after, Dipalpur and Jalandhar were also looted. After conquering Punjab, Babur made Daulat Khan the Subedar of Jalandhar and entrusted the rest of Punjab to Alam Khan Lodhi, who was also made a representative or Vakil of Babur in India.

2. Daulat Khan’s Revolt against Babur. Daulat Khan had expected that Babur would declare him an independent ruler of Punjab. He was shocked and infuriated when Babur declared him the Subedar of Jalandhar only. He raised the banner of revolt against Babur along with his son Ghazi Khan. Babur easily crushed his revolt. Daulat Khan escaped to the hills of Shivaliks to save his life. When Babur left India, Daulat Khan came down from the Shivalik hills. He occupied a major portion of Punjab after defeating the armies of Alam Khan and Ibrahim Lodhi.

3. Defeat of Daulat Khan and his death. Babur was keeping an eye on the activities of Daulat Khan Lodhi. When he learnt that Daulat Khan had occupied Punjab again, he left Kabul in November 1525 to invade India. On reaching Lahore, he learnt that Daulat Khan Lodhi was camping at Malout near Hoshiarpur. Hence, Babur immediately attacked Malout. Daulat Khan was not able to resist the attack and lost the battle. He was imprisoned and sent to Bhera but he died before reaching there.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society

Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Birth jGuru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of the Sikh religion. According to the Sakhi of Bhai Meharban and old Sakhi of Bhai Mani Singh, he was born at Talwandi on April 15, 1469 A.D. At present his place of birth is called Nankana Sahib.
  • Parentage The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu. He was a Patwari (a revenue officer).
  • The Ceremony of Sacred – Thread (Janeu) Guru Nanak Dev Ji was strongly opposed to useless ceremonies and empty rituals. He, therefore, refused to wear the thread of cotton, considered as a sacred thread.
  • The Pious Deal (Sacha Sauda) The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave him twenty rupees for starting some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent this money to serve food to the saints, beggars and the needy and this made a Pious Deal (Sacha Sauda).
  • Enlightenment Guru Nanak Dev Ji attained enlightenment during his bath at a rivulet called ‘Bein’. One morning he took a dip in the river and reappeared after three days as an enlightened being.
  • Udasis (Travels) The Udasis refer to those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook as a selfless pious wanderer without any care for his social bindings. The aim of his Udasis or Travels was to end the prevalent superstitions and guide humanity on the path of true faith. Guru Ji went on three Udasis in different directions.
  • Stay at Kartarpur Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur in 1521 and started residing there. He composed “Var Malhar’, ‘Var Manjh’, “Var Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Barah Maha’ etc. at Kartarpur. He also established the traditions of Sangat and Pangat there.
  • Guru Sahib Merged with the Supreme God On September 22,1539, he merged with the Ultimate Supreme God. Before he breathed his last, he had appointed Bhai Lehna as his successor.
  • Teachings about God The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were that God is formless, Self-created, Omnipresent, Omnipotent, Com¬passionate and Great. He can be easily achieved with the blessings of a True Guru and self-surrender.
  • Sangat and Pangat The congregation of the followers of the Guru is called Sangat. They sit together to learn the real meaning of the Guru and sing in praise of God. In Pangat system, all the followers of the Guru sit together on the floor to partake food from a common kitchen (langar).
  • Lodhi Rulers The Punjab was under the rule of the Lodhis. The rulers of the dynasty were Bahlol Lodhi, Sikander Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • Punjab under Ibrahim Lodhi Punjab was the centre of conspiracies during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi. The Subedar of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India.
  • Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur During the fifth invasion of Babur on India, Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Subedar of Punjab, fought against Babur. Daulat Khan Lodhi was defeated.
  • Political Condition Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. The political condition of Punjab was not good at the time of his birth. The rulers of Punjab were weak and fought among themselves. Punjab was passing through a phase of chaos and disorder.
  • Social Condition The social condition of Punjab during this period was miserable. The Hindu society was divided into castes and sub¬castes. The condition of women was pitiable. The people were of low moral character and were superstitious.
  • The Victory of Babur on Punjab The First Bat.tle of Panipat was fought in 1526 A.D. In this battle, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and Babur occupied Punjab.
  • Muslim Society The Muslim society was divided into three classes namely, the upper class, middle class and the lower class. The leading military commanders, Iqtadars, Ulemas and Sayyids were included in the upper class. In the middle class, the traders, farmers, soldiers and low ranking government officers were included. The lower class comprised of artisans, slaves and household servants.
  • Hindu Society In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Hindu society was divided into four main castes i.e. the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The goldsmiths, ironsmiths, weavers, carpenters, tailors, potters were few of the castes and sub-castes.
  • 1469 A.D. – Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji
  • 1499 A.D. – Attainment of True Knowledge
  • 1499-1510 A.D. – First Udasi
  • 1510-1515 A.D. – Second Udasi
  • 1515-1517 A.D. – Third Udasi
  • 1517-1521 A.D. – Fourth Udasi
  • 1522 A.D. – Foundation of Kartarpur
  • 22 September 1539 – Guru Nanak Dev Ji merged with the Supreme God
  • 1526 A.D. – First battle of Panipat.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
As per Rigveda name of Punjab was:
(a) Harappa
(b) Sapt Sindhu
(c) Panchnand
(d) Pentapotamia.
Answer:
(b) Sapt Sindhu.

Question 2.
Chinese traveller:
(a) Chanakya
(b) Lord Curzon
(c) Hieun Tsang
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Hieun Tsang.

Question 3.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
(a) 1849 AD.
(b) 1887 A.D.
(c) 1889 A.D.
(d) 1901 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1849 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Which doab is the least fertile among these?
(a) Chaj
(b) Sind Sagar
(c) Rachna
(d) Bari Doab.
Answer:
(b) Sind Sagar.

Question 5.
The name of region between Ghaggar and Yamuna is :
(a) Malwa
(b) Bangar
(c) Majha
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Bangar.

Question 6.
The Malwa region lies between which two rivers?
(a) Sutlej and Yamuna
(b) Sutlej and Ghaggar
(c) Ghaggar and Yamuna
(d) Sutlej and Beas.
Answer:
(b) Sutlej and Ghaggar.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
________ civilization flourished in Punjab.
Answer:
Harappa.

Question 2.
Penta means ________ and Potamia means
Answer:
five, rivers.

Question 3.
Punjab can be divided into ________ parts.
Answer:
three.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
________ region is located between the rivers of Chenab and Jehlum.
Answer:
Chaj Doab.

Question 5.
The founder of Sikh Religion was ________
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 6.
Punjab was reorganised in ________ on the basis of language.
Answer:
1 November, 1966.

Question 7.
The height of Mount Everest is metre.
Answer:
8848.

III. Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Rigveda (a) Sub mountainous Area
2. Sulaiman (b) North-Western Mountains
3. Bangar (c) Tsekai
4. Shivalik (d) Sapt Sindhu
5. Hieun Tsang (e) Ghaggar and Yamuna.

Answer:

A

B

1. Rigveda (d) Sapt Sindhu
2. Sulaiman (b) North-Western Mountains
3. Bangar (e) Ghaggar and Yamuna.
4. Shivalik (a) Sub mountainous Area
5. Hieun Tsang (c) Tsekai

IV. Differentiate between the following :

Question 1.
Malwa and Bangar
Answer:
Malwa: The area spread between Sutlej and Ghaggar rivers is called Malwa. Major cities of this region are Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda, Fazilka etc.

Bangar: This region is situated between Ghaggar and Yamuna rivers. Its major cities are Ambala, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Jind, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurugram etc. In this region, there is one historical area where many decisive wars were fought.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 2.
West Punjab and East Punjab
Answer:
West Punjab and East Punjab : In 1947, at the time of Independence, Punjab was divided into two parts- West Punjab and East Punjab. Western side of Punjab was Muslim dominated area and become a part of newly made country Pakistan. East Punjab became a part of India. In 1947, 13 districts went over to Pakistan and rest 16 districts remained in Indian Punjab.

Question 3.
Pass and Doab
Answer:
(a) Pass. A pass is a gap or break in high, rugged terrain such as a mountain ridge. Through these, mountain can be crossed.
(b) Doab. The territory between two rivers is known as the Doab. Plains of Punjab are made up of Five Doabs.

Question 4.
Himalayas and Sub-mountainous region
Answer:
(a) Himalayas. The Himalaya means Him + Alaya i,e. Land of Ices The mountains of Himalaya are in series in Punjab. According to height, these mountains are divided into three parts, The Greater Himalayas, the Middle Himalayas and the Outer Himalayas.

(b) Sub-Mountainous Region (Terai Region). In the south of Pir Panjal range of Himalayas, there situated the foothills of Shivalik and Kasauli mountains. This region is known as Terai area of Punjab or sub-mountainous region. The average height of such mountains is 1000-3000 feet.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
Chaj Doab and Bist Jalandhar Doab.
Answer:
(a) Chaj Doab. The region between rivers Chenab and Jehlum is called Chaj Doab. Major cities of this region are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.

(6) Bist Jalandhar Doab. The area situated between rivers Beas and Sutlej is Bist Jalandhar Doab. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the famous cities of this Doab.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by the word ‘Punjab’?
Answer:
The word Punjab is a combination of two Persian words-Punj and Aab. The meaning of Punj is five and Aab is rivers. So, its literal meaning is the land of five rivers.

Question 2.
What name Greeks had given to Punjab?
Answer:
The Greeks called Punjab as Pentapotamia in which penta means five and potamia means rivers. So, it is the land of five rivers.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Sapt Sindhu?
Answer:
During the Vedic age, Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu because it was the land of seven rivers.

Question 4.
Punjab was divided into which two parts in 1947?
Answer:
In 1947, Punjab was divided into Western and Eastern parts. Western side went over to Pakistan and Eastern side remained in India.

Question 5.
Name any two passes located in North-West boundary of Punjab.
Answer:
Khyber pass, Kurram, Tochi etc. are the passes located in North-West boundary of Punjab.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 6.
When and in how many parts was Punjab divided on the linguistic basis?
Answer:
On 1st November, 1966, Punjab was divided into two states on linguistic basis and these were Punjab and Haryana.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Throw light on the different historical names of Punjab at the different times.
Answer:
The names of Punjab were changed from time to time :

  1. During Rig vedic age, Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu (the land of seven rivers).
  2. In the epics, The Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas, the name of Panchnand was mentioned for Punjab.
  3. Greeks gave the name Pentapotamia (Penta-five, potamia-five rivers) to Punjab.
  4. Taki tribe gave Punjab the name Taki province or Taki.
  5. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang called Punjab as Tseh-Kia.
  6. During the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab was called as Lahore Province.
  7. The Mughal Emperor Akbar gave Punjab this name. Word Punjab is made up of two persian words Punj and Aab. Punj means five and Aab means water.
  8. In 1849 A.D., the British captured it and gave it the name of Punjab Province.
  9. In 1947 A.D., with the division of country, Punjab was divided into western and Eastern Punjab. But in both the countries, it is known with the name of Punjab.

Question 2.
Why is it necessary to study geographical characteristics of Punjab in order to study the history of Punjab?
Answer:
To study the history of any region, it is necessary to study its geographical characteristics. Punjab’s ways of living, eating, habits, wearing habits, nature of people and ideas, to an extent, are affected by its geographical characteristics. Its fertile plains became the Cradle of Civilisation. During hard times, it became the battle field where lakhs of people sacrificed their lives. Many times, its rivers guided the invaders. Its forests are also important. Many a times the victims of Mughal atrocities took shelter in its forests. Its fertile plains motivated many invaders to attack India. In this way, the geographical features of Punjab are very important.

Question 3.
Why is Punjab called the Gateway of India?
Answer:
Due to western branches of Himalaya, Punjab has acted as a gateway of India. It is not so difficult to cross the passes of these mountain ranges. Except Bolan pass, all other passes connect Afghanistan with Punjab. That’s why all the invaders from Aryans till Iranians, attacked India from this side. First of all, they had to struggle with the people of Punjab. They moved forward only after defeating Punjabis. In this way, Punjab played a role of gateway of India.

Question 4.
What were the causes of the spread of Islam in Punjab?
Answer:
The major reason of the spread of Islam in Punjab is that all the invaders first settled in Punjab. They asked the local people to adopt Islam. Muslim rulers commited atrocities on Hindus who stop following Islam. People of other far off regions, who initially adopted Islam, left it and came back to the fold of Hinduism but this was not the case with Punjabi’s because foreigners resided over here. Consequently Islam received great success in Punjab. One of another reason of the spread of Islam in Punjab was that the people were fed up with the complexity of vedic religion, caste system etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
In what way the physical features of Punjab affected the economic life of people?
Answer:
The physical features of Punjab gave strength ‘to the economic life of the people. From the ages, each year, Himalayan rivers bring new soil and nutrients and spread them all along the plains. Consequently plains of Punjab were considered the most fertile land in the country. Due to fertile land, people had a bumper crop and they became prosperous. These rivers also irrigated its land. The Himalayas rivers are perennial and this become a boon for agriculture. With the help of wood from the forests of the Himalayas, many furniture and sports industries were developed over here. People get many other things from the mountains which helped in the development of industries.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the geographical characteristics of Punjab.
Answer:
The study of Punjab from geographical point of view is quite interesting. From this point of view, Punjab can be divided into three parts :

  1. The Himalayas and North-West Mountains.
  2. The Sub-Mountains region-Terai region.
  3. The Plains.

1. The Himalayas and North-West Mountains. This physical part of Punjab is given ahead :
(a) The Himalayas. There are a number of Himalayan ranges in Punjab. These ranges can be divided into three parts on the basis of their average height, which are-the Great Himalayas, the Middle Himalayas and the Outer Himalayas.
1. The Great Himalayas. In the east, the mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas reach upto Nepal and Tibet. In its western part, it is again called the Great Himalayas. The Great Himalayas separate the Punjab regions of Lahul-Spiti and district of Kangra from Kashmir. The scenic Kulu Valley and Rohtang Pass are situated in these ranges. These ranges rise from 5851 metres to 6781 metres. These mountain ranges are always covered with snow.

2. The Middle Himalayas. They are popularly known as the Pangi mountain ranges. These ranges start from Rohtang Pass. They separate the Valleys made by the rivers Chenab and Ravi. Their average height is 2155 metres.

3. The Outer Himalayas. The ranges of outer Himalayas run between Chamba and Dharmshala. They reach from Kashmir to Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujarat districts. Their average height is 923 metres. These ranges are also know’n as Dhauladhar ranges.

(b) North-West Mountains. The North-West Mountains form the western part of the Himalayas in Punjab. These mountains include the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges. They have nothigh rising ranges. The most important feature of these ranges is the presence of a number of passes in them. Among these passes, the Khyber Pass is the most important. This pass became a gateway for most of the invaders.

2. The Sub Mountainous region-Terai region. There situated Terai region between the higher ranges of the Himalayas and plains of Punjab. They are also known as Sub-Mountainous regions. Their width is 160 km-320 km and their height is 300-900 metres. Due to the existence of many Valleys, this region seems different from the ranges of Himalaya. Form areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and Ambala are included in it. Normally it is a mountainous region. That’s why there is quite less production over here. At many places, land has been made ready to cultivate potato, paddy and maize. To live, people have to do quite a lot of hard work. This hard work has made them healthy.

3. The Plains. The plains of Punjab are divided into two regions. The Eastern Plain and the Western Plain. The plains surrounded by Yamuna and Ravi rivers are called the Eastern plains. They are very fertile and densely populated. The plains between Ravi and Indus rivers are called Western plains.

They are less fertile as compared to the Eastern plains.
(a) Five Doabs. The territory between two rivers is called Doab. The plains of Punjab consist of five doabs.

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab: The region situated between the rivers Indus and Jhelum is called the Sindh Sagar Doab. It is not a very fertile region. Jhelum and Rawalpindi are the important cities of this Doab.
  2. Rachna Doab: This area is situated between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, is quite fertile. The important towns of this Doab are Gujranwala and Shekhupura.
  3. Bist-Jalandhar Doab: This Doab consists of the plains situated between the rivers Beas and Sutlej. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the leading cities of this Doab.
  4. Bari Doab: The territory between the rivers Beas and Ravi is called the Bari Doab. It is also a fertile region. It is popular as Majha as it refers in central location of the area in Punjab. The two most famous cities of Punjab, namely, Amritsar and Lahore, are situated in this Doab.
  5. Chaj Doab: The territory between the Chenab and Jhelum is called Chaj Doab. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.

(b) Malwa and Bangar. The wide plain situated between the rivers Sutlej and Yamuna is a part of Punjab. The plain can be divided into two parts namely, Malwa and Bangar.
1. Malwa: The area extending from the banks of river Sutlej to the banks of river Yamuna is called Malwa. Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda etc. are the prominent cities of Malwa. The area is known in Punjab as Malwa and the people belonging to this area are called Malwais. The area got its name from the name of a republican tribe called Malava, which’ lived here during ancient period of Indian history.

2. Bangar or Haryana: This region extends from river ghaggar to river Yamuna. Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Hissar are the prominent cities of this area. This area has great historical importance because numerous battles which influenced the course of Indian history were fought here.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 2.
Discuss the impact of physical features of Punjab on its political and religious sphere.
Answer:
Punjab is one of the most fertile land. Its ideal location has given its history a distinctive face. Moreover, history of any place takes birth from its geography. Punjab’s history is not an exception.

Its people have achieved great success in political and religious fields.
1. Impact on Political Sphere. The background of the Indian political history was prepared on the lands of Punjab. Almost all the initial invaders entered India from the North-West direction. The brave people of Punjab faced them. Most of the important and decisive wars were fought here. Chandragupta Maurya established first large kingdom in India but its base was prepared at Punjab. First of all, he provoked Punjabi’s against the Greek rule, recruited soldiers and prepared the programme to conquer India. The first Kingdom of Harshvardhana was Thaneshwar (near kurukshetra) and was in Punjab.

2. Impact on Religious Sphere. Many religious movements started in India which are of great importance in the Indian history. Chishti, Suharvardi, Sufi sects etc. originated here which spread in different parts of the country. On this sacred land, Sikhism was originated. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of Sikhism. After him there came 9 Gurus who gave Sikhism a distinctive indentity. Punjabis gave many sacrifices in the interest of humanity. The Sikh religion flourished rapidly in Punjab.

Question 3.
Discuss the impact of foreign invasion on the people of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of Punjab faced lot many foreign invaders. They also tolerated the people who came with the foreign invaders and settled over here. Due to continuous wars, a feeling of bravery and fearlessness came in them. They never lived at place for a very long time. With the advent of many people from foreign countries, their culture, ways of living, religion, language etc. became the part of Punjab. Many of the traits of the Muslim culture got assimilated in the Punjabi culture.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Punjab was annexed into the British Empire in ______________
(a) 1947 A.E),
(b) 1857 A.D.
(c) 1849 A.D.
(d) 1889 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1849 A.D.

Question 2.
Punjab was divided in two parts on the basis of language in ___________
(a) 1947 A.D.
(b) 1966 A.D.
(c) 1950 A.D.
(d) 1971 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1966 A.D.

Question 3.
________ river acted as a boundary between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the British.
(a) Sutlej
(b) Chenab
(c) Ravi
(d) Beas.
Answer:
(a) Sutlej.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Presently which river acts a boundary between India and Pakistan?
(a) Ravi
(b) Chenab
(c) Beas
(d) Sutlej.
Answer:
(a) Ravi.

Question 5.
Shah Jaman attacked India (Punjab) in ________
(a) 1811 A.D.
(b) 1798 A.D.
(c) 1757 A.D.
(d) 1794 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1798 A.D.

Question 6.
Who made Delhi as the capital of India?
(a) Lord William Bentick
(b) Lord Mountbatten
(c) Lord Hardinge
(d) Lord Curzon.
Answer:
(c) Lord Hardinge.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu during period.
Answer:
Vedic

Question 2.
The territory between two rivers is known as the ________
Answer:
Doab

Question 3.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar divided Punjab in ________ provinces.
Answer:
two

Question 4.
Under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab was called ________ as a province.
Answer:
Lahore

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
During the Ramayana and Mahabharata age, Punjab was called ________
Answer:
Tsehkia

Question 6.
Alexander attacked India in ________ B. C.
Answer:
326.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is it not correct to use the word Punjab after the partition of India?
Answer:
Before partition, Punjab was a land of five rivers but after independence, three rivers went over to Pakistan and only two (Beas and Sutlej) remained in present Punjab.

Question 2.
What was the impact of Indian partition on Punjab?
Answer:
With the Indian partition, Punjab was divided in two parts.

Question 3.
In how mahy parts, can Punjab be divided from geographical point of view? Name them.
Answer:
From geographical point of view, Punjab can be divided into three parts :

  1. The Himalaya and its North-Eastern mountains,
  2. Sub-Mountainous region,
  3. The plains.

Question 4.
What type of area would Punjab be had the Himalayas not been there?
Answer:
If the Himalayas had not been there in the north of Punjab,it could have been dry and cold.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Doab’?
Answer:
Territory between two rivers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 6.
What is the area between the rivers Sutlej and the Ghaggar called? What are the inhabitants of this area called?
Answer:
The region between the rivers Sutlej and Ghaggar is known as Malwa and people living in this region are called Malwais.

Question 7.
How was the Doab Bist Jalandhar named? Write the names of any two famous cities of this area.
Answer:

  1. Doab Bist Jalandhar is the region between the rivers Beas and Sutlej. By joining the first letters of the names of the rivers Beas and Sutlej, the word Bist is formed
  2. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the two famous cities of this region.

Question 8.
Why is the Doab Bari called Majha? What are the residents of this area called?
Answer:
The Bari Doab is situated in the central Punjab. The word Majha means inner or the centre and that is why it is called the Majha. The people living in this region are called Majhels or Majahis.

Question 9.
Which Mughal ruler had divided the Punjab into two provinces?
Answer:
The Mughal ruler Akbar divided the Punjab into two provinces.

Question 10.
By what name was the Punjab called during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Punjab was called ‘Lahore Kingdom’ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Question 11.
When did the British annex Punjab?
Answer:
The British annexed Punjab in 1849.

Question 12.
When did the division of Punjab take place on linguistic basis?
Answer:
Punjab was divided in two states namely, Punjab and Haryana in 1966 on Linguistic basis.

Question 13.
Name any four major tribes which invaded Punjab after crossing the passes of the north-west ranges of Himalayas.
Answer:
The four main tribes were the Aryans, Sakas, Greeks and Kushans.

Question 14.
In which two parts are the plains of Punjab divided?
Answer:
The plains of Punjab are divided in two parts namely Eastern plains and Western plains.

Question 15.
Which two rivers have remained in the Indian Punjab?
Answer:
Sutlej and Beas.

Question 16.
What was Punjab called during Ramayana and Mahabharata ages?
Answer:
Panchnand

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 17.
Which Governor-General made Delhi the Capital of India?
Answer:
Lord Hardinge.

Question 18.
Name any two passes situated in the western ranges of the Himalayas. ,
Answer:
Khyber and Tochi.

Question 19.
When did Delhi become the Capital of India?
Answer:
In 1911 A.D.

Question 20.
When did Alexander attack India?
Answer:
In 326 B.C.

Question 21.
When did Shah Zaman attack India (Punjab)?
Answer:
In 1798 A.D.

Question 22.
Which river acted as the boundary between the British and Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
River Sutlej.

Question 23.
Presently, few parts of which river act as a boundary between India and Pakistan?
Answer:
Ravi.

Question 24.
Which was the Capital of Punjab during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Lahore.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 25.
Why are the plains of Punjab called Real Punjab? Give any one reason in support of the claim.
Answer:
The plains are fertile and are the main cause of prosperity of Punjab.

Question 26.
Name any four Doabs of the plains of Punjab.
Answer:
Bist Jalandhar Doab, Bari Doab, Rachna Doab and Chaj Doab.

Question 27.
Name the rivers which surround the Malwa region in Punjab?
Answer:
The rivers Sutlej and Ghaggar surround the Malwa region.

Question 28.
Name any four cities of Punjab where decisive historical wars were fought?
Answer:
Terain, Panipat, Peshawar and Thanesar.

Question 29.
What name do we give to Pakistani Punjab?
Answer:
Western Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write any four advantages of the Himalayas.
Answer:
The following are the main four benefits of the Himalayan mountains.

  1. The rivers of Himalayan flow during the whole year. They make the land of the Punjab fertile.
  2. There are dense forests in the Himalayan mountains. These forests provide many herbs and large quantities of wood.
  3. The high snow-covered peaks of the Himalayas protect India from the attacks of foreign invaders from the North.
  4. The Himalayan mountains check the monsoon winds and help in bringing rains.

Question 2.
Write briefly about any three Doabs.
Answer:

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. It is not a fertile region for farming.
  2. The Chaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.
  3. The Rachna Doab. It is the region between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is a very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the important towns of this Doab.

Question 3.
How did the rivers of Punjab affect the course of its history?
Answer:
The rivers of Punjab always stopped the march of the invaders of India. When the rivers were in flood in the rainy season, they expanded in the vast area and it became impossible to cross them. Undoubtedly, it was the reason that Alexander was held back for many days on the banks of river Jhelum before crossing it, because it was in flood. These rivers proved insurmountable hurdles for many invaders. The rivers of Punjab had also been used as the natural boundaries for administrative purposes. The Mughal rulers divided the areas of the administrative units like Sarkars, Parganas, and Subas by adopting the rivers as the boundaries. The rivers of Punjab had made its land fertile and brought its people wealth and prosperity. Had the rivers not brought the alluvial soil from the high mountains to the plains, Punjab would not have any fertile land.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Give information about the boundaries of Punjab in different periods of Indian history.
Answer:
The boundaries of the Punjab territory varied from time to time throughout its history.

  1. According to the Rig Veda, the boundaries of Punjab included the regions covered by the rivers Indus. Jhelum Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Saraswati.
  2. During the Mauryan and Kushan periods, the boundaries of Punjab extended upto the Hindukush mountain ranges and Taxila.
  3. During the Sultanate period (1206-1526), the boundaries of Punjab extended from Lahore to Peshawar. During the Mughal period (1526-1707), the Punjab was diyided into two provinces, namely, Lahore Suba and Multan Suba.
  4. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the boundaries of Punjab extended from the river Sutlej to Peshawar.
  5. The British named the territory of Lahore kingdom of Maharaja Dalip Singh (Son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) as the Punjab after annexing it to the British Indian Empire.
  6. After the partition of India, a major part^f the Punjab was transferred to Pakistan.
  7. On the basis of language, Punjab was divided into three states, namely Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 5.
How did the Himalayan mountains influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
The Himalayas influenced the history of Punjab in the following manner :

  1. Punjab-The Gateway of India: Punjab remained the Gateway of India for centuries since ancient times due to the North-Western mountain ranges of the Himalayas. The foreign invaders crossed the passes of these ranges to invade India.
  2. The Problem of the North-West Frontier: The security of North-West Frontier of India had always remained a major problem for the rulers of India. Those rulers, who failed to ensure the security of North-West Frontiers, suffered heavy losses.
  3. Protection against Foreign Invasions: It was impossible to cross the high ranges of the Himalayas from north. Consequently, Punjab remained secure in the north for a long time since nobody could invade from the northern side.
  4. Economic Prosperity: The rivers, originating in the Himalayas, replenished her plains with fertile soil from year to year. Consequently, the plains of Punjab were counted among the most fertile lands of the world.

Question 6.
What role did the Punjab play in the history of India?
Answer:
The Punjab played an important role in the history of India due to its special geographical location. It became the cradle of Indian civilization. The oldest ancient culture (Indus Valley Civilization) flourished in the Punjab. The Aryans made it the centre of their political sway. They composed their sacred books like the Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana etc, in the Punjab. Punjab was the the Gateway of India. All the invaders during medieval period came to India by passing through Punjab. Hence, people of Punjab had to fight numerous battles to hold back the advancing invaders. Apart from this, Punjab was the birthplace of Hinduism and Sikhism. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave his divine message on this very land. It was here that Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa Panth and successfully resisted the Mughal oppression. Banda Singh Bahadur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh hold prominent places in the history of India.

Question 7.
Give a brief description of the geographical division of Punjab keeping in view the history of Punjab.
Answer:
The geographical features of Punjab can be divided into three parts, keeping in view the history of Punjab.

  1. Himalayas and the North-West Mountain ranges.
  2. The Terai region (foothills).
  3. The Plains.

The mighty Himalayas form the boundary of Punjab in the north. The high rising peaks of the Himalayas are always covered With snow. The Himalayas have three ranges which run parallel to one another. There are numerous passes in the North West ranges through which the invaders, traders and religious preachers had been coming to India since ancient times. The second geographical division of Punjab is Terai region. It is sandwiched between the mountains and the plains of Punjab. The population in this region is small. The most important geographical division of Punjab is its plains, which are very fertile. They extend from river Indus in the northwest to river Yamuna in the south-east. It is formed by the soil deposited by the rivers from the Himalayas. It is the cause of the prosperity of Punjab since the ancient times.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 8.
How did the geographical features of Punjab influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Each geographical feature of Punjab has influenced differently the history of Punjab.

  1. The passes of the North-West Mountain Ranges of Himalayas allowed passage to many invaders. Hence the security of the North-west region remained a major problem for every ruler. On the other hand, the snow capped high rising peaks of the Himalayas in the parts of Punjab provided perfect security from all the possible invaders from the northern side.
  2. The distinctive culture of Punjab is a gift of the Himalayas standing in the North and West of Punjab.
  3. The prosperity and wealth of Punjab had always attracted the greedy invaders. Consequently. Punjab had to face their invasions frequently.
  4. The Terai region provided shelter to the Sikhs during their hard times. The Sikhs saved themselves and courageously faced the oppressive rulers.

Question 9.
Who annexed Punjab to the British Empire and when? Describe the role of the Punjab in the freedom struggle of India.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856), the Governor-General of India, annexed the Punjab to the British Indian Empire in 1849. Punjab made a commendable contribution to the freedom struggle of India. Baba Ram Singh started the Kuka Movement in Punjab. He was the first to oppose the British rule. The people of Punjab began the freedom struggle during the 20th century by starting, Gaddhar Movement, Gurudwara Movement, Babbar Akali Movement, Naujwan Sabha (Martyr Bhagat Singh’s Movement), Akali Movement, Praja Mandal Movement etc. Martyr Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life on the gallows for the sake of his motherland. The heroes of freedom struggle like Madan Lai Dhingra, Kartar Singh Sarabha and Udham Singh laid down their lives for the freedom of India. Ultimately, in 1947, India became free.

Question 10.
Describe the main features of Mountain Valleys (Tilhat) or Terai region (foothills) in Punjab.
Answer:
The Terai region of Punjab is situated below the hills of Himachal Pradesh and of Punjab. This region is 308 to 923 metres high above sea level. It presents a different look from the rest of the Himalayan regions in Punjab because of its meadows and valleys. The areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and some areas of Ambala district are parts of this region. It is mostly a hilly area. Consequently, the region is not much fertile. The waterborne diseases rapidly spread here during the rainy season. It has a small population. The people of the region are forced to work hard for their livelihood. This hqrd life has made them strong and sturdy.

Question 11.
How far have the plains influenced the history of Punjab?
Answer:

  1. Punjab had always remained a prosperous .state because its plains are fertile. The wealth and prosperity of Punjab always attracted greedy invaders from outside Punjab.
  2. Many historic battles were fought in the plains of Punjab. Peshawar, Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Sirhind, Bhatinda, Bhera, Kari, Terain, Panipat etc. witnessed major decisive battles. The three major decisive battles, the Battles of Panipat took place in Punjab.
  3. The people of Punjab were made to fight numerous battles because of the geographical location of the plains of Punjab. They suffered numerous atrocities at the hands of invaders. For example, Timur was notorious for his inhuman atrocities, which he inflicted on the people of Punjab.
  4. The people of Punjab developed the qualities of bravery and courage due to their involvement in frequent wars which they were made to fight.
  5. The Aryans developed Hinduism in Punjab. During the medieval period, this very land had the honour of being the birthplace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji who gave his spiritual message in a very simple language.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab.” Justify this statement with your arguments.
Answer:
The Himalayas stand high like a huge wall on the northern side of Punjab. The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab :
1. Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab had remained the Gateway of India for centuries because of the North-West ranges of Himalayas. First of all, the Aryans from Iran crossed the North Western mountain passes and invaded India. They faced strong opposition of the people of Punjab. But they ultimately settled in this region.

2. The Problem of North-West Frontier: The protection of North-West Frontiers had always remained a major problem for the Indian rulers. The Indian rulers were forced to spend a large amount of money for the protection of these frontiers.

3. Protection against the attacks of foreigners: The Northern ranges of the Himalayas are very high and always remain covered with snow. Therefore, Punjab remained safe from the attacks of the foreigners from the northern side.

4. Economic Prosperity: The Punjab has remained a prosperous region due to the Himalayas. The rivers of Himalayas replenished the upper soil of its land. Consequently, Punjab plains were counted among the most fertile regions of the world.

5. The Trade Relations with Foreign Countries: The passes in the North-West ranges served as trade routes to the foreign countries. The merchants from West Asian and Central Asian countries visited India by these trade routes. The Punjabi traders also visited their countries.

6. Distinctive Culture of Punjab. The Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals and Afghans came to India crossing the passes of the North-West Himalayas. Their different languages like Arabic, Persian, Turkish, etc. mixed with Sanskrit based local languages and dialects. This fusion of different cultures gave birth to the distinctive culture of Punjab which is now full of Indian and foreign features.

Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Punjab (Meaning): The word Punjab is derived from two Persian words, Panj and Aab. The meaning of Panj is five and the meaning of Aab is water, which is a symbol of river. Thus the Punjab is the region of five waters.
  • Changing Names of Punjab: Punjab was known by different names during different periods of history. The ancient names of Punjab were Sapt Sindhu, Panchnand, Pentapotamia, Tseh-Kia, Lahore Suba, Punjab etc.
  • The Geographical Divisions: From geographical point of view, Punjab can be divided into three divisions :
    (i) The Himalayas and its North-Western mountain ranges,
    (ii) The foothills or Terai region (the sub- Mountainous Region) and
    (Hi) the Plains.
  • The Malwa Region The Malwa region is surrounded by the rivers Sutlej and Ghagghar. During ancient times, the ‘Malava’ tribe lived here. The region is named Malwa after the name of Malava tribe.
  • The effects of Himalayas on the history of the Punjab Punjab was the “Gateway of India’ due to the existence of a number of passes in the North-West ranges of the Himalayas. During the medieval period, all the invaders came through these passes to invade India.
  • The plains of Punjab The plains of Punjab are very fertile. The prosperity of Punjab encouraged foreign invaders to attack India.
  • The influence of rivers of Punjab on its history The rivers of Punjab were a hurdle in the path of the invaders.
  • They also played a role in providing natural boundaries. The Mughal rulers adopted river boundaries as the administrative divisions like Parganas, Sarkars and Subas.
  • Terai Region The Terai region is covered with dense forests. The Sikhs took shelter in these forests during their hard times. They organised themselves, increased their military strength and effectively faced the oppressive rulers.
  • The different Castes and Tribes of Punjab The people of different castes and tribes lived in the Punjab. The prominent were the Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, Khatris, Aroras, Gujjars, Ariansetc.
  • Punjab annexed into the British Empire in – 1849 A.D.
  • The areas of Punjab and Hissar were included in Punjab in – 1857
  • North-Western Frontier Province was made out of Punjab in – 1901
  • Delhi was separated from Punjab in – 1911
  • At the time of Indian Independence, Punjab was divided into Western Punjab and Eastern Punjab in -1947
  • Punjab was divided in two States – Punjab and Haryana on Linguistic basis on – 1st Nov. 1966.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581) Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which Guru Ji started the construction work of the Baoli at Goindwal
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji.
(c) Guru Ram Das Ji
(d) Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 2.
What was the total number of Manjidars?
(a) 20
(b) 21
(c) 22
(d) 23.
Answer:
(c) 22.

Question 3.
To which Guru Sahib did Mughal flmperor Akbar come to meet at Goindwal Sahib?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji
(d) Guru Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 4.
Where did Bhai Lehna Ji go to see Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
(a) Shri Amritsar Sahib
(b) Kartarpur
(c) Goindwal
(d) Lahore.
Answer:
(b) Kartarpur.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 5.
To which of his sons did Guru Ram Das Ji entrust the Gurugaddi?
(a) Prithichand
(6) Mahadev
(c) Arjundev
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Arjundev.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji wrote __________ in Gurmukhi script.
Answer:
Bal Bodh

Question 2.
__________ used to visit Haridwar for taking dip in the holy Ganga.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji

Question 3.
__________ constructed Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji

Question 4.
Shri Guru Ram Das Ji established __________city.
Answer:
Ramdaspur (Amritsar)

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 5.
The Bani ‘Laavan’ is the famous composition of Guru __________
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

III. Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Baba Buddha Ji (i) Amrit Sarovar
2. Masand System (ii) Shri Guru Ram Das Ji
3. Bhai Lehna Ji (iii) Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji
4. Manji System (iv) Shri Guru Amar Das Ji

Answer:

A

B

1. Baba Buddha Ji (iv) Shri Guru Amar Das Ji
2. Masand System (ii) Shri Guru Ram Das Ji
3. Bhai Lehna Ji (iii) Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji
4. Manji System (i) Amrit Sarovar

Differentiate between the following :

Question 1.
Sangat and Pangat
Answer:
Sangat: Sangat is the group of the followers of the Guru who sit together to follow the preachings of the Guru.
Pangat: According to Pangat, all the followers of the Guru used to eat collectively the food made in the common kitchen.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Bhai Lehna was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Gurmukhi?
Answer:
The meaning of Gurmukhi is the words uttered by the Guru. Presently all the religious books of the Sikhs are in this language.

Question 3.
Who was known as a Manjidar?
Answer:
The head of the Manji was known as a Manjidar. They acted as a bridge between Guru Ji and the Sikh Sangat.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 4.
What was the old name of Amritsar?
Answer:
The old name of Amritsar was Ramdaspura.

Question 5.
What was the real name of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
Bhai Jetha Ji was the real name of Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 6.
What do you understand by Masand System?
Answer:
Guru Ramdass Ji needed a large amount of money to complete the construction work of ponds (Sarovars) of Amritsar and Santokhsar. Therefore, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib deputed his trusted Sikh devotees to go to far off places to spread the message of Sikh religion and collect donations. Such devotees were called Masands. These Masands successfully spread the message of Sikhism and collected large donations. This system played a major role in the spread of Sikh religion to far off places. The Masand system proved to be a link between the Sikh devotees and Guru Sahib and established an emotional bond between them.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on Manji System.
Answer:
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji. The number of the Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Amar Das Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees. The Manji System had great significance in the history of Sikh religion.

Question 2.
What was the contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji in the development of Gurmukhi Script?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurumukhi Script. In order to popularise Gurmukhi, Guru Sahib wrote Bal Bodh to help the children learn the alphabet of Gurmukhi. The Gurmukhi was a common language of the people of the region. It helped in the promotion of Sikh religion. All the religious literature of Sikhism is written in Gurmukhi script.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 3.
Write a short note on the social reforms of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Ji did the following social reforms :

  • Guru Amar Das Ji criticised the caste system. Guru Ji believed that caste based differences were against the wishes of the Supreme God. That’s why the langar system of Guru Ji does not keep any discrimination of caste system.
  • Another social evil of Sati system prevailed during those days. Guru Ji strongly opposed the evil of Sati System.
  • Guru Ji strongly criticised the Purdah system prevalent among the women. Guru Sahib considered purdah as the main hindrance in the development of society.
  • Guru Ji was against the use of intoxicants. That is why Guru Ji instructed the Sikhs to remain away from the intoxicants.

Question 4.
Write a note on the founding of Amritsar.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura. This city is now called Amritsar. Guru Ram Das Ji had started the work of digging of two sarovars (ponds) called Amritsar and Santokhsar in 1577 A.D. Guru Sahib found that it was difficult to look after the work of construction of the ponds from Goindwal. Hence, Guru Sahib decided to camp at the site of construction at Amritsar. His followers started visiting him at his camping sight and some of them also stayed there, which led to the rise of a small township. This township was lovingly named Ramdaspur, Guru Ram Das Ji tried to provide all the amenities to his followers who were staying there because of their devotion to him. Guru Sahib also established a small market there. That market became popular as ‘Market of Guru Ji’ or ‘Guru ka Bazaar’. In this manner, the city became an important place of pilgrimage and trading centre for the Sikhs and contributed in a significant way to the growth of Sikh religion.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji contributed significantly towards the development of Sikhism. Discuss.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion in 1539 after Guru Nanak Dev Ji. His period proved to be a blessing for the Sikh religion.

Guru Sahib contributed to the development of the Sikh religion in the following manner :
1. Improvement in Gurmukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvement, in Gurmukhi script in order to popularise Gurmukhi. Guru Sahib wanted to help the children learn the alphabet of Gurmukhi. The Gurmukhi was a common language of the people of the region. It helped in the promotion of Sikh religion. All the religious literature of Sikhism is written in Gurmukhi script.

2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write the Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to follow the true path shown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib himself also wrote Vani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

3. The Langar System. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued the Langar system with full devotion. Langar was served to all the people without any distinction based on caste system. It helped in decreasing the feelings of inequality based on caste system and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.

4. Separating the Udasis from the Sikhs. The elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bhai Sri Chand had established the Udasi sect. He’had popularised asceticism (Sanyas). The idea of asceticism was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to his followers that the Sikh religion is a religion of householders. There was no place for ascetics (Sanyasis) in it. Guru Sahib declared that those Sikhs, who believed in asceticism, were not true Sikhs. In this manner, by separating Udasis from the Sikh community, Guru Sahib strengthened the Sikh religion.

5. Laid the foundation of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

6. Enforced Discipline. Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained strict discipline in his Sikh community. He turned out Bhai Satta and Bhai Balwand out of Sikh Sangat for breaking discipline. However, on the request of Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. This episode served as a warning to the indisciplined elements in the Sikh community.

It is true that Guru Angad Dev Ji had given a distinct identity to the Sikh religion by making improvements in Gurumukhi script. The Sikh followers got their own separate script and language. The langar system freed the Sikh religion from the influence of caste system. It helped Sikh religion to establish its own separate identity different from the Hindu religion. All the credit goes to Guru Angad Dev Ji for all such developments which made Sikh religion a distinct religion.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 2.
What is the contribution of Shri Guru Amar Das Ji towards the development of Sikh religion?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji occupies an important place in the history of Sikh religion. The seeds of the religion which Guru Nanak Dev Ji had sowed, sprouted during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji raised a fence around the new religion and saved it from getting absorbed into Hindu religion. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh community to adopt new customs and traditions in their social life, which developed the real traits of Sikh religion. They were different from the social customs and .traditions of the Hindu religion. No doubt, Guru Sahib was a great divine soul. Payne, a scholar, called him an aggressive reformer. Another scholar has praised Guru Sahib as a genius and a man of justice. It is a historical fact that it was during his period that Sikh religion established its distinctive identity.

A brief survey of the work of Guru Amar Das Ji is as follows :
1. Construction of Baoli at Goindwal. Guru Amar Das Ji completed the construction work of Baoli at Goindwal which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib said that a Sikh could get freedom from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh forms of lives by reciting the hymns of Jupji Sahib on each step. The Baoli of Goindwal became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

2. Langar System. Guru Amar Das Ji also made the Langar system popular which helped further in the spread of Sikhism. Guru Sahib made some more rules for Langar System. As per the new rules, whosoever wanted to earn the benefit of participation in Sangat, he must partake Langar with the rest of the Sangat before joining it in the presence of Guru Sahib. While partaking food in the Langar, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishs, Shudras, Kings, common men and people of all castes and tribes sat in one row and partook food.

Langar system propagated the message of Sikh religion in a more forceful and effective manner. It ended the discrimination based on castes. It developed the feelings of unity and equality in the Sikh Sangat. As a consequence, it bound the Sikhs into a strong bond of unity.

3. Collection of the Sayings of Guru Sahiban. Guru Angad Dev collected the true Vani’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and added his own Vani’ also. Guru Angad Dev Ji entrusted the sacred collection to Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji also composed his ‘Vani’ and added to the collection. In this manner, the true ‘Vani’ was preserved in a pure form and later found place in the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’. The grandson of Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji accomplished the ultimate task.

4. Manji System. The number of followers of Sikhism had increased manifold by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji found it difficult to reach all his disciples who were spread over a large area. Guru Sahib divided his spiritual territory into 22 regions. Each region was called a ‘Manji’. Each Manji was a centre of religious preaching and Guru Sahib appointed learned and reliable Sikh devotees to control each Manji.

The establishment of Manji system was an important step in the systematic organisation of the Sikh religion. G.C. Narang in his book ‘Transformation of Sikhism’, remarks that the introduction of Manji System by Guru Sahib, had strengthened the Sikh religion and contributed to the spread of Guru’s divine message in different regions of the country in a more effective way.

5. Separation of Sikhs from the Udasis. The Udasi sect of Bhai Sri Chand had also become popular in the early period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Guru-gaddi. There was a possibility of Sikh religion losing its identity by being merged with the Udasi sect. It is recognised by. many historians that Guru Amar Das Ji had judged the situation and strongly spoken against the main principles of asceticism of Udasi sect, which were against the principles of Sikh religion as founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji helped the Sikh Sangat to understand clearly that they would not be able to become true Sikhs, if they adopted the principles of Udasi sect. In this manner, because of the efforts of Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikh religion maintained its separate identity and flourished.

6. Separate Sikh Ceremonies. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to discontinue useless customs and traditions. Among the Hindus, it was a tradition of weeping and crying over the death of one’s near ones. Guru Sahib advised his disciples to meditate on God in such situations in one’s life instead , of performing useless ceremonies and rites. Guru Sahib also started a new ceremony for marriage, which was called Anand Karaj.

7. Composition of Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib composed a new Vani which is called ‘Anand Sahib’. Anand Sahib ended the importance of Vedic hymns for the Sikhs and gave them their own sacred literature.

Thus, the period of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Guru-gaddi and his sacred literature occupy the most important place in the history of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib constructed a Baoli, introduced Manji System, elaborated the Langar System, and introduced new traditions and customs in the Sikh religion which was well-organised during his days.

Question 3.
What is the contribution of Shri Guru Ram Das Ji towards the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
The fourth Guru Sahib of Sikh religion was Guru Ram Das Ji. Guru Sahib made the contribution to the growth of Sikh religion given ahead :
1. Laid the foundation of Amritsar City. Guru Ram Das Ji laid on the land bought during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji, the foundation of a city called Ramdaspur. Presently, it is called Amritsar. In 1577, when Guru Sahib started construction work on the two ponds (Sarovars) called Amritsar and Santokhsar, he found that it was not easy to supervise the construction of ponds from Goindwal. Guru Sahib encamped at the construction site. His Sikh devotees also came after him and pitched their tents around the ponds.

The camping place developed into a small settlement. That settlement became popular as Ramdaspur. Guru Sahib wanted to provide every facility to his devotees who had followed him to the place out of love for him. Guru Sahib, therefore, invited 52 merchants belonging to 52 different trades and provided all the things required by the settlers. They set up a type of Bazaar which is now called Guru Ka Bazaar. The city soon acquired the status of an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. They stopped visiting the places of Hindu pilgrimage.

2. Introduction of Masand System. Guru Ram Das Ji needed a large amount of money to complete the construction work of ponds (Sarovars) of Amritsar and Santokhsar. Therefore, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib deputed his trusted Sikh devotees to go to far off places to spread the message of Sikh religion and collect donations. Such devotees were called Masands. These Masands successfully spread the message of Sikhism and collected large donations. This system played a major role in the spread of Sikh religion to far off places. The Masand system proved to be a link between the Sikh devotees and Guru Sahib and established an emotional bond between them.

3. End of the Conflict with the Udasis. Guru Angad Dev Ji and Guru Amar Das Ji had separated Udasi sect from the Sikh community but Guru Ram Das Ji adopted a kind attitude towards the Udasi sect. According to a tradition, once Bhai Sri Chand, the founder of Udasi sect came to meet Guru Ram Das Ji. During his meeting, Bhai Sri Chand asked Guru Sahib that why he had kept a long beard. Guru Sahib gave an answer full of humility when he said that his beard was meant to dust the feet of great personalities like Bhai Sri Chand. Bhai Sri Chand was highly impressed by the answer of Guru Sahib and he accepted Guru Sahib as superior to him. In this manner, the conflict between the Udasi sect and the Sikh community ended. It immensely helped in the spread of Sikh religion.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 4.
How did Sikhism flourish with the establishment of the new cities and the new traditions by the Gurus?
Answer:
The Guru Sahiban founded many cities for the spread of the Sikh religion and prosperity of their devotees. One of the main aims of founding the new cities was to provide separate places of pilgrimage to the Sikhs which could be exclusively used by them for the fulfilment of their religious needs.

They created a spirit of unity among them. A brief survey of the cities founded during the Guru periods is as given ahead :
1. Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. The city started developing as a religious centre since 1546, the year of its foundation. Guru Sahib entrusted the development of the city to his follower Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji had constructed Baoli Sahib during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Gradually, Goindwal became an important religious centre for the Sikhs. Presently, it is one of the most important and sacred religious places for the Sikhs.

2. Ramdaspur. Guru Ram Das Ji laid the foundation of Ramdaspur. Presently, it is called Amritsar. In 1577, Guru Sahib started work on the two ponds (Sarovars) called Amritsar and Santokhsar. Guru Sahib found that it was not easy to supervise the work of construction of the ponds from Goindwal. So Guru Sahib camped at the construction site. His Sikh devotees also came after him and pitched their tents around the ponds. The camping place developed into a small settlement. That settlement became popular as Ramdaspur. Guru Sahib was anxious to provide every facility to his devotees who had followed him to the place out of love for him. Guru Sahib, therefore, invited 52 merchants belonging to 52 different trades, and provided all the necessary things of daily life to the settlers. A type of bazaar sprang up which is now called Guru Ka Bazaar. The city soon became an important centre of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. They stopped visiting the places of Hindu pilgrimage.

3. Tarn Taran. Guru Arjan Dev Ji laid the foundation of the city of Tarn Taran in the region surrounded by the rivers Beas and Ravi. Guru Sahib had laid its foundation in 1590. The city of Tarn Taran has great importance in the history of Sikhs. Tarn Taran is a very important centre of pilgrimage just like Amritsar. Thousands of Sikh pilgrims come to take a dip in the Sarovar (tank) at Tarn Taran regularly. The city attracted the Jats of Majha region who hecame the followers of the Sikh religion. The Jats of Majha region recorded their name in the history of the region for their valour and courage which they demonstrated in the battles from time to time.

4. Kartarpur. In 1593, Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded a city in Jalandhar Doab and named it Kartarpur, meaning a ‘City of God’. Guru Sahib also got dug a well at Kartarpur which became popular as Gangsar. The city became a major centre of preaching of Sikh religion for Jalandhar Doab region.

5. Hargobindpur and Chheratta. In order to celebrate the birth of his son Hargobind Ji, Guru Arjan Dev Ji founded a city on the banks of river Beas and called it Hargobindpur. In addition to that, Guru Sahib got dug a well near Amritsar to overcome the shortage of water in the region. Guru Sahib got manufactured six pulleys (rehat) to draw water from the well. Therefore, the city became popular as Chheratta while referring to the six pulleys. Gradually, the settlement at Chheratta grew into a city and it still reminds us of the activities of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

6. Chak Nanaki. Guru Hargobind Ji laid the foundation of Chak Nanaki near Kiratpur. Guru Sahib had bought land for this city on June 19, 1665 for Rs. 500.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581) Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which Guru laid the foundation of Baoli at Goindwal?
(a) Guru Arjan Dev Ji
(b) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(c) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(d) Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
(c) Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 2.
Guru Ram Das Ji founded the city of
(a) Amritsar
(b) Jalandhar
(c) Kiratpur Sahib
(d) Goindwall Sahib.
Answer:
(a) Amritsar.

Question 3.
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru in A.D.
(a) 1479
(b) 1539
(c) 1548
(d) 1670.
Answer:
(b) 1539.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 4.
Guru Angad Dev Ji left this world in A.D.
(a) 1552
(b) 1538
(c) 1546
(d) 14 1$,
Answer:
(a) 1552.

Question 5.
Guru Amar Das Ji left this world in A.D.
(a) 1564
(b) 1538
(c) 1546
(d) 1574.
Answer:
(d) 1574.

Question 6.
Which Guru Sahib made Guru-gaddi hereditary?
(a) Guru Amar Das Ji
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji
(c) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
(d) Guru Teg Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The earlier name of Guru __________ was Bhai Lehna.
Answer:
Angad Sahib

Question 2.
__________ was the fourth Guru of Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji

Question 3.
Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of
Answer:
Goindwal

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 4.
The Mughal Emperor met Guru Amar Das Ji at Goindwal.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 5.
__________ was the third Guru of Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji

Question 6.
Udasi Sect was started by __________ the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Baba Srichand

Question 7.
Manji System was established by __________
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the Guru who was earlier known as Bhai Lehna Ji.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna Ji was the earlier name of Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 2.
Define Langar System.
Answer:
The Langar System or Pangat refers to that tradition by which all the people without any distinction, like caste, religion, etc. sat in one row and partook food. Guru Amar Das Ji had made a rule according to which no body would come in his presence without first partaking food in the Pangat.

Question 3.
Name the Guru who laid the foundation of Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev ji laid the foundation of a large well (Baoli) in Goindwal.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 4.
Name the Guru whom Akhar visited.
Answer:
Akbar Met Guru Amar Das Ji at Goindwal.

Question 5.
Write two objectives of the Masand System.
Answer:
The two aims of Masand System were as follows :
1. To collect the donations for the development work relating to Sikh religion.
2. To organise the Sikhs.

Question 6.
Who was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs? Which city was founded by him?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs and Guru Sahib built the city of Ramdaspur (Amritsar).

Question 7.
What do you know about Langar System?
Answer:
The Langar System or Pangat was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued the system with full devotion. This system proved to be a powerful agency for popularising the Sikh religion.

Question 8.
What was preached by Guru Angad Dev Ji to the Sikhs through the Sangat System?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the message of peace and brotherhood and dealt a severe blow to the caste system among the Sikhs.

Question 9.
What was the contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji towards Langar system?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji further promoted the Langar system or Pangat, which was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This system worked with the voluntary support of his Sikh followers. Bibi Khiwi, wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji, managed the Pangat System with full devotion.

Question 10.
Write about the wrestling grounds established by Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji believed that the physical fitness was essential for the intellectual development of the Sikhs. That’s why he established wrestling grounds.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 11.
What do you know about Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
The city of Goindwal is situated on the bank of river Beas. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed here a baoli, a large oblong tank of water. In the course of time, Goindwal became an important centre of Sikh pilgrimage.

Question 12.
Write the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about Caste System.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was strongly against untouchability and discrimination based on Caste System (Jati System).

Question 13.
What were the views of Guru Amar Das Ji about the Sati System?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the practice of Sati.

Question 14.
How was Goindwal Sahib founded by Guru Amar Das Ji? How was it different from other religious places?
Answer:
Goindwal was different from the other religious places in many ways.

  • The city was built with the voluntary service (Kar sewa) of the Sikhs.
  • The Sikh devotees had no faith in the worship of any god or goddess or any priest in the city.

Question 15.
What reforms did Guru Amar Das Ji introduce for marriage, birth and death ceremonies?
Answer:

  1. Guru Amar Das Ji replaced the ceremony of Pheras (going around the fire pit in Hindu marriage) with the ceremony of Lavan in Sikh marriage.
  2. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of singing the ‘Anand Vani’ at the time of birth and marriage.

Question 16.
Write about the importance of Ramdaspur or Amritsar.
Answer:
The Sikhs got their own city of pilgrimage and an important business centre with the founding of Ramdaspur or Amritsar.

Question 17.
Write about the importance of the meeting between Guru Ram Das Ji and the Mughal emperor Akbar.
Answer:
Friendly relations developed between Guru Ram Das Ji and Akbar when Akbar met Guru Sahib at Goindwal.

Question 18.
Name the parents of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
The name of father of Guru Angad Dev Ji was PheTuman and name of the mother was Sabrai Devi.

Question 19.
To whom was Bhai Lehna married?
Answer:
Bhai Lehna (Guru Angad Dev Ji) was married to Bibi Khivi.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 20.
Who established the Udasi Sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, established the Udasi Sect.

Question 21.
Which place was the centre of religious activities of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Khadoor Sahib in Amritsar district.

Question 22.
Where and when was Guru Amar Das Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was born in 1479 A.D. in village Basarke in district Amritsar.

Question 23.
Describe one difficulty which Guru Amar Das Ji faced on occupying Guru-gaddi.
Answer:
He was faced with the opposition of Bhai Dattu and Bhai Dasu.

Question 24.
How many children did Guru Amar Das Ji have?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had two sons and two daughters.

Question 25.
How many steps were constructed in the Baoli (Large Well) at Goindwal?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji got constructed 84 steps in the Baoli at Goindwal.

Question 26.
Which Guru Sahib had started Manji System?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had started the Manji System.

Question 27.
Write about any one major contributions of Guru Amar Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji got completed the construction of Goindwal.

Question 28.
Which three festivals were selected by Guru Amar Das Ji for the Sikh community to celebrate?
Answer:
Baisakhi, Maghi, and Diwali.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 29.
When did Guru Amar Das Ji make the final union with the Divine Power?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji made the final union with the Divine Power in 1574.

Question 30.
Who had made the Guru-gaddi hereditary?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji declared that after Guru Ram Das Ji, the Guru-gaddi will be hereditary.

Question 31.
What was the name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
The name of the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji was Bibi Bhani.

Question 32.
Write about any one important contribution made by Guru Ram Das Ji for the spread of Sikh religion.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded and developed the holy city of Amritsar.

Question 33.
What was the earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar?
Answer:
The earlier name of the holy city of Amritsar was Ramdaspur.

Question 34.
Write the names of two Sarovars (Large ponds) constructed by Guru Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji got dug two Sarovars namely Santokhsar and Amritsar.

Question 35.
By what name did the bazaar founded by Guru Ram Das Ji around Amritsar become famous?
Answer:
“Guru ka Bazaar”.

Question 36.
Who started Langar System?
Answer:
Langar system was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. .

Question 37.
Name the fourth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 38.
Which Guru started the Masand System?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 39.
For which two occasions, Guru Amar Das Ji started new special customs?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji started the ceremony of singing the ‘Anand Vani’ at the time of birth and marriage.

Question 40.
Write any one work done by Guru Amar Das Ji to spread Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji started the construction work of a Baoli in Goindwal.

Question 41.
Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to celebrate which three festivals?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to celebrate Baisakhi, Maghi and Diwali. .

Question 42.
Where did the Sikhs collect to celebrate their festival during the times of Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
They collected at Goindwal.

Question 43.
When did Guru Amar Das Ji leave this world?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji left this world in 1574 A.D.

Question 44.
To which family did Guru Amar Das Ji give Guru-gaddi?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji gave Guru-gaddi to the Sodhi family of Guru Ram Das Ji and Bibi Bhani Ji.

Question 45.
Name the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
Bibi Bhani was the wife of Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 46.
Give the names of the sons of Guru .Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji had three sons—Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Arjan Dev.

Question 47.
Write any one function done by Guru Ram Das Ji to spread Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded the city of Amritsar which became the most important pilgrimage place of the Sikhs.

Question 48.
What was the earlier name of Amritsar?
Answer:
Ramdaspur was the earlier name of Amritsar.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 49.
What was the reason behind founding ‘Guru ka Bazaar’ by Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
Guru Ji wanted to make Amritsar self-reliant. So, Guru Ji invited 52 different traders and founded this Bazaar.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did Guru Angad Dev Ji separate the Sikhs from the Udasi Sect?
Answer:
Bhai Sri Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, had founded the Udasi sect. He praised the life of an ascetic (monk or sanyasi). This idea of spiritual ascetic life was against the fundamental teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear to the Sikhs that the Sikh religion was a religion of the householders and not of the monks who broke the family ties for their spiritual life.

There was no place for ascetics in the Sikh religion. Guru Sahib also declared that a Sikh who adopted a life of an ascetic was not a true Sikh. In this manner, Guru Sahib separated the Sikhs from the Udasis and consolidated the foundations of Sikh religion.

Question 2.
What reforms were introduced in marriage ceremonies by Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
At the time of Guru Amar Das Ji, the influence of caste system was dominating the people of Punjab. The people considered it against their religion to marry outside one’s own caste. Guru Sahib believed that such a tradition had divided the people. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to break the caste barriers and permitted inter-caste marriages. Guru Sahib also reformed the marriage ceremonies. Guru Sahib started the ceremony of Lavan in place of Pheras. Bhai Jetha Ji (Guru Ram Das Ji) wrote the Lavans on the advice of Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 3.
Describe the Baoli Sahib (water source) at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji completed the work of construction of the Baoli at Goindwal, which was started during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps in the Baoli. Guru Sahib told his Sikh followers that whosoever would recite the hymns of ‘Jupji Sahib’ with full devotion on each of the 84 steps, he would become free from the cycle of births and deaths covering 84 lakh types of lives (Yonis) and achieve Moksha (Salvation). Indu Bushan Banerjee says that the Baoli played a significant role in the history of Sikh religion. The Baoli of Goindwal became a popular place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. The Gurudwara Baoli Sahib stands there. ,

Question 4.
Write about the Anand Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had composed fresh Vani called Anand Sahib. Guru Sahib had composed the Anand Sahib at the time of birth Of his grandson named Anand. It has forty hymns. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed his Sikh followers to sing Anand Sahib on the happy occasions in their fives like birth, marriage or any other similar occasion. After the composition of Anand Sahib, the need of Vedic hymns for Sikh community completely ended. The Sikhs sing the hymns of Anand Sahib on the occasions of happiness in their fives upto this day.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 5.
Write about the agreement between the Sikhs and the Udasis.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji and Guru Amar Das Ji had successfully kept the Sikhs away from the Udasi sect. However, Guru Ram Das Ji adopted an attitude of humility and kindness towards the Udasis. It is said that once Bhai Sri Chand, the organiser of the Udasi sect came to meet Guru Ram Das Ji. On meeting Guru Sahib, Bhai Sri Chand asked, “Why have you kept such a long beard 7” Guru Sahib humbly replied, “It is meant to clean the feet of great persons like you.” The answer touched the heart of Bhai Sri Chand and the overwhelmed Bhai Sri Chand immediately accepted the superiority of Guru Ram Das Ji. In this manner, the decades long conflict between the Udasis and the Sikhs ended.

Question 6.
Describe the Baolis (water sources) constructed during the times of Guru Sahibs.
Answer:
During the period of Sikh Guru Sahiban, the following large wells (Baolis) were constructed.
1. The Baoli at Goindwal: The construction of Baoli at Goindwal was completed by Guru Amar Das Ji. The foundation stone of the Baoli was laid by Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji constructed 84 steps leading to the water level in the large well. Guru Sahib further instructed his Sikh followers that whosoever recited the hymns of Jupji Sahib with full devotion on each of the 84 steps, he would become free from the cycle of births and deaths.

2. The Baoli at Lahore : Guru Arjan Dev Ji constructed a large well in Dubbi Bazaar at Lahore. The Baoli at Lahore became an important place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

Question 7.
Throw light on any four measures taken by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs after Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s demise in 1539. His period proved to be a blessing for the rise of Sikhism.

Guru Sahib contributed to the rise of Sikhism by doing the following works :

  1. Improvement of Gurmukhi Script. Guru Angad Dev Ji made improvements in the Gurmukhi script. In order to popularise Gurmukhi, Guru Sahib wrote ‘Bal Bodh’ to help children to learn the alphabet of Gurmukhi.
  2. The Janam Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and other Writings. Guru Angad
    Dev Ji instructed Bhai Bala Ji to write a Janam-Sakhi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib also collected all the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. It helped the Sikhs to know the true instructions of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote his own Vani in line with the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
  3. Langar System. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued Langar system with full devotion. It helped in reducing the ill-feelings based on caste system among the people and helped in spreading the message of Sikh religion.
  4. Founding of Goindwal. Guru Angad Dev Ji founded the city of Goindwal. This city became an important Sikh religious centre during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. Even today, it is one of the most important religious centres of Sikhism.

Question 8.
How was the institution of Guru and Sikh (Guru and his follower) established?
Answer:
A brotherhood of Sikh community had been fully evolved before the final union of Guru Nanak Dev Ji with the Divine Power. Guru Nanak Dev Ji took special care to perpetuate the Sikh community. Guru Sahib appointed his most devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor before he breathed his last. Bhai Lehna ascended the Guru-gaddi under the name Guru Angad Dev Ji after the final union of Guru Nanak Dev Ji with the Divine Power. In this manner, Guru-Sikh tradition was evolved and gradually it was firmly established. The tradition of Guru Panth (Guruship of Guru-gaddi) became the most revered institution in the history of Sikh religion.

Question 9.
Why had Guru Nanak Dev Ji appointed Bhai Lehna to Guru-gaddi in place of his own sons by completely setting aside their claims?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had two sons, named Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakshmi Chand. Guru Sahib did not appoint either of them to Guru-gaddi. Guru Sahib preferred to appoint his devoted follower Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru-gaddi.

Guru Sahib had special reasons to turn down the claims of his sons to Guru-gaddi, which were as follow :
1. A perfect householder’s life for a Sikh was one of the important principles of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, Baba Sri Chand was an ascetic and Baba Lakshmi Chand was too worldly. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna had sincerely followed the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and lived a life of a perfect householder.

2. The humility and service to the Guru with complete devotion were the core principles of the creed of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Baba Sri Chand was devoid of these very qualities in his personality. On the other hand, Bhai Lehna was a perfect model of humility and complete surrender to Guru Sahib.

3. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in the superiority of the Vedas, Shashtras and the Brahmin class. Guru Sahib did not consider Sanskrit as a sacred language. However, Baba Sri Chand Ji had deep faith in Sanskrit language, the Vedas and the Shastras.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 10.
Describe the position of Langar System and its importance during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
The expansion and promotion of Langar System by Guru Angad Dev Ji had beneficial results. The Langar System became an important and effective method of propagation of Sikh religion. Secondly, it turned up as an institution for the shelter of the poor people and thirdly, it became a powerful agency for preaching and popularity of the principles of Sikh religion. There were already numerous similar institutions which worked on charity of some individuals but Langar system was probably the first institution of its own kind which depended on the collective donations and gifts of the whole Sikh community. It ended the feelings of high and low rooted in the principles of caste system and inculcated the feelings of unity and brotherhood among the members of the Sikh community.

Question 11.
Which incident of the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji revealed Guru Sahib as a strict disciplinarian?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji set an effective example of discipline in the Sikh community for his devotees. According to the oral history, there were two famous players of Rabab (a string musical instrument) named Satta and Balwant in the service of Guru Sahib. Both of them became proud of their artistic skills and started overlooking the instructions of Guru Sahib. They also started boasting that the popularity of Guru Sahib was due to their mastery over ragas and way of singing of the Guru Vani. They even went to the extent of claiming that the popularity of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was due to the melodies of Mardana. Guru Sahib banished them from his place due to their indiscipline and overbearing attitude. However, on the pleading of his devoted follower Bhai Laddha, Guru Sahib pardoned them. It left a deep impression on the minds of the Sikhs. Consequently, the importance of discipline was honoured in Sikh religion very strictly.

Question 12.
How did Guru Amar Das Ji become the follower of Guru Angad Dev Ji? How had Guru Amar Das Ji received the Guru-gaddi?
Answer:
Before adopting Sikh religion, Bhai Amar Das, one day got a chance to listers to divine Vani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which was being sung by Bibi Amro, the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so impressed and captivated by the divine hymns that he immediately sought the audience of Guru Angad Dev Jf and adopted Guru Angad Dev Ji as his Guru. From then onwards, Guru Amar Das Ji stayed with Guru Angad Dev Ji at Hradoor Sahib from 1541 to 1552 and devoted himself completely to the service of Guru Angad Dev Ji. During the chilly winter of Punjab plains, Bhai Amar Das Ji used to fetch water in an earthen pitcher from the river Beas for the bath of Guru Angad Dev Ji early in the morning.

Once on his way back to Guru Sahib’s house, Bhai Amar Das Ji stepped on a thorn and stumbled. The pitcher fell making a loud noise. A sleeping woman, a wife of a washerman on the way side of his path, was awakened from her sleep and lamented with a taunt that the old man might be the homeless Amro. Guru Angad Dev Ji learnt about this” episode. Guru Sahib immediately called Bhai Amar Das Ji in his presence and ordained, “From now on Amar Das shall not remain homeless, rather he shall be a shelter to numerous homeless.” In March 1552, Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed Guru Amar Das Ji as his successor. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji became the third Sikh Guru.

Question 13.
Describe the progress of Langar System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced some new rules for Langar system. According to the new rules, no one was expected to join the Sangat of Guru Sahib without partaking food in the Langar. The women, who served in the Langar, were not allowed to observe Purdah. It is said that even Emperor Akbar took food in the Langar following all the rules before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. The Langar was open to people from all the sections of the society without any consideration of religion, caste and tribe.

The Brahmans, Kshtriyas, Vaish, lower castes and people of all other castes sat together and partook food served equally to all. It gave a strong blow to the caste, colour, and racial considerations, which were quite dominating at that time. It developed the feeling of equality among the followers of Guru Sahib. No doubt, Langar system had definitely bound the Sikh community in a common bond of unity and brotherhood and developed the feeling of equality among them thereby.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Question 14.
Describe the progress of Manji System during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji introduced the Manji System. The number of the Sikhs had increased tremendously by his times. However, Guru Sahib was quite advanced in age and he, therefore, found it difficult to peach his Sikhs spread far and wide in order to preach his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his religious domain into 22 provinces. Each province was called ‘Manji’. Each ‘Manji’ was further divided into local centres called ‘Piris’. The Manji System played an important part in the history of Sikh religion. G.C. Narang is of the view that the contribution of Guru Sahib Ji to Manji System consolidated the base of Sikh religion and facilitated in a great way the spread of Sikh religion in all parts of the country.

Question 15.
“Guru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer.” Give any four arguments in support of this statement.
Answer:

  1. Guru Sahib strongly criticised the principles of Caste system. Guru Sahib declared that the class differences were totally unacceptable to Supreme God. Ther ” re, no caste or class considerations were observed in Langar System.
  2. The practice of Sati was very common in the times of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib strongly condemned the evil of Sati.
  3. Guru Sahib also denounced the prevailing Purdah system in very strong terms. Guru Sahib considered Purdah a great hindrance in the growth of society.
  4. Guru Sahib instructed his Sikh followers to keep away from the use of intoxicants.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the social reforms introduced by Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
During the times of Guru Amar Das Ji, the society was suffering from many social evils. Guru Amar Das Ji was fully aware df those shortcomings and brought about numerous social reforms.

The main achievements of Guru Amar Das Ji in the field of social reforms are as follow :
1. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Amar Das Ji made efforts to end the evils in the society caused by caste system. Wherever Guru Sahib went, he criticised the differences among the social groups based on caste system. Guru Sahib was of the view that those caste differences were against the wishes of Supreme God and a hindrance in the way of social development. The 19th century leaders of social reform movements had the same views and all their activities to reform social condition were similar to what Guru Amar Das Ji did in the 16th century.

2. Opposed to Untouchability. Guru Amar Das Ji made successful efforts to end untouchability. No untouchability or Jati considerations were permitted and observed in the Langar. People of all castes, tribes and social status sat together and partook food with brotherly feelings. It is said that Emperor Akbar and Raja of Hamirpur partook food in the Langar according to the rules laid down by Guru Amar Das Ji.

3. Supported Widow Remarriage. Widow remarriage was not permitted during the period of Guru Amar Das Ji. The widows were forced to live a miserable life after the death of their husbands. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly supported widow remarriage and tried to secure a respectable position for women in the society.

4. Condemnation of the Practice of Sati. Another most shameful social evil was the custom of Sati. The historians believe that it was Guru Amar Das Ji who had raised a voice of protest against the custom of Sati for the first time in the history of India. Even Akbar borrowed the idea of taking some measures against the practice of Sati from Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib declared that a woman was not a true Sati who had burnt herself alive on the pyre of her husband. Guru Sahib opined that a true Sati could be a woman who lived her life in the memory of her dead husband. For that, the widow should lead a highly moral life and purity and spend her time in praying to God.

5. Criticism of Purdah System. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly criticised the Purdah System prevalent among the women. Guru Sahib considered purdah as the main hindrance in the development of society. Guru Sahib did not permit purdah for women who volunteered to serve the Langar and wanted to participate in Sangat.

6. Criticism of the Use of the Intoxicants. Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikhs to remain away from the intoxicants. In one of his ‘Shabads’, Guru Sahib has strongly criticized the use of liquor. Guru Amar Das Ji guided his followers to pray for forgiveness and become addicted to the spirit of Name. Guru Sahib condemned the addiction to intoxicants. Guru Sahib suggested an alternative of seeking enjoyment in social service.

7. Promotion ojf Brotherhood among the Sikhs through New Festivals.
Guru Amar Das Ji instructed the Sikh Sangat to celebrate three main festivals, i.e. Maghi, Diwali and Baisakhi in a new way. On the advice of Guru Sahib, the Sikh Sangat used to gather around the house of Guru Sahib and celebrated those festivals as he directed. This reform played a mqjor role in uniting the Sangat in a strong bond of brotherhood.

8. New Ceremonies concerning Birth and Death. Guru Amar Das Ji also started new and distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage, and death for the Sikhs. Those ceremonies are different from the ceremonies of the Hindus. There was no need of assistance of the Brahmins in performing those ceremonies. These reforms played a major role in imparting a separate identity to the Sikh religion.

It is a historical fact that the reforms undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji had given a new strength to Sikh religion.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581)

Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581) PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Guru Angad Dev Ji: The second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji collected the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and wrote them in Gurmukhi script. This contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji proved to be the first step towards the writing of ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji also wrote ‘Vani’ in the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The institutions of Sangat and Pangat were well maintained during the period of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • Guru Amar Das Ji: Guru Amar Das Ji was the third Sikh Guru who remained on Guru- gaddi for twenty-two years. Guru ‘Sahib shifted his headquarters from Khadoor Sahib to Goindwal. At Goindwal, Guru Sahib constructed a large well (Baoli) where his followers (Sikhs) took a bath on religious festivals. Guru Amar Das Ji introduced a simple marriage ceremony which is called ‘Anand Karaj’. The number of his Sikh followers increased rapidly during his period.
  • Guru Ram Das Ji: The fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das Ji started the work of preaching his faith from Ramdaspur (present Amritsar). The foundation of Amritsar was laid during the last years of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Ram Das Ji got dug a large pond called Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar. The Guru Sahib needed a large sum of money to construct the Sarovar at Amritsar and Santokhsar. For this purpose, Guru Sahib started Masand System. Guru Sahib also made Guru-gaddi hereditary.
  • Improvement in Gurmukhi Script: Guru Angad Dev Ji made certain improvements in Gurmukhi Script. It is said that to spread Gurmukhi, Guru Ji wrote ‘Balbodh’ for children in Gurmukhi. Because it was the languages of common masses, it helped in the spreading of Sikhism. Presently, all the religious books of the Sikhs are in this language.
  • Manji System: During the times of Guru Amar Das Ji, thp number of devotee Sikhs was increasing. But due to his old age, it was not possible for Guru Ji to move from one place to another to spread his teachings. So, he divided his spiritual empire in 22 parts and each part was called ‘Manji’. Each Manji was a centre for spreading Sikhism and it was kept under a scholar devout follower.
  • Creation of Anand Sahib: Guru Amar Das Ji composed a new Bani called ‘Anand Sahib’. With its creation, the importance of Vedic hymns completely came to an end among the Sikhs.
  • Foundation of Goindwal: Guru Angad Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new city called Goindwal. During the times of Guru Amar Das Ji, it became one of the famous religious places. Even today, it is one of the religious places of Sikhs.
  • Langar System: Guru Angad Dev Ji continued the Langar system. In the Langar system, everyone took food without any discrimination. It discouraged the caste system and helped in the expansion of Sikhism.
  • 31 March 1504-Birth of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
  • 1539-1552 – Guru Angad Dev Ji remained on Guru-gaddi.
  • 1546 – Foundation of Goindwal
  • 1552 – Guru Angad Dev Ji left the world.
  • 1552 – Guru Amar Das ji became the third Guru.
  • 1559 – The work of construction of Baoli at Goindwal completed.
  • 1574- Amar Das Ji left the world.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 3 Development of Sikh Religion (1539-1581) Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Russian Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia during the Russian Revolution?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Fredrich Engles
(c) Lenin
(d) Trotsky.
Answer:
(c) Lenin.

Question 2.
Through Revolution in Russia, most powerful idea to shape the society was?
(a) Socialism
(6) Nationalism
(c) Liberalism
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Socialism.

Question 3.
Who was the leader of the Menshevik group?
(a) Trotsky
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Tsar Nicholas II
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Trotsky.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Which country withdrew from the First World War and formal peace was signed with Germany?
(a) America
(b) Russia
(c) France
(d) England.
Answer:
(b) Russia.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_________ led the Bolshevik group in Russia during the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Lenin.

Question 2.
_________ means a council or grass root level governing body.
Answer:
Soviet.

Question 3.
The elected consulative parliament in Russia was called _________
Answer:
Duma.

Question 4.
The literal meaning of the word ‘Tsar’ is _________
Answer:
Supreme ruler.

III. Match the Columns

Question 1.

A

B

1. Lenin (a) Mensheviks
2. Trotsky (b) Newspaper
3. March’s Russian Revolution (c) Russian Parliament
4. Duma (d) Bolsheviks
5. Pravada (e) 1917 A.D.

Answer:

A

B

1. Lenin (d) Bolsheviks
2. Trotsky (a) Mensheviks
3. March’s Russian Revolution (e) 1917 A.D.
4. Duma (c) Russian Parliament
5. Pravada (b) Newspaper

IV. Differentiate between :

Question 1.
Bolshevik and Menshevik
Answer:
Bolshevik and Menshevik. The Russian Socialist Democratic Party- split in 1898 A.D., in two groups. The minority group was called Mensheviks. They favoured to organise party on the basis of the parties prevailing in France and Germany. They also favoured the establishment of parliamentary form of government in Russia and election to the parliament. The majority group was called Bolsheviks. This group favoured revolutionary method for bringing changes in the social order and the state machinery. They also favoured a party of disciplined workers for revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 2.
Liberals and Conservatives.
Answer:
Liberals and Conservatives:

  1. Liberals. Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They opposed the uncontrolled powers of the dynastic rolls. They wanted to safeguard the individual rights against government. They also favoured a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by the judiciary which is independent of rulers and officials.
  2. Conservatives. Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French Revolution, they were also open to the need for change. Earlier in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted the idea of change but also argued that the past had to be respected and change must come through a slow process.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which idea became the most powerful force to shape society in the 20th century?
Answer:
The idea of ‘Socialism’ became the most powerful force to shape society in the 20th century.

Question 2.
What was Duma?
Answer:
Duma was the Russian Parliament.

Question 3.
Who was the ruler at the time of the March Revolution of 1917 in Russia?
Answer:
Tzar Nicholas II.

Question 4.
What was the chief cause of Russian Revolution 1905?
Answer:
The police attack on the workers’ procession in 1905.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 5.
Who defeated Russia in 1905?
Answer:
Japan defeated the mighty Russia in 1905.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the immediate consequences of October 1917 Russian Revolution.
Answer:
A new economy was formed in Russia after the Russian revolution of 1917 and its main features are below :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars (Landlords) were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production came under government control.
  • Right of work bécame constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • All the powers of administration came in the hands of committees (Soviet) of labourers and farmers.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

Question 2.
Write a note on the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks.
Answer:
The Russian Socialist Democratic Party was split in 1898 in two groups. The minority group was called Mensheviks. Mensheviks favoured to organise party on the basis of the parties prevailing in France and Germany. They favounìd the establishment of parliamentary form of government in Russia and election of the parliament.

The majority group was called Bolsheviks. The group favoured revolutionary method for bringing changes in the social order and the state machinery. They also favoured a party of disciplined workers for revolution. The people were influenced by the idea of Karl Marx and Tolstoy. Within Russia, democratic forces which had already raised their head, became more and more vociferous.

Question 3.
What led to the failure of provisional Government in Russia?
Answer:
The main reason for the provisional government’s unpopularity lays in its insistence on continuing the war against Germany. The people of Russia were weary of war. The Soviet wanted the conclusion of peace. The Provisional or Kerensky government was able to satisfy neither the conservatives who wanted to restore the Czar nor the socialist who wanted more radical changes and peace.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
What was the April thesis of Lenin?
Answer:
After the fall of Czar, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and organized the revolution against the Provisional Government. He described the Russian empire as a prison of nations.

Under the leadership of Lenin, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies

  1. to end the war,
  2. to transfer land to the tillers, besides
  3. giving all powers to the Soviets and equal status to all. This was April Thesis.

Question 5.
What changes occurred in the field of agriculture after October Revolution?
Answer:
A new economy was formed in Russia after the Russian revolution of 1917 and its main features are below :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars (Landlords) were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production came under government control.
  • Right of work bécame constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • All the powers of administration came in the hands of committees (Soviet) of labourers and farmers.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain Russia before 1905 in context of social, economic and political conditions.
Answer:
I. Social Condition: In the nineteenth century, European countries had undergone important social and economic changes but Russia was still living in the old world. The Czars still believed in the Divine Right of Kings. The old feudal autocracy still continued in Russia. The condition of the Russian peasants was deplorable. The nobility and the upper layers of the clergy enjoyed special privileges and all rights. Feudalism formed the basis of agriculture. The serfdom was abolished in 1861 A.D. But it did not improve agriculture. Their tools and methods of cultivation were age old. For the smallholding they acquired, they had to pay heavy redemption dues. Land hunger of peasants formed a major social problem in the Russian society.

2. Economic Condition : There was no middle. class in Russia and as such industrialization in Russia began very late and it developed at a fairly fast rate. The foreign capitalists invested large sums in different industries to amass huge profits. The foreign investors were more interested in early profits than in improving the conditions of the workers. Even the Russian Capitalists exploited the workers and paid them low wage to compete with foreign investors. The workers had no political rights. The conditions of the workers in Russia were very miserable. They were forced to lead a wretched life. That is why the workers were dominated by the ideas of socialism.

3. Political Condition : In the nineteenth century, European countries had undergone important changes and had adopted democratic system of government but Russia was still under the autocratic rule of Romanov Czars, who believed in the Divine Right Theory of Kings. Czar Nicholas 11(1894-1917 A.D.) was inefficient and reactionary. He was under the immoral influence of a Holy Devil—Rasputin. The conditions of workers and peasants were deplorable. The famine conditions prevailed throughout the empire. Many persons in Russia were influenced by the developments in Western Europe and demanded constitutional democratic government. But their demands were turned down.

In 1904 A.D., there was a war between Russia and Japan. The huge Russian giant suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of a tiny country like Japan. A revolution broke out in Russia in 1905 A.D. It was sparked off by an incident on January 9, 1905 A.D. The Soviet workers took active part in this revolution. Some sections of army and navy also joined the revolution. In October 1905, the Czar announced his manifesto and granted the freedom of speech, press and association. He further conferred the law making power on an elected body called ‘Duma’ but he soon relapsed his despotic rule.

Question 2.
What were the impacts of industrialization of Russia on masses?
Answer:
Industrial revolution in Russia at the fag end. Russia had no dearth of minerals but due to lack of capital and independent labourers, there was no possibility of industrial development. In 1867 A.D, Russia made its agricultural slaves free. It also received capital from the foreign countries. Consequently, Russia started its process of industrial development. But its complete development was made possible only after the revolution of 1917.

Impact. Industrial revolution had a profound impact on every aspect of common people’s life which is given below.

  • Increase in landless labourer. Industrial revolution forced the peasants with small holdings to sell off their lands and work in industries. So, it led to the increase in landless labourers.
  • Small artisons become labourer. Industrial revolution brought the machines which made a strong thread. It led to the decline of hand made cloth. That’s why small artisons left their work and started working as industiral workers.
  • Exploitation of women and children. In factories, females and children
    also started working. They were forced to do begar. It had a wrong impact on their health.
  • Impact on workers health. Due to lack of open environment in industries, worker’s health was adversely affected. They had to work in the polluted air.
  • Increase in unemployment. The adverse impact of industrial revolution was on the cottage industries which declined.
    Now a single machine was able to do work of many workers. That’s why artisans became unemployed.
  • Birth of new classes. Industrial revolution gave birth to two new classes i.e. workers and capitalists. Capitalists started taking work by paying less salaries. So, poor become more poor and capitalists became more rich.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 3.
Write a note on Socialism in detail.
Answer:
In favour of Socialism, Marx (1818-1882) and Engles (1820-1895) gave many reasons. Marx was of the view that the industrial society is a capitalist society. The capital invested in industries is under the control of capitalists and profit comes with the hardwork of labourers. Marx was of the view that untill there is concentration of profit in few hands, there cannot come any change in the condition of workers. To improve their conditions, workers will have to throw away the rule of capitalism and private property. Marx was of the view that the workers will have to create a new type of society to get rid of the capitalist exploitation. He gave the name to this future society, the communist society. Marx believed that in this struggle with the capitalists, the workers will win.

Following are the main features of socialism.

  • Society in socialism is classless. There is very less difference between the rich and poor. That’s why socialism is exactly opposite to private property.
  • There is no exploitation of workers in socialism. Everyone has the right to work in Socialism.
  • Means of production are under the control of whole society because its profit is not to earn profit but social welfare.

Question 4.
What were the factors responsible for widespread support of the people to Bolsheviks?
Answer:
During the last decade of nineteenth century, the spread of socialist ideas in Russia was just started and many socialist organisation were formed. In 1898 A.D., all the socialist parties collectively formed ‘Socialist Democratic Workers Party’. Its leader was Vladimir Lenin. His group had majority in the party in 1903 and they were called Bolsheviks. Those who were in minority were called Mensheviks.

Bolsheviks were, truely nationalists. They wanted to improve the conditions of Russian people. They wanted to see Russia as a powerful nation.

To realise this dream, they made certain objectives which appealed the common people. That’s why people supported the Bolsheviks.

  • Foundation of Socialism. The major objective of Bolsheviks was to establish socialist system in Russia. Except this, they had few other objectives as well.
  • To end Tzar’s Monarchy. Bolsheviks knew that under the Tzarist rule, it is not possible to improve the condition of Russian people. So, they wanted to get rid of Czarist rule and to establish republic system in Russia.
  • To end the suppression of non-Russians. Bolsheviks wanted to end the suppression of non-Russians and to give them the right to take self decisions.
  • To end the peasant’s exploitation. They also wanted to end the unequal distribution of land among the people and to stop peasant’s exploitions from the nobles.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 5.
What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Answer:
The Russian Revolution of 1917 is considered as an important event in the history of the world. It had a great impact on the political, social and economic life of Russians.
1. End of Autocratic Rule. Czars were autocratic rulers. Czar Nicholas II was an inefficient and a despotic ruler, who cared little for the people’s welfare. The result was that he and members of his family were put to death. Thus, the Bolshevik Revolution brought an end to the autocratic rule in Russia.

2. Government of the Proletariat. After the revolution, a new government called the Council of People’s Commissions was formed headed by Lenin. The new government started the era of socialism. The Czarist empire was transported into a new state. It was called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and was based on the Bolshevik principles.

3. Social inequalities abolished. A new social set up was inaugurated. The policies of the new state were based on the principle from each according to his capacity, to each according to his needs. Land, industries, factories mines, bank and insurance companies, and all means of production were nationalized. The old set up of society based on inequality was abolished and the new social set up was based on the principle of communism. It was decided that those who did not work would not get food as well as the rights to vote.

4. New Economic changes. The Bolshevik government introduced many changes in the economic sphere and aimed at building up of a technologically advanced economy. Industrialization was taken up through the five year plan. The lands and states confiscated and were distributed among the peasants. The management of factories and industries was handed over to the workmep. The foreign debts were repudiated and the foreign investments were confiscated. The right to work became a constitutional right. It was the duty of the state to provide employment to every individual . Military training and military service were made compulsory. Proper arrangements were made for the education of the workers.

5. Russia became a world power. Within a few years of the Revolution, Russia made tremendous progress in different spheres of life and emerged as a major power in the world.

6. End of imperialist designs. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia put an end to the Russian imperialism. The new government was opposed to imperialistic designs and countries which groaned under the Czar were set free.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Russian Revolution Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What was the suffragette?
(a) Women’s movement
(b) Property tax
(c) Land acquisition
(d) Proletariat class.
Answer:
(a) Women’s movement.

Question 2.
Who was Robert Owen?
(a) A French manufacturer
(b) An English manufacturer
(c) A Russian manufacturer
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) An English manufacturer.

Question 3.
What stands for New Harmony?
(a) A bank
(b) A cooperative community
(c) A capitalist
(d) Common man.
Answer:
(b) A cooperative community.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Marx argued that industrial society was _________
(a) Capitalist
(b) Clergy
(c) Farmer
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Capitalist.

Question 5.
Who wrote Das Capital?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Mirabeau
(c) John Lbcke
(d) Rousseau.
Answer:
(a) Karl Marx.

Question 6.
When was the Second International formed?
(a) 1872
(b) 1873
(c) 1870
(d) 1875.
Answer:
(c) 1870.

Question 7.
When was the Labour Party formed in Britain?
(a) 1915
(b) 1913
(e) 1905
(d) 1911.
Answer:
(c) 1905.

Question 8.
What was Marseillaise? .
(a) A war song
(b) A house owner
(c) A poor labourer
(d) Medium land owner.
Answer:
(a) A war song.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 9.
Who ruled Russia on the eve of Revolution?
(a) Catherine
(b) Joseph Mazzini
(e) Czar Nicholas II
(d) John III.
Answer:
(c) Czar Nicholas II.

Question 10.
Who are Jadidists?
(a) Christian reformers
(b) Social reformers
(c) Duma
(d) Muslim reformers.
Answer:
(d) Muslim reformers.

Question 11.
Which countries were known as the Allies?
(a) France, Britain and Russia
(b) Britain, Russia and America
(c) Britain, Russia and Austria
(d) Prussia, Britain and France.
Answer:
(a) France, Britain and Russia.

Question 12.
Which party was called the Bolshevik Party after the Russian Revolution?
(а) The Russian Communist Party
(b) Jacobin Party
(c) Communist Party of USSR
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) The Russian Communist Party.

Question 13.
When did Lenin die?
(a) In 1918 A.D.
(b) In 1924 A.D.
(c) In 1926 A.D.
(d) In 1930 A.D.
Answer:
(b) In 1924 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 14.
Who was the Czar?
(a) German Emperor
(b) British Emperor
(c) Russian Emperor
(d) Austrian Emperor.
Answer:
(c) Russian Emperor.

Question 15.
When was the Communist Menifesto published?
(a) 1832
(b) 1842
(c) 1846
(d) 1848.
Answer:
(d) 1848.

Question 16.
In which year the event ‘Bloody Sunday’ occurred’?
(a) 1905 A.D.
(b) 1907 A.D.
(c) 1917 A.D.
(d) 1918 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1905 A.D.

Question 17.
When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany?
(a) March, 1917
(b) March, 1918
(c) April, 1916
(d) April, 1918.
Answer:
(b) March, 1918.

Question 18.
What was the immediate cause of Russian Revolution?
(a) Autocratic rule of Czar
(b) Russian Revolution of 1905
(c) Miserable condition of the people
(d) Russian defeat in first world war.
Answer:
(d) Russian defeat in first world war.

Question 19.
What is the other name of Russian Revolution?
(a) French Revolution
(b) Czar Revolution
(c) Mark Revolution
(d) Bolshevik Revolution.
Answer:
(d) Bolshevik Revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 20.
Who was the leader of Revolution of October 1917?
(a) Nicholas II
(b) Lenin
(c) Kerensky
(d) Trotasky.
Answer:
(b) Lenin.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Tzardom in Russia began in _________ A.D.
Answer:
1547

Question 2.
_________ was the Russian Parliament.
Answer:
Duma

Question 3.
The Social Democratic Party was formed in _________ A.D.
Answer:
1898

Question 4.
_________ gave the idea of socialism.
Answer:
Karl Marx

Question 5.
_________ means a council or a grass root level governing body.
Answer:
Soviet

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 6.
_________ was the leader of Bolsheviks.
Answer:
Lenin.

True/False:

Question 1.
Kerensky was the leader of Bolsheviks.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The Bloody Sunday took place in 1917.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Lenin was exiled from Russia.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
The Tzar abdicate the power on 2nd March, 1917.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
In 1918, Russia adopted the Gregorian called ‘New Style’.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which revolution made socialism the most significant and powerful ideas to shape society in the 20th century?
Answer:
It was the French Revolution.

Question 2.
Who was the ruler of Russia in 1914?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II.

Question 3.
Which countries were known as the Allies?
Answer:
France, Britain and Russia were known as the Allies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Who were the radicals?
Answer:
Those who desired radical changes in the society were radicals. They were in favour of majority rule, women’s suffrage and universal franchise.

Question 5.
Why were the socialists against private property?
Answer:
They believed that private property was the root cause of all social ills.

Question 6.
Name two industrial areas of Russia in the 1890s.
Answer:
Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Question 7.
Name the year when the Socialist Revolutionary Party was formed in Russia?
Answer:
In 1900.

Question 8.
What is meant by Communism?
Answer:
A society where all the properties were socially controlled is called communism.

Question 9.
Which Tantric/saint made the autocracy unpopular in Russia?
Answer:
Rasputin.

Question 10.
Mention the period of First World War.
Answer:
Between 1914 and 1918.

Question 11.
What was the objective of the Socialist Revolutionary Party?
Answer:
This party demanded that land belonging to the nobles be transferred to the peasants.

Question 12.
Who were Kulaks?
Answer:
Kulaks were well-to-do peasants.

Question 13.
What stands for Kolkhoj?
Answer:
They were collective farms where the peasants worked jointly and distributed the produce among themselves.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 14.
Who was Lenin?
Answer:
He was the prominent leader of the Bolshevik Party in Russia.

Question 15.
When did the Russian Czar, Nicholas II resign?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II resigned on March 2, 1917.

Question 16.
Name the countries which were known as Central Powers.
Answer:
Austria, Germany and Turkey were known as the Central Powers.

Question 17.
What stands for autocracy?
Answer:
In this system of government, the ruler is all in all and the people have no rights.

Question 18.
Why was the year 1904 considered bad for the Russian labourers?
Answer:
In this year, the prices of essential goods rose quickly and it became quite difficult for the workers to make their both ends meet.

Question 19.
Who comprised the Union of Unions?
Answer:
Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class people formed the Union of Unions and they demanded for a Constituent Assembly.

Question 20.
What do you mean by Duma?
Answer:
It was an elected consultative parliament in Russia called Duma.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 21.
What were Bolshevik’s three demands?
Answer:
(i) War be brought to a close ;
(ii) land to be transferred to peasants and
(C) banks to be nationalised.

Question 22.
Which party was called the Bolshevik Party after the Russian Revolution of 1917?
Answer:
The Russian Communist Party.

Question 23.
What is meant by Cheka?
Answer:
Cheka was an extraordinary Commission which was established to punish the enemies of the Russian Communist Party.

Question 24.
When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany?
Answer:
In March 1918.

Question 25.
Why did the peasants welcome the October Revolution?
Answer:
Because it meant for them free land and an end of war.

Question 26.
What was the policy of Bolsheviks towards non-Russian nationalities?
Answer:
They were to be given political autonomy within the Soviet Union.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 27.
What did the Bolsheviks do to establish a socialist society?
Answer:
(i) All the banks and industries were nationalised.
(ii) Collective farming was done on the confiscated land.

Question 28.
How did industrial production change between 1929 and 1933?
Answer:
It increased by 100 per cent in the case of oil, coal and steel.

Question 29.
What do you mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
Universal Adult Franchise states that the voting right should be given to every adult.

Question 30.
Who was Marfa Vasileva?
Answer:
She was a worker in milling machine, who single-handedly organised a successful strike.

Question 31.
Who wrote ‘Das KapitaV?
Answer:
Karl Marx.

Question 32.
When did Social Democratic Party bifurcate into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks?
Answer:
In 1903.

Question 33.
Who issued October Manifesto?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II.

Question 34.
When was Health and Insurance Act introduced?
Answer:
In 1912.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 35.
When did Lenin die?
Answer:
In 1924.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
‘The year of 1904 A.D. was a particularly bad one for the Russian Workers’ clarify the statement with example.
Answer:
The year of 1904 A.D. was a particularly bad one for the Russian Workers’. This statement can be explained with the following examples.

  1. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent.
  2. The membership of the workers’ association rose dramatically. When four members of the Assembly of Russian workers, formed in 1904 A.D., were dismissed at the Putilov Iron works, there came a call for industrial action.
  3. Over the next few days, over ten thousand workers in St. Peterburg went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.

Question 2.
Discuss any four causes of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Before, revolution, people lived in Russia in quite miserable conditions.

  1. Russian Czar Nicholas II was autocratic. People were fed up with his rule.
  2. The condition of people was quite miserable. Peasants and workers were not happy with the situation. They wanted to get rid of this miserable life.
  3. There was widespread low morality in the kings family. The state was run by a monk called Rasputin. Consequently, there was widespread corruption.
  4. In the first world war, Russia suffered heavy military losses. Consequently, there was widespread discontentment among the soldiers.

Question 3.
Explain any three events which led Russia to the February Revolution.
Answer:

  1. On 28 February, a lock out took place at a factory on the right bank. The next day, in a sympathy, workers of 50 factories called a strike. In many factories, women led the strikes.
  2. Government buildings were surrounded by the workers. So, the government imposed curfew. Demonstrators dispersed in the evening. But they came back on 24th and 25th February. The government called out army and police to keep a check on them.
  3. On 25 February, government suspended Duma. Politicians spoke out against this. On 26th February, demonstrators returned in force to the streets of the left Bank. On 27th February, the police head quarters were destroyed. People started raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy.
  4. By that evening, soldiers and striking workers formed a ‘Soviet^ in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
  5. Next day, a delegation met the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He followed their advice and left the throne on 2nd March. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country. This was called the February Revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Why is the Russian Revolution attached with the name of Lenin?
Answer:
Lenin was the leader of Balsheviks and at the time of Revolution, he lived in exile. His contribution in the Russian Revolution of October 1917 is given below :

  1. In April 1917, Lenin came back to Russia. He said that war must come to an end, land must be given to the peasants and Banks should be nationalised.
  2. During the meantime, the clash between the interim government and the Bolsheviks reached its height. In September 1917, Bolsheviks started discussions about the revolt against government. Bolsheviks in army and factory Soviets were collected. A military revolutionary committee was formed under Trotsky to control the power.
  3. The revolution started on 24th October. Prime Minister Kerensky tried to suppress it but remained unsuccessful.
  4. By the evening, whole of the city came under the control of revolutionary committee. Many of the ministers surrendered.
  5. At Petrograd, a meeting of All Russian Soviet Congress was held which supported the action of Bolsheviks.

Question 5.
Give the importance of Russian Revolution of 1917.
Answer:
The Russian Revolution of 1917 is considered as one of the most important incident in world history. It not only ended the autocratic rule of Czar but it also affected the social and economic systems of the world. Consequently, in place of Czar’s rule, a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed. The main objective of the Union was to achieve old socialist ideals. It means that every one will get work according to his ability and will get money according to his work.

Question 6.
Give three features of Socialism.
Answer:
Following are the three main features of Socialism :

  1. There is no class in society. There is very less difference between the rich and the poor. That’s why there is no place of private property in Socialism.
  2. There is no exploitation of workers in Socialism. Everyone has the right to work.
  3. State or society controls all the means of production because its motive is not to earn profit but to do social welfare.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 7.
Give a brief description of the Russian Empire in 1914.
Answer:
In 1914, Tzar Nicholas II rulled the Russian Empire. Besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included present day Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, parts of Poland, Estonia, Ukraine and Balarus. It stretched to the Pacific ocean and comprised present day’s control Asian states as well as Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The majority religion was the Russian Orthodox Christianity which has grown out of the Greek Orthodox Church. But the Russian Empire also included Catholics, Protestents, Muslims and Buddhists.

Question 8.
After the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Czar took many steps to maintain his autocratic rule. What were three steps?
Answer:
During the revolution, the Tzar allowed the creation of an elected consultive Parliament or Duma. But after the revolution, he took certain steps such as :

  1. After 1905, most of the committees and unions worked unofficial and now they were declared illegal. Severe restrictions were imposed on all the political activities.
  2. The Tzar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and then re-elected Duma within three months.
  3. He did not want any reduction of his power or any questioning of his authority. That’s why he changed the voting laws and filled the third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were kept out.

Question 9.
Which agricultural changes were introduced in Soviet Union after First World War?
Answer:

  1. After the war, large estates of Church, landlords, nobility, etc. were taken away by the government and that land was distributed among the peasants.
  2. After First World War, land was taken away from large holders and was distributed among peasants. But these peasants had very small holdings of land which was not very productive. That’s why a new method of agriculture was introduced and that was collective farms. This idea promoted collective farming by bringing land of small peasants together with higher yield.
  3. Rich farmers opposed the idea of collective farm. They were dealt harshly by government. With this landlords were oppressed.

Question 10.
After 1918, which steps were taken by Lenin to show dictatorship in Russia? Why did young artists and writers supported the Bolsheviks?
Answer:

  1. In January 1918, the Assembly rejected the Bolsheviks measures. So, Lenin dismissed the Assembly.
  2. In March 1918, despite opposition of their political allies, the Bolsheviks made peace1 with Germany at Brest Litovsk.
  3. In the coming years, the Bolshevik party became the only party to participate in the elections to the All Russian Congress of Soviets which became the Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state.
  4. Trade Unions were kept under the control of Bolshevik party.
  5. The secret police punished those who criticised the Bolsheviks. Even then many young writers and artists supported the Bolsheviks because this party stood for socialism and change.

Question 11.
State the demands of the people of Russia which caused the downfall of the Czar.
Answer:
The most important demands of the people in Russia, were four-folds : peace, land to the tiller, control of industry by workers and equal status for the non-slaves as described below :

  1. Corruption in the state resulted in great suffering among the people. Feudalism formed the basis of Russian agriculture. Land hunger of peasant formed a major problem. The peasants demanded land to the tillers.
  2. The condition of workers in Russia was very miserable. They were forced to lead a wretched life. They demanded control of industries by workers.
  3. The Russian army suffered heavy reverses due to mismanagement of the government. The rising prices of food and clothes added hardship to the poorer classes. They demanded peace.
  4. Non-Slav subjects of the empire demanded equal status but the Russian autocracy supported the Pan-Slavist idea.

Question 12.
Explain the situations created by the First World War for the February Revolution of 1917. Explain any three situations.
Answer:

  1. In the first World War, around 70 Lakh people died till 1917.
  2. The war had a bad impact on industries. Russia’s own industries were very few and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by the German Control of Baltic sea.
  3. The retreating Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. It led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The soldiers did not wish to fight such a war.
    All this created conditions for the revolution.

Question 13.
What was the condition of Russian workers in 19th century?
Answer:
Industrial revolution not only came in Europe but also came in Russia as well. Many capitalists of Russia as well as of other countries invested large amount of money in different industries so that more and more profit could be gained. That’s why they started to exploit the workers. Workers of industries had to work for 12-14 hours and they were paid very less wages. They were not allowed to form their trade unions. Workers were divided by skill among different social groups. Their accommodation varied from rooms to dormitories. Women made up 31% of factory labour by 1914 but were paid less wages than men.

Question 14.
Why Russia left the World War after the Revolution of 1917?
Answer:

  1. Russian revolutionaries were totally against the war right from its start. That’s why Russia left the war after revolution.
  2. Russia, under Lenin, decided to change war into a revolutionary war.
  3. Russian empire was defeated many times in the war with which its prestige was severely blowed.
  4. More than six lakh Russian people were killed in the war.
  5. Russian people did not want to capture land of any other country as it was a already one of the largest empire of the world.
  6. Russian people, primarily, wanted to solve their internal problem.

Question 15.
What was the result of Russian decision to leave first World War?
Answer:
In 1917, Russia left the first World War. Next day after the revolution, the Bolshevik Government issued a Decree on Peace. In March 1918, Russian signed a peace treaty with Germany. German government felt that the Russian government is not in a position to continue the war. That’s why it imposed harsh clauses on Russia. But Russia accepted all the clauses. Allied powers were not in favour of the Russian decision to leave the war. So, they started trying to raise opposition forces within Russia. It led to the civil war which continued for three years. But finally the opposition forces were defeated and civil war come to an end.

Question 16.
Who was Stalin? Why did he decide the collectivisation of agriculture?
Answer:
Stalin was the leader of Communist Party in Russia. He took over the command of party after Lenin. Around 1927-28, there started a shortage of food grains in the cities of Russia. Government fixed the prices of foodgrains. No one was allowed to sell the grains more than the fixed price. But the peasants refused to sell their grains to government at these prices. Stalin took strict steps to combat the situation. He believed that rich peasants and traders in the villages were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. So, in 1928, party members toured to grain producing areas. They forcibely bought the grains from peasants and raided Kulaks- the well-to-do peasants. Even after this, when there was shortage of foodgrains, Stalin decided to start collectivisation of agriculture. It was decided because the land holding of peasants was small.

Question 17.
Give two reasons for the miserable condition of industrial workers before the Russian Revolution.
Answer:

  1. Foreign capitalists greatly exploited the workers. Even Russian capitalists paid them quite less wages.
  2. Workers had no political rights. Even they had no way out to implement way small reform.

Question 18.
Give any two political reasons of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
At the time of its revolution, Russia was ruled by Czar Nicholas II. His rule had few defects which became the causes of the revolution.

  1. He believed in the Divine rights of the King and considered his moral duty to protect its autocratic rule.
  2. The members of bureaucracy were not selected on merits but were selected from the specially privileged groups.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 19.
What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?
Or
Give any three significant causes of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
The following were the significant causes of the Russian Revolution :

  1. The system of government in Russia was autocratic. The Czar was a despotic ruler, and believed in Divine Right of Kings and absolutism.
  2. The peasants, the workers and soldiers led a very miserable life.
  3. The Russian bureaucracy was top-heavy, inflexible and inefficient.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Answer:
The Russian revolution was one of the most important events in history of 20th century. This revolution ended the despotic monarchical rule of the emperor and established socialism. The social condition of Russia was similar to that of France before 1789. Russia was an agricultural country but the condition of peasants was miserable. Serfdom was abolished by the Czar Alexander II in 1861 A.D., but it did not bring much change in the condition of peasants. One-third of the peasants were landless and worked on the land of the landlords. Simultaneously, they had to pay several taxes. On the other hand, the aristocratic class was very affluent and had grabbed important offices as well as very large portion of the land. Therefore, the Russian society suffered from glaring economic and social disparities.

At the beginning of 20th century, the vast majority of the Russian population were agriculturists. Industrialization gained momentum in Russsia during the period of Alexander III. Many factories were set up in 1890s where Russia’s railway network was extended but most of the industries were private properties of industrialists. Government simply supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work. Thousands of landless peasants thronged the industrial centres in search of jobs. As a result the industrialists exploited their miserable and helpless conditions. The working day was sometimes 15 hours. Russian peasants were different from other European peasants in different ways. As they pooled their land together periodically and their commune divided it according to the needs of individual families.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 2.
Why did the Czarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Answer:
The Russian State under the Romanov Czars was completely unsuited to the needs of modern times. Czar Nicholas II still believed in the Divine Right of Kings and tried to move against the tides of times.

The important demands of the people which led to the fall of the Czar were the following :

  1. Within Russia, democractic forces which had already raised their head became more and more vociferous. But the Czar still regarded his sacred duty to preserve absolutism.
  2. The Russian people wanted the end of war and conclusion of peace. But the Czar, who had already mismanaged the war, still insisted to continue the war.
  3. The peasants were the worst sufferers. They wanted that cultivable land should be given to the tillers, but the autocratic and corrupt government did not pay any heed to their demands.
  4. The working conditions of workers were deplorable. There was a general demand that industries should be controlled by workers, and not by capitalists. Autocratic government of Czar helped the capitalists and neglected the workers.
  5. The people further wrapped an equal status to all the non-Russian nationalities. But Czar followed a Pan-Slavish policy.
  6. There was widespread discontent against the autocratic rule of Czar. The Royal family did not enjoy people’s respect because of the influence of the Holy Devil. The Russian autocracy was bound to collapse as it had no support from the people.

Question 3.
Make two lists : one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history?
Answer:
The October Revolution of 1917 was the second phase of the Russian Revolution. The first phase took place in February 1917 and the Czar was compelled to abdicate. A provisional government was set up which could not solve the pressing problems of the people. It therefore, lost people’s support. It failed to end war, to give land to the tillers and to give control of industries to the workers. The non-Russian nationalities were not given the equal status. The result was the revolution of the second phase known as the October Revolution. The Bolshevik party under the leadership of Lenin promised peace to the soldiers, land to the workers, all powers to the Soviets and equal rights to the non-Russians.

The October Revolution had a great impact on Russia, as detailed below :

  • It brought an end to the autocratic rule in Russia.
  • The new government started the era of socialism.
  • Land, industries, factories, mines, bank and insurance companies and all means of production were nationalised. New social set up was based on the principle of communism.
  • The Bolshevik Revolution put an end to the Russian imperialism.
  • The estates of the landlords, the church and the Czar were confiscated and transferred to Peasants’ Societies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 1

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Write a few lines to show what you know about :
1. Kulaks
Answer:
Kulaks: The name for well-to-do peasants of Russia. During the collectivisation programme they were eliminated ; their land was taken away and grains seized.

2. The Duma
Answer:
The Duma: It was the Russian Parliament. Czar Nicholas II held elections of the Duma but did not allow it to become a real representative body. Russian Parliament is still called Duma.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 2

3. Women workers between 1900 and 1930
Answer:
Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Workers were divided social group in Russia. Workers were divided by skill. Women made up 31% of factory labour force by 1914 but they were paid less than men.

4. The Liberals.
Answer:
The Liberals: One of the groups which looked to change society were they liberals. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.

Question 5.
Give a brief description of Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives.
Answer:
Before the revolution, there were three major groups which wanted social change and these were-Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives.
1. Liberals. Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. At this time many of the European countries generally discriminated in favour of one religion or the other. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the individual’s rights against the government. Liberals favoured a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well trained Judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. But they were not democrates as well. They did not believe in universal adult franchise or right of every citizen to vote.

2. Radicals. The members of this group wanted a country in which government was based on the majority of country’s population. Many radicals supported women’s suffragatte movements. They also opposed the privileges of great land owners and wealthy factory owners. They were not against the existence of private property but they were not in favour of concentration of property in few hands.

3. Conservatives. They were exactly opposite to the first two groups. Even they, after the French Revolution, started opening up their minds to the need for change. Earlier in the eighteenth century, conservatives opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some changes are inevitable but change must come slowly and past has to be respected.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 6.
What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917?
Or
Explain briefly the conditions that brought about the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Within Russia, democratic forces had become very vociferous. But the Czar was still the despotic ruler. The Russian bureaucracy was completely inefficient. The conditions of the peasants and workers were deplorable. The non-Russian subjects were against the government which followed the Pan-Slav policy. Many Russian thinkers appreciated the development in western Europe.

This was the reasofi that people were influenced by ideas of Karl Marx and Tolstoy. This generated the socialist ideas in the workers. In the Russia-Japan war in 1904, Russia had suffered a humiliating defeats. The Czar was held responsible for this defeat. There was a revolt in 1905 and the Czar was forced to announce a manifesto granting a series of reforms and to confer the law-making powers upon an elected body. He soon relapsed with his old ways. The partial success of 1905, revolt encouraged the working class of Russia.

The peasants demanded land, the workers demanded control of industries and non-Slav nationalities demanded equal status. The Czar did not pay any need to the people’s demand and moved against the tides of the time. The Russian involvement in the First World War accelerated the pace of revolution. Russia had to suffer heavy loss of men and money. Soldiers on the front were short of arms, ammunitions, food and clothings. Famine like conditions prevailed in the whole of the country. The government stood completely discredited. ‘Bread, peace and land’ were the popular demands, but in vain.

As a result, the revolution broke out and the Czar had to abdicate. The provisional government also failed to solve people’s problems. Lenin managed to unite the solidiers, the workers and the peasants by the very popular slogans ‘Bread, peace and land’ all powers to the Soviets and equal status to the non-Russian nationalities. In October 1917, the Bolshevik forces went into action and the revolution of the second phase known as October revolution succeeded.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 3

Question 7.
Give a brief description of causes and events of October Revolution (Second Revolution) in Russia. What was its impact on Russia?
Answer:
Causes :

  • Failure of the Interim Government. The interim government was unable to alienate the country from the war which led to the destruction of Russian economy.
  • Dissatisfaction among People. Peasants and workers in Russia lived miserable life. It was even difficult for them to earn bread of two times. That’s why, there was growing dissatisfaction among them.
  • Non availability of eatable items. There was quite a derth of food items in Russian. There was almost a situation of starvation. People had to lined up in queues to purchase bread.
  • Nation wide Strikes. The condition of workers was quite miserable. They get very less salary even after doing lot of hard work. They wanted to improve their condition. So, they started doing strikes.

Events. Initially in February 1917, revolution started in Petrograd, a famous Russian City. Here workers stopped doing work and common people revolted for the bread. Government tried to suppress the revolt with the help of army. But soldiers joined the workers and refused to shoot them. Peasants and workers formed a joint council which was called Soviet. Finally on 2nd March, the Czar abdicate the power. To run the government a Provisional Government was formed. New government introduced many military reforms. Freedom of press and religion was given and it was decided to call a constituent Assembly. But people were demanded bread, house and peace. Consequently the government failed and a new government under Kerensky was formed.

In November 1917, Mensheviks were forced to abdicate the power. Now Bolsheviks under Lenin took control of the power. Lenin established a society in Russia in which all the powers were in the hands of workers. With this, the objective of Russian Revolution was achieved.

Impact on Russia :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production under government control.
  • Right to work become constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 8.
How did Marx and other social thinkers influence the Russian Revolution?
Answer:
As a result of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the condition of the workers had considerably deteriorated. The capitalists were immensely exploiting them to their heartful. The workers neither received good salaries nor they had good houses to live. Under these conditions, the workers began to incline towards communism. They had started thinking that a revolution could be brought in the country only by following the Marxian theory. And only in this way the standard of the workers could improve.

Karl Marx was a German Jew but he lived mostly in Britain. He was a staunch supporter of socialism. He wrote his principles in his famous book ‘Das Capital’. He was deadly against capitalism and private property. According to him, the whole society should have common control over the means of production. All the units of production should be nationalised. Capitalism can be rooted out only through revolution and by establishing the dictatorship of the workers. The teachings of Karl Marx made a great contribution to the rise of the revolution in Russia.

In spite of the restrictions imposed by the Czar, the liberal ideas of the western world entered Russia through the medium of literature. The novels of Tolstoy, Turgenov and Dostoevski produced evolutionary thought in the youth. The ideologies, of Marx, Bakunin and Kroptkin were also prevailing in the country. The words of Marx that workers have “nothing to lose but their chains” rang literally tune to them. Influenced by these ideologies, people began to ask for such comforts and rights which were available to the people of western countries. When the Czar tried to ‘turn down’ their demand they resorted to revolution.

Question 9.
Give an account of the 1905 Revolution.
Answer:
In 1904-05, there was a war between Russia and Japan. In the war, Russia was defeated. Having been defeated by a small country like Japan, the Russian population began to oppose the Czar. They believed that the only cause of this defeat was the government of Czar which had failed to carry on war properly. Thus, the defeat of Russia at the hands of Japan proved a bolt from the blue for the Czar. The people turned against him. As a result of it, there was a revolution in 1905 against the despotic rule of the Czar. The revolutionaries killed many tyrannical officers. The name of Plehve is notable among them. The strikes were observed and demonstrations and processions were organised. The revolutionaries raised the slogans, “Stop the War. Down with Autocracy.”

On 22nd January, 1905, a mass of peaceful workers with their wives and children under the guidance of a moderate leader named Father Gapov were fired while on their way to the Winter Palace to present a charter of demands to the Czar. More than a thousand of them were killed and thousands others were wounded. This killing took place on Sunday which is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ in the history of Russia.

The news of the killings provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia. Even sections of the army and the navy revolted. During this period, a new form of organisation developed. This was called the Soviet or the Council of Workers’ Representatives. They had their beginning as the committees to conduct strikes, but they became the instruments of political power. The Soviets of peasants were also formed.

In October, the Czar yielded and announced his manifesto granting freedom of speech, press and association. He conferred the power to make laws upon an elected body called the ‘Duma’. The Czar’s manifesto contained principles that would have Russia a constitutional monarchy like England. However, the Czar soon relapsed into his old ways. No longer could one hope for gradual reform. It has been rightly said, “The 1905 Revolution proved to be a dress rehearsal of the revolution that came in 1917.” It aroused the people and prepared them for a greater revolution. It drew soldiers and the people of non-Russian nationalities into close contact with the Russian revolutionaries.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Russian Revolution: In 1917, there had been the first socialist revolution in the world which took place in Russia.
  • Reasons of revolution: Before the revolution, the Russian social, economic and political conditions were quite conducive to the revolution. The condition of peasants and workers was quite pitty. The rule of Tzar (King of Russia) was autocratic. Common people had no political rights. Consequently, people were against the Czar, The Czar forced Russia into the World War I and made a great mistake. The miserable condition of the soldiers also led to the frustration against the Tzar.
  • Lenin: After Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles, Lenin is considered the greatest thinker of the socialist movement. He played the most important role in organising the Bolshevik party and making revolution successful.
  • The Revolution of 1905: In 1905, a procession of workers was attacked by the police. It took the form of a revolution. During this revolution, a new form of the organisation developed. It was Soviet or a group of worker’s representatives. This revolution provided a base to the revolution of 1917.
  • The Beginning of Revolution: The Russian revolution begin with a procession of women. Then a general strike of workers took place. On 15th March, 1917, the Czar was forced to relinquish his power. Finally, a temporary government was formed. According to the Russian Calender, this incident is known as the February Revolution and people consider its beginning on 27 February.
  • The Success of Revolution: With the fall of first interim government (7 October, 1917), Lenin’s government came into power. It is known as the October Revolution. (According to the Russian Calender on 25th February.)
  • Soviet: During the 1905 revolution, a new form of organisation come into force. It is known as ‘Soviet’. It was a council of worker’s representatives. Initially such councils were the committees of organising strikes but later on, they become a mean of getting political power. After sometime, Peasant’s Soviets were also formed. Russian Soviets played an important role in the revolution of 1917.
  • February Revolution After a procession of women, worker’s strike took place. On 12th March, workers captured St. Petersburg very quickly, they captured Moscow as well. The Tzar left the power and an Interim government was formed on 15th March. According to the old Russian calender, this revolution took place on 27th February. That’s why it is called the February Revolution.
  • October Revolution: The Russian Revolution actually took place on 7th November, 1917. According to the old calender, it was on 25th October. That’s why it is called the October Revolution. This revolution led to the fall of Kerensky’s government. Its headquarter Winter’s palace came under the control of a group of sailors. On the same day, a meeting of Russian congress of Soviets took place and it took power in its hands.
  • Bloody Sunday: In 1905, the Russian revolutionary movement was gaining momentum. In the meantime, a procession of workers, led by Father Gapon, reached the winter palace. Police attacked on them and fired on them with which 100 workers died and 300 wounded. This incident in history is known as the ‘Bloody Sunday’.
  • Communist Revolution: The communist International or Comintern was organised in 1919 A.D. It is also known as the Third International. Its objective was to encourage revolutions at international level. At the time of first world war, the socialist movement was divided in two parts. Its separated group was known as communist party. Comintern was associated with the same group. It was a plateform at world level which made policies for the communist parties around the world.
  • Socialism: Socialism is a political system in which all the means of production are under state’s control. It main objective is equal distribution of economic resources. In this system no one is exploited and is exactly opposite to capitalism.
  • 1850s and 1880s – Debates over socialism in Russia.
  • 1898 – Formation of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
  • 1905 – The Bloody Sunday and the Revolution of 1905.
  • 1917 – 2nd March – Abdication of the Tzar
    24th October – Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd.
  • 1918 – 20 – The Civil War.
  • 1919 – Formation of Comintern.
  • 1929 – Beginning of Collectivisation.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB The French Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The burden of financial activities of the state during the old Regime was borne by the :
(a) Church
(b) Nobles
(c) Third Estate
(d) The King.
Answer:
(c) Third Estate.

Question 2.
Austrian Princess Marie Antoinnette was the Queen of which ruler of France?
(a) Louis III
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XV
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(d) Louis XVI.

Question 3.
Napoleon crowned himself the Emperor of France in :
(a) 1805
(b) 1804
(c) 1803
(d) 1806.
Answer:
(b) 1804.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
When was ‘Tennis Court Oath’ taken in France?
(a) 14th July, 1789
(b) 20th June, 1789
(c) 4th August, 1789
(d) 5th May, 1789.
Answer:
(b) 20th June, 1789.

Question 5.
In context of France what was the ‘Convention’?
(a) A French School
(b) Newly Elected Assembly
(c) The Club
(d) A women Organization.
Answer:
(b) Newly Elected Assembly.

Question 6.
Which was the idea promoted by Montesquieu?
(a) Divine Right
(b) Decentralisation of Power
(c) The Social Contract
(d) Balance of Power.
Answer:
(b) Decentralisation of Power.

Question 7.
In the history of France which period is known as Reign of Great Terror?
(a) 1792-93
(b) 1774-76
(c) 1793-1794
(d) 1804-1815.
Answer:
(c) 1793-1794.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The device used by French for beheading a person was known as __________
Answer:
guillotine

Question 2.
Bastille was stormed in the year __________ A.D.
Answer:
1789

Question 3.
In 1815 A.D. Napoleon was defeated in the battle of __________
Answer:
Waterloo

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
__________ was the leader of Jacobin Club.
Answer:
Robespierre

Question 5.
The book ‘Social Contract’ was written by __________
Answer:
Rousseau

Question 6.
Marseillaise was composed by __________
Answer:
Roger de L’lsle.

III. Match the Columns :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Fortress Prison (i) Guillotine
2. Tax levied by Church (ii) Jacobin
3. To behead a person (iii) Rousseau
4. A club of French middle class (iv) Bastille
5. The Social Contract (v) Tithe

Answer:

A

B

1. Fortress Prison (iv) Bastille
2. Tax levied by Church (v) Tithe
3. To behead a person (i) Guillotine
4. A club of French middle class (ii) Jacobin
5. The Social Contract (iii) Rousseau

IV. Differentiate between :

Question 1.
First estate and Third estate
Answer:
(a) First estate. The first estate included two types of clergy i.e. the higher clergy and the lower clergy. The higher clergy included Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots. They were powerful, wealthy and did not pay any taxes. The lower clergy lived in the monasteries and conducted the spiritual services. They had quite a low income.

(b) Third estate. Common people were included in third estate and constituted around 97% of the total population. They paid all the taxes. Major businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants, artisans, landless labourers, servants etc. were included in this.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Tithe and Taille.
Answer:
Tithe and Taille. Tithe was a tax collected by the Church. It was one tenth of the total income. Taille was a tax paid by the people directly to the state. Its percentage changed from year to year.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did the French Revolution occur?
Answer:
In 1789 A.D.

Question 2.
Who was the leader of Jacobin Clubs?
Answer:
M. Robespierre.

Question 3.
What was Directory?
Answer:
Directory was the Council of five members.

Question 4.
Which Estate used to pay taxes in the French Society?
Answer:
The Third Estate.

Question 5.
What was the tax paid directly to the state?
Answer:
Taille was the tax paid directly to the state.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 6.
Which classes were exempted from paying taxes?
Answer:
First estate i.e. the Clergy and the second estate i.e. the Nobility.

Question 7.
How many types of taxes were paid by peasants?
Answer:
Peasants had to pay two types of taxes, Tithe and Taille.

Question 8.
Name the National Anthem of France.
Answer:
Marseillaise.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the French society divided before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Before the French Revolution, French Society was divided into three classes- First Estate i.e. the Clergy, Second Estate i.e. Mobility and Third Estate i.e. the General Public :

  1. The First Estate included the Clergy. They did not pay any taxes. They were on the higher posts even without having the ability.
  2. The Second Estate included major Nobles who had large pieces of land.
  3. The Third Estate included lawyers, doctors, teachers etc. They did not get any of the higher posts even if they had the ability to do so.
  4. Common public was also included in this. They had to pay taxes to the state as well as to the Church. They had to do begar and were exploited from many years.

Question 2.
Describe the role of Women in the French Revolution.
Answer:
At the time of French Revolution, no government considered women as active citizens but they played a very important role in the revolution.

Most of the women of the third estate worked as flower-sellers, fruit and vegetable venders, seamstresses for their livelihood. Many females worked as servants in the houses of the rich people. Most of the women had no access to education or professional training. They started many movement for their rights. At the time of revolution, Olympe de Gouges was one of the politically active women. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. That’s why she was executed. During the Reign of Terror, many female representatives were executed.

Almost after 150 years, in 1940 A.D. many laws were made for bringing reforms in their lives. According to a law, government schools were opened up and schooling was made compulsory for women.

Question 3.
Describe in brief about the famous writers philosophers who influenced the French’Revolution.
Answer:

  1. In his work Two Treatises of Government’, John Locke critisized the divine rights of kings.
  2. Rousseau continued the same ideas. He asserted the doctrine of popular sovereignty. He wrote a book called ‘The Social Contract’.
  3. Montesquieu in his book, ‘The Spirit of Laws’ proposed a division of power within the government between legislature, executive and judiciary.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
What do you mean by Monarchy?
Answer:
Monarchy is the system of government in which king has all the rights and he acts as a dictator who believes in divine rights of the king. There was monarchy in France and its ruler Louis XVI had all the rights which were not opposed by any one. He did not care about the Constitution and public welfare. Even for years, he did not call the country’s Parliament. When he called the Parliament, that was only to impose taxes. This incident became the reason of the revolution.

Question 5.
What is National Constitutional Assembly?
Answer:
The French King got afraid after observing the rebellious power of his subjects. He gave sanction to the National Assembly arid also accepted the control of Constitution on his power. In 1791, the National Assembly prepared the sketch of the Constitution. Its major objective was to limit the powers of king. Now powers were divided among the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. So, powers were not concentrated in few hands. Consequently, the Constitutional Monarchy was established in France.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Answer:
France was a strong and powerful state in the 18th century. She had vast territories in North America and islands in the West Indies. But the French Revolution was brewing while the war of American independence was going on. The conditions in France on the eve of revolution presented a dismal picture.

The following were the chief causes of the French Revolution :
1. Social Causes. The French Revolution was an uprising of the French people against autocracy and aristocracy. The French society was a feudal one ridden with inequalities. The clergy and the nobles belonged to the privileged class. They led a life of luxury and exploited the common people. The peasants and workers, which consisted of the vast population, were compelled to live a wretched life. They were forced to pay heavy taxes and to do forced labour. The middle class comprising lawyers, doctors, teachers, traders and petty government officers were wealthy and wise. But they were deprived of the political rights. They had to suffer humiliation at the hands of clergy and nobles.
The social inequalities and luxurious life of the clergy and nobles created discontentment and restlessness among the common people.

2. Political Causes. The kings of France were absolute rulers. They believed in the Theory of Divine rights of Kingship. They claimed themselves to be the representatives of God on earth. On the eve of the revolution, Louis XVI was the king of France. He was an empty headed despot. He and his queen Marie Antoinette were extravagant in nature. They squandered the state revenue on luxuries and wasteful festivities. The high government posts were auctioned. Corruption, maladministration and inefficiency reigned supreme. There were different laws in different areas and absence of any uniform system made the confusion worse confounded. People were really fed up with such a rotten system of government.

3. Economic Causes. The shattered economy of France proved a major cause of the revolution. Due to the prolonged wars and extravagant habits of the Royal Family, the French Government reached a state of bankruptcy. The clergy and nobility were able to pay taxes, but they were completely exempted from all the taxes. The common people were too poor to pay taxes. The corrupt system of taxes made the people unhappy.

4. Psychological Causes. In the second part of the 18th century, there was an intellectual “Renaissance in France. The Great French philosophers like Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire exploited the social shortcomings. They fanned the flame of revolution. The American Revolution and Declaration of Independence by the American revolutionaries roused the people of France to overthrow the oppressive king and his nobility.

5. Immediate Cause. In 1788 A.D. there spread a severe famine in many parts of France. People suffering from hunger assembled in streets of Paris. The state treasury had fallen empty. Emperor Louis XVI was compelled to summon a meeting of the Estate General in 1789 after a lapse of 175 years. The First Estate and Second Estate i.e. the clergy and nobility refused to have a common meeting with the Third Estate. It generated much excitement and common people lost their temper. With the meeting of Estate General on the 5th May, 1789 the French Revolution began.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Explain the phases of the French Revolution.
Answer:
The French Revolution was the greatest event of the modern age. It was not only an internal event of France but also an international revolution. It not only affected the French society but the whole humanity was affected by this. After centuries, there came a respect for human values, medieval feudal system was shaken up and democracy started replacing the monarchy. The concept of liberty, equality and fraternity was spread everywhere.

The French Revolution started in 1789 A.D. and lasted till the decline of Napoleon.

Its different phases are given ahead :
1. Tennis Court and the Fall of Bastille. On 14th July 1789, angry mob attacked the Bastille prison at Paris. This prison was the symbol of the autocratic powers of monarchy. On the same day, the king ordered the army to enter the city. A rumour spread that the king was about to order the army to fire the people. So, around 7000 men and women assembled in front of the town hall. They organised a public army. In search of arms, they forcibly entered the public buildings. So, hundreds of people stormed into the prison of Bastille where they expected lot of arms and ammunition. In this conflict, the commander of Bastille died. Political prisoners were released although they were only seven in number. Fortress of Bastille was destroyed.

2. Constitutional Monarchy in France (National Assembly). The French king Louis XVI got afraid on seeing the power of his subjects. So, he gave sanction to the National Assembly and accepted to limit his powers by the Constitution. In 1791, the National Assembly prepared the sketch of Constitution. It major objective was to limit the powers of king. Now powers were divided among the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. So, powers were not concentrated in few hands. Consequently, the Constitutional Monarchy was established in France.

3. Reign of Terror-Jacob in Clubs. The members of the Jacobin Clubs belonged mainly to the less prosperous sections of society. They included small shopkeepers, pastry cooks, shoemakers, printers, daily wage workers etc. Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre. The period from 1793 to 1794 is known as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those who were seen as the enemies of Republic eg nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods, they were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If they were found guilty, they were guillotined. Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. That’s why his reign is known as the Reign of Terror.

4. The Directory Rules France. After the fall of Jacobin’s government, National Assembly, in 1795 A.D., formed a Constitution for France. Under this Constitution, the rule of France was given in the hands of Directory. On 26 October, 1795, the first meeting of the Directory was called and with this, the National Convention got dissolved. Directory ruled on France for four years. During these four years, it faced a number of problems. The political failure of Directory paved way for the emergence of military dictator Napoleon Bonaparte.

5. The Period of Napoleon. In 1799, Napoleon overthrew the government of Directory and became the First Council. He got dictatorial powers. Then he conducted plebiscite and 99.9% voters voted in his favour. He won a number of wars and was able to do peaceful treaties with his enemies.

All this proved that he was an able dictator. From 1799 to 1804, he implemented many reforms.

  • He abolished all the privileges based on birth. He established equality before law and secured the right to property.
  • He simplified the administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • He removed guild restrictions in the towns.
  • He introduced uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency.
  • He made Napoleonic code of conduct.

6. Napoleon Became King. By 1804, Napoleon was seemingly not satisfied with the post of First Council. So, he again conducted plebiscite and got the right to do what he wanted. In December, 1804, he declared himself as the king of France.

Question 3.
What was the impact of the French Revolution?
Answer:
The French Revolution produced effects not only on France, but also on the whole of Europe. It gave new ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity to the world. It put an end to the old regime and the existing social order and laid the foundations of democracy, nationalism and socialism. Let us see how it affected France itself and also other countries of the world. The French Revolution was significant not only in context of France but also it left its impact on the whole world.

The revolution was a powerful reaction against anomalies, deformities and fundamental faults inherent in old system of France.

Its effects on France are given below :

  • Establishment of democracy. Monarchial system came to an end and democratic system was established in its place.
  • Feudalism ended forever. The land of the nobles was sold at cheap rates to the peasants.
  • End of discrimination. The social, economic and political discrimination came to an end forever.
  • Organization of a new society. A new society was organized in France. This society was organized on the basis of liberty, fraternity and equality.
  • Reforms in National Assembly. The powers of the National Assembly were increased. The new laws and taxes were passed by this assembly. Now, similar laws applied to everyone.
  • Rights of Clergy. The Rights of the clergy were reduced. Their authority was now only confined to the Church.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
What was the condition of women of the Third Estate before 1789 A.D.?
Answer:
Most of the women of the Third Estate worked as flower sellers, fruit and vegetable vendors, seamstresses etc. for their livelihood. Many females worked as servants in the houses of the rich people. Most of the women had no access to education or professional training. Only girls of Noble families or the girls of rich families of the third estate studied in convent. Later on they got married. Working women had to care for their families.

During the early years, the revolutionary government passed many laws to improve their condition. According to one law, government schools were established and school education was made compulsory for all the girls.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide The French Revolution Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is Bastille?
(a) Fort
(b) Palace
(c) Jail
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Jail.

Question 2.
Give the date of the French Revolution
(a) 14 July 1789
(b) 16 July 1756
(c) 15 August 1947
(d) 14 July 1776.
Answer:
(a) 14 July 1789.

Question 3.
Who was Louis XVI?
(a) King of France
(b) King of Britain
(c) A Baron,
(d) An artist of France.
Answer:
(b) King of France.

Question 4.
What was the Tithe?
(a) Farmer
(b) Tax
(c) Artist
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Tax.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
What was the Taille?
(a) Tax paid to the church
(b) Tax paid to the state
(c) Tax paid for the use of land
(d) Unit of currency.
Answer:
(b) Tax paid to the state.

Question 6.
What was the population of France in 1789?
(a) 123 million
(b) 225 million
(c) 28 million
(d) 30 million.
Answer:
(c) 28 million.

Question 7.
Who was J.J. Rousseau?
(a) King
(b) Philosopher
(c) An aristocrat
(d) Clergy.
Answer:
(b) Philosopher.

Question 8.
Who wrote the “Two Treatises of Government”?
(a) Rousseau
(b) John Locke
(c) Montesquieu
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) John Locke.

Question 9.
Who wrote “The Spirit of Laws?”
(a) Rousseau
(b) John Locke
(c) Montesquieu
(d) Adam Smith.
Answer:
(c) Montesquieu.

Question 10.
Who was the queen of France on the eve of French Revolution?
(a) Marie Antoinnette
(b) Maria Theressa.
(c) Marie Belchant
(d) Aquiva Monessert.
Answer:
(a) Marie Antoinnette.

Question 11.
Who was the king of France at the time of its revolution?
(a) Louis Philip
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XVI
(d) Louis XVIII.
Answer:
(c) Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 12.
Who said, “Man is born free yet he is everywhere in chains.”?
(a) Montesquieu
(b) Rousseau
(c) John Locke
(d) Adam Smith
Answer:
(b) Rousseau.

Question 13.
When and where was Estates-General convened?
(a) 14 June 1789, Paris
(b) 14 July 1789, Paris
(c) 17 May 1789, Versailles
(d) 17 Sept. 1789, Versailles.
Answer:
(c) 17 May 1789, Versailles.

Question 14.
Who said, “I am France, my will is Law”?
(a) Marie Antoinnette
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XVIII
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(d) Louis XVI.

Question 15.
Which was the period of Reign of Terror?
(a) 1793-94 A.D.
(6) 1789-90 A.D.
(c) 1790-91 A.D.
(d) 1791-92 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1793-1794 A.D.

Question 16.
Who opposed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship?
(a) Voltaire
(b) Montesquieu
(c) Jacobins
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(b) Montesquieu.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Before the French Revolution, the________family ruled France.
Answer:
Bourbon

Question 2.
__________ is a form of government in which the country is ruled by the king.
Answer:
Monarchy

Question 3.
Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots were the  __________ part of the estate.
Answer:
First

Question 4.
The second estate controlled __________% of the total land.
Answer:
30

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
__________raised voice against arbitrary and tyrannical rule and propounded the concept of democracy.
Answer:
Rousseau

Question 6 .
__________was a kind of tax paid to the church.
Answer:
Tithe.

True/False:

Question 1.
Montesquieu challenged the Divine Right of the Kings.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
On 20th June 1788, the third estate met at an indoor Tennis Court.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The drafting of a written Constitution was completed in 1791.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
The song ‘Marseillaise’ was composed by Roger de L’lsle.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
Voltaire was the leader of Jacobins.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 6.
16,000 to 40,000 people were killed during the Reign of Terror.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did the French Revolution take place?
Answer:
In 1789 A.D.

Question 2.
Which group had special privileges in France before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Feudal Lords.

Question 3.
Who was the ruler of France at the time of French Revolution? To which dynasty did he belong?
Answer:
Louis XVI of*the Bourbon dynasty.

Question 4.
Who were the most powerful groups in the French Society?
Answer:
Nobility and the Clergy.

Question 5.
Who had the highest authority in the Roman Catholic Church?
Answer:
The Pope.

Question 6.
What was the name of the French Parliament?
Answer:
Estate General.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 7.
Where did Louis XVI live? ‘
Answer:
At Versailles.

Question 8.
Which type of administrative system France had at the time of French Revolution?
Answer:
Autocratic Monarchy.

Question 9.
Name two philosophers who gave birth to the French Revolution.
Answer:
Rousseau and Montesquieu.

Question 10.
On which thing Rousseau gave lot of stress?
Answer:
He gave stress on equality among humans.

Question 11.
Name the book written by Rousseau.
Answer:
The Social Contract.

Question 12.
Name the book written by Montesquieu.
Answer:
The Spirit of Laws.

Question 13.
Who was Marie Antoinnette?
Answer:
Wife of Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 14.
How much of the total land of France was under the control of Church?
Answer:
One fifth of the total land.

Question 15.
Who occupied the most important positions in army and in the state before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Nobles.

Question 16.
Who is known as the King of Philosophers?
Answer:
Voltaire.

Question 17.
Give one effect of the French Revolution on France.
Answer:
The fall of autocratic monarchy.

Question 18.
Name three concepts of the French Revolution.
Answer:
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

Question 19.
When was the name of National Assembly kept as the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
9th July, 1789.

Question 20.
What was the motive of calling National Assembly?
Answer:
To impose taxes.

Question 21.
Name one financial reform done by Turgot.
Answer:
Reducing the number of government officials.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 22.
Which meeting was called by Louis XVI before calling the meeting of Estate General?
Answer:
Parliament of Paris.

Question 23.
Why was the Parliament of Paris called?
Answer:
To impose taxes.

Question 24.
When was the meeting of Estate General called?
Answer:
17 July, 1789.

Question 25.
Which oath was taken by the representatives of the third estate at Tennis Court?
Answer:
To form the Constitution.

Question 26.
Who made the Declaration of Men and Citizens in France?
Answer:
National Assembly.

Question 27.
Give the date of the fall of Bastille.
Answer:
14 July, 1789.

Question 28.
Which event is known as the beginning of the French Revolution?
Answer:
The fall of Bastille.

Question 29.
Who was the commander-in-chief of the National Guard?
Answer:
Lafayette.

Question 30.
Who brought the king from the Versailles to Paris?
Answer:
A mob of women.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 31.
When was the draft of the Constitution of National Assembly completed?
Answer:
In 1791 A.D.

Question 32.
Which ideology did the members of Jacobin Clubs follow?
Answer:
Republican ideology.

Question 33.
When did the people of Paris surround the King’s palace first time?
Answer:
On 20th June 1792 A.D.

Question 34.
When did the people of Paris second time surround the King’s palace?
Answer:
10th August, 1792 A.D.

Question 35.
Under whose rule the King was arrested?
Answer:
Under the rule of Convention.

Question 36.
What was the major work of the Convention in France?
Answer:
Abolition of Monarchy.

Question 37.
With which name the incident of the killing of king and others is known as?
Answer:
September Massacre.

Question 38.
Which type of system was established in France by the National Convention?
Answer:
Republican System.

Question 39.
What punishment was given to Louis XVI by the National Convention?
Answer:
Death Sentence.

Question 40.
When was Louis XVI sentenced to death?
Answer:
In 1793 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 41.
Name the two major political clubs during the times of National Convention.
Answer:
Breton Club and Jocobin Club.

Question 42.
Which Committee was formed by the National Convention to face the internal enemies?
Answer:
Public Defence Committee.

Question 43.
Which new method of measurement was adopted by the National Convention?
Answer:
Decimal system.

Question 44.
For how many years the ‘Reign of Terror’ remained in France?
Answer:
One year.

Question 45.
Which political party established the ‘Reign of Terror’ in France?
Answer:
Jacobin Party.

Question 46.
When was Revolutionary court established?
Answer:
In 1793 A.D.

Question 47.
Which political party had a great impact on the Paris Commune?
Answer:
Jacobin Party.

Question 48.
Who was the leader of the Jacobins?
Answer:
Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins.

Question 49.
Who said, “May my blood assure the happiness of French people!”
Answer:
Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 50.
Which was the tax levied on peasants and collected by the Churches?
Answer:
In the was the tax levied on peasants and collected by the Churches.

Question 51.
Who wrote ‘The Spirit of Laws’?
Answer:
Monstesquieu wrote ‘The Spirit of Laws’.

Question 52.
Who was Olympe de Gouges?
Answer:
She was a brave lady who laid down her life while fighting for the rights of women in France.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which groups got advantages of the French Revolution? Which groups were forced to abdicate the power and which groups were discouraged by its results?
Answer:
(i) Labour class and the peasant class was greatly advantaged by the revolution. Its reason was that it was the most exploited class. People who favoured liberty and equality were also happy.
(ii) Nobility had to abdicate the power. Monarchy came to an end. Feudal Lords and the Church officials also had to abdicate their privileges.
(iii) Upper Class or the Elites and the followers of Monarchy were discouraged with the revolution.

Question 2.
Explain the economic condition of France at the time of French Revolution.
Answer:
1. Heavy debt on treasury. The rulers of France were very spendthrift. Louis XV spent money lavishly. As a result, the treasury became empty and France came under heavy debt. During the period of Louis XVI, the situation further deteriorated. As a result, France was gripped by revolution. Someone had remarked aptly, “The fiscal causes lay at the root of the revolution.”

2. Tax collection poorly administered. Not only the taxes were levied unfairly, they were also not collected in a proper manner. Anybody who bade to give the highest amount of money to king was given the right to collect taxes. The tax collectors collected maximum taxes from the people and transferred a very little amount to the government. This system of collection of the revenue was a source of great trouble for the peasants.

3. Taxes distributed unfairly. The common people of the country were poor but they had to bear the entire burden of taxes. On the other-hand, the nobles were a rich class and could pay taxes but they were free from taxes. This unfair distribution of taxes had made the people very unhappy.

4. Extravagance in the court. The rulers of France were extravagant and sensual. They were given to luxury and comfort. Louis XTV emptied the treasury because of his extravagant habits. After him, Louis XV involved himself in wars. He was followed by Louis XVI who did not lag behind in living a life of luxury. As a result of this, the French government was rendered penniless.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 3.
Who was Robespierre? Why is his time period known as the Reign of Terror?
Answer:
Robespierre ruled France from 1793 to 1794. He followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw being enemies of the Republic-ex nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his party who did not agree with his methods-were arrested, imprisoned and tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined. He pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. That’s why his time period is known as the ‘Reign of Terror’.

Question 4.
What were the political causes of the French Revolution?
Answer:
1. Arbitrary rulers. The kings of France were absolute rulers. They believed in the theory of Divine Right of Kingship. They claimed to be the representatives of God on the earth. Therefore, they did not consider that they had any duty towards the people. Their courtiers had signed and stamped but unfilled papers. They had just to write down the name of the person to be sent to jail. Thus, innumerable people were passing through miserable time in the French government. The people were really fed up with this form of government.

2. Inefficiency and corruption in the administration. The country was in the grip of corruption. The government offices were sold. The rulers were unintelligent and incompetent. The people of France wanted to end this corrupt rule.

3. Centralization of powers. All the political powers were in the hands of the king. All the representative bodies in the country had either ended or were a tool in the hands of the king. The king imposed taxes on the people at his own will. He also spent the money collected through taxes as he liked. Because of this centralisation of powers, there was a great resentment among the people.

4. No uniform system of law and order. The laws of the country were not uniform. There were different laws working in different parts of the country. In all, there were about 400 laws in operation in France. There were separate laws for the rich and the poor. The revolution could hardly be prevented in the country where no regard was shown to the law or the legal system.

Question 5.
Give reasons of the fall of Bastille and what were its results.
Answer:
As the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting the Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter led to bad harvest, the price of bread rose and bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.
After spending many hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women attacked the bakery shops. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris.
On 14th July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. Guards of fort opened doors after the battle of 5 hours. Crowds entered the fort and made free all the captives.
It destroyed the autocracy of king and people emerged victorious. This event is famous as the Fall of Bastille in the history of France. This historical event is known as first blow to French ancient system.

Question 6.
How did the revolution spread in the whole France with the advent of National Assembly?
Answer:
While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter led to a bad harvest, the price of bread rose, most of the times bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. People had to spend hours in long queues at the bakery. Finally angry women entered the shops and took away whatever they wanted. At the same time, the king ordered the army to move into Paris. Finally, the angry mob, on 14th July, stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

In villages, rumours spread that the lords of the manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops. Fear spread among the peasants and they seized hoes and pitchforks in many districts and even attacked chateaux. They looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues. Many nobles fled from their homes and many migrated to neighbouring countries.

Question 7.
A decree was passed by French National Assembly on the night of 4th August, 1789. What were its three main points?
Answer:
After the French Revolution, National Assembly was constituted and it gave a decree on the night of 4th August, 1789. Main points of this decree were :

  • This decree abolished the feudal system of obligations from the France.
  • Before revolution, members of clergy enjoyed many privileges. But with the decree, members of clergy were forced to give up their privileges.
  • Tax collected by the church, Tithe, was abolished and the land owned by the church*was taken away by government.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 8.
What was the condition of slavery in France during 18th and 19th centuries? Explain any three conditions.
Answer:
1. There was not much opposition to slavery in France during 18th century.
There had been a long discussion in the National Assembly that the basic rights of citizens should be given to the French people and the people living in their colony or not. But due to the fear of opposition by the traders engaged in slave trade, National Assembly did not pass any law. ’

2. It was finally the Convention which in 1794 made a law to free all slaves in the French colonies. But it was a short term measure as ten years later, Napoleon re-introduced slavery. Plantation owners were given freedom to make negroes as slaves in pursuation of their economic interests.

3. Finally slavery was abolished in French Colonies in 1848 A.D.

Question 9.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte? Which reforms did he introduce?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was the king of France. He declared himself as the French King in 1804 A.D. Before this, he was the First Council of Directory.

Reforms: Napoleon considered himself as a moderniser of Europe. So, he brought many reforms :

  • He introduced many laws for the protection of property.
  • He introduced a uniform gystem of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.

Question 10.
Why were the females disappointed with the French Constitution of 1791 A.D.? Which reforms were introduced by the revolutionary government to bring reforms in their lives?
Answer:
Women were disappointed with the French Constitution of 1791 A.D. because they were reduced to a status of passive citizens. But they continued with their demands of right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, their interests would be represented in the new government.

Laws made by the Revolutionary Government. For bringing change in the lives of females, revolutionary government brought many reforms :

  • Schooling was made compulsory for all girls.
  • Now their fathers could no longer force them to marry against their will. Marriage was made a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law.
  • Divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both women and men.
  • Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small business.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 11.
Who were Jacobins? Why were they called Sans-Culottes?
Answer:
The members of the Jacobin clubs mainly belonged to the best prosperous classes of society. They included small shopkeepers, shoemakers, watchmakers, pastry makers, printers, servants and daily wage workers. Their leader was Maximilion Robespierre. A large group among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers. This was to set themselves different from other sections of society especially nobles, who wore knee breeches. It was a •method of proclaiming the end of the power wielded by the wearers of knee breeches. Such Jacobins were called as Sans-Culottes which literally means those without knee breeches. Such men wore red cap in addition which symbolised victory. However, women were not allowed to do the same.

Question 12.
How was Republic System established in France in place of Constitutional Monarchy?
Answer:
During the summer of 1792, the Jacobins planned an armed rebellion of a large number of Paris people who were angry with the short supplies and high prices of food. On August 10, they stormed the palace of the Tuileries, killed the king’s guards and kept the king as hostage for many hours. Later the Assembly voted to imprison the King’s family. New elections were held. From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote.

The newly elected assembly was called the Convention. On 21st September 1792, it abolished the monarchy and declared France a Republic.

Question 13.
What were the effects of revolution on France?
Answer:

  1. New Society organized. A new society was organized in France. This society was organized on the basis of liberty, fraternity and equality.
  2. Discrimination ended forever. The social, economic and political discrimination came to an end forever.
  3. Reforms made by National Assembly. The powers of the National Assembly were increased. The new laws and taxes were passed by this assembly. Now, similar laws applied to everyone.
  4. Democratic system established. Monarchial system came to an end and democratic system was established in its place.
  5. End of Feudalism. The land of the nobles was sold at cheap rates to the peasants.
  6. Reduction in the rights of Clergy. The rights of the clergy were reduced. Their authority was now only confined to the Church.

Question 14.
Discuss some of the basic rights of women set forth in ‘Olympe de Gouges’.
Answer:

  1. Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights.
  2. The goal of all political associations is the preservation of the natural rights of woman and man. These rights are liberty, property, security and above all resistance to oppression.
  3. The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation, which is nothing but the union of woman and man.
  4. The law should be the expression of the general will, all-female and male citizens should have a say either personally or by their representatives in its formulation.
  5. No woman is an exception if she is accused, arrested and detained in cases determined by law. Women, like men, should obey this rigorous law.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy’today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Answer:
The National Assembly drafted a Constitution. The Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights. That is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away. Still the rights which were provided by the French Revolution, are present in different forms in the Constitution of India.

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen :

  • Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.
  • The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, security and resistance of oppression.
  • The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation; no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people.
  • Liberty consists of the power to do whatever is not injurious to others.
  • The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society.
  • Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. All citizens are equal before it.
  • No man may be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by the law.
  • Every citizen may speak, write and print freely; he must take responsibility for the abuse of such liberty in cases determined by the law.
  • For the maintenance of the public force and for the expenses of administration a common tax is indispensable; it must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means.
  • Since property is a sacred and inviolable right, no one may be deprived of it, unless a legally established public necessity requires. In that case, a just compensation must be given in advance.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Answer:
The Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of the labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, and they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.

The revolutionaries issued a Declaration of Human Rights to make people conscious of their rights and duties. The Declaration had 17 sections. It said that all men are free and equal. The people are sovereign and law is the expression of theft will. Administrators can use only the authority legally invested in them. The Declaration granted personal freedom as well as freedom of expression and speech. In the later years, this Declaration became a charter of liberalism. Whenever people talk about human rights, they are reminded of this Declaration.

But this Declaration does not guarantee universal adult franchise. Women too did not have voting rights and they were considered inferior in every aspect. The classification between active and passive citizens was also against the spirit of humanity. The fate of the common people did not change much; they remained at the subsistence level of existence.

Question 3.
How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Answer:
The revolution was thrown into oblivion within five years and the French citizens easily accepted Napoleon as their sovereign ruler. From a close study of contemporary events, it seems that at that crucial moment, perhaps, France had no alternative except Napoleon.

Prices of commodities were escalating, currency was devaluating and economic condition was deteriorating. The public of France had become so frustrated due to economic misery that it was willing to forsake lofty ideals and values for the sake of redemption from this pitiable condition.

The Constitution implemented by the National Convention was contrary to the spirit of revolution. Members of the Convention were selfish. They were interested in remaining glued to power. The formation of Directory was a stupendous mistake in the Constitution. All directors brawled with one another. War was the only remedy to cure the fog of dejection. During the reign of Directory, Napoleon spearheaded the wars against Italy and Austria in which he reaped marvellous success. By the time he established peace in Paris, people began to treat him as an epitome of order and discipline. He earned the reputation of a competent ruler and was considered invincible. He was averse to the extremities committed during revolution but he did not overlook its achievements. Hence he endeared himself to everyone by his achievements.

The bourgeoisie (middle class) in France wanted stability and permanancy which only Napoleon could give. He was considered to be the only alternative because all efficient people were killed during the period of revolution.
The Monarchists relied on Napoleon for the revival of age-old system. Neutral persons saw in Napoleon the possibility of peace and order. Intellectual republicans envisaged danger for the republic; but they preferred the rule by an intelligent individual to that of a gang of conspirators.

Incidents which occurred afterward proved that he rapidly brought adverse circumstances under control and made France a centre of glory and power in Europe and all these achievements bear testimony to the inevitability of his reign in France.

Question 4.
How did National Assembly in France come into existence?
Answer:
National Assembly in France came into existence with the Tennis Court Oath. The representatives of Third Estate considered themselves as spokesmen for the whole nation. On 20th June, they assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They decleared themselves as National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a Constitution for France that would limit the powers of the king. They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes. Mirabeau was born in a noble family but believed that there is a need to do away the special privileges of few classes. He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles. Abbe Sieyes, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called “What is the Third Estate?’

Faced with the power of his revolting subjects, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now on be checked by a Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
How did Robespierre try to bring equality in the French society?
Answer:
Robespierre tried to bring equality in the French society through following reforms :

  1. Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and price.
  2. Meat and bread were rationed.
  3. Peasants were forced to transport their grains to cities and sell it at the price fixed by the government.
  4. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden. All citizens were required to eat the equality bread, a loaf made of whole wheat.
  5. Efforts were made to bring equality through forms of speech and addresses. Instead of traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame (Madam), all French men and women were henceforth Citoyen and Citoyenna (citizen).
  6. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices.

Question 6.
What were the main features of French Constitution of 1791?
Answer:

  1. The Constitution gave powers to National Assembly to make laws and the National Assembly was indirectly elected.
  2. Citizens were given the right to vote and choose the Assembly. But all the citizens were not given the right. Only men of age of more than 25 years who paid taxes equal to minimum 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given this right. Rest of the men and all women were classed as passive .citizens.
  3. If anyone wanted to become the member of Assembly, then he must belong to the highest bracket of tax payers.
  4. The Constitution declared the rights of men and citizens. Rights like right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were made as natural rights of person and they could not be taken away. State should protect all such rights.

Question 7.
Which important law was passed in France after the fall of Bastille? What is its importance?
Answer:
After the storming of Bastille, during the summer of 1789 A.D., one important law came into effect and that was the abolition of censorship. In the old regime i.e. under the rule of kings, all written material and cultural activities-books, news, papers, plays could be published and performed only with the approval of the king. Now under the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens, it was proclaimed that freedom of speech and expression is a natural right. Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled quickly into the rural areas. They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France. Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. Each side tried to convince the other about its position through newspapers. Plays, songs and festive processions attracted many people. This was one of the way, they could grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about at length in texts which only a few educated people could read.

Question 8.
Why did the French King Louis XVI call the meeting of Estate General? What was the position of different Estates?
Answer:
There was growing debt on France and that is why the French king needed money. So he decided to impose new taxes on the people. Under the old Regime, French King was not allowed to impose taxes on its own. He had to call the meeting of Estate General to take its permission to impose new taxes. Estate General was a political body in which all the three estates used to send their representatives. But the king decided to call the meeting. Its last meeting was called in 1614 A.D.

On 5th May, 1789, Louis XVI called the meeting of the Estate General to pass the proposals for new taxes. A resplendent hall in Versailles was prepared to host the delegates. The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back. The third estate was represented by the educated and prosperous members. Peasants, artisans and women were not allowed to enter the assembly. But their problems and demands were written in around 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.

Question 9.
Describe the role of philosophers in the French Revolution.
Answer:
1. Montesquieu (1689-1755). Montesquieu was a famous and great philosopher of his time. He was vehementely opposed to the Divine Right Theory of Kingship and was in favour of the blemishes of the monarchial system. His ideas gave impetus to the revolutionary sentiments.

Montesquieu initiated a philosophic movement, a chain of criticism which were to strike at the root of ancient regime in France. He stood for the constitutional form of government. He believed in the supremacy of law and the separation of the three organs of the government. His book “The Spirit of Laws” awakened the French society and created the atmosphere for the revolution.

2. Voltaire (1694-1778). Voltaire attacked the vices of. the society, the church and the blind faith. He gave the church the name of an ‘Infamous Thing’. He instigated the people to ask for reform.

Voltaire attacked the traditions, beliefs and abuses in verse, prose, history, drama and romance. The church in France was the main target of his attack. He declared, “Since we are all steeped in errors and follies we must forgive each other, worship God and be a good man.”

3. Rousseau (1712-1778). Rousseau gave his ideas in his book ‘The Social Contract’. He propounded that the people are the real masters of the state and the king rules with their consent. Thus under the influence of the writings of Rousseau, people of France began to agitate for a revolution. Somebody has rightly said, “But for Rousseau there had been no French Revolution.”

He declared that all political organizations were tyrannical and open to abuses. “Man was born free but he was everywhere in chains.” He propounded the idea of sovereignty of the people.

4. Other Philosophers. Besides these, there were other philosophers such as Diderot, Quesnay, etc. who fanned flames of new ideas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Map Activity:

On the following map of Europe mark the following countries and their capitals
(i) Portugal
(ii) France
(iii) Italy
(iv) Spain
(v) Austria
(vi) England.
Answer:
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution 1

The French Revolution PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • The French Revolution: The French Revolution took place in 1789 A.D. Common people lived a miserable life but Nobles lived a luxurious life. That’s why the French people rose against Louis XVI (King of France) and brought the revolution.
  • The Tennis Court Oath: Louis XVI did not accept the demands laid down by the representatives of the people. So, the people collected at the Tennis Court and declared to form the new Constitution.
  • The Fall of Bastille: On 14 July, 1789, the fortess prison of Bastille was captured bj the revolutionaries and this led to its fall. Even today, 14th July is celebrated as Bastille Day or National Day in France.
  • The Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens: This declaration is related with the French Revolution. It specified the equality of all men before law and without reason no one will be captivated. In this declaration, freedom of speech and press was also accepted. Most importantly, it gave stress on the concepts of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  • Louis XVI: Louis XVI became the French Emperor in 1774 A.D. He was only 20 years of age. He was incapable and worked under the influence of his wife. He had no interest in administrative functions. He had left all the administrative functions in the hands of corrupt officials who did not care about the public welfare. Consequently, there was growing dissatisfaction among the people and finally, they revolted against the King.
  • Voltaire: Voltaire was a famous Satirist writer of his times. He strongly opposed the social superstitions and the evils prevailing in the Church. He called Church as the ‘infamous thing’. He encouraged the people to demand for reforms.
  • Montesquieu: Montesquieu was a famous writer of his times. He opposed the divine right theory of the Kings. He liked the British system of administration. His famous book was ‘The Spirit of Laws’. His ideas gave great impetus to the revolutionary ideas.
  • Rousseau: Rousseau was a great philosopher of 18th century. He gave his views in his book ‘The Social Contract’. According to him, social composition and people must be based on mutual contracts.
  • Napoleon: Napoleon was one of those great men who was born in a simple family and reached the highest post. He progressed from a post of soldier to the French King. He was born at Korsika island and by 1812 A.D., he established his supremacy on almost whole of the Europe. Finally, many European powers collectively defeated him. He died in 1821 due to abdominal cancer at St. Helena island.
  • Clergy: A group of people working in the Church.
  • Tithe and Taille: Tithe was a religious tax paid by the people to the Church and Taille was direct tax paid to the government.
  • Manor: An Estate where was situated the land and palace of the Feudal Lord.
  • 1774 – Louis XVI became King of France.
  • 1789 – Convocation of Estates General, Third Estate forms National Assembly, the Bastille was stormed, peasants revolt in the countryside.
  • 1791 – New Constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king and to guarantee basic rights to all human beings.
  • 1792 – 93 – France becomes a republic, the king was beheaded. Overthrow of the Jacobic Republic, a Directory rules France.
  • 1804 – Napoleon becomes emperor of France, annexes large parts of Europe.
  • 1815 – Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Punjab is also the land of the great Sikh Gurus. It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world and Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the ‘Khalsa Panth’. Inspired by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire. The contribution of Punjab’s martyrs and freedom fighters is also remarkable in Indian National Movement.
(а) ‘Punjab is the land of the great Sikh Gurus’. Give two examples in favour of the statement.
Answers:

  • It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world.
  • On this land, Guru Gobind Singh Ji established Khalsa Panth.

(b) How and who founded a sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab?
Answer:
A sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab was founded by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. First of all, by taking inspiration from Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire.

Question 2.
At the time of independence, Indian Punjab (Eastern Punjab) had Ambala, Amritsar, Bhatinda, Ferozepur, Jullundur, Gurdaspur, Gurgaon (Gurugram), Hissar, Hoshiarpur, Kangra, Kapurthala, Mohindergarh, Patiala, Rohtak, Sangrur and Simla disticts.
On 1 November 1966, District Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Mohindergarh and Jind Tehsil became a part of Haryana State. District Simla, Kangra and Una Tehsil became a part of Union territory of Himachal Pradesh of that time.
(a) What is meant by Eastern Punjab at the time of independence? Name four districts included in it.
Answer:
At the time of independence, areas of Punjab which became part of India, were given the name of Eastern Punjab. It included drainage system of the Sutlej and Beas rivers. Now it is known as Punjab. Four districts of this region are Ambala, Amritsar, Bathinda and Jalandhar.

(b) Which areas were included in Punjab at the time of reorganization of states in 1956?
Answer:
In 1956, Malwa region was dismantled and was made a part of Punjab. This region is spread from Sutlej to Ghagar rivers.

(c) When was Punjab reorganised on linguistic basis? What was its impact on Punjab?
Answer:
On 1st Nov. 1966, Punjab was reorganized on a linguistic basis. According to it, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Some mountainous regions of Punjab were given to Himachal Pradesh.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Dialects of Punjabi
According to a survey conducted by Punjabi University, Patiala, there are 28 dialects of Punjabi language. These include Indian Punjabi dialects like Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri. Majhi is spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts of Punjab. The Taksali version of Punjabi is the closest to this language. Doabi is spoken in Jalandhar, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts. Ferozepur, Fazilka, Faridkot, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Barnala, Mansa and Ludhiana districts are the areas where mainly Malwai dialect is spoken. The areas of Puadhi dialect are Ropar, Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala. Dogri is predominantly spoken in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir province.
(a) How many dialects of Punjabi language are there? Which of these is the main Indian Punjabi dialect?
Answer:
There are 28 dialects of Punjabi. Out of all these only Majhi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri are the main Indian Punjabi dialects.

(b) Which version of Punjabi is closest to this language? In which districts of Punjab, this dialect is spoken?
Answer:
The Majhi version of Punjabi is closest to this language. This dialect is mainly spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts.

(c) Name three districts each where Doabi, Malwai and Puadhi are spoken.
Answer:

  • Doabi: Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur.
  • Malwai: Firozepur, Moga and Bathinda.
  • Puadhi: Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala.

Question 4.
Sacred Thread Ceremony
At the age of nine, according to the Hindu traditions, (Janeu) the sacred thread ceremony was performed. When the family purohit Pandit Hardyal wanted to put the sacred thread, Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear it. In this way at the age of 9, he challenged the religious and social orthodoxy.
(a) When was the sacred thread ceremony performed?
Answer:
According to the Hindu traditions, at the age of nine, the sacred thread ceremony was performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

(b) Explain the sacred thread ceremony performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread which was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.

Question 5.
In order to get him interested in worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu gave Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji some rupees. He sent him to the nearest town-Chuharkana to do business. On his way, the Guru met a group of Faqirs (ascetics) who were huftgry for several days. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding them. When Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji returned home and narrated the incident to his father, he was very disappointed. This incident is called the Sacha Sauda (True Transaction).
(a) What is meant by Sacha Sauda?
Answer:
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is True Transaction which Guru Nanak Dev ji did by spending his Rs. 20 in feeding the hungry Faqirs.

(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in his education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sachha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Guru Nank Dev Ji visited the holy place at Mecca. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went off to sleep with his feet towards Kabba. The qazi (Ruknaudin) objected to this, calling Guru Ji a Kafir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji very politely told him to move his feet in the direction where Allah did not exist. The qazi did not have an answei ) this and realized his mistake. In this way, Guru Nanak Dev Ji spread the message that God is Omnipresent. When the qazi asked him which religion was better Hinduism or Islam, Guru Ji replied that without good deeds, both will weep and wail.
(a) Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his 9th udasi?
Answer:
Guru Ji completed his fourth Udasi from 1517-1521 A.D. During this Udasi, he visited western Asia. He visited places such as Multan, Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, Qandhar, Kabul, Jalalabad, Peshawar etc.

(b) Which incident did happen with Guru Ji at Mecca? What message did Guru ji give to the people?
Answer:
Guru ji reached Mecca while preaching during his Journey. Mecca is a religious place of Muslims. There he fell asleep with his feet towards Kabba. Qazi Rukandin objected to it but Guru Ji remained calm. Then he said, “You put my feet on the side where Allah is not there.” Then Qazi started thinking and realised his mistake. With this incident, Guru gave a massage that God is omnipresent.

Question 7.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca Madina. An arrogant Muslim Faqir named Wali Qandhari lived on a steep hill there. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Despite the pleas of the town people, he did not allow the flow of water. He also refused water to Bhai Mardana. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji came to know of it he pushed aside a rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. In a fit of rage Wali Qandhari threw a rock at Guru Nanak Dev Ji but Guru Nanak Dev Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. This place is known as Gurudwara Sri Panja Sahib (now in Pakistan).
(a) What name is given to the Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji? What was the objective of these Journeys?
Answer:
The Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are known as Udasis. The main objective of these Journeys was to remove superstitions and to show the people correct path of religion.

(b) Discuss in short the incident happened with Guru Ji at Hasan Abdal.
Answers :
Guru Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca. Here Guru Ji encountered an arrogant Muslim Faqir Wali Qandhari. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Guru Ji pushed aside the rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. Wali Qandhari became angry and threw a rock at Guru Ji but Guru Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. Then he became a disciple of Guru Ji.

Question 8.
Event of Sayyidpur (Eminabad)
During the fourth travel (Udasi) in 1520 A.D. when Guru Nanak Dev Ji was at Sayyidpur (Emnabad), Babur invaded it. Mughal soldiers committed a lot of atrocities on the people of Sayyidpur and looted them. They imprisoned numerous people. In his bani, Guru Nanak Dev Ji mentioned about the atrocities committed by Babur on the people of Punjab.
(a) What was the earlier name of Sayyidpur? When did Guru Ji reached here during his fourth Udasi?
Answer:
The earlier name of Sayyidpur was Emnabad. During his fourth Udasi, Guru Ji reached here in 1520 A.D.

(b) Explain Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur. From which Guru’s Bani do we get its information?
Answer:
We get information about Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur from Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Bani. When Guru Ji reached here, Babur had already attacked Sayyidpur. His soldiers mercilessly killed many females, males and children and looted everything. The people of Sayyidpur were also subject to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad. Babur, who had conquered Central Asia, was the first Mughal Emperor in India. He was the descendant of Taimur on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He wrote his autobiography, Tuzk-i-Baburi in his mother tongue, Turkey.
(a) Give a brief description of Babur. When did he first attack on India?
Answer:
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur. He lived in Central Asia. He was the descendent of Taimur from his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He was the first Mughal Emperor whose first attack on India was in 1519 A.D.

(b) What is the name of autobiography of Babur? In which language it is written?
Answer:
The name of autobiography of Babur is Tuzk-i-Baburi and it is written in Turkish language. It is also known as Babur-Nama.

Question 10.
True Service yields Fruit in the End
At Khadoor Sahib Sri Guru Amardas ji led a life of service and devotion. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji. Sri Guru Angad Dev ji was impressed by the devotion of Sri Guru Amardas ji and made him his successor. On the other hand, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Sri Guru Angad Dev ji, considered themselves as suitable for Guruship and were jealous of Sri Guru Amar Das ji. Baba Buddha ji told the two that Guruship is not an ancestral property, only true service yields fruit in the end. Due to intense and selfless devotion of Sri Guru Amar Das ji, Sri Guru Angad Dev ji appointed him the successor of Gurudom.
(a) When did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi? What was his age at that time?
Answer:
Guru Amardas Ji became third Guru in 1552 A.D. and he was of 73 years of age at that time.

(b) How did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi?
Answer:
Guru Amardas Ji was a disciple Sikh of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Even in’his old age, he was always busy in serving Guru Angad Dev Ji. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Guru Angad Dev Ji. At this time, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Guru Angad Dev Ji considered themselves as suitable for Guruship. They were jealous of Guru Amardas ji. On the instane of Baba Buddha Ji true service yielded fruit and Guru Angad Dev ji appointed Guru Amardas Ji as the successor of Gurudom.

Question 11.
Guru Ji established manji system to spread and promulgate Sikhism. He established 22 Manjis. The head of the Manji was called a Manjidar. These Manjidars used to act as a bridge between Guru ji and Sikh Sangat. The Sangat used to send their offerings to Guru Ji through these Manjidars. Thus, the Sangat of distant areas was connected with the Guru Ji. This system contributed a lot in the systematic development of Sikhism.
(a) Which Guru Ji started Manji System? Briefly explain.
Answer:
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji . The number of his Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees.

(b) Which two Manjis were kept under women devotees? Name them.
Answer:
The Manjis of Kabul and Kashmir were kept under women devotees. They were Mai Seva and Mai Bhagbari respectively.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 12.
Having failed in his various attempts to attain Guruship Prithia (Prithi Chand) started a new sect known as ‘Meena Sect’. Prithia’s son Mehrbaan, was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father. He composed the ‘Janam Sakhi’ of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which is considered an important work.
Questions :
(а) Who was Prithia (Prithi Chand)? Why did he not get Gurugaddi?
Answer:
Prithia was the eldest son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He considered his right over Gurudom but he was selfish, dihonest and deceiver. That’s why Guru Ram Das Ji refused to give him Gurudom.

(b) Briefly describe the functions of Mehrbaan, the son of Prithia.
Answer:
Mehrbaan was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father Prithia. He collected the information about the life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and composed the Janam Sakhi. His Janam Sakhi is considered as an important work.

Question 13.
There are 1430 pages (organs) of Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Guru Granth contains the Bani (hymns) of six Gurus, 15 saints, 11 Bhattas, 4 Sikhs. It includes 974 hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 63 hymns, of Guru Angad Dev Ji, 907 hymns of Guru Amardas Ji, 679 hymns of Guru Ram Das Ji, 2218 hymns and 116 Shabads of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, 116 Shabads and 2 Shalokas of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The Bani of Kabir (weaver), Farid (Sufi Saint), Ravidas (Cobbler), Surdas (Brahmin), Namdev (Dyer), Jaidev (Brahmin), Trilochan (Vaish), Dhanna (Peasant), Pipa (Masons), Sain (Barber), Sadna (Bucther), Parmanand, Ramanand etc. also included in the Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They all belonged to different castes and religion. It includes hymns of Bal, Dal, Nal, Sal, Ganga Das, Mathura, Bheekha, Kirt, Harbans (Bhatts) and compositions of Guru Sikhs Mardana, Satta, Balwand and Sundar.
(а) How many pages are there in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji? What name is given to them?
Answer:
There are 1430 pages in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They are known as organs.

(b) Write a note on the compilation of Shri Adi Granth Sahib Ji?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji bestowed upon the Sikhs a sacred and religious book by compiling the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled Adi Granth Sahib at Ramsar. Bhai Gurdas Ji assisted Guru Sahib in its compilation. The work of compilation was completed in 1604. Guru Sahib included the hymns of the first four Gurus followed by the hymns of Bhakti Saints and finally the sayings of Bhatt Bahiyah. Guru Arjan Dev Ji included his own Bani in the holy book.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 14.
Ancient Regime (French ‘Old Order’)
Before the French Revolution, the Bourbon family of kings ruled France. Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution under the regime, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate and province. French society was divided into three orders : clergy, nobility and others (the third estate).
(a) When did the French Revolution take place? Which dynasty ruled over France before the revolution?
Answer:
The French Revolution took place in 1780 A. D. and the Bourbon family ruled over France before its revolution.

(b) What type of social condition of France was there at that time?
Answer:
Before the French Revolution, French Society was divided into three classes First Estate i.e. the Clergy, Second Estate i.e. Nobility and Third Estate i.e. the General Public :

  • The First Estate included the Clergy. They did not pay any taxes. They were on the higher posts even without having the ability.
  • The Second Estate included major Nobles who had large pieces of land.
  • The Third Estate included lawyers, doctors, teachers etc. They did not get any of the higher posts even if they had the ability to do so. The common public was also included in this. They had to pay taxes to the state as well as to the Church. They had to do begar and were exploited for many years.

Question 15.
Enlightenment: Age of Reason
The 18th century has been called the “Age of Reason”. The French philosophers asserted that man was not born to suffer as Christianity preached, but he was born
to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored Him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’ and understood its laws and faith in ‘Reason’.
(а) Why is the 18th century known as the Age of Reason. Name three French philosophers attached with this age.
Answer:
18th century is known as the age of reason because nothing in this age was accepted with reason or challenge. Everything was checked on the basis of reason.

(b) Which views were given by the French philosophers of this age?
Answer:
The French philosophers believed that man was not born to suffer but he was born to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’.

Question 16.
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. It was a symbol of old regime.
(a) What was Bastille? Which day is known as Bastille day and why?
Answer:
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. 14th July is celebrated as the Bastille day because on this day people attacked Bastille and it fell down.

(b) Discuss the fall of Rastille in the French Revolution and its importance.
Answer:
On 14th July 1789, angry mob attacked the Bastille-prison at Paris. This prison was the symbol of the autocratic powers of monarchy. On the same day, the king ordered the army to enter the city. A rumour spread that the king was about to order the army to fire the poeple. So, around 7000 men and women assembled in front of the town hall. They organised a public army. In search of arms, they forcibly entered the public buildings. So, hundreds of people stormed into the prison of Bastille where they expected lot of arms and ammunition. In this conflict, the commander of Bastille died. Political prisoners were released although they were only seven in number. Fortress of Bastille was destroyed.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 17.
Olympe de Gouges
She was one of the most important among the politically active women in revolutionary France. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitled to. She criticized the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. She was tried by the National Convention, which charged her with treason. Soon after this she was executed.
(a) Who was Olympe de Gouges? How did she die?
Answer:
Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important politically active women in revolutionary France. She was tried by the National convention which charged her with treason. Soon after this, she was executed.

(b) Write briefly about her political activities.
Answer:
Olympe de Gouges opposed the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens. It was so because, it excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitiled to. She also criticised the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. That’s why she was tried by the National Convention finally executed.

Question 18.
Liberalism-These responses are basically the responses of thise people who accepted and wanted radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.
Conservatism-These people were in the favour of change but they wanted that it should be introduced gradually without altering the basic structure of the society.
Socialism-It gives stress on the welfare of whole society. Instead of individual profit, it stresses on social welfare.
(a) Define Conservatism.
Answer:
Conservatism:Conservatism never likes changes but if change is necessary then it should be introduced gradually and due respect should be given to the old regime or it should come without changing the basic structure of society.

(b) Define Liberalism.
Answer:
Liberalism:Liberalism believes in bringing change in society and its radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.

Question 19.
Industrialization in Russia
In order to make Russia a great power the Tsar began a policy of rapid industrialisation in late 19th century. A number of steel, iron and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. Mostly foreign owned these industries emoployed a number of workers. Men, women and children started going to factories due to industrialization. Poor working conditions, low wages etc., combined with a new sense of common identity fostered by Socialism led most of these workers to form unions of their own.
(a) What is meant by the word Tsar? When did the system of Tsar start in Russia?
Answer:
The word ‘Tsar’ literally meant ‘Supreme ruler’. Tsardom in Russia began in 1547 A.D.

(b) With what objective, the Tsar started the industrialisation in Russia? What was its impact on the labour class?
Answer:
At the time of Russian Revolution, Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II. To make Russia a great power, he began a policy of rapid industrialisation in the late 19th century. Many iron, steel and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. But most of these industries were owned by foreign industrialists. They employed many Russian workers who were greatly exploited. Poor working conditions and low wages combined these labourers. Under the influence of Socialism, they formed their unions and a sense of common identity.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 20.
Duma: derived from the Russian word meaning ‘to think’, the Russian parliament. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar so much that he agreed to the formation of a Duma in 1906 to advise him and to create legislation. The present day, Russian Parliament is also known as Duma.
(a) What is meant by the word ‘Duma’? Why did the Tsar of Russia establish Duma?
Answer:
Duma is a Russian word which means ‘to think’. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar and he was forced to form the Duma.

(b) What was Duma? What were its functions?
Answer:
Its function was to advice the Tsar and to make laws for the Russian people. Duma was an elected Parliament which advised the Tsar to perform his functions. But Tsar only let conservatives to enter Duma. He kept liberals and revolutionaries away from Duma.

Question 21.
Bolsheviks Party Leader Lenin
The Bolsheviks, another group, were convinced that in a country like Russia where there were no democratic rights, no parliament, such a party organized on Parliamentary lines could not work and could not be effective. The leader was Lenin who devoted himself to the task of organizing the Bolshevik Party. He was influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx and Engels, and was regarded as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement after Marx.
(a) Who was Lenin?
Answer:
Lenin was the leader of Bolshevik party in Russia. He is considered as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement, after Karl Marx.

(b) Explain briefly the work done by Lenin. What was his April thesis?
Answer:
After the fall of Czar, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and organized the revolution against the Provisional Government. He described the Russian empire as a prison of nation.

Under the leadership of Lenin, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies

  • to end the war,
  • to transfer land to the tillers, besides
  • giving all powers to the Soviets and equal status to all. This was April’s Thesis.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 22.
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution refers to rapid technical changes in the process of production of a number of goods, during 1750-1850 (First in England and later in other countries of Europe and U.S.A.). With the invention of new sources of power and machines, the production got replaced by machines instead of doing it by hand or tools. Industrial Revolution increased the need of raw material and food, this led to substantial deforestation in most of the regions of the world. The tremendous deforestation has deeply affected the life of forest dwellers and the Environment.
(а) What is meant by the Industrial Revolution?
Answer:
Industrial revolution was a technological revolution that took place during 1750’s to 1850’s. Many changes came in the production system during this period in England and other European countries.

(b) What was the impact of the industrial revolution on forests, forest society and atmosphere?
Answer:
Due to the industrial revolution, handmade tools were replaced by machines which increased the production of goods to a great extent. The demand of raw materials was greatly increased in the industrial nations of Europe. The demand of food items also increased with increase in population. Finally, for the development of agriculture, there started cutting down of forests. Deforestation started everywhere which had a really bad effect on the atmosphere.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Social History of Clothing Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The Cotton cloth is made up of
(a) Cotton
(6) Animal Skin
(c) SilkWorms
(d) Wool.
Answer:
(a) Cotton.

Question 2.
Who thought of the artificial fibre first?
(a) Marie Curie
(b) Robert Hook
(c) Loius Subab
(d) Lord Curzon.
Answer:
(b) Robert Hook.

Question 3.
In which century did the people of Europe wear clothes according to their social status, class and gender?
(a) 15th Century
(b) 16th Century
(c) 17th Century
(d) 18th Century.
Answer:
(d) 18th Century.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 4.
The traders of which country began to import the Indian ‘Chintz’ (Chheent) cloth?
(a) China
(b) England
(c) Italy
(d) France.
Answer:
(b) England.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Archaeologists found the needles of ivory near ___________
Answer:
kostyonki

Question 2.
Silkworms are nurtured on ___________ trees.
Answer:
mulberry

Question 3.
The remains of ___________ clothes have been found in Egyptian, Babylonian and Indus Valley Civilizations.
Answer:
woollen

Question 4.
Industrial Revolution began in ___________ continent.
Answer:
Europe

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 5.
Swadeshi Movement began in ___________ A. D.
Answer:
1905.

III. Match the Columns:

Question 1.

A

B

1. Partition of Bengal (i) Rabindranath Tagore
2. Silk Clothes (ii) China
3. National Anthem (iii) 1789
4. French Revolution (iv) Mahatma Gandhi
5. Swadeshi Movement (v) Lord Curzon.

Answer:

A B
1. Partition of Bengal (v) Lord Curzon.
2. Silk Clothes (ii) China
3. National Anthem (i) Rabindranath Tagore
4. French Revolution (iii) 1789
5. Swadeshi Movement (iv) Mahatma Gandhi

IV. Difference between:

Question 1.
Woollen Cloth and Silk Cloth.
Answer:
Woollen Cloth and Silk Cloth.

  • Woollen Cloth: Wool is made of fibre which is made up of particular cells of the skin. Wool is taken from sheep, yaks, goats, rabbits, etc. Meriho wool is considered the best wool. The remains of woollen clothes were found from the Egyption, Babylonian and Indus Valley Civilizations. It refers that people also wore woollen Clothes.
  • Silk Cloth: Silk Cloth is made from the fibres prepared by silkworms. Actually, a silkworm prepares a cocoon for its security which is made of its Saliva, Silkthread is prepared from this cocoon. Mostly silkworms are nurtured on mulberry trees. China was the first country to develop the technique of making Silk Cloth.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 2.
Cotton Cloth and Artificial Fibre.
Answer:
Cotton Cloth and Artificial Fibre.

  • Cotton Cloth. Cotton cloth is made up of Cotton. Indians are wearing cotton clothes since ages. There are some historical evidences that reveal us that people in olden times were cotton clothes. Many cotton clothes have been found while excavating the sites of Individually civilisation. Rigvedic Hymns also refer to cotton.
  • Artificial Fibre. An Englishman, Robert Hook, thought of making artificial fibre. Later on, a french scientist also wrote about it, but did not give it a material shape. In 1842, another Englishman Louis Subab invented a machine to make cloth from artificial fibre. Artificial fibre, mulberry, rubber, alcohol, fat, raisins and some other vegetations are used to prepare artificial fibre. Cotton is widely used in India and Terrycot is made from polyster.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was used by human beings to cover their bodies in the primitive age?
Answer:
Early humans used leaves, bark of trees and animal skin to cover their bodies.

Question 2.
How many types of fibres are used to make the clothes?
Answer:
Four types of fibres are used to make the clothes-Cotton, Woollen, silky and artificial.

Question 3.
Which type of sheep is to be the wool considered to be the best for woo!?
Answer:
Merino Sheep.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 4.
In which country did women first raise their voice to wear clothes of their choice?
Answer:
France.

Question 5.
From which country England used to import cotton before industrial Revolution?
Answer:
India.

Question 6.
Name the Indian leader who initiated the Khadi movement.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 7.
The people of Namdhari Sect wear clothes of which colour.
Answer:
White colour.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did human beings feel the need of clothing?
Answer:
Clothing of a person shows his mental, intellectual and economic state. Clothing is not only used to cover the body but it also indicates about one’s cultural and social status in society. That’s why humans felt the need of clothing.

Question 2.
How is silk cloth prepared?
Answer:
Silk cloth is made from the fibres prepared by Silkworms. Actually, a silkworm prepares a cocoon for its security which is made of its Saliva. Silk thread is prepared from this cocoon. Mostly silkworms are nurtured on Mulberry trees. China was the first country to develop the technique of making ‘Silk Cloth.’

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 3.
What was the impact of Industrial Revolution on Clothing?
Answer:
During eighteenth-nineteenth centuries, Industrial Revolution exerted a great impact on the social, political and economic structure of the whole world. It led to the change in ideas and life style of the people and consequently change came in the clothing of the people.

Due to the cloth production on machines, cloth became cheap and much more cloth came in the market. As a results plenty of cloth with various designs was available at affordable price. That’s why people started wearing more clothes. Before this, cloth was expensive and people wore less number of clothes.

Question 4.
How did world wars influence the clothing of women?
Answer:
In twentieth century, many European women stopped wearing luxurious clothes because upper-class women mixed with other classes. Consequently, social barriers were eroded and women began to look similar. Clothes got shorter during the First World War (1914-1918) our of practical necessity. By 1917, lots of women in Britain were employed in ammunition factories. They wore a working uniform of blouse and trousers. Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn as the war dragged on.

Therefore, clothes became plainer and simpler. Skirts became shorter. Gradually, trousers became a vital part of Western women’s clothing, giving them greater freedom of movement. By the twentieth century, new schools for children emphasised the importance of plain dressing and discouraged ornamentation. Gymnastics and games entered the school curriculum for women. As women took to sports, they had to wear clothes that did not hamper movement. Whey they went out to work they needed clothes that were comfortable and convenient.

Question 5.
What do you know about Swadeshi Movement?
Answer:
The core philosophy was to use indigenous coarse cloth, shoes and other articles as part of self-respect and also to hit British economic interests. This gave a fillip to the indigenous industries and there was a significant revival in handlooms, silk-weaving and other traditional artisan crafts.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 6.
Write a note on the efforts made for the preparation of the national dress.
Answer:
By the end of 19th century, national consciousness started spreading among Indians. The Indians started thinking about those cultural symbols which could express national unity. Artists started finding the national art style. Poets wrote national songs. For the symbolic identity of the Nation, many scholars emphasized on developing the national dress. During the decade of 1870, Tagore family of Bengal started preparing the designs of national dress for males and females. Rabindranath Tagore suggested that instead of mixing the Indian and European dresses, the designs of Hindu and Muslim clothes should be mixed. In this way, Achkan (a long buttoned coat) was considered the most suitable dress for the Indian men.

Efforts were made to prepare a design while keeping in mind the traditions of different regions. At the end of the decade of 1870, Jnanadanandini Devi, wife of Satyendranath Tagore, the first Indian ICS officer, returned from Bombay to Calcutta. She adopted the Parsi style of wearing the Sari pinned to the left shoulder with a brooch and worn with a blouse and shoes. This was very quickly adopted by Brahmo. Samaji women. It was given the name of Brahmika Sari. This style gained acceptance before long among Marathis and Uttar Pradesh Brahmas, as well as non-Brahmas.

But these efforts were not completely successful. Even today, the females of Gujarat, Kerala and Assam wear different types of sarees.

Question 7.
Write a note on the clothing of Punjabi women.
Answer:
In Punjab, men wore Kurta-Pyjama and women wore suit i.e. Salwar Kameez. Most of the males wore turbans on their heads. There was a time when they wore Turre Wali Pagri and even starched Pagris. Earlier they wore single layered Pagris but now it has changed into double on centre stiched Pagri.

People wear red, pink and orange turbans at the time of marriage. White or light coloured turbans are used at the time of mourning. ‘Chadras’ and ‘Kurtas’ have been replaced wih Pant-Shirt with different types of shoes.

Earlier Punjabi women wore long Kurtas which is now changed to Salwar Kameez. They cover their head with dupatta. They also use dupatta for ‘Ghunghat’. To beautify the dupatta, embroidery, mirror work, gotta and Mukaish are also used. Even suits are embroided and painted in different beautiful designs. Urban women wear suits and sarees with blouse. They also wear ornaments such as Mohran, Tikka, Jhunks, Nose Pin, Rings, Earrings, Bangles, Hair clips etc. Now, under the influence of western cutlure, they have started wearing jeans and tops.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the fibres used for making clothes.
Answer:
With the invention of new fibres, people started different types of clothes. Due to change in weather and under the influence of cultural, social, political, economic and religious trends, there came continuous changes in the clothing of people which is continued even till today.

To know about the history of clothing, it is necessary to know abo different fibres whose description is given below :

  1. Woollen Cloth: Wool is made of fibre which is made up of particular cells of the skin. Wool is taken from sheep, yaks, goats, rabbits, etc. Merino wool is considered the best wool. The remains of woollen clothes, were found from the Egyption, Babylonian and Indus Valley civilizations. It refers that people also wore woollen clothes.
  2. Silk Cloth: Silk cloth is made from the fibres prepared by silkworms. Actually, a silkworm prepares a cocoon for its security which is made of its saliva, silkthread is prepared from this cocoon. Mostly silkworms are nurtured on mulberry trees. China was the first country to develop the technique of’making silk cloth.
  3. Cotton Cloth: Cotton cloth is made up of cotton. India are wearing cotton clothes since ages. There are some historical evidences which reveal us that people in olden times were cotton clothes. Many cotton clothes have been found while excavating the sites of Indus. Valley civilisation. Rigvedic Hymns also refer to cotton.
  4. Artificial Fibre: An Englishman, Robert Hook, thought making artificial fibre. Later on, a French scientist also wrote about it, but did not give it a material shape. In 1842, another Englishman Louis Subab invented a machine to make cloth from artificial fibre. Artificial fibre, mulberry, rubber, alcohol, fat, raisins and some other vegetations are used to prepare artificial fibre. Cotton is widely used in India and Terrycot is made from polyster.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 2.
What were the impacts of Industrial Revolution on the clothing of common people? Discuss in detail.
Answer:
Dining eighteenth-nineteenth centuries, industrial revolution exerted a great impact on the social political and economic structure of the whole world. It led to the change in ideas and life style of the people and consequently change came in the clothing of people.

Due to the cloth production on machines, cloth became cheap and much more cloth came in the market. As a result, plenty of cloth with various designs was available at affordable price. That’s why people started wearing more clothes.

Industrial Revolution had following impacts on the clothing of common people.
1. Impact on the Clothing of Common People. In the 18th century, people wore clothes according to their social status, class or gender. There was a great difference between the wearing style of males and females. Women wore skirts with high heel sandals. Men wore nakties. The clothing pattern of upper classes was different from that of the common people. But the French Revolution of 1789 A.D. ended all the priviledges of the Nobles or aristocrats. Consequently, every one started wearing colourful clothes. French people began to wear red cap as a symbol of liberty. Thus colourful clothes became fashionable everywhere in the world.

2. Impact on the Clothing of Women. In the European countries, from childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them with small moulds. Tightly laced, small-waisted women were admired as attractive, elegant and graceful.
(а) Clothing thus played a part in creating the image of frail, submissive Victorian women.
(b) But the changes related to clothing of women were not accepted.
(c) Around 1830, many women organizations, started demanding democratic rights for women. With the spread of the suffrage movement, clothing reforms started in the 13 British colonial of America.
(d) Press and literature highlighted the wrong effects of tight clothing and diseases caused by them.
(e) Many women organisations in America criticised the traditional
clothing because they believed that if clothes were comfortable and convenient, then women could work, earn their living and become independent.
(f) In the 1870s, the National Woman Suffrage Association headed by Mrs. Stanton, and the American woman suffrage association dominated by Lucy Stone both campaigned for dress reform.

Question 3.
Write down the impacts of the Swadeshi Movement on the clothing of Indian People.
Answer:
The Swadeshi movement had its genesis in the anti-partition movement which was started to oppose the British decision to partition Bengal. The government’s decision to partition. Bengal had been made public in December 1903. An immediate and spontaneous protest followed. During the first two months following the announcement, 500 protest meetings were held in East Bengal alone. This was the phase, 1903 to mid 1905, when moderate techniques of petitions, memoranda, speeches, public meetings and press campaigns held full away. The government remained unmoved and the decision to partition Bengal was announced on 19 July, 1905. The Swadeshi movement now galvanized into a powerful national movement under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai (Punjab), Bipin Chandra Pal (Bengal) and B. G. Tilak (Maharashtra). On 7th August meeting, the famous boycott resolution was passed. Boycott of Manchester cloth and Liverpool salt was urged. Among the chants of Bande Mataram, huge bonfires of foreign cloth was lit; people voluntarily gave away foreign clothes, shoes, liquor etc. to Congress workers. The Calcutta’s Collector of Customs in September 1906 noted a 22% fall in the quantity of imported cotton piece goods, 44% in cotton twists and yarns.

When Mahatma Gandhi gave stress on using Khadi, many Indians started boycotting the British cloth and it lead to the popularisation of Khadi. Khadi became the symbol of national unity.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 4.
Write a detailed note on the clothing of the Punjabi people.
Answer:
In Punjab, men wore Kurta-Pyjama and women wore suit i.e. Salwar Kameez. Most of the males wore turbans on their heads. There was a time when they wore Turre Wali Pagri and even starched Pagris. Earlier they wore single layered Pagris but now it has changed into double on centre stiched Pagri.

People wear red, pink and orange turbans at the time of marriage. White or light coloured turbans are used at the time of mourning. ‘Chadras’ and ‘Kurtas’ have been replaced wih Pant-Shirt with different types of shoes.
Earlier Punjabi women wore long Kurtas which is now changed to Salwar Kameez. They cover their head with dupatta. They also use dupatta for ‘Ghunghat’. To beautify the dupatta, embroidery, mirror work, gotta and Mukaish are also used. Even suits are embroided and painted in different beautiful designs. Urban women wear suits and sarees with blouse. They also wear ornaments such as Mohran, Tikka, Jhunks, Nose Pin, Rings, Earrings, Bangles, Hair clips etc. Now, under the influence of western cutlure, they have started wearing jeans and tops.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Social History of Clothing Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Those laws are known as ___________ which tried to control the behaviour of those considered socially inferior, preventing them from wearing certain clothes.
(a) Sumptuary laws
(b) Corn laws
(c) Cloth laws
(d) Red Cap laws.
Answer:
(a) Sumptuary laws.

Question 2.
___________ was a type of fur which was wore by Royal people.
(a) Sumptuary
(b) Ermine
(c) Corn
(d) Corset.
Answer:
(b) Ermine.

Question 3.
___________ was the political symbol of Red Cap in France.
(a) Symbol of brotherhood
(b) Symbol of Equality
(c) Symbol of liberty
(d) Symbol of economic equality.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 4.
___________ was a lady wear, meant to confine and shap her waist.
(a) Sumptuary
(b) Ermine
(c) Corn
(d) Corset.
Answer:
(d) Corset.

Question 5.
Suffrage movement was launched in ___________
(a) England
(b) Germany
(c) France
(d) U.S.A.
Answer:
(a) England.

Question 6.
Anything essential to maintain life and growth is called
(a) Pableum
(b) Corset
(c) Necessity
(d) Chapkan.
Answer:
(a) Pableum.

Question 7.
___________ was the leader of National Woman Suffrage Association in 1870.
(a) Mrs. Cripps
(b) Mrs. Stanton
(c) Mrs. Stanford
(d) Mrs. Henry.
Answer:
(b) Mrs. Stanton.

Question 8.
___________ was the leader of American woman Suffrage Association during 1860’s.
(a) Mrs. Stanton
(d) Amelia Bloomer
(c) Lucy Stone
(d) Mrs. Stanford.
Answer:
(c) Lucy Stone.

Question 9.
Rational Dress Society started in England in
(a) 1870
(b) 1881
(c) 1876
(d) 1879
Answer:
(b) 1881.

Question 10.
___________ was an Indian cotton cloth printed with design and flowers.
(a) Chintz
(b) Floral
(c) Phenta
(d) Chapkan.
Answer:
(a) Chintz.

Question 11.
___________ was a type of hat.
(a) Chintz
(b) Phenta
(c) Floral
(d) Chapkan.
Answer:
(b) Phenta.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 12.
In the year ___________ Europeans were forbidden from wearing Indian clothes at official functions.
(a) 1830
(b) 1834
(c) 1832
(d) 1836.
Answer:
(a) 1830.

Question 13.
___________ was a long button cout considered the most suitable dress for men during the colonial period.
(a) Chintz
(b) Phenta
(c) Chapkan
(d) Corset.
Answer:
(c) Chapkan.

Question 14.
___________ divided Bengal in 1905.
(a) Lord Earnest
(b) Lord Irwin
(c) Lord Curzon
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Lord Curzon.

Question 15.
Gandhiji adopted loins cloth in
(a) Oct. 1920
(6) Sept. 1919
(c) Oct. 1918
(d) Oct. 1921.
Answer:
(d) Oct. 1921.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 16.
Who said these words, “the King had enough on for both of us”?
(a) Jawahar Lai Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(6) Mahatma Gandhi.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
___________ movement is the movement for the rights to vote for women.
Answer:
Suffrage

Question 2.
Chintz was a type of ___________
Answer:
cloth

Question 3.
Lord ___________ partitioned Bengal in 1905.
Answer:
Curzon

Question 4.
___________ was a great supporter of Swadeshi Movement.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 5.
___________ propagated the principles of the Swadeshi Movement through his speeches and newspapers.
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

True/False:

Question 1.
Some men wear Fifty under the Pagri.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
In the rural areas, men used to wear a Parna.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Achkan is a long buttoned skirt.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 4.
Sumptuary laws were passed in France.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Industrial revolution first started in England.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were known as sumptuary laws?
Answer:
The laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered socially inferior, preventing them from wearing certain clothes.

Question 2.
What was ermine?
Answer:
A type of fur which was wore by Royal people.

Question 3.
What was the political symbol of Red Cap in France?
Answer:
It was a symbol of liberty.

Question 4.
What was Corset?
Answer:
It was a lady wear, meant to confine and shape her waist.

Question 5.
What were stays?
Answer:
In England, from childhood girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The purpose was to restrict the growth of their bodies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 6.
Where was the Suffrage movement launched?
Answer:
In England.

Question 7.
Who was the leader of National Woman Suffrage Association in 1870?
Answer:
Mrs Stanton.

Question 8.
Who was the leader of American Woman Suffrage Association during 1860?
Answer:
Lucy Stone.

Question 9.
Who was Ameila Bloomer?
Answer:
She was a dress reformer.

Question 10.
When was Rational Dress society started in England?
Answer:
In 1881.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 11.
In which country traditional feminine clothing were criticised on a variety of grounds?
Answer:
In America.

Question 12.
What was Chintz?
Answer:
This was Indian Cotton Cloth printed with design and flowers.

Question 13.
Who were first Indians to adopt western-style clothing?
Answer:
Parsis.

Question 14.
What stands for phenta?
Answer:
It was a hat.

Question 15.
When were Europeans forbidden from wearing Indian clothes at official functions?
Answer:
In the year 1830.

Question 16.
Which Governor-General insisted that Indians take their shoes off when they appear before him?
Answer:
Lord Amherst.

Question 17.
What was Chapkan?
Answer:
It was a long button coat considered the most suitable dress for men during the colonial period.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 18.
When did Curzon proclaim partition of Bengal?
Answer:
In the year 1905.

Question 19.
How did Gandhi changes his dress in London?
Answer:
He cut of the tuft on his head and dressed in a western suit.

Question 20.
Which type of dress Gandhi followed as a lawyer in South Africa?
Answer:
He wore Western style clothes.

Question 21.
When did Gandhi adopt loins cloth?
Answer:
In October 1921.

Question 22.
Who said “the king had enough on for both of us”?
Answer:
Gandhiji said while entering in Birmingham palace.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the Sumptuary laws in France?
Answer:
There were different dresses for different sections of society. From 1294 to the time of the French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow what were known as ‘sumptuary laws’. The laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and beverages and hunting in certain areas. In medieval France, the items of clothing a person could purchase per year was regulated, on the basis of income and social rank. The material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed. Only royalty could wear expensive materials like ermine and fur or silk, velvet and brocade. Other classes were prevented from clothing themselves with materials that were associated with the aristocracy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 2.
Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes.
Answer:
As we know that dress is the part of a culture. For this reason clothings convey certain meaning through its style and wearing. When European traders first began visiting India, they were distinguished from the Indian ‘turban wearers’ as the ‘hat wearers’. These two headgears not only looked different, they also signified different things. The* turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of respectability, and could not be removed at will. In the Western tradition, the hat had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect. This cultural difference created misunderstanding. The British were often offended if Indians did not take off their turban as a mark of respect when they met colonial officials. Many Indians wore the turban to assert their regional or national identity.

Another paradox related to the wearing of shoes. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, it was customary for British officials to follow Indian etiquette and-remove their footwear in the courts of ruling kings or chiefs. Some British officials also wore Indian clothes. But in 1830, Europeans were forbidden from wearing Indian clothes at official functions, so that their cultural identity was not undermined.

Question 3.
Suggest reasons why women in nineteenth century India were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress even when men switched over to the more convenient Western clothing. What does this show about the position of women in society?
Answer:
It was the fact that women in the 19th century continued wearing Indian dress whereas man switched over to convenient western clothing. This happened only in the upper echelons of society.

Some of the reasons for this are the following :

  • In the 19th century, Indian women were confined to the four walls as the purdah system was prevalent. They were required to put on traditional dresses.
  • The position of women in the society was very low. Most of them were uneducated and did not attend schools or colleges. Therefore, no need was felt to change their style of clothing.
  • On the other hand upper class Indians were western educated and picked up western habits like western style of clothing. Those who were businessmen or officials imitated the British style of clothing for the sake of comfort, modernity and progress.
  • The Parsis were the first Indian to adopt western style of clothing as it was a mark of modernity, liberalism and progress. Some people had two sets of cloths. They put on western clothes for offices and business work and Indian clothes for social functions.

Question 4.
Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a ‘Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer now posing as a half naked fakir’. What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhi’s dress?
Answer:
Winston Churchill was an imperialist by nature and believed in the superiority of whitemen. He called Mahatma Gandhi because under Gandhi’s leadership the Congress launched Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience movement which were aimed at the’British rule. Gandhiji put on western clothes by practising as a lawyer in India and South Africa. Later on, he changed to loin clothes. He did so to identify himself with the peasants of India who were scantily dressed. But Mr Churchill saw it as a sign of inferiority and in order to denegrade called him a half- naked fakir. Churchill could not understand Gandhiji’s depth of love for his countrymen who could not afford full clothes. Gandhiji dress was a sign of simplicity, purity and of poverty of millions of Indian. Even whgn Gandhiji went to England for the Second Round Table Conference in 1931, he refused, to compromise and wore it even before King George V at the Buckingham palace.

Question 5.
What was the impact of the French Revolution on the distinctions created by Sumptuary laws?
Answer:
The French Revolution ended the distinctions created by Sumptuary laws. Both men and women began wearing clothing that was loose and comfortable. The colour of France-blue, white and red-became popular as they were a sign of the patriotic citizen. Other political symbols also became a part of dress. These included red cap of liberty, long trousers and revolutionary cockade pinned on a hat. The simplicity of clothing was meant to express the idea of equality.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 6.
Styles of clothing emphasised differences between men and women. Clarify the statement.
Answer:
Its true that the styles of clothing emphasised differences between men and women. Right from the childhood, women in Victorian England were groomed to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman was one who could bear pain and suffering. While men were expected to be serious, independent, strong and aggressive, women were seen as delicate, frivolous, passive and decile.

Norms of clothing reflected these ideals. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them within small moulds. When slightly older, girls had to wear tight fitting corsets. Tightly laced, small-waisted women were admired as elegant, attractive and graceful. Clothing thus played a part in creating the image of frail, submissive Victorian women.

Question 7.
Many women of Europe believed in the ideals of womanhood. Explain it with the help of an example.
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that many of the European women believed in the ideas of womanhood. The ideals were in the air they breathed, the education they received at school or at home and the literature they read. Right from childhood, they grew up to believe that having a small waist was a duty of woman. For a woman, suffering pain was essential. To be seen as attractive, they had to wear the corset. The torture and pain this inflicted on the body was to be accepted as normal.

Question 8.
According to women’s magazine, low tight dress and corsets caused deformities. What were the views of doctors regarding this?
Answer:
Many women’s magazines wrote about the deformities caused by tight dress and corsets. These deformities are given below :

  • Such tight dresses and corsets caused deformities and illness among young girls.
  • Such clothing restricted body growth and hampered blood circulation.
  • With such clothes, muscles remained under developed and the spine got bent.

Doctors reported that many women were regularly complaining of acute weakness, felt languid and fainted frequently.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 9.
The white settlers on the east coast of America, criticised the traditional dresses of women. Why?
Answer:
The white settlers on the east coast of America, criticised the traditional dresses of women on many grounds. They believed that :

  • Long skirts swept the ground and collected filth and dirt.
  • The skirts were voluminous. They were difficult to handle.
  • Skirts hampered the movement of women. They prevented women from working and earning.

They believed that the reform of dress would change the position of women. If clothes were comfortable and convenient, women could wear, earn their living and become independent.

Question 10.
How did the Industrial Revolution in Britain proved disastrous for the Indian clothing industry?
Answer:
Before the industrial revolution in England, India had made cotton cloth was in great demand everywhere. During the seventeenth century, one fourth of the world’s cotton cloth was made in India. In 18th century, only Bengal had 10 lakh weavers. But industrial revolution mechanised the weaving process. Consequently Indian cotton started exporting to England and the products made there started coming to India. Indian cloth was unable to compete the mechanised product and its demand reduced to a great deal. As a result, large number of weavers become unemployed and the cotton textile centres such as Murshidabad, Surat etc. declined.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of clothing the nation in Khadi appeal only to some sections of Indians?
Answer:
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing 1
It was Gandhiji’s dream to cloth the whole nation in Khadi but it was not possible for those following his foot steps.

Some others did find it necessary. Here are some examples:

  • Nationalists such as Motilal Nehru gave up his expensive. Western-style suits and adopted the Indian dhoti and kurta. But these were not made of coarse cloth.
  • Those who had been deprived by caste norms for centuries were attracted to Western dress styles. Therefore, unlike”, Mahatma Gandhi, other nationalists such as Babasaheb Ambedkar never gave up the Western style suit. Many Dalits began to wear three piece suits and shoes and sdcks on all public occasions, as a political statement of self-respect.
  • A woman who wrote to Mahatma Gandhi from Maharasthra in 1928 said, “My husband says khadi is costly. Belonging as I do to Maharashtra, wear a sari nine yards long (and) the elders will not hear of a reduction (to six yards.)”
  • Other women, like Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Nehru, wore coloured saris with designs, instead of coarse, white homespun.

Question 2.
There came many changes in the designing and material of clothing during the eighteenth century why?
Answer:
During the eighteenth century, there came many changes in the designing and material of clothing due to following reasons.

  • The French Revolution ended the Sumptuary Laws.
  • The priviledges of Monarchy and the ruling class also ended.
  • The colours of France-Red, Blue and white-became the symbols of patriotism and that’s why clothes made up of these colours became popular.
  • To give importance to equality, people started wearing normal clothes.
  • People had different interests for clothes.
  • The sense of beauty among women brought changes in clothing.
  • Economic condition of the people also brought changes in clothing.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 3.
Give a brief description of the movement started during 1870’s in the U.S.A. for bringing reform in the clothing of women.
Answer:
During the decade of 1870’s ‘National Women Suffrage’ Association and ‘American Suffrage Association’ started a movement for bringing reform in women’s clothing. ‘Stanton’ was the leader of the former organisation and ‘Lucy Stone’ was the leader of the later organisation. The argument was simplify dress, shorten skirts and stop using corsets. On the both sides of Atlantic, there started a movement for rational dress reform. The reformers were unable to get any quick success in changing social values. They had to face ridicule and hostility. Conservatives opposed them every where. They argued that the women who gave up traditional dressing, no longer looked beautiful. They have lost their grace and feminity. Due to the continuous attacks by the conservatives, many women reformers again adopted the traditional clothes.

However, by the end of the nineteenth century, change was clearly visible. Under a variety of pressures, ideals of beauty and styles of clothing were both transformed. People started accepting the ideas of reformers which they had earlier opposed. New values come up with the changing times.

Question 4.
Give a description of the changes came in the clothing of Britain from Seventeenth century till the early years of the 20th Century.
Answer:
Before the seventeenth century, most ordinary women in Britain possessed very few clothes made of flax, linen or wool. They were quite to clean.

Indian Chintzes. After 1600, trade with India brought beautiful, cheap and easy to maintain indian Chintzes. Many European women could buy it easily end now increase the size of their wardrobes.

Industrial Revolution and Cotton Textile. In the nineteenth century, during the industrial revolution, there began mass production of cotton textile in Britain. It was exported to different parts of the world, including India. Now cotton clothes were easily accessible to almost all the groups on Europe. In the beginning of twentieth century, artificial fibres made clothes cheaper still and easier to wash and maintain. Change in the weight and length of clothes. In the late 1870’s heavy, restrictive underclothes, were gradually discarded. Now clothes got lighter, shorter and simpler. Yet untill 1914, clothes were ankle length. By 1915, the length of the skirt was dramatically reduced to mid-calf.

Question 5.
What was the British’s reaction towards Indian turban and Indian’s reaction towards British hat and why?
Answer:
In different cultures, particular items of clothing most often convey contrary meanings. These contrary meanings often leads to misunderstanding and conflict.

Styles of clothing in British India changed through such conflicts. We can take example of the turban and the hat. When European traders starting coming to India, they were easily distinguished with their hat. On the other side Indians were known for their turban or headgear. They both were not only looked different, but they also signified different things. The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of respectability. On contrary to this, in the western, tradition, the hat had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect. Their cultural difference creating misunderstanding. The British were often offended if Indians did not take off their turban when they met colonial officials.

Question 6.
Explain the famous case of the ‘Shoe Respect’ rule in 1862 A.D
Answer:
Indians were not allowed to wear the shoes while entering the court. In 1802, a famous case of the ‘Shoe Respect’ rule came forward is Surat Courtroom. Manockjee Cowasjee Entee, an assessor in the Surat Fouzdaree Adawlut, refused to take off his shoes in the court of the sessions judge. The judge insisted that he take off his shoes as that was the Indian way of showing respect to superiors. But Manockjee remained adamant. He was barred entry into the courtroom. He, then, sent a letter of protest to the governor of Bombay.

The British insisted that Indians took off their shoes when they entered a sacred place or home. That’s why they should do so when they enter the courtroom. Then, Indians argued that taking off shoes in sacred places and at home was linked to two different questions. One there was the problem of dirt and filth. Shoes collected dirt and filth. This dirt could not be allowed into clean spaces. Secondly leather shoes and the filth that stuck under it were seen as polluting. But public buildings like the courtroom were different from home. But there was no solution to the problem. However it took many years before shoes were permitted into the courtroom.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing

Question 7.
Write a note on Swadeshi movement initiated in India.
Answer:
Swadeshi movement was initiated in opposition to the partition of Bengal. Although the sense of nationalism was working behind this but the actual reason was the politics of clothing.

Initially people were appealed that they must boycot every foreign product and the start their own industries for the manufacture of goods such as matchboxes and cigrettes. People of the movement vowed to cleanse themselves of the colonial rule. The use of Khadi was made a patriotic duty. Women were urged to throw away their silk and glass bangles and wear simple shell bangles. Rough homespun was glorified in songs and poems to popularise it. The change of dress appealed largely to the upper castes as poor people could not afford the new products. After 15 years, many among the upper classes also returned to wearing European dress. Its major reason was that it was almost impossible for the Indian goods to compete with the cheap British goods.

Despite its limitations, the experiment with Swadeshi gave Mahatma Gandhi important ideas about using cloth as a symbolic weapon against the British rule.

Question 8.
Explain Mahatma Gandhi’s experiment with clothing.
Answer:
From time to time, Mahatma Gandhi changed his clothing. He was born in a Gujarati Bania family and he usually wore a shirt with dhoti or pyjama and sometimes a coat. In London, he adopted the western suit. On his return, he continued to wear western suits, topped with a turban.

Soon he decided that dressing unsuitably was a more powerful political statement. In Durban in 1913, Gandhiji shaved his head and appeared in a lungi kurta. He stood to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners. On his return to India in 1915, he adopted a dress like a Kathiawadi peasant. In 1921, he adopted the short dhoti, the form of dress he wore until his death.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing 2
He did not want to adopt these clothings for rest of his life. He wanted to experiment with a dress for a month or two. But soon he saw this as his duty to the poor and he never wore any other dress. He rejected the well known clothes of the Indian ascetic and adopted the dress of the poorest Indian. Through this, he became a symbol of nationalism.

Social History of Clothing PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Sumptuary Laws: The Sumptuary Laws of the Medieval France controlled the behaviour of lower class. According to these Laws, they were not allowed to wear the dress like nobles wore.
  • Women’s Beauty and Clothing: In England, women’s beauty was given special emphases. They were given specific type of tight clothes to wear to show their physical beauty.
  • Women’s reaction towards Clothing: All the women did not accept the clothing pattern. Many opposed such tight dresses as they caused deformities and illness among young girls.
  • New Material: During 17th century, most of the British women were clothes made of Linen, flex or wool which were difficult to wash. Later on, they started wearing cotton clothes. They were cheap as well as easy to wash.
  • World Wars and Clothing: As a result of two World Wars, many changes came in clothing. Working women started wearing uniform of blouse and trousers with scarves. By the twentieth century, the usage of clothes increased.
  • Western Clothes in India: Parsis were the first in India to adopt western clothes. Bengalis working in offices and those who converted to Christianity also started using the western clothes.
  • Courts and Footwear: During the British rule, there was a restriction On wearing footwear in the courts. This rule become a subject of conflict.
  • Swadeshi Movement: This movement was initiated in 1905 against Lord Curzon’s decision of the partition of Bengal. It boycotted the British goods and called for adopting local made goods. It gave great encouragement to the Indian industries.
  • Khadi: Mahatma Gandhi’s dream was to cloth the whole nation in Khadi. But many groups were attracted towards the western clothes. Except this, Khadi was littlebit expensive. So, Gandhiji’s dream remained a dream.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 8 Social History of Clothing Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Forest Society and Colonialism Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
In which continent did the Industrial Revolution begin?
(a) Asia
(b) Europe
(c) Australia
(d) North America
Answer:
(b) Europe.

Question 2.
Imperial Forest Research Institute is situated in
(a) Delhi
(b) Mumbai
(c) Dehradun
(d) Abohar.
Answer:
(c) Dehradun.

Question 3.
Who is considered as the founder of modern forestry in India?
(a) Lord Dalhousie
(b) Dietrich Brandis
(c) Captain Watson
(d) Lord Hardinge.
Answer:
(b) Dietrich Brandis.

Question 4.
The wood of which tree is considered to be the best for ship building?
(a) Babul
(b) Oak
(c) Neem
(d) Teak.
Answer:
(d) Teak.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 5.
Munda Movement occured in which area?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Chota Nagpur
(c) Madras
(d) Punjab.
Answer:
(b) Chota Nagpur.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
______, ______ and ______ are very important resources for Man.
Answer:
Forest, Water, Land

Question 2.
The term ‘Colonialism’ has been derived from the Latin word ______
Answer:
Colonia

Question 3.
In Europe ______ was used for ship building.
Answer:
Oak

Question 4.
Birsa Munda was arrested from ______ on 8th August, 1895.
Answer:
Chalkat

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 5.
______ is known as traditional method of cultivation.
Answer:
Jhoom (shifting)

III. Match the Columns :

Question 1.

A B
Birsa Munda 2006
Ship Building Babul
Jand Dharti Baba
Forest Right Act Khajri
Malabar Hills Teak

Answer:

A B
Birsa Munda Dharti Baba
Ship Building Teak
Jand Khajri
Forest Right Act 2006
Malabar Hills Babul

IV. Difference between :

Question 1.
Reserved Forests and Protected Forests
Answer:
Reserved Forests and Protected Forests

  • Reserved Forest. Reserved forests were used for the commercial production of wood. Farming and animal grazing was completely banned in such forests.
  • Protected Forests. There were certain restrictions on using these forests for farming and animal grazing. People had to pay some taxes for using these forests.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 2.
Scientific Forestry and Natural Forests
Answer:

  • Scientific Forestry. Scientific forestry was a method of forest department in which old trees were cut down and new trees were planted in straight rows.
  • Natural Forest. Many trees grow automatically due to climate and the fertility of soil. They do not grow with any human interference and grow randomly.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you understand by the term Forest Society?
Answer:
Forest society is the group of people whose livelihood depends upon the forests and they live within or around forests.

Question 2.
What do you understand by the term Colonialism?
Answer:
Colonialism is a process in which any powerful country occupies the natural and human resources of the country or an area in a direct or indirect manner and uses them for its own interest.

Question 3.
Mention any two reasons Of deforestation.
Answer:

  1. Expansion of agriculture.
  2. Cultivation of commercial crops.

Question 4.
Which kind of wood was used to build Indian ships?
Answer:
Teak.

Question 5.
Name the ancient Indian emperor who prohibited the killing of animals.
Answer:
King Ashoka.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 6.
Which trees were planted on the Nilgiri hills?
Answer:
Babul.

Question 7.
Write down the name of four commercial crops.
Answer:
Cotton, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Rubber etc.

Question 8.
Which slogan was given by Birsa Munda?
Answer:
Self-rule in’ his own country (Abua Desh Mai Abua Raj).

Question 9.
Which community of the people prevented the king of Jodhpur from felling the trees by their sacrifice?
Answer:
Bishnoi Community.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by Colonialism? Give an example.
Answer:
Colonialism is a process in which any powerful country occupies the natural and human resources of the country or an area in a direct or indirect manner and uses them for its own interests. The British occupation of India is the perfect example of the colonialism.

Question 2.
What is the relationship between forest and livelihood of the people?
Answer:
Forest tribes have been dependent on the forests for their livelihood and survival for centuries. They do hunting of birds and animals, fishing in ditches, ponds, etc. in and around the forests. They do cultivation on hilly slopes and nearby plains. They work as causal labourers in the forest department and in mines available near their place of living.

They hunt deer, jackal, sambhar, fox, wild goat for the purpose of eating. They do fishing and also catch turties and crabs for eating. They also hunt various kinds of birds like titir, hater, bageri, etc.

They do the collection of edible, roots, shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits. Fruits collected are generally Jamun, Mahua, Bair, Katahal, Amla, Imli etc. The varieties of roots, shoots, flowers, etc. collected vary from region to region.
There are other minor forest products that are collected for selling in the market or for using as folk medicine. They are seeds of Imli. Babul, Jamun, Mahua, Harer, Bahera, Honey, Lac, etc.

These include rope making, mat making broom making, basket making etc. During the off season, basketry and rope making from bamboo, Khajur, tar, etc. provide gainful engagement.

They rear animals for the purpose of eating flesh and milk and performing agriculture. They also sell them in the market. They rear goats for flesh and earn money by selling them in the market. They also rear hen, cock, ducks, etc. to get their eggs and flesh. They even sell them in the market for cash. Cows and buffaloes are reared to get milk and calves. Calves were sold to get money. Calves and buffaloes are also used to till the land.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 3.
How forests were used for the expansion of railways?
Answer:
During 19thf century, India was industrially lagging behind. Therefore, in the development of transportation, wood played a vital role. The first railway track was laid in 1853 in India. Wood was used as fuel to run locomotive and sleepers were required for tracks to hold them together tightly. As per estimate around 2000 sleepers were required to lay down only a mile of railway jjrack. Thus, it can be said that, in the decline of forest resources, railway played a vital role in India.

Question 4.
Describe the different categories of forests according to the Forest Law of 1878.
Answer:

  • The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories
    (i) Reserved forests,
    (ii) Protected forests,
    (iii) Village forests.
  • The best forests were called reserved forests. Villagers could not take any thing from these forests, even for their own use.
  • For house building or fuel, they could take wood from protected or village forests.

Question 5.
What is the state of forests in Contemporary India?
Answer:
India is a land of saints. There had been a great relation between the saints and forests. That’s why there had been a tradition of protecting forests and its wildlife. King Ashoka on one of his inscription, engraved that no animal will be killed or sacrificed in his empire. Even those animals which are not consumable were protected as well such as parrot. Except this there had been a tradition of not firing the forests. Many people still worship a number of trees and forests. Many tribes consider trees as their totam, so they consider them sacred.

Question 6.
Write a note on ‘Jhoom System’.
Answer:
Before Colonialism, there had been a type of traditional agriculture called Jhoom Cultivation or Shifting Cultivation. According to this system of Cultivation, some part of forest was fired or cut down to clear the land. After Monsoon, the crop was sown which was cut down in October-November. A good crop was taken for next 2-3 years. When its productivity reduced then trees were planted again so that it can retain its fertility. Such forests were ready after few years. For agriculture, tribals moved to other places.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the causes of deforestation? Explain.
Answer:
With the advent of industrial revolution, the demand of raw material and food grains was increased. It also increased the demand of wood. Tnere was a continuous cutting of forests. That’s why the life of people living in forests was greatly affected. The European countries started looking towards those countries/ including, India, which were quite rich in natural resources. That’s why the Dutch, Portuguese, French and the British started cutting forests in their respective Colonies,

In short, the reasons of deforestation under Colonialism are given below.
1. Railways. During 19th century, India was industrially lagging behind. Therefore, in the development of communication wood played a vital role. The first railway truck was laid in 1853 in India. Wood was used as fuel to run locomotives and sleepers were required for tracks to hold them together tightly. As per estimate around 2000 sleepers were required to lay down only a mile of railway track. Thus, it can be said that, in the decline of forest resources, railway played a vital role in India.

2. Ship-building. As we know that wood is the raw material which is used in ship-building. In the 19th century, sea was the main route of trade and commerce. By 19th century, oak forests in England started disappearing. This created a severe problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy. For this reason in 1820. a timber search teaHa was sent to explore the forest resources in India. Within a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale because vast quantities of timber were exported from India to England.

3. Agricultural Expansion. After the advent of the European especially the British, the exploitation of forest area increased. In order to supplement the need of food for the increasing population led t<J the rapid expansion of agricultural land. There were numerous reasons for this. They thought the forest as useless and so encouraged agriculture for revenue as well as to increase their income. Due to the increase in the demands of commercial crops required for industries, thus, the production increased as well as the cultivation area between 1880 and 1920 rose by 6.7 million hectares indicating progress in agriculture.

4. Commercial farming. The British Government accorded the Indian forestry the status of commerce for her own interests. Earlier forest was a means for the instenance of life and entertainment. But the colonial power used it for its own interest and exploited the forest commercially. They gave encouragement to the cash crops like jute, tea, rubber, sugar, cotton etc. These crops were in great demand in Europe to feed its growing urban population as well as increase its industrial production.

5. Tea/Coffee Plantation. The land revenue was the main source of income of the colonial power. Natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down. In their place/ one type of tree was planted in straight rows. This is known as plantation. To increase the income from land, they allotted vast forest areas to European plantation owners. As a result, this led to the reduction of forest areas. Gradually, plantation became a major source of income. There were a number of workers employed in this sector. For the accommodation of these workers forests had also to be cleared.

6. Adivasis and other peasant users. The British Government imposed certain Forest laws in India but Adivasis and other peasant users were able to dodge laws by inbous means. They stole wood from the forest and grazed their cattle stealthy. If they were caught they bribed the forest guards. Even women continued to collect firewood. The police officials and forest guards demanded favours from the Adivasis and peasant users for illegal falling of trees etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 2.
What was the impact of the forest laws on the forest society during the Colonialism? Explain.
Answer:
1. Shifting cultivators. One of the major impacts of European colonialism was on the practice of shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture. This is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains and the crop is harvested by October-November.

European foresters regarded this practise as harmful for the forests. They felt that land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber. When a forest was burnt, there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber. Shifting cultivation also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. Therefore, the government decided to ban shifting cultivation. As a result, many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests. Some had to change occupations; while some resisted through large and small rebellions.

2. Nomadic and pastoralist communities. The, worst sufferers were nomadic and pastroralist communities. The British Government declared some forests as reserved, some others as protected. This limited their access to the forest. They could not graze their herds in forest and they could not collect forest produce like, fruits, roots and fuel and timber. For medicines, they could not collect the herbs. They had to give up hunting and fishing in the forest areas.

3. Effects on firms trading in timber and forest produce. The colonial , rule affected the timber trading in many ways. Firstly, the British Government enacted rules for forest reservation. Under this rule, people were not allowed to cut trees and collect timber from forest. Secondly, by the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for Royal Navy. Thirdly, now the people were not allowed to get other forest products like ivory, silk, coconuts, bamboo, spices, resins, gum etc. for trading. Fourthly, only a few European trading firms were given the right to trade in the forest products of particular areas. General firms had to suffer owing to this measure.

4. Effect on plantation owners. The concept of plantation agriculture emerged in India with the colonial rule. The owners of the plantation fields were mostly Europeans. Therefore, rules and regulations regarding the plantation were made by keeping in view the interest of the Europeans. Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The colonial government took over the forests, and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. These areas were enclosed and cleared of forests and planted with tea or coffee. The planters were given a free hand to manage and regulate the farms. The labourers were exploited to the hilt and were paid low wages.

5. Effect on Kings/British officials engaged in Shikar. Under the colonial rule, the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct. The British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society. They believed that by killing dangerous animals the British would civilise India. They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators. Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards and 200,000 wolves were killed for reward in period 1875-1925. Gradually, the tiger came to be seen as a sporting trophy. The Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot 1,157 tigers and 2,000 leopards up to 1957. A British administrator, George Yule, killed 400 tigers. Initially certain areas of forests were reserved for hunting. Only much later did the environmentalists and conservators begin to argue that all these species of animals needed to be protected and not killed.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 3.
Write a detailed note on Munda Tribe.
Answer:
Munda movement occupies an important place amongst the movements for tribal rights on land, water and forests. This movement was carried on under the leadership of Birsa Munda. The British were depriving the tribals from their water forests and land by making laws. Tribals worshipped forests as father and land as their mother. They were deprived of all these with the help of law. The Christian priest Doctor Notrate inspired the people to adopt Christianity and promised to give their lands back. But later on, the government did not fulfil the promise. With the help of his ideas, Birsa Munda organised the tribals,. First of all he included three aspects—social, economic and cultural, in his movement. He tried to educate the people to shun their superstitions. He connected the people by talking about the security of water-forest land or tribal rights on all these. Except these he also talked about protecting their culture by raising the slogan of saving the religion and culture.

In 1895, a movement was initiated to waive off forest related tax but the government completely refused it. Birsa Munda raised the slogan of ‘Self rule in his own country’ (Abua Desh Main Abua Raj) and started struggle against the British. On 8th August, 1895, Birsa was arrested from chalkat and imprisoned for two year. When Birsa got free from jail, there occured famine in the region. Birsa along with his people served the people and he started creating awareness amongst people. People started worshipping him as ‘Dharti Baba’. But there started confrontation between him and the government. That’s why in 1807 A.D. around 400 Munda rebels attacked the Khuti police station. In 1898 A.D., the rebels pushed back the British army in the region of Tanga river but the British army killed hundreds of tribals.

On 14th December, 1899, Birsa Munda declared a war agaiftst the British which by January 1900, spread in the whole region. The British announced the reward on Birsa. Few locals helped the British to arrest him and he was sent to a prison in Ranchi. He was poisoned over there and died on 9th June, 1900 A.D.. To prevent the anger of Munda tribe it was pretended that Birsa was died of cholera. His family members were tried in court and were given severe punishments.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Forest Society and Colonialism Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What do you mean by deforestation?
(a) Appearance of forests
(b) Reappearance of forests
(c) Burning of forests
(d) Disappearance of forests.
Answer:
(d) Disappearance of forests.

Question 2.
Construction of railway tracks in India created huge demand for
(a) Timber
(b) Iron
(c) Elephants
(d) Bamboos.
Answer:
(a) Timber.

Question 3.
Which plantation was the most important during the colonial period?
(a) Coffee
(b) Rubber
(c) Tea
(d) Tobacco.
Answer:
(c) Tea.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 4.
When was the Indian Forest Service set up?
(a) 1863
(b) 1864
(c) 1865
(d) 1866.
Answer
(6b) 1864.

Question 5.
Where was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up?
(a) Dehradun
(b) Shimla
(c) Delhi
(d) Kathmandu.
Answer:
(a) Dehradun.

Question 6.
What were the best forests called?
(a) Protected forests
(b) Village forests
(c) Reserved forests
(d) Unreserved forests.
Answer:
(c) Reserved forests.

Question 7.
What is shifting cultivation called in Sri Lanka?
Answer:
(a) Chena
(b) Penda
(c) Jhum
(d) Podw.
Answer:
(a) Chena.

Question 8.
Which British officer was the most famous tiger hunter?
(a) Lord Reading
(b) George Yule
(c) John Kelvin
(d) Metcalfe.
Answer:
(b) George Yule.

Question 9.
Where is Bastar located?
(a) M.P.
(b) A.P.
(c) T.N.
(d) Chhattisgarh.
Answer:
(d) Chhattisgarh.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 10.
When did the first rebellion take place in Bastar?
(a) 1912
(b) 1910
(c) 1915
(d) 1940.
Answer:
(b) 1910.

Question 11.
When was the Indian Forest Act passed?
(a) 1865
(b) 1864
(c) 1871
(d) 1872.
Answer:
(a) 1865.

Question 12.
Which of these is the cash crop?
(a) Jute
(b) Sugarcane
(c) Cotton
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 13.
Who was the tribal leader of Chota Nagpur?
(a) Birsa Munda
(b) Sidhu
(c) Kanhu
(d) Alluri Sitaram Raju.
Answer:
(a) Birsa Munda.

Question 14.
Who was the leader of rebellion of Bastar in the British Rule?
(a) Gunda Dhur
(b) Kanhu
(c) Birsa Munda
(d) Sidhu.
Answer:
(a) Gunda Dhur.

Question 15.
Who did implement scientific forestry in Indonesia?
(a) English
(b) French
(c) Dutch
(d) Russian.
Answer:
(c) Dutch

Question 16.
Which river flows across Bastar from east to west?
(a) Godawari
(b) Krishna
(c) Kauveri
(d) Indramati.
Answer:
(d) Indramati.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 17.
Which of these is the forest product?
(a) Silk
(b) Gum
(c) Wood
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
The first railway was started in ______ A.D.
Answer:
1853

Question 2.
______ live in forests.
Answer:
Tribals

Question 3.
Length of railway track in 1890 was ______ km.
Answer:
25000

Question 4.
______, ______ and ______ were major commercial crops.
Answer:
Tea, Coffee, Rubber,

Question 5.
Lord Dalhousie promoted the plantation of ______ in Malabar.
Answer:
teak

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 6.
Indian Forest Act was amended in ______ A.D.
Answer:
1878.

True/False:

Question 1.
In 1878, four categories of forests were created.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
In 1906, The Imperial Forests Research Institute was formed at Dehradun.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
Forest policy was formed in 1952 A.D.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
Birsa Munda was born in 1857 A.D.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Birsa Munda died in 1900 A.D.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is deforestation?
Answer:
Disapperance of forest is called deforestation.

Question 2.
Define plantation.
Answer:
Mechanized farming of single species planted in straight lines on large fields.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 3.
When was Indian Forest Service set up?
Answer:
1864.

Question 4.
When and where was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up?
Answer:
In 1906, at Dehradun.

Question 5.
When was the Indian Forest Act passed?
Answer:
1865.

Question 6.
How many wolves, tigers and leopards were killed between 1875 to 1925?
Answer:
2 lakh wolves, 1.5 lakh leopards, 80 thousand tigers.

Question 7.
Name any five forest products.
Answer:
Silk, gum, wood, bidi, ivory and hides.

Question 8.
Mention the length of railway tracks in India in 1946.
Answer:
765,000 km.

Question 9.
The disappearance of which tree caused problem of timber supply for Royal Navy?
Answer:
Oak.

Question 10.
Who was the First Inspector General of Forests in India?
Answer:
Dyetrich Brandis.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 11.
When was the Forest Act 1865 amended?
Answer:
It was amended twice-1878 and 1927.

Question 12.
What were the reserved forests?
Answer:
The best forests were called reserved forests. It was out of bound for villagers.

Question 13.
What were the three needs of villagers to be satisfied by forests?
Answer:
Fuel, fodder and leaves.

Question 14.
What is the use of Mahua tree?
Answer:
Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed from the fruit of Mahua tree.

Question 15.
Name the tribal leader of Chottanagpur.
Answer:
Birsa Munda.

Question 16.
Where is Bastar located?
Answer:
Bastar is located in Chhattisgarh bordering Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra.

Question 17.
Name the tribal communities of Bastar.
Answer:
Masia, Musria, Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas.

Question 18.
Which river flows across Bastar from east to west?
Answer:
Indrawati.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 19.
What is mann?
Answer:
If people from a village in Bastar want to take some wood from the forest of another village they pay small fee called mann.

Question 20.
Who was Gunda Dhur?
Answer:
He was the leader of Bastar tribal movement in 1910.

Question 21.
Name three forest products.
Answer:
Dyes, gum and honey are three forest products.

Question 22.
For which type of crops the Indian forests were cleared to meet the demands of Europeans?
Answer:
For tea, coffee and rubber crops, the Indian forests were cleared to meet the demands of Europeans.

Question 23.
Who was appointed the First Inspector General of Forests in India?
Answer:
A German expert, Dietrich Brandis was appointed as the First Inspector General of forests in India.

Question 24.
When was Indian Forest Act passed?
Answer:
In the year 1865, India Forests Act was passed.

Question 25.
Where and in which year was the Imperial Forest Research Institute established?
Answer:
At Dehradun, in the year 1906, the Imperial Forest Research Institute was established.

Question 26.
What is shifting cultivation?
Answer:
In shifting cultivation, parts of forests are cut and burnt in rotation. A mixture of crops are grown on these plots.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 27.
How much percentage of total forest area of world disappeard between 1700 and 1995?
Answer:
9.3% of total forest area of world disappeared between 1700 and 1995.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the reasons for the expansion of cultivation in the colonial period?
Answer:
There were various reasons for the expansion of cultivation in the colonial period as :

  1. The European powers encouraged the cultivation of commercial corps like cotton Indigo, Jute, tea, sugar, coffee, surgarcane, etc for feeding the’towns people and to supply raw materials for their home industries.
  2. The British encouraged plantation agriculture like tea, coffee, and rubber as they were in great demand in Europe. Plantation farms were large and extensive employing scientific means to increase the produce.
  3. It was the firm belief of the colonial masters that forests were unproductive and did not contribute in the income of the state. Therefore, cultivation had to be extended and encouragement at the cost of forest.

Question 2.
After 1820, Indian forests were cut down on a large scale. What were its reasons?
Answer:
During the decade of 1820, the British government needed of strong and durable timber. This increasing demand of timber and consequently deforestation had following reasons :

  1. The British Royal Navy’s Ships were made with Oak tree. But the oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy. So, Indian forests were explored and vast quantities of timber were being exported from India.
  2. The spread of railway started during the decade of 1805’s. It increased the demand and need of timber. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines, sleepers, were necessary to hold the tracks together. As early as the 1850s, in the Madras Presidency alone, 35,000 trees were being cut annually for sleepers.
  3. To continue with the wood’s supply, the British government gave contract to private companies and they out trees indiscriminately.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 3.
Under scientific forestry, which steps were taken for the forest management?
Answer:
Under scientific forestry, the following steps were taken for the forest management.

  • Natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down.
  • In their place, single type of trees was planted in straight rows which is , called plantation.
  • Forest officials surveyed the forests, estimated the area under different types of trees and made working, plans for forest management.
  • They planned how much of the plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to be replanted so that it was ready to be cut again in some years.

Question 4.
There were conflicting interests of the colonial forest officials and villagers about forests. Clarify.
Answer:
It is true that they both had conflicting news regarding the usage of forests. Villagers needed wood for fuel, grass and leaves. So, they wanted the forests with mixed variety of trees.

On contrary to this, forest officials were in favour of such forests which could cater their needs of ship building and the expansion of railways. That’s why they wanted to plant strong and durable trees which could reach its height. That’s why they cleared the mixed forests and planted teak and Sal trees.

Question 5.
Forest Laws brought many difficulties for the villagers and local communities. Explain it.
Answer:
Forest products were the means of livelihood for the tribals and villages. But forest laws restricted them from cutting wood, collecting fruit and roots, animal grazing, hunting and catching fish. So, they were forced to steal wood from forest. If they were caught, they had to pay bribe to forest officials. Women who collected fuel wood were especially worried. It was also common for police constables and forest guards to harass people by demanding free food from them.

Question 6.
Why was shifting agriculture stopped? What was its impact on local communities?
Answer:
Shifting agriculture was stopped due to three major reasons :

  • European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests. They felt that land was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber.
  • When a forest was burnt, there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
  • Shifting cultivation also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes.
  • Impact. Many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests. Some had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small rebellions.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 7.
Which new changes came in forestry after the decade of 1980?
Answer:
Forestry completely changed from the decade of 1980. Now forgot conservation was made the objective by local people instead of collecting wood from the forests. Government also came to know that public participation is necessary for forest conservation. That’s why dense forest from Mizoram till Kerala are safe in India. People consider their security as their duty, Some villagers care these forest themselves. Even every family gives duty for its security. So there is no role of forest guards in these forests. Now local communities and environments and thinking about giving new form to the forest management.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was the first Inspector General of Forests in India? What were his views about forest management? What did he do for this?
Answer:
The first Inspector General of Forests in India was Dietrich Brandis. He was a German specialist. He had following views about forest management.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism 1

  • Brajidis realised that proper system had to be introduced to manage the forests and people had to be trained in the science of conservation.
  • Under this system, legal sanctions had to be implemented.
  • Rules about the use of forests had to be framed.
  • Forests could be preserved for timber production. Falling of trees and grazing had to be restricted.
  • Anybody who cut trees without following the system had to be punished.

To implement his ideas Brandis established Indian Forest Service in 1964 and helped in formulating the Indian Forest Act 1865. Imperial Forest Research Institutions was set up at Dehradun in 1905. The system they taught here was scientific forestry. Later on many people felt that this system is not scientific at all.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism

Question 2.
How did the tribal people use the products available in the forests?
Answer:
In forest areas, tribals use forest products, such as roots, leaves, fruits and tubers in many ways.

  • Fruits and tubers are nutritious to eat especially during the monsoon before the harvest has come in.
  • Herbs are used for medicine.
  • Wood is used for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs.
  • Bamboo is used to make excellent fences. It is also used to make baskets and umbrellas.
  • A dried scooped out goured can be used as a portable water bottle.
  • Almost everything is available in forests such as
    (a) Leaves can be stiched together to make disposable plates and cups.
    (b) The Siadi (Bauhinia vahlii) can be used to make ropes.
    (c) The thorny bark of Semur (silk cotton) tree is used to grats vegetables.
    (d) Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed from the fruits of mahua tree.

Forest Society and Colonialism PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Products available in the forests: We get many products from the forests such as furniture wood, fuel, fruit, gum, honey, wood for making paper, leaves for making bidi etc.
  • Deforestation: The meaning of deforestation is cutting of trees. Forests were cut down for many purposes such as expansion of agriculture and railway, for the ship-building etc.
  • Bagaan: Large farmhouses where trees of a single types were planted in a straight rows were called Bagan.
  • Timber Trees: Timber wood is quite strong. It is available in the form of Seal and Teak trees.
  • Control on Forests: After coming to know the importance of forests, the colonial rulers established a forest department and passed many laws to control the forests.
  • Impact of Forest Control: With the government’s control of forests, the tribals were deprived of their means of livelihood. So, they started thinking about the revolts against the government.
  • Shifting Agriculture: In this type of agriculture, forests are cleared to get agriculture land. After doing agriculture for 2-3 years , the land is left alone and the same process is done on the near by forest land. After government’s control on forests, such agricultural practice was banned.
  • Scientific Forestry: The system under the control of forest department in which old trees are cut down and new trees are planted.
  • Bastar: Bastar is located in Chhattisgarh, bordering Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra. Tribals of this area revolted against the British as they were widely affected by the British forest policies. These revolts were started by Dhruva tribe.
  • Java: Java is now famous as a rice producing island in Indonesia. Dutch rulers greatly exploited its forest resources and made the locals as labourers. Consequently, locals revolted and it took three months to crush the revolt.
  • 1855. Lord Dalhousie made laws for the protection of forests.
  • 1864. Indian Forest Department was established.
  • 1865. Indian forest Act was passed.
  • 1878. Indian forest Act was amended and three categories of forests were formed.
  • 1906. Imperial forest Research Centre was established at Dehradun.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 7 Forest Society and Colonialism Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.