Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Source Based Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Source Based Questions and Answers
Punjab is also the land of the great Sikh Gurus. It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world and Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the ‘Khalsa Panth’. Inspired by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire. The contribution of Punjab’s martyrs and freedom fighters is also remarkable in Indian National Movement.
(а) ‘Punjab is the land of the great Sikh Gurus’. Give two examples in favour of the statement.
- It is the place where Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message of humanity to the world.
- On this land, Guru Gobind Singh Ji established Khalsa Panth.
(b) How and who founded a sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab?
A sovereign Sikh empire in Punjab was founded by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. First of all, by taking inspiration from Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur led Sikhs to face Mughal tyranny with courage and sacrifice to establish the Sikh rule. Later on, on these very foundations, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to build a sovereign Sikh empire.
At the time of independence, Indian Punjab (Eastern Punjab) had Ambala, Amritsar, Bhatinda, Ferozepur, Jullundur, Gurdaspur, Gurgaon (Gurugram), Hissar, Hoshiarpur, Kangra, Kapurthala, Mohindergarh, Patiala, Rohtak, Sangrur and Simla disticts.
On 1 November 1966, District Ambala, Karnal, Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Mohindergarh and Jind Tehsil became a part of Haryana State. District Simla, Kangra and Una Tehsil became a part of Union territory of Himachal Pradesh of that time.
(a) What is meant by Eastern Punjab at the time of independence? Name four districts included in it.
At the time of independence, areas of Punjab which became part of India, were given the name of Eastern Punjab. It included drainage system of the Sutlej and Beas rivers. Now it is known as Punjab. Four districts of this region are Ambala, Amritsar, Bathinda and Jalandhar.
(b) Which areas were included in Punjab at the time of reorganization of states in 1956?
In 1956, Malwa region was dismantled and was made a part of Punjab. This region is spread from Sutlej to Ghagar rivers.
(c) When was Punjab reorganised on linguistic basis? What was its impact on Punjab?
On 1st Nov. 1966, Punjab was reorganized on a linguistic basis. According to it, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Some mountainous regions of Punjab were given to Himachal Pradesh.
Dialects of Punjabi
According to a survey conducted by Punjabi University, Patiala, there are 28 dialects of Punjabi language. These include Indian Punjabi dialects like Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri. Majhi is spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts of Punjab. The Taksali version of Punjabi is the closest to this language. Doabi is spoken in Jalandhar, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts. Ferozepur, Fazilka, Faridkot, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Barnala, Mansa and Ludhiana districts are the areas where mainly Malwai dialect is spoken. The areas of Puadhi dialect are Ropar, Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala. Dogri is predominantly spoken in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir province.
(a) How many dialects of Punjabi language are there? Which of these is the main Indian Punjabi dialect?
There are 28 dialects of Punjabi. Out of all these only Majhi, Malwai, Puadhi and Dogri are the main Indian Punjabi dialects.
(b) Which version of Punjabi is closest to this language? In which districts of Punjab, this dialect is spoken?
The Majhi version of Punjabi is closest to this language. This dialect is mainly spoken in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran districts.
(c) Name three districts each where Doabi, Malwai and Puadhi are spoken.
- Doabi: Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur.
- Malwai: Firozepur, Moga and Bathinda.
- Puadhi: Mohali, Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala.
Sacred Thread Ceremony
At the age of nine, according to the Hindu traditions, (Janeu) the sacred thread ceremony was performed. When the family purohit Pandit Hardyal wanted to put the sacred thread, Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear it. In this way at the age of 9, he challenged the religious and social orthodoxy.
(a) When was the sacred thread ceremony performed?
According to the Hindu traditions, at the age of nine, the sacred thread ceremony was performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
(b) Explain the sacred thread ceremony performed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not yet completed his early education when it was decided to perform the sacred thread ceremony for Guru Nanak Dev Ji by his parents. A day was fixed for the ceremony as an auspicious day. All the relatives and Brahmins were invited. Pandit Hardyal recited the hymns (mantras) and asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sit before him and wear the sacred thread. Guru Nanak Dev Ji refused to wear the thread. Guru Sahib said that he did not need any such thread for his physical body but a permanent thread for his soul. Guru Sahib further stated that he needed such a thread which was not made of cotton yarn but of the yarn of right virtues.
In order to get him interested in worldly affairs, his father Mehta Kalu gave Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji some rupees. He sent him to the nearest town-Chuharkana to do business. On his way, the Guru met a group of Faqirs (ascetics) who were huftgry for several days. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding them. When Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji returned home and narrated the incident to his father, he was very disappointed. This incident is called the Sacha Sauda (True Transaction).
(a) What is meant by Sacha Sauda?
The meaning of Sacha Sauda is True Transaction which Guru Nanak Dev ji did by spending his Rs. 20 in feeding the hungry Faqirs.
(b) What professions did Guru Nanak Dev Ji adopt in his early life?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji had started showing disinterest in his education and worldly affairs at a very young age. His father engaged him in cattle grazing to divert his interest to worldly affairs. While on cattle-grazing rounds, he remained engrossed in deep meditation and his cattle strayed into fields of the other people. Troubled by the complaints of neighbouring farmers, his father decided to put him in business. He gave him twenty rupees to start some business but Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent all the money in feeding the saints and wanderers. This incident of his life is popular as ‘Sachha Sauda’ or the Pious Deal.
Guru Nank Dev Ji visited the holy place at Mecca. Guru Nanak Dev Ji went off to sleep with his feet towards Kabba. The qazi (Ruknaudin) objected to this, calling Guru Ji a Kafir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji very politely told him to move his feet in the direction where Allah did not exist. The qazi did not have an answei ) this and realized his mistake. In this way, Guru Nanak Dev Ji spread the message that God is Omnipresent. When the qazi asked him which religion was better Hinduism or Islam, Guru Ji replied that without good deeds, both will weep and wail.
(a) Which places did Guru Nanak Dev Ji visit during his 9th udasi?
Guru Ji completed his fourth Udasi from 1517-1521 A.D. During this Udasi, he visited western Asia. He visited places such as Multan, Mecca, Madina, Baghdad, Qandhar, Kabul, Jalalabad, Peshawar etc.
(b) Which incident did happen with Guru Ji at Mecca? What message did Guru ji give to the people?
Guru ji reached Mecca while preaching during his Journey. Mecca is a religious place of Muslims. There he fell asleep with his feet towards Kabba. Qazi Rukandin objected to it but Guru Ji remained calm. Then he said, “You put my feet on the side where Allah is not there.” Then Qazi started thinking and realised his mistake. With this incident, Guru gave a massage that God is omnipresent.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca Madina. An arrogant Muslim Faqir named Wali Qandhari lived on a steep hill there. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Despite the pleas of the town people, he did not allow the flow of water. He also refused water to Bhai Mardana. When Guru Nanak Dev Ji came to know of it he pushed aside a rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. In a fit of rage Wali Qandhari threw a rock at Guru Nanak Dev Ji but Guru Nanak Dev Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. This place is known as Gurudwara Sri Panja Sahib (now in Pakistan).
(a) What name is given to the Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji? What was the objective of these Journeys?
The Journeys of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are known as Udasis. The main objective of these Journeys was to remove superstitions and to show the people correct path of religion.
(b) Discuss in short the incident happened with Guru Ji at Hasan Abdal.
Guru Ji reached Hasan Abdal after visiting Mecca. Here Guru Ji encountered an arrogant Muslim Faqir Wali Qandhari. He had stopped the flow of water from reaching the town below the hill. Guru Ji pushed aside the rock nearby and a fountain of water sprang up. Wali Qandhari became angry and threw a rock at Guru Ji but Guru Ji halted the stone with his hand and shattered Wali Qandhari’s ego. Then he became a disciple of Guru Ji.
Event of Sayyidpur (Eminabad)
During the fourth travel (Udasi) in 1520 A.D. when Guru Nanak Dev Ji was at Sayyidpur (Emnabad), Babur invaded it. Mughal soldiers committed a lot of atrocities on the people of Sayyidpur and looted them. They imprisoned numerous people. In his bani, Guru Nanak Dev Ji mentioned about the atrocities committed by Babur on the people of Punjab.
(a) What was the earlier name of Sayyidpur? When did Guru Ji reached here during his fourth Udasi?
The earlier name of Sayyidpur was Emnabad. During his fourth Udasi, Guru Ji reached here in 1520 A.D.
(b) Explain Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur. From which Guru’s Bani do we get its information?
We get information about Babur’s attack on Sayyidpur from Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Bani. When Guru Ji reached here, Babur had already attacked Sayyidpur. His soldiers mercilessly killed many females, males and children and looted everything. The people of Sayyidpur were also subject to cruelties. Many of them were made slaves.
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad. Babur, who had conquered Central Asia, was the first Mughal Emperor in India. He was the descendant of Taimur on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He wrote his autobiography, Tuzk-i-Baburi in his mother tongue, Turkey.
(a) Give a brief description of Babur. When did he first attack on India?
The full name of Babur is Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur. He lived in Central Asia. He was the descendent of Taimur from his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. He was the first Mughal Emperor whose first attack on India was in 1519 A.D.
(b) What is the name of autobiography of Babur? In which language it is written?
The name of autobiography of Babur is Tuzk-i-Baburi and it is written in Turkish language. It is also known as Babur-Nama.
True Service yields Fruit in the End
At Khadoor Sahib Sri Guru Amardas ji led a life of service and devotion. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji. Sri Guru Angad Dev ji was impressed by the devotion of Sri Guru Amardas ji and made him his successor. On the other hand, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Sri Guru Angad Dev ji, considered themselves as suitable for Guruship and were jealous of Sri Guru Amar Das ji. Baba Buddha ji told the two that Guruship is not an ancestral property, only true service yields fruit in the end. Due to intense and selfless devotion of Sri Guru Amar Das ji, Sri Guru Angad Dev ji appointed him the successor of Gurudom.
(a) When did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi? What was his age at that time?
Guru Amardas Ji became third Guru in 1552 A.D. and he was of 73 years of age at that time.
(b) How did Guru Amardas Ji get Gurgaddi?
Guru Amardas Ji was a disciple Sikh of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Even in’his old age, he was always busy in serving Guru Angad Dev Ji. He took up the service of fetching water from the river Beas everyday to bathe Guru Angad Dev Ji. At this time, Dattu and Dassu, the sons of Guru Angad Dev Ji considered themselves as suitable for Guruship. They were jealous of Guru Amardas ji. On the instane of Baba Buddha Ji true service yielded fruit and Guru Angad Dev ji appointed Guru Amardas Ji as the successor of Gurudom.
Guru Ji established manji system to spread and promulgate Sikhism. He established 22 Manjis. The head of the Manji was called a Manjidar. These Manjidars used to act as a bridge between Guru ji and Sikh Sangat. The Sangat used to send their offerings to Guru Ji through these Manjidars. Thus, the Sangat of distant areas was connected with the Guru Ji. This system contributed a lot in the systematic development of Sikhism.
(a) Which Guru Ji started Manji System? Briefly explain.
The Manji System was founded by Guru Amar Das Ji . The number of his Sikh followers had increased immensely by the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. However, Guru Ji was very old and it was difficult for him to visit his large spiritual empire of Sikh followers in order to spread his teachings. Hence, Guru Sahib divided his spiritual empire into 22 regions called the Manjis. Each Manji was further divided into Pidees.
(b) Which two Manjis were kept under women devotees? Name them.
The Manjis of Kabul and Kashmir were kept under women devotees. They were Mai Seva and Mai Bhagbari respectively.
Having failed in his various attempts to attain Guruship Prithia (Prithi Chand) started a new sect known as ‘Meena Sect’. Prithia’s son Mehrbaan, was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father. He composed the ‘Janam Sakhi’ of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which is considered an important work.
(а) Who was Prithia (Prithi Chand)? Why did he not get Gurugaddi?
Prithia was the eldest son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He considered his right over Gurudom but he was selfish, dihonest and deceiver. That’s why Guru Ram Das Ji refused to give him Gurudom.
(b) Briefly describe the functions of Mehrbaan, the son of Prithia.
Mehrbaan was a great scholar. He was the successor of the Meena Sect after his father Prithia. He collected the information about the life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and composed the Janam Sakhi. His Janam Sakhi is considered as an important work.
There are 1430 pages (organs) of Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Guru Granth contains the Bani (hymns) of six Gurus, 15 saints, 11 Bhattas, 4 Sikhs. It includes 974 hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 63 hymns, of Guru Angad Dev Ji, 907 hymns of Guru Amardas Ji, 679 hymns of Guru Ram Das Ji, 2218 hymns and 116 Shabads of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, 116 Shabads and 2 Shalokas of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The Bani of Kabir (weaver), Farid (Sufi Saint), Ravidas (Cobbler), Surdas (Brahmin), Namdev (Dyer), Jaidev (Brahmin), Trilochan (Vaish), Dhanna (Peasant), Pipa (Masons), Sain (Barber), Sadna (Bucther), Parmanand, Ramanand etc. also included in the Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They all belonged to different castes and religion. It includes hymns of Bal, Dal, Nal, Sal, Ganga Das, Mathura, Bheekha, Kirt, Harbans (Bhatts) and compositions of Guru Sikhs Mardana, Satta, Balwand and Sundar.
(а) How many pages are there in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji? What name is given to them?
There are 1430 pages in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. They are known as organs.
(b) Write a note on the compilation of Shri Adi Granth Sahib Ji?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji bestowed upon the Sikhs a sacred and religious book by compiling the Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled Adi Granth Sahib at Ramsar. Bhai Gurdas Ji assisted Guru Sahib in its compilation. The work of compilation was completed in 1604. Guru Sahib included the hymns of the first four Gurus followed by the hymns of Bhakti Saints and finally the sayings of Bhatt Bahiyah. Guru Arjan Dev Ji included his own Bani in the holy book.
Ancient Regime (French ‘Old Order’)
Before the French Revolution, the Bourbon family of kings ruled France. Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution under the regime, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate and province. French society was divided into three orders : clergy, nobility and others (the third estate).
(a) When did the French Revolution take place? Which dynasty ruled over France before the revolution?
The French Revolution took place in 1780 A. D. and the Bourbon family ruled over France before its revolution.
(b) What type of social condition of France was there at that time?
Before the French Revolution, French Society was divided into three classes First Estate i.e. the Clergy, Second Estate i.e. Nobility and Third Estate i.e. the General Public :
- The First Estate included the Clergy. They did not pay any taxes. They were on the higher posts even without having the ability.
- The Second Estate included major Nobles who had large pieces of land.
- The Third Estate included lawyers, doctors, teachers etc. They did not get any of the higher posts even if they had the ability to do so. The common public was also included in this. They had to pay taxes to the state as well as to the Church. They had to do begar and were exploited for many years.
Enlightenment: Age of Reason
The 18th century has been called the “Age of Reason”. The French philosophers asserted that man was not born to suffer as Christianity preached, but he was born
to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored Him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’ and understood its laws and faith in ‘Reason’.
(а) Why is the 18th century known as the Age of Reason. Name three French philosophers attached with this age.
18th century is known as the age of reason because nothing in this age was accepted with reason or challenge. Everything was checked on the basis of reason.
(b) Which views were given by the French philosophers of this age?
The French philosophers believed that man was not born to suffer but he was born to be happy. The man can attain happiness if reason is allowed to destroy prejudice. They either denied the existence of God or ignored him and asserted the doctrine of ‘Nature’.
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. It was a symbol of old regime.
(a) What was Bastille? Which day is known as Bastille day and why?
The Bastille was an ancient fortress in Paris that had long been used to house political prisoners. 14th July is celebrated as the Bastille day because on this day people attacked Bastille and it fell down.
(b) Discuss the fall of Rastille in the French Revolution and its importance.
On 14th July 1789, angry mob attacked the Bastille-prison at Paris. This prison was the symbol of the autocratic powers of monarchy. On the same day, the king ordered the army to enter the city. A rumour spread that the king was about to order the army to fire the poeple. So, around 7000 men and women assembled in front of the town hall. They organised a public army. In search of arms, they forcibly entered the public buildings. So, hundreds of people stormed into the prison of Bastille where they expected lot of arms and ammunition. In this conflict, the commander of Bastille died. Political prisoners were released although they were only seven in number. Fortress of Bastille was destroyed.
Olympe de Gouges
She was one of the most important among the politically active women in revolutionary France. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitled to. She criticized the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. She was tried by the National Convention, which charged her with treason. Soon after this she was executed.
(a) Who was Olympe de Gouges? How did she die?
Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important politically active women in revolutionary France. She was tried by the National convention which charged her with treason. Soon after this, she was executed.
(b) Write briefly about her political activities.
Olympe de Gouges opposed the Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizens. It was so because, it excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitiled to. She also criticised the Jacobins government for closing down the women’s clubs. That’s why she was tried by the National Convention finally executed.
Liberalism-These responses are basically the responses of thise people who accepted and wanted radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.
Conservatism-These people were in the favour of change but they wanted that it should be introduced gradually without altering the basic structure of the society.
Socialism-It gives stress on the welfare of whole society. Instead of individual profit, it stresses on social welfare.
(a) Define Conservatism.
Conservatism:Conservatism never likes changes but if change is necessary then it should be introduced gradually and due respect should be given to the old regime or it should come without changing the basic structure of society.
(b) Define Liberalism.
Liberalism:Liberalism believes in bringing change in society and its radical restructuring as well as transformation in the system.
Industrialization in Russia
In order to make Russia a great power the Tsar began a policy of rapid industrialisation in late 19th century. A number of steel, iron and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. Mostly foreign owned these industries emoployed a number of workers. Men, women and children started going to factories due to industrialization. Poor working conditions, low wages etc., combined with a new sense of common identity fostered by Socialism led most of these workers to form unions of their own.
(a) What is meant by the word Tsar? When did the system of Tsar start in Russia?
The word ‘Tsar’ literally meant ‘Supreme ruler’. Tsardom in Russia began in 1547 A.D.
(b) With what objective, the Tsar started the industrialisation in Russia? What was its impact on the labour class?
At the time of Russian Revolution, Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II. To make Russia a great power, he began a policy of rapid industrialisation in the late 19th century. Many iron, steel and other industries were established in and around Moscow and Urals. But most of these industries were owned by foreign industrialists. They employed many Russian workers who were greatly exploited. Poor working conditions and low wages combined these labourers. Under the influence of Socialism, they formed their unions and a sense of common identity.
Duma: derived from the Russian word meaning ‘to think’, the Russian parliament. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar so much that he agreed to the formation of a Duma in 1906 to advise him and to create legislation. The present day, Russian Parliament is also known as Duma.
(a) What is meant by the word ‘Duma’? Why did the Tsar of Russia establish Duma?
Duma is a Russian word which means ‘to think’. The Revolution of 1905 shook the Tsar and he was forced to form the Duma.
(b) What was Duma? What were its functions?
Its function was to advice the Tsar and to make laws for the Russian people. Duma was an elected Parliament which advised the Tsar to perform his functions. But Tsar only let conservatives to enter Duma. He kept liberals and revolutionaries away from Duma.
Bolsheviks Party Leader Lenin
The Bolsheviks, another group, were convinced that in a country like Russia where there were no democratic rights, no parliament, such a party organized on Parliamentary lines could not work and could not be effective. The leader was Lenin who devoted himself to the task of organizing the Bolshevik Party. He was influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx and Engels, and was regarded as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement after Marx.
(a) Who was Lenin?
Lenin was the leader of Bolshevik party in Russia. He is considered as the greatest leader of the Socialist Movement, after Karl Marx.
(b) Explain briefly the work done by Lenin. What was his April thesis?
After the fall of Czar, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and united the peasants and workers under the Bolshevik Party and organized the revolution against the Provisional Government. He described the Russian empire as a prison of nation.
Under the leadership of Lenin, the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies
- to end the war,
- to transfer land to the tillers, besides
- giving all powers to the Soviets and equal status to all. This was April’s Thesis.
Industrial Revolution refers to rapid technical changes in the process of production of a number of goods, during 1750-1850 (First in England and later in other countries of Europe and U.S.A.). With the invention of new sources of power and machines, the production got replaced by machines instead of doing it by hand or tools. Industrial Revolution increased the need of raw material and food, this led to substantial deforestation in most of the regions of the world. The tremendous deforestation has deeply affected the life of forest dwellers and the Environment.
(а) What is meant by the Industrial Revolution?
Industrial revolution was a technological revolution that took place during 1750’s to 1850’s. Many changes came in the production system during this period in England and other European countries.
(b) What was the impact of the industrial revolution on forests, forest society and atmosphere?
Due to the industrial revolution, handmade tools were replaced by machines which increased the production of goods to a great extent. The demand of raw materials was greatly increased in the industrial nations of Europe. The demand of food items also increased with increase in population. Finally, for the development of agriculture, there started cutting down of forests. Deforestation started everywhere which had a really bad effect on the atmosphere.