PSEB 9th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society
SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Textbook Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions :
The class to which the writers belonged in the Muslim society was
(a) Upper Class
(b) Middle Class
(c) Lower Class
(d) None of these.
(b) Middle Class.
The worshippers of Goddess Durga were called
What was Jaziya?
Who were Ulemas?
(b) Hindu religious leaders
(c) Muslim religious leaders
(d) None of these.
(c) Muslim religious leaders.
The event of Sachcha Sauda happened in ________
(b) Rai Bhoi
II. Fill in the blanks :
The two sects of Islam are Sunni and ________
________ worshipped the God Vishnu.
The purpose of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life was the welfare of ________
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave a message of ________ at Kartarpur.
Naam Japo, Kirat Karo, Vand Chhako (meditate, work and share)
During his stay at Sultanpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji used to bathe in the ________ river
III. Match the following :
|1. Battle of Panipat||(i) Chuharkana|
|2. Sachcha Sauda||(ii) 1526 AD.|
|3. Guru Angad Dev Ji||(iii) Taiwandi|
|4. Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji||(iv) Bhai Lehna.|
|1. Battle of Panipat||(ii) 1526 AD.|
|2. Sachcha Sauda||(i) Chuharkana|
|3. Guru Angad Dev Ji||(iv) Bhai Lehna.|
|4. Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji||(iii) Taiwandi|
IV. Differentiate between the following :
Muslim Nobility and Muslim Middle Class.
1. Muslim Nobility. The high ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’ etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was .spent in luxury and merry-making. The upper class people lived in palaces or mansions. They indulged in drinking and kept numerous women for their different types of amusements. The Ulemas enjoyed great respect in the society. They had indepth knowledge of Quran and Arabic language. As a result, they wielded great influence in the Muslim royal courts.
2. Muslim Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in the middle class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.
Vaishnavas and Shaivas.
- Vaishnavas: People believing in Vaishnavism worshipped the incarnations of Lord Vishnu i.e. Lord Krishna and Lord Rama. These people were completely vegetarians.
- Shaivas: People believing in Shaivism worshipped Lord Shiva. Most of these were hermits. People of Shaivism included Gorakhpanthi, Nathpanthi and Jogis.
IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who was the last ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty?
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty.
Who invited Babur to attack Punjab?
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to attack Punjab.
Which religious persons were given state patronage during the Lodhi period?
The Ulemas and Sufi Sheikhs were given state patronage during the Lodhi period.
What do you understand by Jaziya?
Jaziya was a type of tax which Mughal rulers collected from the non-Muslim population. It lieu of it, rulers took the responsibility of their protection.
What do you mean by pilgrimage tax?
Pilgrimage tax was collected from non-Muslims. They gave this tax for visiting their pilgrimage places.
When and amongst whom was the Battle of Panipat fought?
The first Battle of Panipat was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi.
Name the two sects of Muslim society.
Shia and Sunni.
When and where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. at Rae Bhoe Ki Talwandi. Now it is known as Nankana Sahib.
Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta and father’s name was Mehta Kalu.
Name any two Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Var Malhar, Var Assa, Japji Sahib, Barah Maha etc.
What are the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji called?
The travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are called Udasis.
V. Short Answer Type Questions
Write a note on the condition of women in early 16th century.
In the early 16th century, the condition of women was not good. They were considered lower than males. Their condition in their home was just like a servant. They had to live under the control of males. Few Rajput tribes considered girls a cause of sorrows and even killed them. Women did not enjoy a good status even in the Muslim society. Female was considered only a means of entertainment. They lived a pitiable life from birth till death.
What do you know about the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
1. God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus, could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further said that God is Self-Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
3. God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.
4. God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of His grace and greatness.
5. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.
Write a note on the middle class during the Lodhi period.
Middle Class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim Society.
Which social evils did Guru Nanak Dev Ji oppose?
Guru Ji believed that there is no place of external rituals in true religious reverence of devotion. That’s why Guru Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of Yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also did not accept the methods of Jogis. It had two major reasons-lack of reverence devotion in their behaviour towards God and disagreement towards social responsibilities in their Sanyasi life. Guru Ji did not accept Vaishnav Bhakti and did not give any place to incarnationism in his ideology. Except this, he also criticised the customs of Muslims.
Write a note on the Muslim society during the Lodhi period.
1. Upper Class. The high-ranking nobles, Iqtadars, Ulemas, etc. were counted among the members of this class. A noble held high rank in the Muslim government. He was addressed as ‘Malik’, ‘Khan’, ‘Amir’, etc. Iqtadars were basically big landlords. All the nobles had their personal armies, which they offered to Sultans for military purpose on demand. The life of a member of this class was spent in luxury and merry-making.
2. Middle Class. The farmers, traders, soldiers, middle ranking government officers were included in this class. The Muslim scholars and writers were also counted among them. Their standard of living and social status were far better than the social status and economic condition of the Hindus.
3. Lower Class. The artisans, domestic servants, male and female slaves etc. formed the lower class of the Muslim society. The standard of living of this section of Muslim society was very low. They worked hard to earn their livelihood. The artisans like weavers, goldsmiths, ironsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, etc. could hardly earn two square meals by even putting in hardwork throughout the day. The domestic servants and slaves served the high class of the Muslim society.
VI. Long Answer Type Questions
Describe in detail about social and religious condition of society during Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s era.
Social Condition. During 16th century, the social condition of Punjab was quite pitiable. There was discrimination in society. As compared to Hindus, Muslims were better positioned. There was no proper arrangement of education. People were forced to study Persian language. The condition of women was quite bad. The birth of a female child was considered a curse on the family. Due to prevailing superstitions and evils, this age was considered a dark age.
Following was the social and religious condition of Punjab during 16th century.
1. Position of Muslims. From 11th to 16th centuries, Punjab remained under the Muslim rulers. Under these rulers, many Muslims permanently started residing over here. They married with many females including prostitutes and slaves. Many of the low caste Hindus, due to the fear of Muslim rulers, and under the influence of Muslims, adopted their religion. During this time, many Mughals and Iranis settled in Punjab.
So, In the beginning of the 16th century, there was a sizeable amount of Muslims in Punjab. Most of them lived in towns. In the society of 16th century, Muslims were in a better position than Hindus. Its reason was the Muslim rule in Punjab. Muslims were appointed at higher official posts. They were always favoured in every espect. Upper-Class Muslims had certain privileges as well.
2. Classes of Muslim Society. The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into the following three classes :
1. Upper Class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders and powerful feudal lords etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the Sultans and high ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.
2. Middle Class and Lower Class:
Middle class: The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim society.
Lower class: The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.
3. Condition of Hindus. The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam.
4. Status of Women. Following was the condition of women during the sixteenth century :
1. Miserable Condition. The condition of women in Punjab was pitiable in the beginning of the sixteenth century. They were rated as feeble, hopeless, weak and inferior to men. They were treated as slaves in their own homes. They were cursed to live in subordination to men. Among some of the Rajput clans, the birth of a girl was considered as an ill-omen and she was killed at the time of birth.
2. Evils. Many evils prevailed in the contemporary society which hindered the overall growth of women. Some of the worst traditions and customs were-Practice of Sati, Female infanticide, Child Marriage, Johar, Purdah System, Polygamy, etc.
3. Purdah System. The Purdah system was prevalent among both the Hindu and Muslim women. The Hindu women covered their faces with their chunnis or saris and Muslim women wore Burkas.
Polygamy. The custom of polygamy was very popular among the Muslims. The Emperor and high-ranking officers kept many women for their amusement and fun. Female education was totally neglected. Only the women of royal family received some education. The rest of women folk remained illiterate. There were other numerous restrictions on women.
Religious Condition : During 16th century, Hinduism was the major religion of Punjab. Their major principles were based on Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharta, Upnishadas, Gita etc. Hinduism was divided into many sects :
- Vaishnav Sect: Those who had faith in this sect worshipped Lord Vishnu and his incarnations Lord Rama, Lord Krishna etc. They were completely vegetarians.
- Shaiv Sect:. The proponents of Shaivism worshipped Lord Shiva. Most of them were hermits which included Gorakhpanthi, Nathpanthi and Jogis.
- Shakti Sect: The believers of Shakti sect worshipped Goddess Kali and Durga as incarnation of Shakti. They also performed animal sacrifice.
Many of them believed in magic. Many people worshipped their ancestors, Gugga Peer, Sheetla Mata etc. Except these in the mountainous regions of Punjab, there lived many people who believed in Buddhism and Jainism. They believed in non-violence.
Explain in detail the first Udasi of Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji went first to the east and then to south on his first journey. He started his journey around 1500 A.D. Guru Sahib took along with him an ardent devotee, Mardana on his first journey. Mardana was a good player of Rabab (a stringed musical instrument).
Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the various places which are given below :
1. Sayyidpur. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Sayyidpur from Sultanpur Lodhi. In the beginning of his journey, Guru Sahib converted a carpenter Bhai Lalo. Guru Sahib refused to partake the food provided by Malik Bhago. Guru Sahib refused to take the food because Malik Bhago followed corrupt means and oppressed the poor to earn money.
2. Talumba. Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Talumba in district Multan from Sayyidpur. Sajjan Thug, who pretended to be a religious man, lived there. Sajjan was basically a cunning man. Sajjan planned to play his dirty game with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, when Guru Nanak Dev Ji sang his hymns before going to bed, it deeply touched the heart of Sajjan. He fell at the feet of Guru Sahib and pleaded for forgiveness. Guru Nanak Dev Ji pardoned him and accepted him as his follower. After that, Sajjan stopped cheating the people and adopted the path of spreading the message of True Faith. The historian Teja Singh has rightly said, “The criminal’s den became a temple of God worship.”
3. Kurukshetra. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Kurukshetra from Talumba. He found thousands of Brahmins, Saints, and Hindus gathered there on the occasion of solar eclipse. Guru Nanak Dev Ji addressed the congregation, where Guru Sahib laid stress upon the purity of soul in place of giving more importance to the outer purity or purity of physical existence. Guru Sahib taught them the path of honesty, love, and truth.
4. Panipat. Guru Sahib went to Panipat from Kurukshetra. Guru Sahib met Sufi Sheikh Ikul Kabir. The Sufi saint was highly impressed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji and became his follower.
5. Haridwar. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Haridwar from Panipat passing through Delhi on his way. At Haridwar, Guru Nanak Dev Ji observed that the people were throwing water upwards facing the sun saying that they were sending water to their ancestors. In order to help the people to see reason, Guru Sahib started throwing water in the opposite direction. When the people inquired about the aim of his such action, Guru Sahib told them that he was watering his fields in the Punjab. The people tried to mock at his reasoning. Then, Guru Nanak Dev Ji sought to reason by questioning that when they could not accept that he could send water a few hundred miles away, then how could they justify their belief that their water offerings were reaching their ancestors millions of miles away? When no one came up with any answer, they became the followers of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
6. Gorakhmatta. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Joshi Math etc. and finally reached Gorakhmatta. Guru Sahib met the followers of Saint Gorakh Nath. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught that they could not attain moksha by piercing their ears, smearing their bodies with ashes, keeping sticks in their hands and abandoning their social responsibilities. The Yogis of Gorakhmatta were so impressed that they changed the name of the place to Nanakmatta.
7. Benaras. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Benaras from Nanakmatta. Guru Sahib met Pandit Chaturdass in Benaras. The teachings and grace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji overwhelmingly impressed Pandit Chaturdass. He submitted before Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with all his followers and all of them became the devotees of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
8. Gaya. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey from Benaras and reached Gaya, the well-known place of pilgrimage of the Buddhists. Guru Nanak Dev Ji blessed numerous people of Gaya with his teachings and they became his followers.
9. Assam. Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled through Bihar and Bengal and reached Assam. At ‘Dhubri’, Guru Sahib met Shankar Dev. Guru Sahib met a beautiful magician woman named Nooran, whom Guru Sahib taught that the real beauty was of a pure character.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey through Guwahati and Shillong and reached Syhlit. Guru Sahib met Sheikh Jalal at Syhlit. Sheikh Jalal was so impressed by his teachings that he became his follower.
10. Dacca, Cuttack and Jaganath Puri. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Dacca from Kamrup. Guru Sahib had an exchange of ideas with numerous religious leaders there. From Dacca, Guru Sahib passed through Cuttack and reached Jagannath Puri in present Orissa. Guru Sahib watched the performance of aarti (worship of an Idol with lamps and cinders) of Idol of Lord Jagannath, the incarnation of God Vishnu. Guru Sahib preached to the people the uselessness of Idol worship. He preached that God is Omnipresent.
11. Journey of South India. Guru Nanak Dev Ji continued his journey to South India. Guru Sahib visited Guntur, Kanchipuram, Trincholopoly, Nagapatnam, Rameshvaram, Trivandrum, and Sri Lanka. The king of Sri Lanka, Shivnabh, was highly impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He became his follower. His Queen and other people accepted him as their Guru. In Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji deputed one of his followers, Jhanda Bedi to continue to spread his message.
The Return Journey. On his return journey from Sri Lanka, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited numerous small towns. Finally, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kusali, Bycola, Anumadhyam, Pannar and Pakpattan. At Pakpattan, Guru Sahib met Sheikh Ibrahim, the tenth descendant of Sheikh Farid. Sheikh Ibrahim felt highly elated by listening to the divine talks of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. From Pakpattan, Guru Sahib went to Dipalpur and returned to Sultanpur.
What do you learn from the life of Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
The teachings and life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji served as ideals for all. Guru Sahib was strongly against the narrow views like irrational customs and rites, caste system, racialism, etc. Guru Sahib had deep faith in the True Name and existence of Supreme God and gave this message to all those who sought His grace.
The main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are given below :
1. The Greatness of God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God are as follow :
- Faith in One Supreme God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed that there is one Supreme God. Guru Sahib did not believe in the incarnation of God. Guru Sahib had called ‘Ram’, ‘Krishna’, ‘Buddha’ etc. as supreme beings but did not accept them as incarnations (Avtars) of God.
- God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is Formless. According to him, God is Self-Created. Hence, God should not be worshipped in the form of idols made by man.
- God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. God is present in every living being. Everything exists only because of him.
- God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji assured humanity that God was compassionate and generous. God comes whenever He is sought. The person, who attributes all his acts to the will of God, God Himself comes to his rescue.
2. The Recitation of True Name (Sat Nam). Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed on the recitation of the True Name. Guru Sahib explained that as a person needed water for washing his body, he needed the recitation of the true name for the purification of his mind.
3. Importance of Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the grace of Guru as most essential for reaching God. The Guru is like a ship which takes the follower across the sea of life. Guru Sahib said one could not realize God without the blessings of the Guru. The Guru is the ladder or a path to reach God.
4. Complete faith in the Principles of Right Conduct (Sat Karma). Guru Nanak Dev Ji told that a person passed through a cycle of births and deaths time and again as a result of the deeds performed by him. A person who did wrong deeds, took birth, again and again, to pay for his evil deeds. On the other hand, a person who performed pious deeds escaped the cycle of births and deaths and achieved moksha.
5. Stress on the life of a Householder. Guru Nanak Dev Ji favoured the life of a true householder. Guru Sahib gave the message that a person should live a right type of life on this earth and try to become pure. Guru Sahib showed by his personal example that a person could attain salvation while leading the life of a householder. Guru Sahib showed that a person could lead a detached and pure life even as a family man.
6. Faith in Love for Humanity. Guru Nan^k Dev Ji did not believe in social differences based on colour and race. To him, all the hujnan beings were the creatures of one and the same God. Hence they were all equal.
7. Criticism of Caste System. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised the caste system. For him, no one was a Hindu, Muslim, low or high. According to him, there was fundamental equality and unity among all the castes and religions.
8. Social Service. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the person who did not love and respect all the creations of God, could never achieve God. Guru Sahib asked his followers to serve the society and love humanity selflessly. For him, love for humanity was love for God.
9. Criticism of Idol Worship. Guru Nanak Dev Ji criticised idol worship in very strong terms. According to him, it was useless to worship God in the form of an idol made by a man. For him, the right way to worship God was to recite His Name with full devotion and to realise His presence all around.
10. Criticism of Yajnas, Sacrifices, and Irrational Ceremonies. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised irrational rites and performance of yajnas and sacrifices in order to achieve God. According to him, superficial presentations to God had no place in the worship of God.
11. Attainment of Supreme Bliss (Sach Khand). According to the Guru Sahib, the main aim of life of a human being is the attainment of Supreme Bliss or Sach Khand. The Sach Khand is that state of mind under divine grace wherein all the troubles and fears of a person disappear. A devotee becomes fearless and his troubled mind gets peace. In such a state of mind, the person gets a glimpse of the Supreme Being.
12. Emphasis on Life of Virtue. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message to people to |ead a virtuous life. Guru Sahib gave the following principles for an ideal life : (0 Speak the truth, (ii) Do not steal. (Hi) Live a life of piety, (iv) Never hurt the feelings of fellow beings.
PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Important Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions :
Bibi Sulakhni, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, lived in .
(d) Kiratpur Sahib.
Who founded the city of Kartarpur?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(c) Guru Ram Dass Ji
(d) Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
(b) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Sajjan Thag met Guru Nanak Dev Ji at
________ was the mother of Gurvr Nanak Dev Ji.
(a) Sulakhani Ji
(b) Tripta Ji
(c) Nanki Ji
(d) Bibi Amro Ji.
(b) Tripta Ji
Babur made Guru Nanak Dev Ji prisoner at :
(b) Kiratpur Sahib
Babur defeated ________ in the battle of 1526 A.D.
(a) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(b) Behlol Lodhi
(c) Ibrahim Lodhi
(d) Sikandar Lodhi.
(c) Ibrahim Lodhi
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from ________
(b) Kiratpur Sahib
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in A.D.
Who made Tatar Khan the Nizam of Punjab?
(a) Behlol Lodhi
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(c) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(d) Sikander Lodhi.
(a) Behlol Lodhi
________ is considered the most famous king of the Lodhi dynasty.
(a) Behlol Lodhi
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(c) Daulat Khan Lodhi
(d) Sikander Lodhi.
(d) Sikander Lodhi.
________ considered themselves the descendants of Bibi Fatima, daughter of Prophet Mohammad.
Fill in the blanks :
Babur conquered Punjab in ________ A.D.
Sayyids considered themselves descendants of ________, daughter of Prophet Mohammad.
Ibrahim Lodhi called ________ to Delhi to punish him.
________ was made the Subedar of Punjab after Tatar Khan Lodhi.
Daulat Khan Lodhi
The Muslim Amirs wore elongated headgear called ________
________ was the son of Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Dilawar Khan Lodhi
The incident when Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent? 20 to serve food to the saints is known as ________
________ was the wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
________ and were the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand
Var Malhar, Var Assa, ________ and ________ were four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Japji Sahib, Barah Maha
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born at ______________ village near Lahore.
Gurudwara Panja Sahib is situated at ________
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the controversy regarding the date of birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
According to Janam Sakhi (Biography) by Bhai Bala Ji, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was bom on the day of full moon in the month of Kartik (October-November) in 1469. The modem historians are of the view that he was born in the month of Vaisakh (Baisakhi season—April-May) and support the date April 15, 1469.
Which incident is known as Sacha Sauda?
Gum Nanak Dev’s father gave him twenty rupees to start some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent that money in feeding the hungry saints and this incident is famous as ‘Sacha Sauda’.
To which place did Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s wife belong? Write the names of their sons.
Mata Sulakhani, wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, belonged to Batala (District Gurdaspur). They had two sons named Bhai Sri Chand and Bhai Lakshmi Chand.
What words were spoken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji after attaining Enlightenment? Explain their meaning.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that ‘No one is a Hindu or Muslim’. These were the first words, which Guru Nanak Dev Ji uttered after attaining enlightenment. The meaning of his message was that all the Hindus and Muslims were equal. It also meant that Hindus and Muslims had forgotten the real message of their respective religions.
What work was done by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur and under whom?
At Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji worked as Bhandari (the store accountant) in a Lodhi Khana (government storehouse) of Subedar Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Name the four Banis composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
The four main ‘Banis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are: War Malhar’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’ and ‘Barah Maha’.
What did Guru Nanak Dev Ji preach at Kurukshetra?
At Kurukshetra, Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that a person should lay stress more on the purity of his mind and soul than on mere purity of his physical appearance (carnal existence).
Write Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s visit to Benaras.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled to Benaras from Gorakhmatta. At Benaras, Pandit Chaturdass debated with him on idol worship. Pandit Chaturdass lost the debate. He was convinced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views. He surrendered himself to him and became his follower.
What did Guru Ji preach the Sidhas and Yogis at Gorakhmata?
The Sidhas and Yogis smeared their bodies with ashes and led strange ways of life. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave them the message that they would not attain salvation by adopting useless customs like smearing their bodies with ashes, holding sticks, shaving heads, giving up social responsibilities, etc.
Explain Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views on God.
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the Supreme God was Formless, Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Eternal. He had both the forms of being absolute (Nirguna) and of (Saguna). The word Vanis is also used for Banis.
What type of sacred thread did Guru Nanak Dev Ji want?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted a sacred thread of pure deeds. According to him, such a sacred thread never breaks, nor is stained.
What is the meaning of Sacha Sauda?
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is pious deal or in other words a true kind of business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji made a pious deal by spending twenty rupees to feed the saints.
Where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born at Talwandi, a village 64 kilometres from Lahore.
Why was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to Sultanpur Lodhi?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was sent to his sister Nanki and brother-in-law Jairam to start any business.
Where was a new spirit of Brotherhood promoted by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started preaching his message at Kartarpur.
Through which two institutions Guru Nanak Dev Ji started a new brotherhood?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started it through two new institutions of Sangat and Pangat.
What was the meaning of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
The meaning of Udasis is those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook.
What was the objective of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
To remove superstitions and to help humanity to adopt the right religious path.
Where is Gurudwara Panja Sahib situated?
From where Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi? ,
At which place Babur imprisoned Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
In which of his creation, did Guru Nanak Dev Ji critise the attack of Babur on Sayyidpur?
In Babur Vani.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend last 18 years of his life?
Where can we find the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God?
In Japji Sahib.
What is meant by Langar System?
Having food by sitting at one place by every one without any discrimination.
Who was the first Guru of Sikhism?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji leave this world?
On 22nd September 1539.
Describe any one influence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on the people of Punjab.
The people of Punjab started worshipping one God and the Idol worship declined.
Which invasion of Babur was compared to ‘Marriage party of Sins’ by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
The third invasion of Babur on India.
When and who founded Kartarpur?
Kartarpur was founded in 1526 by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Who gave the land for the establishment of Kartarpur?
It was given by a person named Diwan Kirorimal Khatri.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thag?
What was the impact of Sajjan Thag’s meeting with Guru Nanak Dev Ji on Sajjan Thag?
When he came in contact with Guru Nanak Dev Ji, he left his wrong doings and started propagating the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
How did the name of Gorakhmata change to Nanakmata?
At Gorakhmata, Guru Nanak Dev Ji told Nath Yogis about the real objective of life and they accepted the greatness of Guru Ji. Then this place was called as Nanakmata.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend his last days?
Give any one teaching of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
God is one and we must worship Him.
What were Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views about God?
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is One, Formless, Omnipresent and Omnipotent, and Compassionate.
What was the name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
To whom was Guru Nanak Dev Ji sent to take education?
What the incident is known as in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent ₹ 20 to serve food to a group of Faqirs?
Give the names of the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Srichand and Lakshmichand.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji attain true knowledge?
In 1499 A.D.
Who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev Ji during his first Udasi?
Name of which place was changed to Nanakmata?
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji go during his second Udasi?
In the north of India.
When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji start his third Udasi?
In 1517 A.D.
Who did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet at a place called Dhubri?
Sant Shankar Dev.
Who was Behlol Khan Lodhi?
Behlol Lodhi was the Sultan of Delhi from 1451 to 1489. He established Lodhi dynasty.
Describe any one quality of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Ibrahim Lodhi was a good soldier.
Describe two shortcomings of Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Ibrahim Lodhi himself was an Afghan (Pathan) but he failed to understand the freedom-loving nature and habits of the Afghans, his own tribesmen.
- He abandoned the policy of his father and grandfather and tried to discipline the Afghans. He failed miserably in his policy.
When did Babur conquer Punjab and whom did he defeat in this battle?
Babur won a victory in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Delhi Sultan. ‘
Define the classes into which the Muslim society was divided.
The Muslim society was divided into three classes:
- Amirs (nobles), high ranking commanders, Ulemas and Sayyids (Muslim clergy)
- Middle Class and
- the Slaves.
Write the main terms of treaty between Alam Khan and Babur.
The terms of the treaty signed between Alam Khan and Babur were as follow :
- Babur would provide military help to Alam Khan to acquire the throne of Delhi.
- Alam Khan would recognise the supremacy of Babur over whole of the Punjab.
What do you know about the Ulemas?
The Ulemas were the leaders of Muslim religious class. They were scholars of Arabic and religious literature.
What was the difference between the food of the Hindu and the Muslim societies?
The food of Amirs, high ranking military officers, Sayyids, Sheikhs, Qazis and Muslim priests was rich and non-vegetarian. But the food of the Hindus was simple and mostly vegetarian.
Who were the Sayyids?
The Sayyids claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad. This class is highly respected in the Muslim society.
Describe the Muslim Middle Class.
The Muslim Middle Class consisted of middle ranking government officials, soldiers, traders and farmers.
Describe the dress of the Muslim women.
The Muslim women wore shirts, ghaghras, and tight pajamas, covering their whole body. They covered their whole body with a cloak called Burka.
Describe the sources of entertainment of the Muslims.
The main sources of entertainment of Muslim nobles, Amirs and military commanders were polo, horse riding, dance and music. The game of chess was equally popular among the Amirs and the poor sections of Muslim society.
Describe the superstitions observed by the Hindus.
Before the times of Guru Nank Dev Ji, the Hindus of Punjab were victims of blind faith and superstitions.
What was the political condition of Punjab under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi?
The Punjab had been reduced to an arena of intrigues under the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
Why did Ibrahim Lodhi summon Daplat Khan Lodhi to Delhi?
Ibrahim summoned Dault Khan to Delhi to punish him.
Who made Tatar Khan the Nizam of Punjab?
Who is considered the most famous king of the Lodhi dynasty?
Who was made Subedar of Punjab after Tatar Khan?
Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Name the younger son of Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Dilawar Khan Lodhi.
During his Punjab invasion of 1519 A.D., which areas were captured by Babur?
Bajaur and Bhera.
When did Babur capture Lahore?
Between whom the first battle of Panipat was fought?
Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi.
Who called themselves descendants of Bibi Fatima, daughter of Prophet Mohammad?
Who did justice related work?
Who were at the lowest level in Muslim Society?
What were Hindus considered before Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Name the religious tax imposed on Hindus.
Among whom the social evil of Sati prevailed?
What was the name of elongated headgear which the Muslim Amirs wore?
Why did Daulat Khan send his son Dilawar Khan to the Sultan of Delhi?
Daulat Khan Lodhi had thought that the Sultan of Delhi would punish him severely.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi invite Babur to attack India?
Daulat Khan Lodhi wanted to establish his own independent rule over Punjab.
Why did Daulat Khan Lodhi turn against Babur?
Babur did not appoint him the ruler of the whole of the Punjab after his victory.
Where did Daulat Khan fight Babur?
Daulat Khan fought a battle with Babur at Malout but was defeated.
Write down the words in which Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the political condition of the Punjab of early 16th century.
The king was like a lion, judicial officers were dogs.
Why did Babur conquer Punjab?
He wanted to occupy the throne of Delhi after conquering Punjab.
Short Answer Type Questions
Write in brief the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
- God is One. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that there is one God. He was not different for different people and thus could not be divided. He gave the message of one Supreme Formless or Supreme Onkar.
- God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached that Supreme God is Formless, without attributes and absolute. The Supreme God has attributes, which cannot be explained in words. Guru Sahib further teaches that God is Self-Created and not bound by the laws of time. Hence, He cannot be presented in the form of an idol and worshipped.
- God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained that God is Omnipotent and Omnipresent. He existed everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque.
- God is Supreme. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is Supreme. He is incomparable. It is impossible to measure the depth of His grace and greatness.
- God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message that God is compassionate. He attends to his true seekers whenever they need Him.
Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his Second Udasi (travel)?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There, Guru Sahib visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kulu, Spiti, etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountain and Amarnath Cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.
Describe the Sacred Thread ceremony of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread that was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.
What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in his education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sachha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.
Write about the places Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited during his first Udasi (travel).
Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places during his first Udasi :
- Guru Sahib went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where Guru Sahib made Bhai Lalo his follower.
- Then Guru Sahib visited Talumba, Kurukshetra and Panipat. Guru Sahib gave the message of doing right deeds to the people of those areas.
- From Panipat, Guru Sahib reached Haridwar via Delhi. Guru Sahib preached against superstitions at those places.
- Then Guru Sahib visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gorakhmatta, Benaras, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup (Assam), Shillong, Dacca, Jaganath Puri and a number of places in South India. Finally, Guru Sahib came back from Pakpattan to Sultanpur Lodhi via Dipalpur.
Write about the important places visited by Guru Nanak Dev Ji during the third Udasi (travel).
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan. He visited the following places during this Udasi :
- Hassan Abdal and
Give details of the time spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new city on the banks of river Ravi in 1521. The city was called “Kartarpur” which means ‘a city of God’. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the last eighteen years of his life along with his family members at Kartarpur (now in Pakistan.)
Guru Ji’s work at Kartarpur.
- During his stay at Kartarpur, Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed *Var Malhar’, War Majha’, War Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Onkar’, etc.
- Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the practices of Sangat and Pangat at Kartarpur in a systematic manner. During a session of ‘Sangat’, the followers of the Guru (Sikhs) sat together and meditated and recited hymns of the Guru. In the session of a ‘Pangat’ all the followers of the Guru sat together and partook their meals from a common kitchen (langar). This practice is also called Langar system.
- When Guru Nanak Dev Ji prepared himself for the final journey of his life, he appointed his most devoted follower, Bhai Lehna as his successor to Guru-gaddi. Bhai Lehna as Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikh religion.
Write on the Udasis (travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels to spread his divine message. Those travels are called the Udasis. It is said that Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled from Kailash mountains in the north to Rameshwaram in the south and from Pakpattan in the west to Assam in the east. Guru Sahib also visited places outside India such as Sri Lanka, Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad. Guru Sahib spent twenty years of his life in Udasis. On his long tours, Guru Nanak Dev Ji came across many people of different religions and faiths. Those people had different rites and customs. Guru Nanak Dev Ji showed them the true religious path.
What is the social significance of the message given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
The message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji had great social significance. His message is for all. Every man and woman can easily follow and understand his teachings. There is no place for caste system or discrimination on religious basis. His teachings gave a setback to the caste system and developed the feeling of brotherhood among the people. Guru Sahib always identified himself with the common man. Therefore, Guru Sahib strongly condemned the oppression, injustice, and corruption of contemporary society. Consequently, his teachings removed many evils of the society.
Describe in brief the main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught us :
- There is one God. He is omnipresent and omnipotent.
- The caste distinctions are meaningless. The rich, poor, Brahmans, Shudras, all are equal.
- The right conduct makes a man great.
- God should be worshipped with a pure mind.
- Guru Sahib gives much importance to True Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the Guru essential for the realisation of God. According to him,‘True Guru acts as a guide in the attainment of the true name of God. Guru is the ladder which enables a man to reach the true goal of his life.”
- One should always earn one’s living by right means.
- The status of a woman is high. She gives birth to great men. All the women are worthy of highest respect.
Describe the religious policy of Sikandar Lodhi.
According to Muslim historians, Sikandar Lodhi was an intelligent ruler, who believed in welfare of his subjects and impartial justice. However, Dr. Indu Bhushan Banerjee strongly opposes this view. According to him, he did justice only to the Muslim section of his subjects. He was a highly oppressive ruler and adopted the policy of intolerance in case of his Hindu subjects. He demolished numerous temples and forcibly converted many Hindus to Muslim faith. Millions of Hindus became victims of his atrocities.
Describe the administration of Sikander Lodhi.
Sikander Lodhi was a powerful ruler. He centralized his administration and kept all the nobles and feudal lords under his strict control. He appointed Daulat Khan Lodhi as Nazim of Punjab. The boundaries of Punjab extended from Bhera to Sirhind at that time. Dipalpur was an important Suba of the Punjab province. However, Dipalpur was under nominal control of Lodhi Emperor.
Sikandar Lodhi worked for public welfare and considered it his main duty to solve the problems of his subjects. Unfortunately, he adopted this policy only in case of his Muslim subjects. But he did not treat Hindus well.
Describe the revolts during the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
The following two major revolts took place against the rule of Ibrahim Lodhi.
1. The Revolt of Afghans (Pathans). Ibrahim Lodhi tried to discipline the freedom loving Afghan tribesmen. The Afghans did not tolerate it. They, therefore, rose in revolt under the leadership of Alam Khan, an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi failed to crush their revolt.
2. Revolt in Punjab. Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab. He was also an uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi. He was annoyed by the stiff, obstinate and suspicious attitude of the Emperor Ibrahim Lodhi. As a result, Daulat Khan Lodhi decided to free himself from the control of the Emperor and started conspiring against him. He invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India to achieve his own aim.
Why did Dilawar Khan Lodhi go to Delhi? How did Ibrahim Lodhi treat him?
Dilawar Khan visited Delhi to meet Ibrahim Lodhi and to clarify his position regarding his relations with his father Daulat Khan. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He told Dilawar Khan that he would severely punish his father Daulat Khan for conspiring against him. Dilawar Khan was shown horrifying scenes of torture, which were inflicted on the rebels and afterwards, even he was imprisoned by the Sultan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison of Ibrahim Lodhi. On reaching Lahore, he told his father Daulat Khan all the facts; the treatment meted out to him and happenings at Delhi. Daulat Khan got the message and also came to know the real intentions of Ibrahim Lodhi and decided to cross swords with him.
Describe the Sayyidpur attack of Babur.
Babur marched towards Sayyidpur (Emnabad) after occupying Sialkot. A large army stationed at Sayyidpur offered a stiff resistance to the cavalry of Babur. However, Babur won the battle. The defeated army was mercilessly killed. The people of Sayyidpur were also subjected to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves. Guru Nanak Dev Ji described the cruel deeds of Babur in his ‘Babur Vani’.
Write about Babur’s invasion of India in 1524 A.D.
In 1524, Babur attacked India for the fourth time. Alam Khan, the real uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, appealed to Babur to help him in occupying the throne of Delhi. Even the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, another relative of Ibrahim Lodhi, had sought the help of Babur against Ibrahim Lodhi. Consequently, Babur, passing through Bhera reached Lahore. On reaching Lahore, Babur learnt that Daulat Khan had been driven out of Lahore by the army of Delhi before his arrival.
Babur immediately took revenge of the defeat of Daulat Khan by the army of Delhi.,In the meantime, misunderstanding developed between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur at Dipalpur. Daulat Khan was expecting that Babur would appoint him as the governor of Punjab after his victory. But Babur gave him only the territories of Jalandhar and Sultanpur. The disappointed Daulat Khan was infuriated. He ran away to hilly areas in order to raise an army to take revenge of his insult at the hands of Babur. However, the situation took a new turn when Babur entrusted Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi and left for Kabul to strengthen his army and make more preparations for another invasion of India.
What efforts were made by Alam Khan to conquer Punjab?
Babur entrusted the charge of Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodhi at the end of his fourth expedition before returning to Kabul. Later, Alam Khan Lodhi planned to grab the whole of Punjab. However, his dream was shattered when Daulat Khan defeated him and turned him out of Punjab. Alam Khan Lodhi again went to seek protection of Babur. He signed a treaty with Babur. According to the terms of the treaty, Alam Khan Lodhi promised Babur to help him to occupy the throne of Delhi. Alam Khan assured Babur that after occupying Punjab, he would accept the suzerainty of Babur over Punjab. However, Alam Khan failed in his plans. Ultimately, Alam Khan helped Daulat Khan against Ibrahim Lodhi. This time again he failed to achieve his goal and all his plans to grab Punjab were ruined.
Describe the strategy of war between the army of Ibrahim Lodhi and of Babur at Panipat.
The strength of the army of Ibrahim Lodhi on the battleground of Panipat was one lakh soldiers. It was divided into four sections :
- Advance Wing
- Centre Wing
- Left Wing and
- Right Wing.
There were 500 elephants also in his army.
Babur had arranged 700 carts before his army. The wheels of those carts were tied to each other with leather, leaving gaps between the pairs of carts. The artillery was arranged behind those carts. Behind the cannons, the front and the central wings, the army was stationed. The Left and Right Talughmas (invading platoons, which adopted guerilla technique of war) flanked the main army. At the back of such a layout stood the cavalry, ready to charge the enemy.
Write a note on the Amirs and Sardars.
The Amirs and high-ranking commanders belonged to the upper section of the Muslim society. They were given ranks and titles. The commanders were paid in the form of land grants called ‘Iqtas’ from where they collected land revenue. They were free to spend land revenue as they liked.
The commanders always remained involved in wars. They were engaged in making plans to free themselves from the control of the Delhi ruler in one way or the other. They did not look after the local administration, which was a part of their official duty. They spent their wealth on a life of luxury and debauchery. They lived in big mansions with many wives. They had many male and female slaves.
Write about the religious leaders of the Muslims.
There were two sections of Muslim high clergy,
- Ulemas: They belonged to religious class of the Muslim society. They were authorities on Arabic and religious literature,
- Sayyids: Apart from the Ulemas, there was a class of Sayyids in the Muslim religious society. They claimed themselves to be the descendants of Bibi Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad.
Both the Sayyids and the Ulemas had a thorough knowledge of the law governing the Muslim society.
Describe the condition of slaves and other low classes in the society.
- The lowest class in the Muslim society included persons like weavers, potters, labourers, slaves and eunuchs. The prisoners of war were made slaves. They were also exported to other countries.
- The eunuch slaves were employed to serve the royal ladies in the harems.
- The women slaves were like an object of amusement for satisfying the whims of the Amirs and high ranking commanders. Such women received shelter, food and clothing in return. Their condition of life depended upon the mercy of their owners.
What were the food habits of the Muslims?
The food habits of Upper Section of Muslim Society. The upper section of Muslim society included Amirs, high ranking commanders, Sayyids, Sheikhs, priests and Qazis. They enjoyed delicious food, spices and chillies in excess. The ‘Pulao’ and ‘Korrma’ were their most favourite delicacies. Among sweets and desserts, they liked puddings of ground flour (Halwa) and syrups (sharbats). It was a normal habit with the members of the upper class to take drugs.
The Food of Common Muslims. The common Muslims were non-vegetarian. The baked cakes of wheat (chappati) and roasted meat were their staple diet. The cooked food was also available in the bazaars. Most of the Muslim artisans loved to take mashed curd (lassi) along with their meals.
Write about the dress of the Muslims.
- The Upper Class Muslims wore costly and gaudy dresses. Their clothes were made of silk and fine cotton. The Amirs wore elongated headgear (Paggadi). They called their headgear ‘Cheera’.
- The Dress of the Slaves of the Nobles. They wore girdle (special cloth) covering abdomen. They kept a handkerchief and wore red sleepers. They wore ordinary headgears.
- The Muslim Clergy. They wore cotton clothes. They wore headgears of seven yards long cloth. The Sufis wore loose gowns.
- The Common Muslims. They wore shirts and pyjamas. They also wore shoes and socks.
- The Muslim women. A Muslim woman wore shirt, ghaggra and narrow pyjama.
Describe the position of women in the Muslim society.
A description of condition of the Muslim women in the sixteenth century is given below :
- They did not enjoy a respectable position in the Muslim society.
- The women belonging to high class lived in highly protected environment of harems. The slaves and concubines were provided to serve them.
- The Pardah system was rigorously observed. However, this system was not strictly observed in the rural areas.
- The women of the families of the common people working in the houses of upper class people lived in separate portions of the houses. Their portion was called Janan Khanna. They could come out of their dwelling houses only in Pardah.
Write about the caste system prevalent before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
The Hindu society was divided into different castes or classes before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The main castes were: Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.
Apart from these main castes, there were numerous sub-castes.
- Brahmans. The Brahmans had become totally negligent of their duties and responsibilities towards the society and worked for their personal interests. They indulged in flattery of the ruling class to serve their own interests. They also had great influence on the common man. The common people were trapped in numerous superstitions due to the influence of Brahmans.
- Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The condition of the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas was comparatively better.
- Shudras. The condition of Shudras was very miserable. They were hated and treated as untouchables. There was no harmony between the upper castes and the lower castes in the Hindu society.
Discuss the political condition of Punjab of early sixteenth century.
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
In the early sixteenth century, the condition of the Punjab was very deplorable. It was called Lahore province and was a part of the Delhi Empire in those days. The Sultans of Delhi (Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi 1451 to 1526) were despots. Anarchy spread in Punjab under their rule. The whole atmosphere was poisoned with conspiracies. There was naked dance of lawlessness in the whole of Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officials were corrupt and openly neglected their duties. There was no hope of getting justice in such a situation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that justice had taken wings. Bhai Gurdas had also described the corruption and maladministration of this period.
What was the cause of struggle between Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi and Daulat Khan Lodhi in the beginning of the sixteenth century? What steps did Ibrahim Lodhi take to check Daulat Khan Lodhi?
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the governor of Punjab during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. In name, he was subordinate to Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi but he was virtually acting as an independent ruler of Punjab. He won over Alam Khan Lodhi, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, to his side through secret negotiations, wherein he assured Alam Khan Lodhi his help in acquiring the throne of Delhi. When Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about this secret plot, he summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi. Daulat Khan sent his son Dilawar Khan Lodhi in his place to clarify his position. When Dilawar Khan Lodhi arrived in Delhi, Ibrahim Khan Lodhi imprisoned him. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison and reached back Lahore to join his father. Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India in order to take revenge upon Ibrahim Lodhi for his act.
Describe the struggle between Babur and Daulat Khan Lodhi.
Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India. Daulat Khan expected that Babur would appoint him the governor of Punjab after his victory. However, Babur gave him the territory of Jalandhar and Sultanpur only. As a result, he raised the banner of revolt against Babur. It soon led to a battle between them in which Daulat Khan and his son Ghazi Khan were defeated. After that, Babur returned to Kabul after entrusting his Indian possessions to Alam Khan. The moment Babur turned his back, Daulat Khan chased out Alam Khan, who at that time, represented Babur in Punjab, and declared himself the ruler of Punjab instead. Alam Khan visited Babur at Kabul and invited him to invade India. Babur again invaded India for the fifth time in 1525 and imprisoned Daulat Khan. Daulat Khan was later pardoned but he died soon after.
Describe the struggle between Babur, the King of Kabul, and Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi.
Describe the first battle of Panipat. What was the significance of this battle in the history of Punjab?
Babur marched towards Delhi after defeating Daulat Khan Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi also left Delhi with an army of one lakh soldiers to cross swords with Babur. They fought the battle at Panipat on April 21, 1526. Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi, was defeated and killed in the battle. Babur, the Padshah of Kabul, reached Delhi with his victorious army and unfurled his flag of victory over Delhi. With that Delhi Sultanate came to an end and the rule of the Mughal dynasty began. Hence, the battle of Panipat decided the fate of Punjab and also of whole of India.
Describe the condition of the Hindu society of the sixteenth century Punjab.
The condition of Hindu society in the sixteenth century Punjab was very miserable. Every Hindu was treated with suspicion. They were not appointed on high jobs in the government. The Jaziya and Toll tax (which were imposed only on non-Muslims) were forcibly collected from them. The government had imposed numerous restrictions on Hindu customs, traditions, festivals and dress. They were subjected to torture and humiliation to compel them to embrace Islam. Sikander Lodhi killed a Brahmin named ‘Bodhan’ because he had resisted conversion to Islam. It is also a part of local oral history that once Sikander Lodhi had planned to kill all the Hindus who had assembled at Kurukshetra in a religious fair. However, he refrained from executing his plans due to the fear of mass revolt of the Hindus against him.
Describe the various classes of sixteenth-century Muslim society.
The Muslim society of the sixteenth century in Punjab was divided into following three classes :
1. Upper class. The Afghan Amirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Ulemas or religious leaders, and powerful feudal lords, etc. were included in this class. The ministers of the sultans and high ranking civil and military officers also belonged to this section of the Muslim Society. This section led a life of luxury and merry-making.
2. Middle class. The low ranking Qazis, soldiers, middle-ranking government officials, traders etc. were members of this class. They enjoyed more freedom under the Sultanate rule as compared to other lower sections of the society and also a position of respect in the Muslim society.
3. Lower class. The slaves, the domestic servants, artisans and eunuchs were included in this class. There were female slaves also. Their life was miserable.
Long Answer Type Questions
Throw light on the childhood of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Birth and Parentage. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1469. Mehta Kalu Ram was his father and Mata Tripta, his mother. His father belonged to Bedi caste of the Kshatriyas. Mehta Kalu Ram was a Patwari under Jagirdar Rai Bular of Talwandi. The name of the only sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Bibi Nanaki who was elder to Guru Sahib.
His Childhood and Education. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was kind at heart since his childhood. Guru Sahib was easily moved by the pains and sorrows of the poor and downtrodden. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Gopal at the age of seven. Guru Sahib learnt the Devanagri script and arithmetic within two years. Guru Sahib was sent to the school of Pandit Brij Lai to learn Sanskrit. Guru Sahib surprised Pandit Brij Lai with the right explanation of the word ‘OM’. According to the Sikh traditions, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulvi Qutubudin.
The Ceremony of Sacred Thread. During the years of his early education, the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to perform his sacred thread ceremony. All the relatives were invited on the occasion. After making preparations for the ceremony, Pandit Hardyal asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to wear the cotton thread as the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to follow his instructions. Guru Sahib asked Pandit Ji to provide him with a thread not of cotton yarn but a thread which was made of right virtues.
Adopted Different Occupations. The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji persuaded him to graze cattle in >order to divert his attention from spiritual activities to worldly activities. While on his cattle-grazing rounds, Guru Nanak Dev Ji usually lost himself in deep meditation and his unattended cattle used to destroy the fields of the other farmers. Troubled by the complaints of the neighbouring farmers, his father decided to engage him in business. He gave him twenty rtipees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the entire amount on feeding the hungry saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sacha Sauda’.
Marriage. Mehta Kalu Ram became depressed on watching the other worldly nature of his son. He married Guru Sahib to Bibi Sulakhani, daughter of Mulraj of Batala from a Kashtriya clan. At the time of his marriage, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was fourteen years old. Bhai Sri Chand and Bhai Lakshmi Chand were born to them. Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sultanpur Lodhi to adopt some regular profession. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got employment in a storehouse of Faujdar Daulat Khan on the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib started helping the saints open-heartedly at the storehouse. A complaint was lodged with Daulat Khan against him. However, when the records of the store were verified, every account was found in perfect order. It brought him great respect and admiration for his honesty.
Enlightenment. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the bank of river Kali Bein every morning to take a bath. Guru Sahib used to meditate every day at the time of bath. One morning, Guru Sahib went to take bath as usual, but disappeared for three days. During those days, Guru Sahib remained engaged in deep meditation and received the divine knowledge. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment and came to understand the mysteries of life. Guru Sahib was thirty years of age at that time.
Soon after, Guru Sahib started spreading the divine knowledge. His teachings were quite simple which attracted numerous people and they became his followers.
Describe the time period spent by Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Sultanpur Lodhi.
Sometime between 1486-87, the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mehta Kalu Ram sent Guru Sahib to Sultanpur Lodhi with a hope to divert his attention to worldly affairs. Guru Sahib started staying with Shri Jai Ram, his brother-in-law, and the husband of his sister Bibi Nanaki.
Job with Lodhi Khana. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was well-versed in Persian language and arithmetic. Guru Sahib joined as Bhandari (the store accountant) in Lodhi Khana (storehouse), of a Faujdar under Daulat Khan Lodhi on the recommendation of Shri Jai Ram. Guru Sahib worked very honestly and sincerely. However, a complaint was lodged against him that he was distributing the store-goods among the saints and wanderers without keeping any record. When the records were verified everything was found in perfect order.
The Life of a Householder and Meditation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji also brought his family to Sultanpur Lodhi after sometime. Guru Sahib started living a simple and pure family life. It was his routine that Guru Sahib visited the river Kali Bein on the outskirts of the town to take bath and to meditate on the name of God. He gave a part of his earnings in charity to the needy.
Enlightenment. It is recorded in Janam Sakhis, that one morning, as per his routine, Guru Sahib want to take bath in the river Kali Bein. But Guru Sahib disappeared for the next three days. A rumour spread in the town that he had been drowned in the river. All his relatives and well-wishers started worrying about his well-being. However, Guru Nanak Dev Ji had spent those days in deep meditation and on attainment of enlightenment. Guru Sahib had planned to spread the divine knowledge during those days.
After three days, Guru Nanak Dev Ji again returned to Sultanpur Lodhi and kept a mystic silence for some days. When Guru Sahib was persuaded to speak, he uttered his first divine message, “Na Ko Hindu Na Ko Musalman”. Faujdar Daulat Khan, Qazi, and Brahmins sought the explanation of his message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught them that the Hindus as well as the Muslims had forgotten the true tenets of their religions. He said that there was no difference in being a Hindu or Muslim. All were equal before God. Thus, Guru Sahib started preaching his divine teachings with the message of brotherhood and humanity. In order to preach his divine message, Guru Sahib resigned from his worldly job and started his travels.
Describe the Udasis (Travels) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
After attaining enlightenment, Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to spread the divine message for the spiritual benefit of humanity. Guru Sahib resigned his job and started his journey dressed as a fakir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji wanted to spread the divine message for which he travelled far and wide. Guru Sahib visited the east, west, north and south of India and blessed the people with his sweet voice and simple teachings. It took him twenty years to complete the whole journey. The historians of the Sikh history call the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji as the ‘Udasis’ of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Aims of the Udasis. The main aim of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to undertake the Udasis was to show the true divine path to misguided humanity. Apart from that, Guru Sahib also aimed at popularising the mode of meditation on God’s Name in order to realise Him. Guru Sahib also aimed at discouraging the irrational rites, customs and superstitions.
The Udasis (Travels or Tours) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. A brief account of his travels divided into three journeys may be studied as under :
1. First Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited the following places on his first journey.
(а) Guru Nanak Dev Ji went from Sultanpur Lodhi to Sayyidpur where he made Bhai Lalo his follower.
(b) Afterwards, Guru Sahib went to Talumba (where the cunning Sajjan lived), Kurukshetra, .and Panipat. Guru Sahib encouraged the people to do good deeds.
(c) Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Haridwar from Panipat via Delhi. Guru Sahib criticized superstitions and useless ceremonies.
(d) Next, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kedarnath, Badrinath, Benaras,
Gorakhmatta, Patna, Hajipur, Dhubri, Kamrup, Shillong, Dacca and South India. Finally, he came back to Sultanpur Lodhi from Pakpattan via Dipalpur.
2. Second Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and finally reached the present Himachal Pradesh. There he visited Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, JawalaJi, Kangra, Kullu, Spiti etc. and made many people his followers. Guru Sahib then visited Tibet, Kailash Mountains and Amarnath cave in Kashmir. After that, Guru Sahib also visited Hassan Abdal and Sialkot. From there, Guru Sahib came back to Sultanpur Lodhi.
3. Third Udasi. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his third Udasi from Pakpattan finally and reached Sayyidpur. During this journey,
Guru Sahib visited the following places :
- Hassan Abdal and
Explain in detail the concept of God according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
The core of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the praise of God (Nirankar). A simple description of the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji on God is as follows :
1. There is One God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of “Ek Onkar” which means One Supreme God. It was the core of all his teachings. It was the gist of his teachings or Mool Mantar. The gist of all his divine preaching on the idea of God is represented in his main saying (Mool Mantar). Guru Sahib told that there is one God and He cannot be divided. This message had social and religious importance for the contemporary world. The Muslims prayed to God accepting Prophet Muhammad as His prophet. The Hindus worshipped numerous gods and goddesses by accepting each of them as Supreme form. In his teachings, Guru Sahib strongly denied the concept of the incarnation of Supreme God. On that account, Guru Sahib did not accept Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Muhammad as the incarnations of Supreme God.
2. God is Formless and Self-Created. Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Formless. He does not have any shape or form (Nirguna) but there are different attributes of God also (Saguna). Hence, the exact perception of God remains beyond the reach of words. God is Self Created, not by time (Altai Purakh), eternal and timeless (Akal Murat). Hence, it will not help, if Supreme God is worshipped only in the form of an idol created out of the perception of a common man. Guru Sahib rightly claimed that an ignorant man did not have the capacity to perceive the real God and neither had the ability to perceive and represent the Supreme God in the form of an idol or a symbol.
3. God is Omnipresent and Omnipotent. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is omnipresent and omnipotent. Guru Sahib said that He is present everywhere. He cannot be confined within the four walls of a temple or mosque. One of his couplets when translated, elaborates thus, “Why to seek one that was created and dies. Seek the only one, who is eternal.”
The being, which is created, will die. The being, which is created, is bound by time. It has a beginning. The thing, which has a beginning, has an end also. However, the Supreme God is Self-Created, that is, he was not created and thus will not end with time. He is Akal Murat, that is not bound by time (start and end) and thus timeless (permanent).
4. God is Compassionate (Kind). Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that God is very kind. He helps whenever He is sought. He lives in the hearts of his believers. To Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God was personal and merciful. He helped them who had faith in Him in time of trouble and difficulty.
5. God is Supreme and Great. Guru Nanak Dev Ji declared that God is Supreme and Great. It was beyond the capabilities of human beings to understand his Supreme Existence. Only God knows what actually He is. Thus Guru Nanak Dev Ji said, . ‘He, The Great, knows, what can be known on being great.’ ‘A’rtoi sfS1′ tyufHf WJ TF<? W( I’ Many people had tried to explain the greatness of God but none had been successful in revealing His greatness in words.
6. Importance of his edicts (Hukam). The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were full of praise of “Hukam” (rules ordained by God) of God. According to Guru Sahib , every event in the universe takes place as ordained by God (Hukam). Guru Sahib suggested that humanity should accept the sweet will of God as revealed in His Hukam.
Describe the role of Guru Nanak Dev Ji as a teacher and the founder of the Sikh religion.
(A) As a Great Teacher :
1. Preacher of Truth. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great teacher of humanity. Guru Sahib attained enlightenment in the thirtieth year of his life. Guru Sahib travelled widely to spread his message. Guru Sahib spread the gospel of Truth in every nook and corner of the Punjab. Everywhere, people were impressed by his personality and message. Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught to abandon the materialistic desires, selfishness, and greediness and enjoined upon his followers to lead a pious life. Guru Sahib taught those principles which he himself practised in his personal life.
2. A Guru for the Whole Humanity. The teachings of Guru Sahib were not meant for any particular community, place, or nation, rather they are for the whole world. Prof. K.S. Narang opines that his message was not just for one period of time. It is eternal. Guru Sahih’s teachings were so rational and complete that even modern rationalists cannot find any shortcomings in them. The main aim of his teachings was the welfare of the whole humanity. It was only with the spirit of the welfare of the whole humanity that Guru Sahib undertook hard journey to Burma, China, Tibet, Arabia, etc.
(B) As the founder of Sikh Religion: Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh religion. There are some fundamental principles of Sikh religion which are found only in Sikhism but not in Hinduism or Islam. Fpr example, Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the institutions of Sangat and Pangat which were the important features of the new faith. Secondly, Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not appoint his son as successor to Guru-gaddi but gave it to his devotee Bhai Lehna. By this act, the Guru tradition became very significant and the Sikh religion was founded. The Sikh religion continued to develop during the period of next nine Gurus and the Sikh religion established itself as a full-fledged religion.
Describe the political condition of Punjab before Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
The political condition of the Punjab was very miserable before the times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (i.e. in the beginning of the 16th century). The Punjab was known as the Lahore Province (Suba) in those days and formed the part of the Delhi Empire. However, the glory of the Delhi Empire had declined by that time. As a result, the Punjab administration was weak and inefficient.
The brief description of political condition of Punjab in the beginning of the 16th century was as under :
1. Despotic Rule. In the beginning of 16th century, Punjab was ruled by the despotic rulers. All the Delhi Sultans of this period from Behlol Lodhi to Ibrahim Lodhi, were despots. They believed in the doctrine of Divine Right of the King and considered themselves as the representatives of God on the earth. All the powers of the Empire were concentrated in their hands. How can one expect that rights of common man were safe during the rule of such despots?
2. Political Anarchy: The country had been reduced to an arena of intrigues during the reign of the Lodhis. The last years of the reign of Sikandar Lodhi witnessed revolts all over the Empire. During the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, there were frequent revolts in his kingdom. All his commanders and courtiers were busy in conspiring against him. The provincial governors were either trying to establish their independent kingdoms or joining the camps of contenders to the throne of Delhi. Such a state of anarchy worsened the condition of Punjab. It was a historic fact that no ruler could effectively rule Delhi without his control over the Punjab. Hence, all the Subedars were watching the situation in Punjab keenly. The governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi, was making every effort to establish his independent control over Punjab. A spirit of revolt was rising among the people of Punjab due to the selfish policies of the incapable rulers.
3. Lawlessness: In the beginning of the 16th century, there was complete lawlessness in the Punjab. The ruling class was busy in merry-making. The government officers were corrupt. There was no hope for any one to get justice in such a situation. The condition of the period is also reflected in the sayings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Sahib Ji said that justice had taken wings. Guru Sahib Ji further revealed that there was not a single man who would do job without taking bribe. The ruler himself sought gratification to deliver justice. Sikandar Lodhi tried to deliver justice but he adopted this approach only for his Muslim subjects.
4. Wars: The Punjab was reduced to a battleground. Every ambitious noble was making efforts to establish his control over Punjab so that he could occupy the throne of Delhi. The intrigues and ambitions of military conynanders, Subedars, and courtiers led to numerous clashes. During the period, a tussle between Daulat Khan Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi continued for a long time. Babur invaded the Punjab five times during 1519-1526 A.D.
Describe Babur’s conquest of Punjab.
The victory of Babur over Punjab was the outcome of the first battle of Panipat. It was fought in 1526 A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. Babur won this battle and occupied Punjab.
Babur’s invasion. Babur left Kabul for India in November 1525, with his twelve thousand soldiers. He defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi at Lahore on his march towards Delhi. The Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi proceeded towards north-west along with an army of one lakh soldiers against Babur. His army was divided into four wings, namely, the advance guard, central division, right wing and left wing. There were five hundred elephants in his army. The rival armies stood face to face in the battlefield of Panipat.
Beginning of the Battle. There were no attack from either side for eight days. Ultimately, on April 21, 1526, the army of Ibrahim attacked Babur’s forces. Babur started his attack by continuously firing his cannons. It was a new situation and experience for the Delhi army. Immediately afterwards, the right and left Talugma wings of Babur’s army attacked Delhi army. It was followed by a strong charge of the middle wing of Babur’s army consisting of cavalry on the centre of Delhi army. In this manner, Delhi army was encircled from all sides. They could move neither forward nor retreat. The elephants of Ibrahim’s army were terrified and injured by the gunshots. They trampled their own soldiers of Delhi army under their feet. Within no time, the ground of Panipat was flooded with corpses of the killed soldiers. By the end of the noon, on the same day, the battle was over. The dead body of Ibrahim was found lying among numerous corpses of Rajput soldiers who were bodyguards of the dead Sultan. This battle completed the occupation of Punjab by Babur.
Describe in brief the intrigues of Daulat Khan Lodhi in Punjab.
Daulat Khan Lodhi was the son of Tatar Khan. Sikander Lodhi had appointed his reliable and near relative Tatar Khan as the governor of Punjab because of the sensitive situation in Punjab Province. After the death of Tatar Khan, his son Daulat Khan was appointed as governor of Punjab. During the lifetime of Sikander Lodhi, Daulat Khan remained loyal to Delhi Sultan but after the death of the Sultan, he started conspiring against the Delhi Sultanate with an aim to establish his independent control oyer Punjab.
1. Intrigues against Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodhi learnt about the plots of Daulat Khan Lodhi against him. He summoned Daulat Khan Lodhi to Delhi to clarify his position. But the Sultan Daulat Khan was guilty. Hence, he sent Dilawar Khan, his son, in his place to Delhi to represent him. Ibrahim Lodhi threatened Dilawar Khan. He tried to convey him the message that he could severely punish those who dared to conspire against him. Afterwards, he imprisoned Dilawar Khan. Somehow, Dilawar Khan managed to escape from the prison.^On reaching Lahore, he told Dault Khan about all the happenings.
Daulat Khan was quick to realise the danger of facing a real conflict with Ibrahim Lodhi. Therefore, first of all, he immediately declared himself as an independent ruler of Punjab. Further, in order to strengthen his position, he sought the help of Babur, the ruler of Kabul, and sent his son Dilawar Khan to him for negotiations. Dilawar Khan assured Babur of the full support of his father. Babur was desirous of becoming the ruler of India. He had earlier invaded India a couple of times with the same aim. Hence, he found his dream of ruling India becoming true, when he received the offer of Daulat Khan.
He marched towards India with full strength and easily occupied Lahore. However, when he proceeded further, he faced a strong opposition of the Afghan leaders. He ordered his army to indulge in loot and plunder at Lahore. Soon after, Dipalpur and Jalandhar were also looted. After conquering Punjab, Babur made Daulat Khan the Subedar of Jalandhar and entrusted the rest of Punjab to Alam Khan Lodhi, who was also made a representative or Vakil of Babur in India.
2. Daulat Khan’s Revolt against Babur. Daulat Khan had expected that Babur would declare him an independent ruler of Punjab. He was shocked and infuriated when Babur declared him the Subedar of Jalandhar only. He raised the banner of revolt against Babur along with his son Ghazi Khan. Babur easily crushed his revolt. Daulat Khan escaped to the hills of Shivaliks to save his life. When Babur left India, Daulat Khan came down from the Shivalik hills. He occupied a major portion of Punjab after defeating the armies of Alam Khan and Ibrahim Lodhi.
3. Defeat of Daulat Khan and his death. Babur was keeping an eye on the activities of Daulat Khan Lodhi. When he learnt that Daulat Khan had occupied Punjab again, he left Kabul in November 1525 to invade India. On reaching Lahore, he learnt that Daulat Khan Lodhi was camping at Malout near Hoshiarpur. Hence, Babur immediately attacked Malout. Daulat Khan was not able to resist the attack and lost the battle. He was imprisoned and sent to Bhera but he died before reaching there.
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society PSEB 9th Class SST Notes
- Birth jGuru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of the Sikh religion. According to the Sakhi of Bhai Meharban and old Sakhi of Bhai Mani Singh, he was born at Talwandi on April 15, 1469 A.D. At present his place of birth is called Nankana Sahib.
- Parentage The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mata Tripta. His father’s name was Mehta Kalu. He was a Patwari (a revenue officer).
- The Ceremony of Sacred – Thread (Janeu) Guru Nanak Dev Ji was strongly opposed to useless ceremonies and empty rituals. He, therefore, refused to wear the thread of cotton, considered as a sacred thread.
- The Pious Deal (Sacha Sauda) The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave him twenty rupees for starting some business. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent this money to serve food to the saints, beggars and the needy and this made a Pious Deal (Sacha Sauda).
- Enlightenment Guru Nanak Dev Ji attained enlightenment during his bath at a rivulet called ‘Bein’. One morning he took a dip in the river and reappeared after three days as an enlightened being.
- Udasis (Travels) The Udasis refer to those travels which Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook as a selfless pious wanderer without any care for his social bindings. The aim of his Udasis or Travels was to end the prevalent superstitions and guide humanity on the path of true faith. Guru Ji went on three Udasis in different directions.
- Stay at Kartarpur Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the city of Kartarpur in 1521 and started residing there. He composed “Var Malhar’, ‘Var Manjh’, “Var Assa’, ‘Japji Sahib’, ‘Patti’, ‘Barah Maha’ etc. at Kartarpur. He also established the traditions of Sangat and Pangat there.
- Guru Sahib Merged with the Supreme God On September 22,1539, he merged with the Ultimate Supreme God. Before he breathed his last, he had appointed Bhai Lehna as his successor.
- Teachings about God The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were that God is formless, Self-created, Omnipresent, Omnipotent, Com¬passionate and Great. He can be easily achieved with the blessings of a True Guru and self-surrender.
- Sangat and Pangat The congregation of the followers of the Guru is called Sangat. They sit together to learn the real meaning of the Guru and sing in praise of God. In Pangat system, all the followers of the Guru sit together on the floor to partake food from a common kitchen (langar).
- Lodhi Rulers The Punjab was under the rule of the Lodhis. The rulers of the dynasty were Bahlol Lodhi, Sikander Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Punjab under Ibrahim Lodhi Punjab was the centre of conspiracies during the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi. The Subedar of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India.
- Daulat Khan Lodhi and Babur During the fifth invasion of Babur on India, Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Subedar of Punjab, fought against Babur. Daulat Khan Lodhi was defeated.
- Political Condition Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. The political condition of Punjab was not good at the time of his birth. The rulers of Punjab were weak and fought among themselves. Punjab was passing through a phase of chaos and disorder.
- Social Condition The social condition of Punjab during this period was miserable. The Hindu society was divided into castes and sub¬castes. The condition of women was pitiable. The people were of low moral character and were superstitious.
- The Victory of Babur on Punjab The First Bat.tle of Panipat was fought in 1526 A.D. In this battle, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and Babur occupied Punjab.
- Muslim Society The Muslim society was divided into three classes namely, the upper class, middle class and the lower class. The leading military commanders, Iqtadars, Ulemas and Sayyids were included in the upper class. In the middle class, the traders, farmers, soldiers and low ranking government officers were included. The lower class comprised of artisans, slaves and household servants.
- Hindu Society In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Hindu society was divided into four main castes i.e. the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The goldsmiths, ironsmiths, weavers, carpenters, tailors, potters were few of the castes and sub-castes.
- 1469 A.D. – Birth of Guru Nanak Dev Ji
- 1499 A.D. – Attainment of True Knowledge
- 1499-1510 A.D. – First Udasi
- 1510-1515 A.D. – Second Udasi
- 1515-1517 A.D. – Third Udasi
- 1517-1521 A.D. – Fourth Udasi
- 1522 A.D. – Foundation of Kartarpur
- 22 September 1539 – Guru Nanak Dev Ji merged with the Supreme God
- 1526 A.D. – First battle of Panipat.
Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 2 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Contemporary Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.