PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Russian Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia during the Russian Revolution?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Fredrich Engles
(c) Lenin
(d) Trotsky.
Answer:
(c) Lenin.

Question 2.
Through Revolution in Russia, most powerful idea to shape the society was?
(a) Socialism
(6) Nationalism
(c) Liberalism
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Socialism.

Question 3.
Who was the leader of the Menshevik group?
(a) Trotsky
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Tsar Nicholas II
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Trotsky.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Which country withdrew from the First World War and formal peace was signed with Germany?
(a) America
(b) Russia
(c) France
(d) England.
Answer:
(b) Russia.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_________ led the Bolshevik group in Russia during the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Lenin.

Question 2.
_________ means a council or grass root level governing body.
Answer:
Soviet.

Question 3.
The elected consulative parliament in Russia was called _________
Answer:
Duma.

Question 4.
The literal meaning of the word ‘Tsar’ is _________
Answer:
Supreme ruler.

III. Match the Columns

Question 1.

A

B

1. Lenin (a) Mensheviks
2. Trotsky (b) Newspaper
3. March’s Russian Revolution (c) Russian Parliament
4. Duma (d) Bolsheviks
5. Pravada (e) 1917 A.D.

Answer:

A

B

1. Lenin (d) Bolsheviks
2. Trotsky (a) Mensheviks
3. March’s Russian Revolution (e) 1917 A.D.
4. Duma (c) Russian Parliament
5. Pravada (b) Newspaper

IV. Differentiate between :

Question 1.
Bolshevik and Menshevik
Answer:
Bolshevik and Menshevik. The Russian Socialist Democratic Party- split in 1898 A.D., in two groups. The minority group was called Mensheviks. They favoured to organise party on the basis of the parties prevailing in France and Germany. They also favoured the establishment of parliamentary form of government in Russia and election to the parliament. The majority group was called Bolsheviks. This group favoured revolutionary method for bringing changes in the social order and the state machinery. They also favoured a party of disciplined workers for revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 2.
Liberals and Conservatives.
Answer:
Liberals and Conservatives:

  1. Liberals. Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They opposed the uncontrolled powers of the dynastic rolls. They wanted to safeguard the individual rights against government. They also favoured a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by the judiciary which is independent of rulers and officials.
  2. Conservatives. Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French Revolution, they were also open to the need for change. Earlier in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted the idea of change but also argued that the past had to be respected and change must come through a slow process.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which idea became the most powerful force to shape society in the 20th century?
Answer:
The idea of ‘Socialism’ became the most powerful force to shape society in the 20th century.

Question 2.
What was Duma?
Answer:
Duma was the Russian Parliament.

Question 3.
Who was the ruler at the time of the March Revolution of 1917 in Russia?
Answer:
Tzar Nicholas II.

Question 4.
What was the chief cause of Russian Revolution 1905?
Answer:
The police attack on the workers’ procession in 1905.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 5.
Who defeated Russia in 1905?
Answer:
Japan defeated the mighty Russia in 1905.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the immediate consequences of October 1917 Russian Revolution.
Answer:
A new economy was formed in Russia after the Russian revolution of 1917 and its main features are below :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars (Landlords) were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production came under government control.
  • Right of work bécame constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • All the powers of administration came in the hands of committees (Soviet) of labourers and farmers.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

Question 2.
Write a note on the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks.
Answer:
The Russian Socialist Democratic Party was split in 1898 in two groups. The minority group was called Mensheviks. Mensheviks favoured to organise party on the basis of the parties prevailing in France and Germany. They favounìd the establishment of parliamentary form of government in Russia and election of the parliament.

The majority group was called Bolsheviks. The group favoured revolutionary method for bringing changes in the social order and the state machinery. They also favoured a party of disciplined workers for revolution. The people were influenced by the idea of Karl Marx and Tolstoy. Within Russia, democratic forces which had already raised their head, became more and more vociferous.

Question 3.
What led to the failure of provisional Government in Russia?
Answer:
The main reason for the provisional government’s unpopularity lays in its insistence on continuing the war against Germany. The people of Russia were weary of war. The Soviet wanted the conclusion of peace. The Provisional or Kerensky government was able to satisfy neither the conservatives who wanted to restore the Czar nor the socialist who wanted more radical changes and peace.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
What was the April thesis of Lenin?
Answer:
After the fall of Czar, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and organized the revolution against the Provisional Government. He described the Russian empire as a prison of nations.

Under the leadership of Lenin, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies

  1. to end the war,
  2. to transfer land to the tillers, besides
  3. giving all powers to the Soviets and equal status to all. This was April Thesis.

Question 5.
What changes occurred in the field of agriculture after October Revolution?
Answer:
A new economy was formed in Russia after the Russian revolution of 1917 and its main features are below :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars (Landlords) were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production came under government control.
  • Right of work bécame constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • All the powers of administration came in the hands of committees (Soviet) of labourers and farmers.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain Russia before 1905 in context of social, economic and political conditions.
Answer:
I. Social Condition: In the nineteenth century, European countries had undergone important social and economic changes but Russia was still living in the old world. The Czars still believed in the Divine Right of Kings. The old feudal autocracy still continued in Russia. The condition of the Russian peasants was deplorable. The nobility and the upper layers of the clergy enjoyed special privileges and all rights. Feudalism formed the basis of agriculture. The serfdom was abolished in 1861 A.D. But it did not improve agriculture. Their tools and methods of cultivation were age old. For the smallholding they acquired, they had to pay heavy redemption dues. Land hunger of peasants formed a major social problem in the Russian society.

2. Economic Condition : There was no middle. class in Russia and as such industrialization in Russia began very late and it developed at a fairly fast rate. The foreign capitalists invested large sums in different industries to amass huge profits. The foreign investors were more interested in early profits than in improving the conditions of the workers. Even the Russian Capitalists exploited the workers and paid them low wage to compete with foreign investors. The workers had no political rights. The conditions of the workers in Russia were very miserable. They were forced to lead a wretched life. That is why the workers were dominated by the ideas of socialism.

3. Political Condition : In the nineteenth century, European countries had undergone important changes and had adopted democratic system of government but Russia was still under the autocratic rule of Romanov Czars, who believed in the Divine Right Theory of Kings. Czar Nicholas 11(1894-1917 A.D.) was inefficient and reactionary. He was under the immoral influence of a Holy Devil—Rasputin. The conditions of workers and peasants were deplorable. The famine conditions prevailed throughout the empire. Many persons in Russia were influenced by the developments in Western Europe and demanded constitutional democratic government. But their demands were turned down.

In 1904 A.D., there was a war between Russia and Japan. The huge Russian giant suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of a tiny country like Japan. A revolution broke out in Russia in 1905 A.D. It was sparked off by an incident on January 9, 1905 A.D. The Soviet workers took active part in this revolution. Some sections of army and navy also joined the revolution. In October 1905, the Czar announced his manifesto and granted the freedom of speech, press and association. He further conferred the law making power on an elected body called ‘Duma’ but he soon relapsed his despotic rule.

Question 2.
What were the impacts of industrialization of Russia on masses?
Answer:
Industrial revolution in Russia at the fag end. Russia had no dearth of minerals but due to lack of capital and independent labourers, there was no possibility of industrial development. In 1867 A.D, Russia made its agricultural slaves free. It also received capital from the foreign countries. Consequently, Russia started its process of industrial development. But its complete development was made possible only after the revolution of 1917.

Impact. Industrial revolution had a profound impact on every aspect of common people’s life which is given below.

  • Increase in landless labourer. Industrial revolution forced the peasants with small holdings to sell off their lands and work in industries. So, it led to the increase in landless labourers.
  • Small artisons become labourer. Industrial revolution brought the machines which made a strong thread. It led to the decline of hand made cloth. That’s why small artisons left their work and started working as industiral workers.
  • Exploitation of women and children. In factories, females and children
    also started working. They were forced to do begar. It had a wrong impact on their health.
  • Impact on workers health. Due to lack of open environment in industries, worker’s health was adversely affected. They had to work in the polluted air.
  • Increase in unemployment. The adverse impact of industrial revolution was on the cottage industries which declined.
    Now a single machine was able to do work of many workers. That’s why artisans became unemployed.
  • Birth of new classes. Industrial revolution gave birth to two new classes i.e. workers and capitalists. Capitalists started taking work by paying less salaries. So, poor become more poor and capitalists became more rich.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 3.
Write a note on Socialism in detail.
Answer:
In favour of Socialism, Marx (1818-1882) and Engles (1820-1895) gave many reasons. Marx was of the view that the industrial society is a capitalist society. The capital invested in industries is under the control of capitalists and profit comes with the hardwork of labourers. Marx was of the view that untill there is concentration of profit in few hands, there cannot come any change in the condition of workers. To improve their conditions, workers will have to throw away the rule of capitalism and private property. Marx was of the view that the workers will have to create a new type of society to get rid of the capitalist exploitation. He gave the name to this future society, the communist society. Marx believed that in this struggle with the capitalists, the workers will win.

Following are the main features of socialism.

  • Society in socialism is classless. There is very less difference between the rich and poor. That’s why socialism is exactly opposite to private property.
  • There is no exploitation of workers in socialism. Everyone has the right to work in Socialism.
  • Means of production are under the control of whole society because its profit is not to earn profit but social welfare.

Question 4.
What were the factors responsible for widespread support of the people to Bolsheviks?
Answer:
During the last decade of nineteenth century, the spread of socialist ideas in Russia was just started and many socialist organisation were formed. In 1898 A.D., all the socialist parties collectively formed ‘Socialist Democratic Workers Party’. Its leader was Vladimir Lenin. His group had majority in the party in 1903 and they were called Bolsheviks. Those who were in minority were called Mensheviks.

Bolsheviks were, truely nationalists. They wanted to improve the conditions of Russian people. They wanted to see Russia as a powerful nation.

To realise this dream, they made certain objectives which appealed the common people. That’s why people supported the Bolsheviks.

  • Foundation of Socialism. The major objective of Bolsheviks was to establish socialist system in Russia. Except this, they had few other objectives as well.
  • To end Tzar’s Monarchy. Bolsheviks knew that under the Tzarist rule, it is not possible to improve the condition of Russian people. So, they wanted to get rid of Czarist rule and to establish republic system in Russia.
  • To end the suppression of non-Russians. Bolsheviks wanted to end the suppression of non-Russians and to give them the right to take self decisions.
  • To end the peasant’s exploitation. They also wanted to end the unequal distribution of land among the people and to stop peasant’s exploitions from the nobles.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 5.
What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Answer:
The Russian Revolution of 1917 is considered as an important event in the history of the world. It had a great impact on the political, social and economic life of Russians.
1. End of Autocratic Rule. Czars were autocratic rulers. Czar Nicholas II was an inefficient and a despotic ruler, who cared little for the people’s welfare. The result was that he and members of his family were put to death. Thus, the Bolshevik Revolution brought an end to the autocratic rule in Russia.

2. Government of the Proletariat. After the revolution, a new government called the Council of People’s Commissions was formed headed by Lenin. The new government started the era of socialism. The Czarist empire was transported into a new state. It was called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and was based on the Bolshevik principles.

3. Social inequalities abolished. A new social set up was inaugurated. The policies of the new state were based on the principle from each according to his capacity, to each according to his needs. Land, industries, factories mines, bank and insurance companies, and all means of production were nationalized. The old set up of society based on inequality was abolished and the new social set up was based on the principle of communism. It was decided that those who did not work would not get food as well as the rights to vote.

4. New Economic changes. The Bolshevik government introduced many changes in the economic sphere and aimed at building up of a technologically advanced economy. Industrialization was taken up through the five year plan. The lands and states confiscated and were distributed among the peasants. The management of factories and industries was handed over to the workmep. The foreign debts were repudiated and the foreign investments were confiscated. The right to work became a constitutional right. It was the duty of the state to provide employment to every individual . Military training and military service were made compulsory. Proper arrangements were made for the education of the workers.

5. Russia became a world power. Within a few years of the Revolution, Russia made tremendous progress in different spheres of life and emerged as a major power in the world.

6. End of imperialist designs. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia put an end to the Russian imperialism. The new government was opposed to imperialistic designs and countries which groaned under the Czar were set free.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Russian Revolution Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What was the suffragette?
(a) Women’s movement
(b) Property tax
(c) Land acquisition
(d) Proletariat class.
Answer:
(a) Women’s movement.

Question 2.
Who was Robert Owen?
(a) A French manufacturer
(b) An English manufacturer
(c) A Russian manufacturer
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) An English manufacturer.

Question 3.
What stands for New Harmony?
(a) A bank
(b) A cooperative community
(c) A capitalist
(d) Common man.
Answer:
(b) A cooperative community.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Marx argued that industrial society was _________
(a) Capitalist
(b) Clergy
(c) Farmer
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Capitalist.

Question 5.
Who wrote Das Capital?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Mirabeau
(c) John Lbcke
(d) Rousseau.
Answer:
(a) Karl Marx.

Question 6.
When was the Second International formed?
(a) 1872
(b) 1873
(c) 1870
(d) 1875.
Answer:
(c) 1870.

Question 7.
When was the Labour Party formed in Britain?
(a) 1915
(b) 1913
(e) 1905
(d) 1911.
Answer:
(c) 1905.

Question 8.
What was Marseillaise? .
(a) A war song
(b) A house owner
(c) A poor labourer
(d) Medium land owner.
Answer:
(a) A war song.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 9.
Who ruled Russia on the eve of Revolution?
(a) Catherine
(b) Joseph Mazzini
(e) Czar Nicholas II
(d) John III.
Answer:
(c) Czar Nicholas II.

Question 10.
Who are Jadidists?
(a) Christian reformers
(b) Social reformers
(c) Duma
(d) Muslim reformers.
Answer:
(d) Muslim reformers.

Question 11.
Which countries were known as the Allies?
(a) France, Britain and Russia
(b) Britain, Russia and America
(c) Britain, Russia and Austria
(d) Prussia, Britain and France.
Answer:
(a) France, Britain and Russia.

Question 12.
Which party was called the Bolshevik Party after the Russian Revolution?
(а) The Russian Communist Party
(b) Jacobin Party
(c) Communist Party of USSR
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) The Russian Communist Party.

Question 13.
When did Lenin die?
(a) In 1918 A.D.
(b) In 1924 A.D.
(c) In 1926 A.D.
(d) In 1930 A.D.
Answer:
(b) In 1924 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 14.
Who was the Czar?
(a) German Emperor
(b) British Emperor
(c) Russian Emperor
(d) Austrian Emperor.
Answer:
(c) Russian Emperor.

Question 15.
When was the Communist Menifesto published?
(a) 1832
(b) 1842
(c) 1846
(d) 1848.
Answer:
(d) 1848.

Question 16.
In which year the event ‘Bloody Sunday’ occurred’?
(a) 1905 A.D.
(b) 1907 A.D.
(c) 1917 A.D.
(d) 1918 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1905 A.D.

Question 17.
When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany?
(a) March, 1917
(b) March, 1918
(c) April, 1916
(d) April, 1918.
Answer:
(b) March, 1918.

Question 18.
What was the immediate cause of Russian Revolution?
(a) Autocratic rule of Czar
(b) Russian Revolution of 1905
(c) Miserable condition of the people
(d) Russian defeat in first world war.
Answer:
(d) Russian defeat in first world war.

Question 19.
What is the other name of Russian Revolution?
(a) French Revolution
(b) Czar Revolution
(c) Mark Revolution
(d) Bolshevik Revolution.
Answer:
(d) Bolshevik Revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 20.
Who was the leader of Revolution of October 1917?
(a) Nicholas II
(b) Lenin
(c) Kerensky
(d) Trotasky.
Answer:
(b) Lenin.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Tzardom in Russia began in _________ A.D.
Answer:
1547

Question 2.
_________ was the Russian Parliament.
Answer:
Duma

Question 3.
The Social Democratic Party was formed in _________ A.D.
Answer:
1898

Question 4.
_________ gave the idea of socialism.
Answer:
Karl Marx

Question 5.
_________ means a council or a grass root level governing body.
Answer:
Soviet

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 6.
_________ was the leader of Bolsheviks.
Answer:
Lenin.

True/False:

Question 1.
Kerensky was the leader of Bolsheviks.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The Bloody Sunday took place in 1917.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Lenin was exiled from Russia.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
The Tzar abdicate the power on 2nd March, 1917.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
In 1918, Russia adopted the Gregorian called ‘New Style’.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which revolution made socialism the most significant and powerful ideas to shape society in the 20th century?
Answer:
It was the French Revolution.

Question 2.
Who was the ruler of Russia in 1914?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II.

Question 3.
Which countries were known as the Allies?
Answer:
France, Britain and Russia were known as the Allies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Who were the radicals?
Answer:
Those who desired radical changes in the society were radicals. They were in favour of majority rule, women’s suffrage and universal franchise.

Question 5.
Why were the socialists against private property?
Answer:
They believed that private property was the root cause of all social ills.

Question 6.
Name two industrial areas of Russia in the 1890s.
Answer:
Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Question 7.
Name the year when the Socialist Revolutionary Party was formed in Russia?
Answer:
In 1900.

Question 8.
What is meant by Communism?
Answer:
A society where all the properties were socially controlled is called communism.

Question 9.
Which Tantric/saint made the autocracy unpopular in Russia?
Answer:
Rasputin.

Question 10.
Mention the period of First World War.
Answer:
Between 1914 and 1918.

Question 11.
What was the objective of the Socialist Revolutionary Party?
Answer:
This party demanded that land belonging to the nobles be transferred to the peasants.

Question 12.
Who were Kulaks?
Answer:
Kulaks were well-to-do peasants.

Question 13.
What stands for Kolkhoj?
Answer:
They were collective farms where the peasants worked jointly and distributed the produce among themselves.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 14.
Who was Lenin?
Answer:
He was the prominent leader of the Bolshevik Party in Russia.

Question 15.
When did the Russian Czar, Nicholas II resign?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II resigned on March 2, 1917.

Question 16.
Name the countries which were known as Central Powers.
Answer:
Austria, Germany and Turkey were known as the Central Powers.

Question 17.
What stands for autocracy?
Answer:
In this system of government, the ruler is all in all and the people have no rights.

Question 18.
Why was the year 1904 considered bad for the Russian labourers?
Answer:
In this year, the prices of essential goods rose quickly and it became quite difficult for the workers to make their both ends meet.

Question 19.
Who comprised the Union of Unions?
Answer:
Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class people formed the Union of Unions and they demanded for a Constituent Assembly.

Question 20.
What do you mean by Duma?
Answer:
It was an elected consultative parliament in Russia called Duma.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 21.
What were Bolshevik’s three demands?
Answer:
(i) War be brought to a close ;
(ii) land to be transferred to peasants and
(C) banks to be nationalised.

Question 22.
Which party was called the Bolshevik Party after the Russian Revolution of 1917?
Answer:
The Russian Communist Party.

Question 23.
What is meant by Cheka?
Answer:
Cheka was an extraordinary Commission which was established to punish the enemies of the Russian Communist Party.

Question 24.
When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany?
Answer:
In March 1918.

Question 25.
Why did the peasants welcome the October Revolution?
Answer:
Because it meant for them free land and an end of war.

Question 26.
What was the policy of Bolsheviks towards non-Russian nationalities?
Answer:
They were to be given political autonomy within the Soviet Union.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 27.
What did the Bolsheviks do to establish a socialist society?
Answer:
(i) All the banks and industries were nationalised.
(ii) Collective farming was done on the confiscated land.

Question 28.
How did industrial production change between 1929 and 1933?
Answer:
It increased by 100 per cent in the case of oil, coal and steel.

Question 29.
What do you mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
Universal Adult Franchise states that the voting right should be given to every adult.

Question 30.
Who was Marfa Vasileva?
Answer:
She was a worker in milling machine, who single-handedly organised a successful strike.

Question 31.
Who wrote ‘Das KapitaV?
Answer:
Karl Marx.

Question 32.
When did Social Democratic Party bifurcate into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks?
Answer:
In 1903.

Question 33.
Who issued October Manifesto?
Answer:
Czar Nicholas II.

Question 34.
When was Health and Insurance Act introduced?
Answer:
In 1912.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 35.
When did Lenin die?
Answer:
In 1924.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
‘The year of 1904 A.D. was a particularly bad one for the Russian Workers’ clarify the statement with example.
Answer:
The year of 1904 A.D. was a particularly bad one for the Russian Workers’. This statement can be explained with the following examples.

  1. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent.
  2. The membership of the workers’ association rose dramatically. When four members of the Assembly of Russian workers, formed in 1904 A.D., were dismissed at the Putilov Iron works, there came a call for industrial action.
  3. Over the next few days, over ten thousand workers in St. Peterburg went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.

Question 2.
Discuss any four causes of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Before, revolution, people lived in Russia in quite miserable conditions.

  1. Russian Czar Nicholas II was autocratic. People were fed up with his rule.
  2. The condition of people was quite miserable. Peasants and workers were not happy with the situation. They wanted to get rid of this miserable life.
  3. There was widespread low morality in the kings family. The state was run by a monk called Rasputin. Consequently, there was widespread corruption.
  4. In the first world war, Russia suffered heavy military losses. Consequently, there was widespread discontentment among the soldiers.

Question 3.
Explain any three events which led Russia to the February Revolution.
Answer:

  1. On 28 February, a lock out took place at a factory on the right bank. The next day, in a sympathy, workers of 50 factories called a strike. In many factories, women led the strikes.
  2. Government buildings were surrounded by the workers. So, the government imposed curfew. Demonstrators dispersed in the evening. But they came back on 24th and 25th February. The government called out army and police to keep a check on them.
  3. On 25 February, government suspended Duma. Politicians spoke out against this. On 26th February, demonstrators returned in force to the streets of the left Bank. On 27th February, the police head quarters were destroyed. People started raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy.
  4. By that evening, soldiers and striking workers formed a ‘Soviet^ in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
  5. Next day, a delegation met the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He followed their advice and left the throne on 2nd March. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country. This was called the February Revolution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Why is the Russian Revolution attached with the name of Lenin?
Answer:
Lenin was the leader of Balsheviks and at the time of Revolution, he lived in exile. His contribution in the Russian Revolution of October 1917 is given below :

  1. In April 1917, Lenin came back to Russia. He said that war must come to an end, land must be given to the peasants and Banks should be nationalised.
  2. During the meantime, the clash between the interim government and the Bolsheviks reached its height. In September 1917, Bolsheviks started discussions about the revolt against government. Bolsheviks in army and factory Soviets were collected. A military revolutionary committee was formed under Trotsky to control the power.
  3. The revolution started on 24th October. Prime Minister Kerensky tried to suppress it but remained unsuccessful.
  4. By the evening, whole of the city came under the control of revolutionary committee. Many of the ministers surrendered.
  5. At Petrograd, a meeting of All Russian Soviet Congress was held which supported the action of Bolsheviks.

Question 5.
Give the importance of Russian Revolution of 1917.
Answer:
The Russian Revolution of 1917 is considered as one of the most important incident in world history. It not only ended the autocratic rule of Czar but it also affected the social and economic systems of the world. Consequently, in place of Czar’s rule, a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed. The main objective of the Union was to achieve old socialist ideals. It means that every one will get work according to his ability and will get money according to his work.

Question 6.
Give three features of Socialism.
Answer:
Following are the three main features of Socialism :

  1. There is no class in society. There is very less difference between the rich and the poor. That’s why there is no place of private property in Socialism.
  2. There is no exploitation of workers in Socialism. Everyone has the right to work.
  3. State or society controls all the means of production because its motive is not to earn profit but to do social welfare.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 7.
Give a brief description of the Russian Empire in 1914.
Answer:
In 1914, Tzar Nicholas II rulled the Russian Empire. Besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included present day Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, parts of Poland, Estonia, Ukraine and Balarus. It stretched to the Pacific ocean and comprised present day’s control Asian states as well as Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The majority religion was the Russian Orthodox Christianity which has grown out of the Greek Orthodox Church. But the Russian Empire also included Catholics, Protestents, Muslims and Buddhists.

Question 8.
After the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Czar took many steps to maintain his autocratic rule. What were three steps?
Answer:
During the revolution, the Tzar allowed the creation of an elected consultive Parliament or Duma. But after the revolution, he took certain steps such as :

  1. After 1905, most of the committees and unions worked unofficial and now they were declared illegal. Severe restrictions were imposed on all the political activities.
  2. The Tzar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and then re-elected Duma within three months.
  3. He did not want any reduction of his power or any questioning of his authority. That’s why he changed the voting laws and filled the third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were kept out.

Question 9.
Which agricultural changes were introduced in Soviet Union after First World War?
Answer:

  1. After the war, large estates of Church, landlords, nobility, etc. were taken away by the government and that land was distributed among the peasants.
  2. After First World War, land was taken away from large holders and was distributed among peasants. But these peasants had very small holdings of land which was not very productive. That’s why a new method of agriculture was introduced and that was collective farms. This idea promoted collective farming by bringing land of small peasants together with higher yield.
  3. Rich farmers opposed the idea of collective farm. They were dealt harshly by government. With this landlords were oppressed.

Question 10.
After 1918, which steps were taken by Lenin to show dictatorship in Russia? Why did young artists and writers supported the Bolsheviks?
Answer:

  1. In January 1918, the Assembly rejected the Bolsheviks measures. So, Lenin dismissed the Assembly.
  2. In March 1918, despite opposition of their political allies, the Bolsheviks made peace1 with Germany at Brest Litovsk.
  3. In the coming years, the Bolshevik party became the only party to participate in the elections to the All Russian Congress of Soviets which became the Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state.
  4. Trade Unions were kept under the control of Bolshevik party.
  5. The secret police punished those who criticised the Bolsheviks. Even then many young writers and artists supported the Bolsheviks because this party stood for socialism and change.

Question 11.
State the demands of the people of Russia which caused the downfall of the Czar.
Answer:
The most important demands of the people in Russia, were four-folds : peace, land to the tiller, control of industry by workers and equal status for the non-slaves as described below :

  1. Corruption in the state resulted in great suffering among the people. Feudalism formed the basis of Russian agriculture. Land hunger of peasant formed a major problem. The peasants demanded land to the tillers.
  2. The condition of workers in Russia was very miserable. They were forced to lead a wretched life. They demanded control of industries by workers.
  3. The Russian army suffered heavy reverses due to mismanagement of the government. The rising prices of food and clothes added hardship to the poorer classes. They demanded peace.
  4. Non-Slav subjects of the empire demanded equal status but the Russian autocracy supported the Pan-Slavist idea.

Question 12.
Explain the situations created by the First World War for the February Revolution of 1917. Explain any three situations.
Answer:

  1. In the first World War, around 70 Lakh people died till 1917.
  2. The war had a bad impact on industries. Russia’s own industries were very few and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by the German Control of Baltic sea.
  3. The retreating Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. It led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The soldiers did not wish to fight such a war.
    All this created conditions for the revolution.

Question 13.
What was the condition of Russian workers in 19th century?
Answer:
Industrial revolution not only came in Europe but also came in Russia as well. Many capitalists of Russia as well as of other countries invested large amount of money in different industries so that more and more profit could be gained. That’s why they started to exploit the workers. Workers of industries had to work for 12-14 hours and they were paid very less wages. They were not allowed to form their trade unions. Workers were divided by skill among different social groups. Their accommodation varied from rooms to dormitories. Women made up 31% of factory labour by 1914 but were paid less wages than men.

Question 14.
Why Russia left the World War after the Revolution of 1917?
Answer:

  1. Russian revolutionaries were totally against the war right from its start. That’s why Russia left the war after revolution.
  2. Russia, under Lenin, decided to change war into a revolutionary war.
  3. Russian empire was defeated many times in the war with which its prestige was severely blowed.
  4. More than six lakh Russian people were killed in the war.
  5. Russian people did not want to capture land of any other country as it was a already one of the largest empire of the world.
  6. Russian people, primarily, wanted to solve their internal problem.

Question 15.
What was the result of Russian decision to leave first World War?
Answer:
In 1917, Russia left the first World War. Next day after the revolution, the Bolshevik Government issued a Decree on Peace. In March 1918, Russian signed a peace treaty with Germany. German government felt that the Russian government is not in a position to continue the war. That’s why it imposed harsh clauses on Russia. But Russia accepted all the clauses. Allied powers were not in favour of the Russian decision to leave the war. So, they started trying to raise opposition forces within Russia. It led to the civil war which continued for three years. But finally the opposition forces were defeated and civil war come to an end.

Question 16.
Who was Stalin? Why did he decide the collectivisation of agriculture?
Answer:
Stalin was the leader of Communist Party in Russia. He took over the command of party after Lenin. Around 1927-28, there started a shortage of food grains in the cities of Russia. Government fixed the prices of foodgrains. No one was allowed to sell the grains more than the fixed price. But the peasants refused to sell their grains to government at these prices. Stalin took strict steps to combat the situation. He believed that rich peasants and traders in the villages were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. So, in 1928, party members toured to grain producing areas. They forcibely bought the grains from peasants and raided Kulaks- the well-to-do peasants. Even after this, when there was shortage of foodgrains, Stalin decided to start collectivisation of agriculture. It was decided because the land holding of peasants was small.

Question 17.
Give two reasons for the miserable condition of industrial workers before the Russian Revolution.
Answer:

  1. Foreign capitalists greatly exploited the workers. Even Russian capitalists paid them quite less wages.
  2. Workers had no political rights. Even they had no way out to implement way small reform.

Question 18.
Give any two political reasons of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
At the time of its revolution, Russia was ruled by Czar Nicholas II. His rule had few defects which became the causes of the revolution.

  1. He believed in the Divine rights of the King and considered his moral duty to protect its autocratic rule.
  2. The members of bureaucracy were not selected on merits but were selected from the specially privileged groups.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 19.
What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?
Or
Give any three significant causes of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
The following were the significant causes of the Russian Revolution :

  1. The system of government in Russia was autocratic. The Czar was a despotic ruler, and believed in Divine Right of Kings and absolutism.
  2. The peasants, the workers and soldiers led a very miserable life.
  3. The Russian bureaucracy was top-heavy, inflexible and inefficient.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Answer:
The Russian revolution was one of the most important events in history of 20th century. This revolution ended the despotic monarchical rule of the emperor and established socialism. The social condition of Russia was similar to that of France before 1789. Russia was an agricultural country but the condition of peasants was miserable. Serfdom was abolished by the Czar Alexander II in 1861 A.D., but it did not bring much change in the condition of peasants. One-third of the peasants were landless and worked on the land of the landlords. Simultaneously, they had to pay several taxes. On the other hand, the aristocratic class was very affluent and had grabbed important offices as well as very large portion of the land. Therefore, the Russian society suffered from glaring economic and social disparities.

At the beginning of 20th century, the vast majority of the Russian population were agriculturists. Industrialization gained momentum in Russsia during the period of Alexander III. Many factories were set up in 1890s where Russia’s railway network was extended but most of the industries were private properties of industrialists. Government simply supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work. Thousands of landless peasants thronged the industrial centres in search of jobs. As a result the industrialists exploited their miserable and helpless conditions. The working day was sometimes 15 hours. Russian peasants were different from other European peasants in different ways. As they pooled their land together periodically and their commune divided it according to the needs of individual families.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 2.
Why did the Czarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Answer:
The Russian State under the Romanov Czars was completely unsuited to the needs of modern times. Czar Nicholas II still believed in the Divine Right of Kings and tried to move against the tides of times.

The important demands of the people which led to the fall of the Czar were the following :

  1. Within Russia, democractic forces which had already raised their head became more and more vociferous. But the Czar still regarded his sacred duty to preserve absolutism.
  2. The Russian people wanted the end of war and conclusion of peace. But the Czar, who had already mismanaged the war, still insisted to continue the war.
  3. The peasants were the worst sufferers. They wanted that cultivable land should be given to the tillers, but the autocratic and corrupt government did not pay any heed to their demands.
  4. The working conditions of workers were deplorable. There was a general demand that industries should be controlled by workers, and not by capitalists. Autocratic government of Czar helped the capitalists and neglected the workers.
  5. The people further wrapped an equal status to all the non-Russian nationalities. But Czar followed a Pan-Slavish policy.
  6. There was widespread discontent against the autocratic rule of Czar. The Royal family did not enjoy people’s respect because of the influence of the Holy Devil. The Russian autocracy was bound to collapse as it had no support from the people.

Question 3.
Make two lists : one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history?
Answer:
The October Revolution of 1917 was the second phase of the Russian Revolution. The first phase took place in February 1917 and the Czar was compelled to abdicate. A provisional government was set up which could not solve the pressing problems of the people. It therefore, lost people’s support. It failed to end war, to give land to the tillers and to give control of industries to the workers. The non-Russian nationalities were not given the equal status. The result was the revolution of the second phase known as the October Revolution. The Bolshevik party under the leadership of Lenin promised peace to the soldiers, land to the workers, all powers to the Soviets and equal rights to the non-Russians.

The October Revolution had a great impact on Russia, as detailed below :

  • It brought an end to the autocratic rule in Russia.
  • The new government started the era of socialism.
  • Land, industries, factories, mines, bank and insurance companies and all means of production were nationalised. New social set up was based on the principle of communism.
  • The Bolshevik Revolution put an end to the Russian imperialism.
  • The estates of the landlords, the church and the Czar were confiscated and transferred to Peasants’ Societies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 1

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 4.
Write a few lines to show what you know about :
1. Kulaks
Answer:
Kulaks: The name for well-to-do peasants of Russia. During the collectivisation programme they were eliminated ; their land was taken away and grains seized.

2. The Duma
Answer:
The Duma: It was the Russian Parliament. Czar Nicholas II held elections of the Duma but did not allow it to become a real representative body. Russian Parliament is still called Duma.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 2

3. Women workers between 1900 and 1930
Answer:
Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Workers were divided social group in Russia. Workers were divided by skill. Women made up 31% of factory labour force by 1914 but they were paid less than men.

4. The Liberals.
Answer:
The Liberals: One of the groups which looked to change society were they liberals. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.

Question 5.
Give a brief description of Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives.
Answer:
Before the revolution, there were three major groups which wanted social change and these were-Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives.
1. Liberals. Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. At this time many of the European countries generally discriminated in favour of one religion or the other. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the individual’s rights against the government. Liberals favoured a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well trained Judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. But they were not democrates as well. They did not believe in universal adult franchise or right of every citizen to vote.

2. Radicals. The members of this group wanted a country in which government was based on the majority of country’s population. Many radicals supported women’s suffragatte movements. They also opposed the privileges of great land owners and wealthy factory owners. They were not against the existence of private property but they were not in favour of concentration of property in few hands.

3. Conservatives. They were exactly opposite to the first two groups. Even they, after the French Revolution, started opening up their minds to the need for change. Earlier in the eighteenth century, conservatives opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some changes are inevitable but change must come slowly and past has to be respected.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 6.
What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917?
Or
Explain briefly the conditions that brought about the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Within Russia, democratic forces had become very vociferous. But the Czar was still the despotic ruler. The Russian bureaucracy was completely inefficient. The conditions of the peasants and workers were deplorable. The non-Russian subjects were against the government which followed the Pan-Slav policy. Many Russian thinkers appreciated the development in western Europe.

This was the reasofi that people were influenced by ideas of Karl Marx and Tolstoy. This generated the socialist ideas in the workers. In the Russia-Japan war in 1904, Russia had suffered a humiliating defeats. The Czar was held responsible for this defeat. There was a revolt in 1905 and the Czar was forced to announce a manifesto granting a series of reforms and to confer the law-making powers upon an elected body. He soon relapsed with his old ways. The partial success of 1905, revolt encouraged the working class of Russia.

The peasants demanded land, the workers demanded control of industries and non-Slav nationalities demanded equal status. The Czar did not pay any need to the people’s demand and moved against the tides of the time. The Russian involvement in the First World War accelerated the pace of revolution. Russia had to suffer heavy loss of men and money. Soldiers on the front were short of arms, ammunitions, food and clothings. Famine like conditions prevailed in the whole of the country. The government stood completely discredited. ‘Bread, peace and land’ were the popular demands, but in vain.

As a result, the revolution broke out and the Czar had to abdicate. The provisional government also failed to solve people’s problems. Lenin managed to unite the solidiers, the workers and the peasants by the very popular slogans ‘Bread, peace and land’ all powers to the Soviets and equal status to the non-Russian nationalities. In October 1917, the Bolshevik forces went into action and the revolution of the second phase known as October revolution succeeded.
PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution 3

Question 7.
Give a brief description of causes and events of October Revolution (Second Revolution) in Russia. What was its impact on Russia?
Answer:
Causes :

  • Failure of the Interim Government. The interim government was unable to alienate the country from the war which led to the destruction of Russian economy.
  • Dissatisfaction among People. Peasants and workers in Russia lived miserable life. It was even difficult for them to earn bread of two times. That’s why, there was growing dissatisfaction among them.
  • Non availability of eatable items. There was quite a derth of food items in Russian. There was almost a situation of starvation. People had to lined up in queues to purchase bread.
  • Nation wide Strikes. The condition of workers was quite miserable. They get very less salary even after doing lot of hard work. They wanted to improve their condition. So, they started doing strikes.

Events. Initially in February 1917, revolution started in Petrograd, a famous Russian City. Here workers stopped doing work and common people revolted for the bread. Government tried to suppress the revolt with the help of army. But soldiers joined the workers and refused to shoot them. Peasants and workers formed a joint council which was called Soviet. Finally on 2nd March, the Czar abdicate the power. To run the government a Provisional Government was formed. New government introduced many military reforms. Freedom of press and religion was given and it was decided to call a constituent Assembly. But people were demanded bread, house and peace. Consequently the government failed and a new government under Kerensky was formed.

In November 1917, Mensheviks were forced to abdicate the power. Now Bolsheviks under Lenin took control of the power. Lenin established a society in Russia in which all the powers were in the hands of workers. With this, the objective of Russian Revolution was achieved.

Impact on Russia :

  • Education-related facilities were given to labourers.
  • All Jagir’s from Jagirdars were taken away and whole of the land was given to committees of farmers.
  • Trade and all means of production under government control.
  • Right to work become constitutional right and it became duty of state to provide employment to every one.
  • Policy of economic planning was used for economic development.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Question 8.
How did Marx and other social thinkers influence the Russian Revolution?
Answer:
As a result of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the condition of the workers had considerably deteriorated. The capitalists were immensely exploiting them to their heartful. The workers neither received good salaries nor they had good houses to live. Under these conditions, the workers began to incline towards communism. They had started thinking that a revolution could be brought in the country only by following the Marxian theory. And only in this way the standard of the workers could improve.

Karl Marx was a German Jew but he lived mostly in Britain. He was a staunch supporter of socialism. He wrote his principles in his famous book ‘Das Capital’. He was deadly against capitalism and private property. According to him, the whole society should have common control over the means of production. All the units of production should be nationalised. Capitalism can be rooted out only through revolution and by establishing the dictatorship of the workers. The teachings of Karl Marx made a great contribution to the rise of the revolution in Russia.

In spite of the restrictions imposed by the Czar, the liberal ideas of the western world entered Russia through the medium of literature. The novels of Tolstoy, Turgenov and Dostoevski produced evolutionary thought in the youth. The ideologies, of Marx, Bakunin and Kroptkin were also prevailing in the country. The words of Marx that workers have “nothing to lose but their chains” rang literally tune to them. Influenced by these ideologies, people began to ask for such comforts and rights which were available to the people of western countries. When the Czar tried to ‘turn down’ their demand they resorted to revolution.

Question 9.
Give an account of the 1905 Revolution.
Answer:
In 1904-05, there was a war between Russia and Japan. In the war, Russia was defeated. Having been defeated by a small country like Japan, the Russian population began to oppose the Czar. They believed that the only cause of this defeat was the government of Czar which had failed to carry on war properly. Thus, the defeat of Russia at the hands of Japan proved a bolt from the blue for the Czar. The people turned against him. As a result of it, there was a revolution in 1905 against the despotic rule of the Czar. The revolutionaries killed many tyrannical officers. The name of Plehve is notable among them. The strikes were observed and demonstrations and processions were organised. The revolutionaries raised the slogans, “Stop the War. Down with Autocracy.”

On 22nd January, 1905, a mass of peaceful workers with their wives and children under the guidance of a moderate leader named Father Gapov were fired while on their way to the Winter Palace to present a charter of demands to the Czar. More than a thousand of them were killed and thousands others were wounded. This killing took place on Sunday which is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ in the history of Russia.

The news of the killings provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia. Even sections of the army and the navy revolted. During this period, a new form of organisation developed. This was called the Soviet or the Council of Workers’ Representatives. They had their beginning as the committees to conduct strikes, but they became the instruments of political power. The Soviets of peasants were also formed.

In October, the Czar yielded and announced his manifesto granting freedom of speech, press and association. He conferred the power to make laws upon an elected body called the ‘Duma’. The Czar’s manifesto contained principles that would have Russia a constitutional monarchy like England. However, the Czar soon relapsed into his old ways. No longer could one hope for gradual reform. It has been rightly said, “The 1905 Revolution proved to be a dress rehearsal of the revolution that came in 1917.” It aroused the people and prepared them for a greater revolution. It drew soldiers and the people of non-Russian nationalities into close contact with the Russian revolutionaries.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Russian Revolution: In 1917, there had been the first socialist revolution in the world which took place in Russia.
  • Reasons of revolution: Before the revolution, the Russian social, economic and political conditions were quite conducive to the revolution. The condition of peasants and workers was quite pitty. The rule of Tzar (King of Russia) was autocratic. Common people had no political rights. Consequently, people were against the Czar, The Czar forced Russia into the World War I and made a great mistake. The miserable condition of the soldiers also led to the frustration against the Tzar.
  • Lenin: After Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles, Lenin is considered the greatest thinker of the socialist movement. He played the most important role in organising the Bolshevik party and making revolution successful.
  • The Revolution of 1905: In 1905, a procession of workers was attacked by the police. It took the form of a revolution. During this revolution, a new form of the organisation developed. It was Soviet or a group of worker’s representatives. This revolution provided a base to the revolution of 1917.
  • The Beginning of Revolution: The Russian revolution begin with a procession of women. Then a general strike of workers took place. On 15th March, 1917, the Czar was forced to relinquish his power. Finally, a temporary government was formed. According to the Russian Calender, this incident is known as the February Revolution and people consider its beginning on 27 February.
  • The Success of Revolution: With the fall of first interim government (7 October, 1917), Lenin’s government came into power. It is known as the October Revolution. (According to the Russian Calender on 25th February.)
  • Soviet: During the 1905 revolution, a new form of organisation come into force. It is known as ‘Soviet’. It was a council of worker’s representatives. Initially such councils were the committees of organising strikes but later on, they become a mean of getting political power. After sometime, Peasant’s Soviets were also formed. Russian Soviets played an important role in the revolution of 1917.
  • February Revolution After a procession of women, worker’s strike took place. On 12th March, workers captured St. Petersburg very quickly, they captured Moscow as well. The Tzar left the power and an Interim government was formed on 15th March. According to the old Russian calender, this revolution took place on 27th February. That’s why it is called the February Revolution.
  • October Revolution: The Russian Revolution actually took place on 7th November, 1917. According to the old calender, it was on 25th October. That’s why it is called the October Revolution. This revolution led to the fall of Kerensky’s government. Its headquarter Winter’s palace came under the control of a group of sailors. On the same day, a meeting of Russian congress of Soviets took place and it took power in its hands.
  • Bloody Sunday: In 1905, the Russian revolutionary movement was gaining momentum. In the meantime, a procession of workers, led by Father Gapon, reached the winter palace. Police attacked on them and fired on them with which 100 workers died and 300 wounded. This incident in history is known as the ‘Bloody Sunday’.
  • Communist Revolution: The communist International or Comintern was organised in 1919 A.D. It is also known as the Third International. Its objective was to encourage revolutions at international level. At the time of first world war, the socialist movement was divided in two parts. Its separated group was known as communist party. Comintern was associated with the same group. It was a plateform at world level which made policies for the communist parties around the world.
  • Socialism: Socialism is a political system in which all the means of production are under state’s control. It main objective is equal distribution of economic resources. In this system no one is exploited and is exactly opposite to capitalism.
  • 1850s and 1880s – Debates over socialism in Russia.
  • 1898 – Formation of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
  • 1905 – The Bloody Sunday and the Revolution of 1905.
  • 1917 – 2nd March – Abdication of the Tzar
    24th October – Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd.
  • 1918 – 20 – The Civil War.
  • 1919 – Formation of Comintern.
  • 1929 – Beginning of Collectivisation.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 6 Russian Revolution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.