PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB The French Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The burden of financial activities of the state during the old Regime was borne by the :
(a) Church
(b) Nobles
(c) Third Estate
(d) The King.
Answer:
(c) Third Estate.

Question 2.
Austrian Princess Marie Antoinnette was the Queen of which ruler of France?
(a) Louis III
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XV
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(d) Louis XVI.

Question 3.
Napoleon crowned himself the Emperor of France in :
(a) 1805
(b) 1804
(c) 1803
(d) 1806.
Answer:
(b) 1804.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
When was ‘Tennis Court Oath’ taken in France?
(a) 14th July, 1789
(b) 20th June, 1789
(c) 4th August, 1789
(d) 5th May, 1789.
Answer:
(b) 20th June, 1789.

Question 5.
In context of France what was the ‘Convention’?
(a) A French School
(b) Newly Elected Assembly
(c) The Club
(d) A women Organization.
Answer:
(b) Newly Elected Assembly.

Question 6.
Which was the idea promoted by Montesquieu?
(a) Divine Right
(b) Decentralisation of Power
(c) The Social Contract
(d) Balance of Power.
Answer:
(b) Decentralisation of Power.

Question 7.
In the history of France which period is known as Reign of Great Terror?
(a) 1792-93
(b) 1774-76
(c) 1793-1794
(d) 1804-1815.
Answer:
(c) 1793-1794.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The device used by French for beheading a person was known as __________
Answer:
guillotine

Question 2.
Bastille was stormed in the year __________ A.D.
Answer:
1789

Question 3.
In 1815 A.D. Napoleon was defeated in the battle of __________
Answer:
Waterloo

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
__________ was the leader of Jacobin Club.
Answer:
Robespierre

Question 5.
The book ‘Social Contract’ was written by __________
Answer:
Rousseau

Question 6.
Marseillaise was composed by __________
Answer:
Roger de L’lsle.

III. Match the Columns :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Fortress Prison (i) Guillotine
2. Tax levied by Church (ii) Jacobin
3. To behead a person (iii) Rousseau
4. A club of French middle class (iv) Bastille
5. The Social Contract (v) Tithe

Answer:

A

B

1. Fortress Prison (iv) Bastille
2. Tax levied by Church (v) Tithe
3. To behead a person (i) Guillotine
4. A club of French middle class (ii) Jacobin
5. The Social Contract (iii) Rousseau

IV. Differentiate between :

Question 1.
First estate and Third estate
Answer:
(a) First estate. The first estate included two types of clergy i.e. the higher clergy and the lower clergy. The higher clergy included Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots. They were powerful, wealthy and did not pay any taxes. The lower clergy lived in the monasteries and conducted the spiritual services. They had quite a low income.

(b) Third estate. Common people were included in third estate and constituted around 97% of the total population. They paid all the taxes. Major businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants, artisans, landless labourers, servants etc. were included in this.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Tithe and Taille.
Answer:
Tithe and Taille. Tithe was a tax collected by the Church. It was one tenth of the total income. Taille was a tax paid by the people directly to the state. Its percentage changed from year to year.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did the French Revolution occur?
Answer:
In 1789 A.D.

Question 2.
Who was the leader of Jacobin Clubs?
Answer:
M. Robespierre.

Question 3.
What was Directory?
Answer:
Directory was the Council of five members.

Question 4.
Which Estate used to pay taxes in the French Society?
Answer:
The Third Estate.

Question 5.
What was the tax paid directly to the state?
Answer:
Taille was the tax paid directly to the state.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 6.
Which classes were exempted from paying taxes?
Answer:
First estate i.e. the Clergy and the second estate i.e. the Nobility.

Question 7.
How many types of taxes were paid by peasants?
Answer:
Peasants had to pay two types of taxes, Tithe and Taille.

Question 8.
Name the National Anthem of France.
Answer:
Marseillaise.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the French society divided before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Before the French Revolution, French Society was divided into three classes- First Estate i.e. the Clergy, Second Estate i.e. Mobility and Third Estate i.e. the General Public :

  1. The First Estate included the Clergy. They did not pay any taxes. They were on the higher posts even without having the ability.
  2. The Second Estate included major Nobles who had large pieces of land.
  3. The Third Estate included lawyers, doctors, teachers etc. They did not get any of the higher posts even if they had the ability to do so.
  4. Common public was also included in this. They had to pay taxes to the state as well as to the Church. They had to do begar and were exploited from many years.

Question 2.
Describe the role of Women in the French Revolution.
Answer:
At the time of French Revolution, no government considered women as active citizens but they played a very important role in the revolution.

Most of the women of the third estate worked as flower-sellers, fruit and vegetable venders, seamstresses for their livelihood. Many females worked as servants in the houses of the rich people. Most of the women had no access to education or professional training. They started many movement for their rights. At the time of revolution, Olympe de Gouges was one of the politically active women. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. That’s why she was executed. During the Reign of Terror, many female representatives were executed.

Almost after 150 years, in 1940 A.D. many laws were made for bringing reforms in their lives. According to a law, government schools were opened up and schooling was made compulsory for women.

Question 3.
Describe in brief about the famous writers philosophers who influenced the French’Revolution.
Answer:

  1. In his work Two Treatises of Government’, John Locke critisized the divine rights of kings.
  2. Rousseau continued the same ideas. He asserted the doctrine of popular sovereignty. He wrote a book called ‘The Social Contract’.
  3. Montesquieu in his book, ‘The Spirit of Laws’ proposed a division of power within the government between legislature, executive and judiciary.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
What do you mean by Monarchy?
Answer:
Monarchy is the system of government in which king has all the rights and he acts as a dictator who believes in divine rights of the king. There was monarchy in France and its ruler Louis XVI had all the rights which were not opposed by any one. He did not care about the Constitution and public welfare. Even for years, he did not call the country’s Parliament. When he called the Parliament, that was only to impose taxes. This incident became the reason of the revolution.

Question 5.
What is National Constitutional Assembly?
Answer:
The French King got afraid after observing the rebellious power of his subjects. He gave sanction to the National Assembly arid also accepted the control of Constitution on his power. In 1791, the National Assembly prepared the sketch of the Constitution. Its major objective was to limit the powers of king. Now powers were divided among the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. So, powers were not concentrated in few hands. Consequently, the Constitutional Monarchy was established in France.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Answer:
France was a strong and powerful state in the 18th century. She had vast territories in North America and islands in the West Indies. But the French Revolution was brewing while the war of American independence was going on. The conditions in France on the eve of revolution presented a dismal picture.

The following were the chief causes of the French Revolution :
1. Social Causes. The French Revolution was an uprising of the French people against autocracy and aristocracy. The French society was a feudal one ridden with inequalities. The clergy and the nobles belonged to the privileged class. They led a life of luxury and exploited the common people. The peasants and workers, which consisted of the vast population, were compelled to live a wretched life. They were forced to pay heavy taxes and to do forced labour. The middle class comprising lawyers, doctors, teachers, traders and petty government officers were wealthy and wise. But they were deprived of the political rights. They had to suffer humiliation at the hands of clergy and nobles.
The social inequalities and luxurious life of the clergy and nobles created discontentment and restlessness among the common people.

2. Political Causes. The kings of France were absolute rulers. They believed in the Theory of Divine rights of Kingship. They claimed themselves to be the representatives of God on earth. On the eve of the revolution, Louis XVI was the king of France. He was an empty headed despot. He and his queen Marie Antoinette were extravagant in nature. They squandered the state revenue on luxuries and wasteful festivities. The high government posts were auctioned. Corruption, maladministration and inefficiency reigned supreme. There were different laws in different areas and absence of any uniform system made the confusion worse confounded. People were really fed up with such a rotten system of government.

3. Economic Causes. The shattered economy of France proved a major cause of the revolution. Due to the prolonged wars and extravagant habits of the Royal Family, the French Government reached a state of bankruptcy. The clergy and nobility were able to pay taxes, but they were completely exempted from all the taxes. The common people were too poor to pay taxes. The corrupt system of taxes made the people unhappy.

4. Psychological Causes. In the second part of the 18th century, there was an intellectual “Renaissance in France. The Great French philosophers like Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire exploited the social shortcomings. They fanned the flame of revolution. The American Revolution and Declaration of Independence by the American revolutionaries roused the people of France to overthrow the oppressive king and his nobility.

5. Immediate Cause. In 1788 A.D. there spread a severe famine in many parts of France. People suffering from hunger assembled in streets of Paris. The state treasury had fallen empty. Emperor Louis XVI was compelled to summon a meeting of the Estate General in 1789 after a lapse of 175 years. The First Estate and Second Estate i.e. the clergy and nobility refused to have a common meeting with the Third Estate. It generated much excitement and common people lost their temper. With the meeting of Estate General on the 5th May, 1789 the French Revolution began.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Explain the phases of the French Revolution.
Answer:
The French Revolution was the greatest event of the modern age. It was not only an internal event of France but also an international revolution. It not only affected the French society but the whole humanity was affected by this. After centuries, there came a respect for human values, medieval feudal system was shaken up and democracy started replacing the monarchy. The concept of liberty, equality and fraternity was spread everywhere.

The French Revolution started in 1789 A.D. and lasted till the decline of Napoleon.

Its different phases are given ahead :
1. Tennis Court and the Fall of Bastille. On 14th July 1789, angry mob attacked the Bastille prison at Paris. This prison was the symbol of the autocratic powers of monarchy. On the same day, the king ordered the army to enter the city. A rumour spread that the king was about to order the army to fire the people. So, around 7000 men and women assembled in front of the town hall. They organised a public army. In search of arms, they forcibly entered the public buildings. So, hundreds of people stormed into the prison of Bastille where they expected lot of arms and ammunition. In this conflict, the commander of Bastille died. Political prisoners were released although they were only seven in number. Fortress of Bastille was destroyed.

2. Constitutional Monarchy in France (National Assembly). The French king Louis XVI got afraid on seeing the power of his subjects. So, he gave sanction to the National Assembly and accepted to limit his powers by the Constitution. In 1791, the National Assembly prepared the sketch of Constitution. It major objective was to limit the powers of king. Now powers were divided among the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. So, powers were not concentrated in few hands. Consequently, the Constitutional Monarchy was established in France.

3. Reign of Terror-Jacob in Clubs. The members of the Jacobin Clubs belonged mainly to the less prosperous sections of society. They included small shopkeepers, pastry cooks, shoemakers, printers, daily wage workers etc. Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre. The period from 1793 to 1794 is known as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those who were seen as the enemies of Republic eg nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods, they were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If they were found guilty, they were guillotined. Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. That’s why his reign is known as the Reign of Terror.

4. The Directory Rules France. After the fall of Jacobin’s government, National Assembly, in 1795 A.D., formed a Constitution for France. Under this Constitution, the rule of France was given in the hands of Directory. On 26 October, 1795, the first meeting of the Directory was called and with this, the National Convention got dissolved. Directory ruled on France for four years. During these four years, it faced a number of problems. The political failure of Directory paved way for the emergence of military dictator Napoleon Bonaparte.

5. The Period of Napoleon. In 1799, Napoleon overthrew the government of Directory and became the First Council. He got dictatorial powers. Then he conducted plebiscite and 99.9% voters voted in his favour. He won a number of wars and was able to do peaceful treaties with his enemies.

All this proved that he was an able dictator. From 1799 to 1804, he implemented many reforms.

  • He abolished all the privileges based on birth. He established equality before law and secured the right to property.
  • He simplified the administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • He removed guild restrictions in the towns.
  • He introduced uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency.
  • He made Napoleonic code of conduct.

6. Napoleon Became King. By 1804, Napoleon was seemingly not satisfied with the post of First Council. So, he again conducted plebiscite and got the right to do what he wanted. In December, 1804, he declared himself as the king of France.

Question 3.
What was the impact of the French Revolution?
Answer:
The French Revolution produced effects not only on France, but also on the whole of Europe. It gave new ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity to the world. It put an end to the old regime and the existing social order and laid the foundations of democracy, nationalism and socialism. Let us see how it affected France itself and also other countries of the world. The French Revolution was significant not only in context of France but also it left its impact on the whole world.

The revolution was a powerful reaction against anomalies, deformities and fundamental faults inherent in old system of France.

Its effects on France are given below :

  • Establishment of democracy. Monarchial system came to an end and democratic system was established in its place.
  • Feudalism ended forever. The land of the nobles was sold at cheap rates to the peasants.
  • End of discrimination. The social, economic and political discrimination came to an end forever.
  • Organization of a new society. A new society was organized in France. This society was organized on the basis of liberty, fraternity and equality.
  • Reforms in National Assembly. The powers of the National Assembly were increased. The new laws and taxes were passed by this assembly. Now, similar laws applied to everyone.
  • Rights of Clergy. The Rights of the clergy were reduced. Their authority was now only confined to the Church.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 4.
What was the condition of women of the Third Estate before 1789 A.D.?
Answer:
Most of the women of the Third Estate worked as flower sellers, fruit and vegetable vendors, seamstresses etc. for their livelihood. Many females worked as servants in the houses of the rich people. Most of the women had no access to education or professional training. Only girls of Noble families or the girls of rich families of the third estate studied in convent. Later on they got married. Working women had to care for their families.

During the early years, the revolutionary government passed many laws to improve their condition. According to one law, government schools were established and school education was made compulsory for all the girls.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide The French Revolution Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is Bastille?
(a) Fort
(b) Palace
(c) Jail
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Jail.

Question 2.
Give the date of the French Revolution
(a) 14 July 1789
(b) 16 July 1756
(c) 15 August 1947
(d) 14 July 1776.
Answer:
(a) 14 July 1789.

Question 3.
Who was Louis XVI?
(a) King of France
(b) King of Britain
(c) A Baron,
(d) An artist of France.
Answer:
(b) King of France.

Question 4.
What was the Tithe?
(a) Farmer
(b) Tax
(c) Artist
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Tax.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
What was the Taille?
(a) Tax paid to the church
(b) Tax paid to the state
(c) Tax paid for the use of land
(d) Unit of currency.
Answer:
(b) Tax paid to the state.

Question 6.
What was the population of France in 1789?
(a) 123 million
(b) 225 million
(c) 28 million
(d) 30 million.
Answer:
(c) 28 million.

Question 7.
Who was J.J. Rousseau?
(a) King
(b) Philosopher
(c) An aristocrat
(d) Clergy.
Answer:
(b) Philosopher.

Question 8.
Who wrote the “Two Treatises of Government”?
(a) Rousseau
(b) John Locke
(c) Montesquieu
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) John Locke.

Question 9.
Who wrote “The Spirit of Laws?”
(a) Rousseau
(b) John Locke
(c) Montesquieu
(d) Adam Smith.
Answer:
(c) Montesquieu.

Question 10.
Who was the queen of France on the eve of French Revolution?
(a) Marie Antoinnette
(b) Maria Theressa.
(c) Marie Belchant
(d) Aquiva Monessert.
Answer:
(a) Marie Antoinnette.

Question 11.
Who was the king of France at the time of its revolution?
(a) Louis Philip
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XVI
(d) Louis XVIII.
Answer:
(c) Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 12.
Who said, “Man is born free yet he is everywhere in chains.”?
(a) Montesquieu
(b) Rousseau
(c) John Locke
(d) Adam Smith
Answer:
(b) Rousseau.

Question 13.
When and where was Estates-General convened?
(a) 14 June 1789, Paris
(b) 14 July 1789, Paris
(c) 17 May 1789, Versailles
(d) 17 Sept. 1789, Versailles.
Answer:
(c) 17 May 1789, Versailles.

Question 14.
Who said, “I am France, my will is Law”?
(a) Marie Antoinnette
(b) Louis XIV
(c) Louis XVIII
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(d) Louis XVI.

Question 15.
Which was the period of Reign of Terror?
(a) 1793-94 A.D.
(6) 1789-90 A.D.
(c) 1790-91 A.D.
(d) 1791-92 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1793-1794 A.D.

Question 16.
Who opposed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship?
(a) Voltaire
(b) Montesquieu
(c) Jacobins
(d) Louis XVI.
Answer:
(b) Montesquieu.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Before the French Revolution, the________family ruled France.
Answer:
Bourbon

Question 2.
__________ is a form of government in which the country is ruled by the king.
Answer:
Monarchy

Question 3.
Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots were the  __________ part of the estate.
Answer:
First

Question 4.
The second estate controlled __________% of the total land.
Answer:
30

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
__________raised voice against arbitrary and tyrannical rule and propounded the concept of democracy.
Answer:
Rousseau

Question 6 .
__________was a kind of tax paid to the church.
Answer:
Tithe.

True/False:

Question 1.
Montesquieu challenged the Divine Right of the Kings.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
On 20th June 1788, the third estate met at an indoor Tennis Court.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The drafting of a written Constitution was completed in 1791.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
The song ‘Marseillaise’ was composed by Roger de L’lsle.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
Voltaire was the leader of Jacobins.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 6.
16,000 to 40,000 people were killed during the Reign of Terror.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did the French Revolution take place?
Answer:
In 1789 A.D.

Question 2.
Which group had special privileges in France before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Feudal Lords.

Question 3.
Who was the ruler of France at the time of French Revolution? To which dynasty did he belong?
Answer:
Louis XVI of*the Bourbon dynasty.

Question 4.
Who were the most powerful groups in the French Society?
Answer:
Nobility and the Clergy.

Question 5.
Who had the highest authority in the Roman Catholic Church?
Answer:
The Pope.

Question 6.
What was the name of the French Parliament?
Answer:
Estate General.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 7.
Where did Louis XVI live? ‘
Answer:
At Versailles.

Question 8.
Which type of administrative system France had at the time of French Revolution?
Answer:
Autocratic Monarchy.

Question 9.
Name two philosophers who gave birth to the French Revolution.
Answer:
Rousseau and Montesquieu.

Question 10.
On which thing Rousseau gave lot of stress?
Answer:
He gave stress on equality among humans.

Question 11.
Name the book written by Rousseau.
Answer:
The Social Contract.

Question 12.
Name the book written by Montesquieu.
Answer:
The Spirit of Laws.

Question 13.
Who was Marie Antoinnette?
Answer:
Wife of Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 14.
How much of the total land of France was under the control of Church?
Answer:
One fifth of the total land.

Question 15.
Who occupied the most important positions in army and in the state before the French Revolution?
Answer:
Nobles.

Question 16.
Who is known as the King of Philosophers?
Answer:
Voltaire.

Question 17.
Give one effect of the French Revolution on France.
Answer:
The fall of autocratic monarchy.

Question 18.
Name three concepts of the French Revolution.
Answer:
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

Question 19.
When was the name of National Assembly kept as the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
9th July, 1789.

Question 20.
What was the motive of calling National Assembly?
Answer:
To impose taxes.

Question 21.
Name one financial reform done by Turgot.
Answer:
Reducing the number of government officials.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 22.
Which meeting was called by Louis XVI before calling the meeting of Estate General?
Answer:
Parliament of Paris.

Question 23.
Why was the Parliament of Paris called?
Answer:
To impose taxes.

Question 24.
When was the meeting of Estate General called?
Answer:
17 July, 1789.

Question 25.
Which oath was taken by the representatives of the third estate at Tennis Court?
Answer:
To form the Constitution.

Question 26.
Who made the Declaration of Men and Citizens in France?
Answer:
National Assembly.

Question 27.
Give the date of the fall of Bastille.
Answer:
14 July, 1789.

Question 28.
Which event is known as the beginning of the French Revolution?
Answer:
The fall of Bastille.

Question 29.
Who was the commander-in-chief of the National Guard?
Answer:
Lafayette.

Question 30.
Who brought the king from the Versailles to Paris?
Answer:
A mob of women.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 31.
When was the draft of the Constitution of National Assembly completed?
Answer:
In 1791 A.D.

Question 32.
Which ideology did the members of Jacobin Clubs follow?
Answer:
Republican ideology.

Question 33.
When did the people of Paris surround the King’s palace first time?
Answer:
On 20th June 1792 A.D.

Question 34.
When did the people of Paris second time surround the King’s palace?
Answer:
10th August, 1792 A.D.

Question 35.
Under whose rule the King was arrested?
Answer:
Under the rule of Convention.

Question 36.
What was the major work of the Convention in France?
Answer:
Abolition of Monarchy.

Question 37.
With which name the incident of the killing of king and others is known as?
Answer:
September Massacre.

Question 38.
Which type of system was established in France by the National Convention?
Answer:
Republican System.

Question 39.
What punishment was given to Louis XVI by the National Convention?
Answer:
Death Sentence.

Question 40.
When was Louis XVI sentenced to death?
Answer:
In 1793 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 41.
Name the two major political clubs during the times of National Convention.
Answer:
Breton Club and Jocobin Club.

Question 42.
Which Committee was formed by the National Convention to face the internal enemies?
Answer:
Public Defence Committee.

Question 43.
Which new method of measurement was adopted by the National Convention?
Answer:
Decimal system.

Question 44.
For how many years the ‘Reign of Terror’ remained in France?
Answer:
One year.

Question 45.
Which political party established the ‘Reign of Terror’ in France?
Answer:
Jacobin Party.

Question 46.
When was Revolutionary court established?
Answer:
In 1793 A.D.

Question 47.
Which political party had a great impact on the Paris Commune?
Answer:
Jacobin Party.

Question 48.
Who was the leader of the Jacobins?
Answer:
Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobins.

Question 49.
Who said, “May my blood assure the happiness of French people!”
Answer:
Louis XVI.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 50.
Which was the tax levied on peasants and collected by the Churches?
Answer:
In the was the tax levied on peasants and collected by the Churches.

Question 51.
Who wrote ‘The Spirit of Laws’?
Answer:
Monstesquieu wrote ‘The Spirit of Laws’.

Question 52.
Who was Olympe de Gouges?
Answer:
She was a brave lady who laid down her life while fighting for the rights of women in France.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which groups got advantages of the French Revolution? Which groups were forced to abdicate the power and which groups were discouraged by its results?
Answer:
(i) Labour class and the peasant class was greatly advantaged by the revolution. Its reason was that it was the most exploited class. People who favoured liberty and equality were also happy.
(ii) Nobility had to abdicate the power. Monarchy came to an end. Feudal Lords and the Church officials also had to abdicate their privileges.
(iii) Upper Class or the Elites and the followers of Monarchy were discouraged with the revolution.

Question 2.
Explain the economic condition of France at the time of French Revolution.
Answer:
1. Heavy debt on treasury. The rulers of France were very spendthrift. Louis XV spent money lavishly. As a result, the treasury became empty and France came under heavy debt. During the period of Louis XVI, the situation further deteriorated. As a result, France was gripped by revolution. Someone had remarked aptly, “The fiscal causes lay at the root of the revolution.”

2. Tax collection poorly administered. Not only the taxes were levied unfairly, they were also not collected in a proper manner. Anybody who bade to give the highest amount of money to king was given the right to collect taxes. The tax collectors collected maximum taxes from the people and transferred a very little amount to the government. This system of collection of the revenue was a source of great trouble for the peasants.

3. Taxes distributed unfairly. The common people of the country were poor but they had to bear the entire burden of taxes. On the other-hand, the nobles were a rich class and could pay taxes but they were free from taxes. This unfair distribution of taxes had made the people very unhappy.

4. Extravagance in the court. The rulers of France were extravagant and sensual. They were given to luxury and comfort. Louis XTV emptied the treasury because of his extravagant habits. After him, Louis XV involved himself in wars. He was followed by Louis XVI who did not lag behind in living a life of luxury. As a result of this, the French government was rendered penniless.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 3.
Who was Robespierre? Why is his time period known as the Reign of Terror?
Answer:
Robespierre ruled France from 1793 to 1794. He followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw being enemies of the Republic-ex nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his party who did not agree with his methods-were arrested, imprisoned and tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined. He pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. That’s why his time period is known as the ‘Reign of Terror’.

Question 4.
What were the political causes of the French Revolution?
Answer:
1. Arbitrary rulers. The kings of France were absolute rulers. They believed in the theory of Divine Right of Kingship. They claimed to be the representatives of God on the earth. Therefore, they did not consider that they had any duty towards the people. Their courtiers had signed and stamped but unfilled papers. They had just to write down the name of the person to be sent to jail. Thus, innumerable people were passing through miserable time in the French government. The people were really fed up with this form of government.

2. Inefficiency and corruption in the administration. The country was in the grip of corruption. The government offices were sold. The rulers were unintelligent and incompetent. The people of France wanted to end this corrupt rule.

3. Centralization of powers. All the political powers were in the hands of the king. All the representative bodies in the country had either ended or were a tool in the hands of the king. The king imposed taxes on the people at his own will. He also spent the money collected through taxes as he liked. Because of this centralisation of powers, there was a great resentment among the people.

4. No uniform system of law and order. The laws of the country were not uniform. There were different laws working in different parts of the country. In all, there were about 400 laws in operation in France. There were separate laws for the rich and the poor. The revolution could hardly be prevented in the country where no regard was shown to the law or the legal system.

Question 5.
Give reasons of the fall of Bastille and what were its results.
Answer:
As the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting the Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter led to bad harvest, the price of bread rose and bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.
After spending many hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women attacked the bakery shops. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris.
On 14th July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. Guards of fort opened doors after the battle of 5 hours. Crowds entered the fort and made free all the captives.
It destroyed the autocracy of king and people emerged victorious. This event is famous as the Fall of Bastille in the history of France. This historical event is known as first blow to French ancient system.

Question 6.
How did the revolution spread in the whole France with the advent of National Assembly?
Answer:
While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a Constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter led to a bad harvest, the price of bread rose, most of the times bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. People had to spend hours in long queues at the bakery. Finally angry women entered the shops and took away whatever they wanted. At the same time, the king ordered the army to move into Paris. Finally, the angry mob, on 14th July, stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

In villages, rumours spread that the lords of the manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops. Fear spread among the peasants and they seized hoes and pitchforks in many districts and even attacked chateaux. They looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues. Many nobles fled from their homes and many migrated to neighbouring countries.

Question 7.
A decree was passed by French National Assembly on the night of 4th August, 1789. What were its three main points?
Answer:
After the French Revolution, National Assembly was constituted and it gave a decree on the night of 4th August, 1789. Main points of this decree were :

  • This decree abolished the feudal system of obligations from the France.
  • Before revolution, members of clergy enjoyed many privileges. But with the decree, members of clergy were forced to give up their privileges.
  • Tax collected by the church, Tithe, was abolished and the land owned by the church*was taken away by government.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 8.
What was the condition of slavery in France during 18th and 19th centuries? Explain any three conditions.
Answer:
1. There was not much opposition to slavery in France during 18th century.
There had been a long discussion in the National Assembly that the basic rights of citizens should be given to the French people and the people living in their colony or not. But due to the fear of opposition by the traders engaged in slave trade, National Assembly did not pass any law. ’

2. It was finally the Convention which in 1794 made a law to free all slaves in the French colonies. But it was a short term measure as ten years later, Napoleon re-introduced slavery. Plantation owners were given freedom to make negroes as slaves in pursuation of their economic interests.

3. Finally slavery was abolished in French Colonies in 1848 A.D.

Question 9.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte? Which reforms did he introduce?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was the king of France. He declared himself as the French King in 1804 A.D. Before this, he was the First Council of Directory.

Reforms: Napoleon considered himself as a moderniser of Europe. So, he brought many reforms :

  • He introduced many laws for the protection of property.
  • He introduced a uniform gystem of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.

Question 10.
Why were the females disappointed with the French Constitution of 1791 A.D.? Which reforms were introduced by the revolutionary government to bring reforms in their lives?
Answer:
Women were disappointed with the French Constitution of 1791 A.D. because they were reduced to a status of passive citizens. But they continued with their demands of right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, their interests would be represented in the new government.

Laws made by the Revolutionary Government. For bringing change in the lives of females, revolutionary government brought many reforms :

  • Schooling was made compulsory for all girls.
  • Now their fathers could no longer force them to marry against their will. Marriage was made a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law.
  • Divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both women and men.
  • Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small business.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 11.
Who were Jacobins? Why were they called Sans-Culottes?
Answer:
The members of the Jacobin clubs mainly belonged to the best prosperous classes of society. They included small shopkeepers, shoemakers, watchmakers, pastry makers, printers, servants and daily wage workers. Their leader was Maximilion Robespierre. A large group among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers. This was to set themselves different from other sections of society especially nobles, who wore knee breeches. It was a •method of proclaiming the end of the power wielded by the wearers of knee breeches. Such Jacobins were called as Sans-Culottes which literally means those without knee breeches. Such men wore red cap in addition which symbolised victory. However, women were not allowed to do the same.

Question 12.
How was Republic System established in France in place of Constitutional Monarchy?
Answer:
During the summer of 1792, the Jacobins planned an armed rebellion of a large number of Paris people who were angry with the short supplies and high prices of food. On August 10, they stormed the palace of the Tuileries, killed the king’s guards and kept the king as hostage for many hours. Later the Assembly voted to imprison the King’s family. New elections were held. From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote.

The newly elected assembly was called the Convention. On 21st September 1792, it abolished the monarchy and declared France a Republic.

Question 13.
What were the effects of revolution on France?
Answer:

  1. New Society organized. A new society was organized in France. This society was organized on the basis of liberty, fraternity and equality.
  2. Discrimination ended forever. The social, economic and political discrimination came to an end forever.
  3. Reforms made by National Assembly. The powers of the National Assembly were increased. The new laws and taxes were passed by this assembly. Now, similar laws applied to everyone.
  4. Democratic system established. Monarchial system came to an end and democratic system was established in its place.
  5. End of Feudalism. The land of the nobles was sold at cheap rates to the peasants.
  6. Reduction in the rights of Clergy. The rights of the clergy were reduced. Their authority was now only confined to the Church.

Question 14.
Discuss some of the basic rights of women set forth in ‘Olympe de Gouges’.
Answer:

  1. Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights.
  2. The goal of all political associations is the preservation of the natural rights of woman and man. These rights are liberty, property, security and above all resistance to oppression.
  3. The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation, which is nothing but the union of woman and man.
  4. The law should be the expression of the general will, all-female and male citizens should have a say either personally or by their representatives in its formulation.
  5. No woman is an exception if she is accused, arrested and detained in cases determined by law. Women, like men, should obey this rigorous law.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy’today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Answer:
The National Assembly drafted a Constitution. The Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights. That is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away. Still the rights which were provided by the French Revolution, are present in different forms in the Constitution of India.

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen :

  • Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.
  • The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, security and resistance of oppression.
  • The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation; no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people.
  • Liberty consists of the power to do whatever is not injurious to others.
  • The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society.
  • Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. All citizens are equal before it.
  • No man may be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by the law.
  • Every citizen may speak, write and print freely; he must take responsibility for the abuse of such liberty in cases determined by the law.
  • For the maintenance of the public force and for the expenses of administration a common tax is indispensable; it must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means.
  • Since property is a sacred and inviolable right, no one may be deprived of it, unless a legally established public necessity requires. In that case, a just compensation must be given in advance.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 2.
Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Answer:
The Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of the labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, and they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.

The revolutionaries issued a Declaration of Human Rights to make people conscious of their rights and duties. The Declaration had 17 sections. It said that all men are free and equal. The people are sovereign and law is the expression of theft will. Administrators can use only the authority legally invested in them. The Declaration granted personal freedom as well as freedom of expression and speech. In the later years, this Declaration became a charter of liberalism. Whenever people talk about human rights, they are reminded of this Declaration.

But this Declaration does not guarantee universal adult franchise. Women too did not have voting rights and they were considered inferior in every aspect. The classification between active and passive citizens was also against the spirit of humanity. The fate of the common people did not change much; they remained at the subsistence level of existence.

Question 3.
How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Answer:
The revolution was thrown into oblivion within five years and the French citizens easily accepted Napoleon as their sovereign ruler. From a close study of contemporary events, it seems that at that crucial moment, perhaps, France had no alternative except Napoleon.

Prices of commodities were escalating, currency was devaluating and economic condition was deteriorating. The public of France had become so frustrated due to economic misery that it was willing to forsake lofty ideals and values for the sake of redemption from this pitiable condition.

The Constitution implemented by the National Convention was contrary to the spirit of revolution. Members of the Convention were selfish. They were interested in remaining glued to power. The formation of Directory was a stupendous mistake in the Constitution. All directors brawled with one another. War was the only remedy to cure the fog of dejection. During the reign of Directory, Napoleon spearheaded the wars against Italy and Austria in which he reaped marvellous success. By the time he established peace in Paris, people began to treat him as an epitome of order and discipline. He earned the reputation of a competent ruler and was considered invincible. He was averse to the extremities committed during revolution but he did not overlook its achievements. Hence he endeared himself to everyone by his achievements.

The bourgeoisie (middle class) in France wanted stability and permanancy which only Napoleon could give. He was considered to be the only alternative because all efficient people were killed during the period of revolution.
The Monarchists relied on Napoleon for the revival of age-old system. Neutral persons saw in Napoleon the possibility of peace and order. Intellectual republicans envisaged danger for the republic; but they preferred the rule by an intelligent individual to that of a gang of conspirators.

Incidents which occurred afterward proved that he rapidly brought adverse circumstances under control and made France a centre of glory and power in Europe and all these achievements bear testimony to the inevitability of his reign in France.

Question 4.
How did National Assembly in France come into existence?
Answer:
National Assembly in France came into existence with the Tennis Court Oath. The representatives of Third Estate considered themselves as spokesmen for the whole nation. On 20th June, they assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They decleared themselves as National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a Constitution for France that would limit the powers of the king. They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes. Mirabeau was born in a noble family but believed that there is a need to do away the special privileges of few classes. He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles. Abbe Sieyes, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called “What is the Third Estate?’

Faced with the power of his revolting subjects, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now on be checked by a Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Question 5.
How did Robespierre try to bring equality in the French society?
Answer:
Robespierre tried to bring equality in the French society through following reforms :

  1. Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and price.
  2. Meat and bread were rationed.
  3. Peasants were forced to transport their grains to cities and sell it at the price fixed by the government.
  4. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden. All citizens were required to eat the equality bread, a loaf made of whole wheat.
  5. Efforts were made to bring equality through forms of speech and addresses. Instead of traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame (Madam), all French men and women were henceforth Citoyen and Citoyenna (citizen).
  6. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices.

Question 6.
What were the main features of French Constitution of 1791?
Answer:

  1. The Constitution gave powers to National Assembly to make laws and the National Assembly was indirectly elected.
  2. Citizens were given the right to vote and choose the Assembly. But all the citizens were not given the right. Only men of age of more than 25 years who paid taxes equal to minimum 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given this right. Rest of the men and all women were classed as passive .citizens.
  3. If anyone wanted to become the member of Assembly, then he must belong to the highest bracket of tax payers.
  4. The Constitution declared the rights of men and citizens. Rights like right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were made as natural rights of person and they could not be taken away. State should protect all such rights.

Question 7.
Which important law was passed in France after the fall of Bastille? What is its importance?
Answer:
After the storming of Bastille, during the summer of 1789 A.D., one important law came into effect and that was the abolition of censorship. In the old regime i.e. under the rule of kings, all written material and cultural activities-books, news, papers, plays could be published and performed only with the approval of the king. Now under the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens, it was proclaimed that freedom of speech and expression is a natural right. Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled quickly into the rural areas. They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France. Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. Each side tried to convince the other about its position through newspapers. Plays, songs and festive processions attracted many people. This was one of the way, they could grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about at length in texts which only a few educated people could read.

Question 8.
Why did the French King Louis XVI call the meeting of Estate General? What was the position of different Estates?
Answer:
There was growing debt on France and that is why the French king needed money. So he decided to impose new taxes on the people. Under the old Regime, French King was not allowed to impose taxes on its own. He had to call the meeting of Estate General to take its permission to impose new taxes. Estate General was a political body in which all the three estates used to send their representatives. But the king decided to call the meeting. Its last meeting was called in 1614 A.D.

On 5th May, 1789, Louis XVI called the meeting of the Estate General to pass the proposals for new taxes. A resplendent hall in Versailles was prepared to host the delegates. The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back. The third estate was represented by the educated and prosperous members. Peasants, artisans and women were not allowed to enter the assembly. But their problems and demands were written in around 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.

Question 9.
Describe the role of philosophers in the French Revolution.
Answer:
1. Montesquieu (1689-1755). Montesquieu was a famous and great philosopher of his time. He was vehementely opposed to the Divine Right Theory of Kingship and was in favour of the blemishes of the monarchial system. His ideas gave impetus to the revolutionary sentiments.

Montesquieu initiated a philosophic movement, a chain of criticism which were to strike at the root of ancient regime in France. He stood for the constitutional form of government. He believed in the supremacy of law and the separation of the three organs of the government. His book “The Spirit of Laws” awakened the French society and created the atmosphere for the revolution.

2. Voltaire (1694-1778). Voltaire attacked the vices of. the society, the church and the blind faith. He gave the church the name of an ‘Infamous Thing’. He instigated the people to ask for reform.

Voltaire attacked the traditions, beliefs and abuses in verse, prose, history, drama and romance. The church in France was the main target of his attack. He declared, “Since we are all steeped in errors and follies we must forgive each other, worship God and be a good man.”

3. Rousseau (1712-1778). Rousseau gave his ideas in his book ‘The Social Contract’. He propounded that the people are the real masters of the state and the king rules with their consent. Thus under the influence of the writings of Rousseau, people of France began to agitate for a revolution. Somebody has rightly said, “But for Rousseau there had been no French Revolution.”

He declared that all political organizations were tyrannical and open to abuses. “Man was born free but he was everywhere in chains.” He propounded the idea of sovereignty of the people.

4. Other Philosophers. Besides these, there were other philosophers such as Diderot, Quesnay, etc. who fanned flames of new ideas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution

Map Activity:

On the following map of Europe mark the following countries and their capitals
(i) Portugal
(ii) France
(iii) Italy
(iv) Spain
(v) Austria
(vi) England.
Answer:
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution 1

The French Revolution PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • The French Revolution: The French Revolution took place in 1789 A.D. Common people lived a miserable life but Nobles lived a luxurious life. That’s why the French people rose against Louis XVI (King of France) and brought the revolution.
  • The Tennis Court Oath: Louis XVI did not accept the demands laid down by the representatives of the people. So, the people collected at the Tennis Court and declared to form the new Constitution.
  • The Fall of Bastille: On 14 July, 1789, the fortess prison of Bastille was captured bj the revolutionaries and this led to its fall. Even today, 14th July is celebrated as Bastille Day or National Day in France.
  • The Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens: This declaration is related with the French Revolution. It specified the equality of all men before law and without reason no one will be captivated. In this declaration, freedom of speech and press was also accepted. Most importantly, it gave stress on the concepts of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  • Louis XVI: Louis XVI became the French Emperor in 1774 A.D. He was only 20 years of age. He was incapable and worked under the influence of his wife. He had no interest in administrative functions. He had left all the administrative functions in the hands of corrupt officials who did not care about the public welfare. Consequently, there was growing dissatisfaction among the people and finally, they revolted against the King.
  • Voltaire: Voltaire was a famous Satirist writer of his times. He strongly opposed the social superstitions and the evils prevailing in the Church. He called Church as the ‘infamous thing’. He encouraged the people to demand for reforms.
  • Montesquieu: Montesquieu was a famous writer of his times. He opposed the divine right theory of the Kings. He liked the British system of administration. His famous book was ‘The Spirit of Laws’. His ideas gave great impetus to the revolutionary ideas.
  • Rousseau: Rousseau was a great philosopher of 18th century. He gave his views in his book ‘The Social Contract’. According to him, social composition and people must be based on mutual contracts.
  • Napoleon: Napoleon was one of those great men who was born in a simple family and reached the highest post. He progressed from a post of soldier to the French King. He was born at Korsika island and by 1812 A.D., he established his supremacy on almost whole of the Europe. Finally, many European powers collectively defeated him. He died in 1821 due to abdominal cancer at St. Helena island.
  • Clergy: A group of people working in the Church.
  • Tithe and Taille: Tithe was a religious tax paid by the people to the Church and Taille was direct tax paid to the government.
  • Manor: An Estate where was situated the land and palace of the Feudal Lord.
  • 1774 – Louis XVI became King of France.
  • 1789 – Convocation of Estates General, Third Estate forms National Assembly, the Bastille was stormed, peasants revolt in the countryside.
  • 1791 – New Constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king and to guarantee basic rights to all human beings.
  • 1792 – 93 – France becomes a republic, the king was beheaded. Overthrow of the Jacobic Republic, a Directory rules France.
  • 1804 – Napoleon becomes emperor of France, annexes large parts of Europe.
  • 1815 – Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 5 The French Revolution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.