PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
As per Rigveda name of Punjab was:
(a) Harappa
(b) Sapt Sindhu
(c) Panchnand
(d) Pentapotamia.
Answer:
(b) Sapt Sindhu.

Question 2.
Chinese traveller:
(a) Chanakya
(b) Lord Curzon
(c) Hieun Tsang
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Hieun Tsang.

Question 3.
When was the Punjab annexed to the British Empire?
(a) 1849 AD.
(b) 1887 A.D.
(c) 1889 A.D.
(d) 1901 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1849 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Which doab is the least fertile among these?
(a) Chaj
(b) Sind Sagar
(c) Rachna
(d) Bari Doab.
Answer:
(b) Sind Sagar.

Question 5.
The name of region between Ghaggar and Yamuna is :
(a) Malwa
(b) Bangar
(c) Majha
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Bangar.

Question 6.
The Malwa region lies between which two rivers?
(a) Sutlej and Yamuna
(b) Sutlej and Ghaggar
(c) Ghaggar and Yamuna
(d) Sutlej and Beas.
Answer:
(b) Sutlej and Ghaggar.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
________ civilization flourished in Punjab.
Answer:
Harappa.

Question 2.
Penta means ________ and Potamia means
Answer:
five, rivers.

Question 3.
Punjab can be divided into ________ parts.
Answer:
three.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
________ region is located between the rivers of Chenab and Jehlum.
Answer:
Chaj Doab.

Question 5.
The founder of Sikh Religion was ________
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 6.
Punjab was reorganised in ________ on the basis of language.
Answer:
1 November, 1966.

Question 7.
The height of Mount Everest is metre.
Answer:
8848.

III. Match the following :

Question 1.

A

B

1. Rigveda (a) Sub mountainous Area
2. Sulaiman (b) North-Western Mountains
3. Bangar (c) Tsekai
4. Shivalik (d) Sapt Sindhu
5. Hieun Tsang (e) Ghaggar and Yamuna.

Answer:

A

B

1. Rigveda (d) Sapt Sindhu
2. Sulaiman (b) North-Western Mountains
3. Bangar (e) Ghaggar and Yamuna.
4. Shivalik (a) Sub mountainous Area
5. Hieun Tsang (c) Tsekai

IV. Differentiate between the following :

Question 1.
Malwa and Bangar
Answer:
Malwa: The area spread between Sutlej and Ghaggar rivers is called Malwa. Major cities of this region are Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda, Fazilka etc.

Bangar: This region is situated between Ghaggar and Yamuna rivers. Its major cities are Ambala, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Jind, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurugram etc. In this region, there is one historical area where many decisive wars were fought.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 2.
West Punjab and East Punjab
Answer:
West Punjab and East Punjab : In 1947, at the time of Independence, Punjab was divided into two parts- West Punjab and East Punjab. Western side of Punjab was Muslim dominated area and become a part of newly made country Pakistan. East Punjab became a part of India. In 1947, 13 districts went over to Pakistan and rest 16 districts remained in Indian Punjab.

Question 3.
Pass and Doab
Answer:
(a) Pass. A pass is a gap or break in high, rugged terrain such as a mountain ridge. Through these, mountain can be crossed.
(b) Doab. The territory between two rivers is known as the Doab. Plains of Punjab are made up of Five Doabs.

Question 4.
Himalayas and Sub-mountainous region
Answer:
(a) Himalayas. The Himalaya means Him + Alaya i,e. Land of Ices The mountains of Himalaya are in series in Punjab. According to height, these mountains are divided into three parts, The Greater Himalayas, the Middle Himalayas and the Outer Himalayas.

(b) Sub-Mountainous Region (Terai Region). In the south of Pir Panjal range of Himalayas, there situated the foothills of Shivalik and Kasauli mountains. This region is known as Terai area of Punjab or sub-mountainous region. The average height of such mountains is 1000-3000 feet.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
Chaj Doab and Bist Jalandhar Doab.
Answer:
(a) Chaj Doab. The region between rivers Chenab and Jehlum is called Chaj Doab. Major cities of this region are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.

(6) Bist Jalandhar Doab. The area situated between rivers Beas and Sutlej is Bist Jalandhar Doab. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the famous cities of this Doab.

V. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by the word ‘Punjab’?
Answer:
The word Punjab is a combination of two Persian words-Punj and Aab. The meaning of Punj is five and Aab is rivers. So, its literal meaning is the land of five rivers.

Question 2.
What name Greeks had given to Punjab?
Answer:
The Greeks called Punjab as Pentapotamia in which penta means five and potamia means rivers. So, it is the land of five rivers.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Sapt Sindhu?
Answer:
During the Vedic age, Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu because it was the land of seven rivers.

Question 4.
Punjab was divided into which two parts in 1947?
Answer:
In 1947, Punjab was divided into Western and Eastern parts. Western side went over to Pakistan and Eastern side remained in India.

Question 5.
Name any two passes located in North-West boundary of Punjab.
Answer:
Khyber pass, Kurram, Tochi etc. are the passes located in North-West boundary of Punjab.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 6.
When and in how many parts was Punjab divided on the linguistic basis?
Answer:
On 1st November, 1966, Punjab was divided into two states on linguistic basis and these were Punjab and Haryana.

VI. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Throw light on the different historical names of Punjab at the different times.
Answer:
The names of Punjab were changed from time to time :

  1. During Rig vedic age, Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu (the land of seven rivers).
  2. In the epics, The Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas, the name of Panchnand was mentioned for Punjab.
  3. Greeks gave the name Pentapotamia (Penta-five, potamia-five rivers) to Punjab.
  4. Taki tribe gave Punjab the name Taki province or Taki.
  5. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang called Punjab as Tseh-Kia.
  6. During the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab was called as Lahore Province.
  7. The Mughal Emperor Akbar gave Punjab this name. Word Punjab is made up of two persian words Punj and Aab. Punj means five and Aab means water.
  8. In 1849 A.D., the British captured it and gave it the name of Punjab Province.
  9. In 1947 A.D., with the division of country, Punjab was divided into western and Eastern Punjab. But in both the countries, it is known with the name of Punjab.

Question 2.
Why is it necessary to study geographical characteristics of Punjab in order to study the history of Punjab?
Answer:
To study the history of any region, it is necessary to study its geographical characteristics. Punjab’s ways of living, eating, habits, wearing habits, nature of people and ideas, to an extent, are affected by its geographical characteristics. Its fertile plains became the Cradle of Civilisation. During hard times, it became the battle field where lakhs of people sacrificed their lives. Many times, its rivers guided the invaders. Its forests are also important. Many a times the victims of Mughal atrocities took shelter in its forests. Its fertile plains motivated many invaders to attack India. In this way, the geographical features of Punjab are very important.

Question 3.
Why is Punjab called the Gateway of India?
Answer:
Due to western branches of Himalaya, Punjab has acted as a gateway of India. It is not so difficult to cross the passes of these mountain ranges. Except Bolan pass, all other passes connect Afghanistan with Punjab. That’s why all the invaders from Aryans till Iranians, attacked India from this side. First of all, they had to struggle with the people of Punjab. They moved forward only after defeating Punjabis. In this way, Punjab played a role of gateway of India.

Question 4.
What were the causes of the spread of Islam in Punjab?
Answer:
The major reason of the spread of Islam in Punjab is that all the invaders first settled in Punjab. They asked the local people to adopt Islam. Muslim rulers commited atrocities on Hindus who stop following Islam. People of other far off regions, who initially adopted Islam, left it and came back to the fold of Hinduism but this was not the case with Punjabi’s because foreigners resided over here. Consequently Islam received great success in Punjab. One of another reason of the spread of Islam in Punjab was that the people were fed up with the complexity of vedic religion, caste system etc.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
In what way the physical features of Punjab affected the economic life of people?
Answer:
The physical features of Punjab gave strength ‘to the economic life of the people. From the ages, each year, Himalayan rivers bring new soil and nutrients and spread them all along the plains. Consequently plains of Punjab were considered the most fertile land in the country. Due to fertile land, people had a bumper crop and they became prosperous. These rivers also irrigated its land. The Himalayas rivers are perennial and this become a boon for agriculture. With the help of wood from the forests of the Himalayas, many furniture and sports industries were developed over here. People get many other things from the mountains which helped in the development of industries.

VII. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the geographical characteristics of Punjab.
Answer:
The study of Punjab from geographical point of view is quite interesting. From this point of view, Punjab can be divided into three parts :

  1. The Himalayas and North-West Mountains.
  2. The Sub-Mountains region-Terai region.
  3. The Plains.

1. The Himalayas and North-West Mountains. This physical part of Punjab is given ahead :
(a) The Himalayas. There are a number of Himalayan ranges in Punjab. These ranges can be divided into three parts on the basis of their average height, which are-the Great Himalayas, the Middle Himalayas and the Outer Himalayas.
1. The Great Himalayas. In the east, the mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas reach upto Nepal and Tibet. In its western part, it is again called the Great Himalayas. The Great Himalayas separate the Punjab regions of Lahul-Spiti and district of Kangra from Kashmir. The scenic Kulu Valley and Rohtang Pass are situated in these ranges. These ranges rise from 5851 metres to 6781 metres. These mountain ranges are always covered with snow.

2. The Middle Himalayas. They are popularly known as the Pangi mountain ranges. These ranges start from Rohtang Pass. They separate the Valleys made by the rivers Chenab and Ravi. Their average height is 2155 metres.

3. The Outer Himalayas. The ranges of outer Himalayas run between Chamba and Dharmshala. They reach from Kashmir to Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujarat districts. Their average height is 923 metres. These ranges are also know’n as Dhauladhar ranges.

(b) North-West Mountains. The North-West Mountains form the western part of the Himalayas in Punjab. These mountains include the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges. They have nothigh rising ranges. The most important feature of these ranges is the presence of a number of passes in them. Among these passes, the Khyber Pass is the most important. This pass became a gateway for most of the invaders.

2. The Sub Mountainous region-Terai region. There situated Terai region between the higher ranges of the Himalayas and plains of Punjab. They are also known as Sub-Mountainous regions. Their width is 160 km-320 km and their height is 300-900 metres. Due to the existence of many Valleys, this region seems different from the ranges of Himalaya. Form areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and Ambala are included in it. Normally it is a mountainous region. That’s why there is quite less production over here. At many places, land has been made ready to cultivate potato, paddy and maize. To live, people have to do quite a lot of hard work. This hard work has made them healthy.

3. The Plains. The plains of Punjab are divided into two regions. The Eastern Plain and the Western Plain. The plains surrounded by Yamuna and Ravi rivers are called the Eastern plains. They are very fertile and densely populated. The plains between Ravi and Indus rivers are called Western plains.

They are less fertile as compared to the Eastern plains.
(a) Five Doabs. The territory between two rivers is called Doab. The plains of Punjab consist of five doabs.

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab: The region situated between the rivers Indus and Jhelum is called the Sindh Sagar Doab. It is not a very fertile region. Jhelum and Rawalpindi are the important cities of this Doab.
  2. Rachna Doab: This area is situated between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, is quite fertile. The important towns of this Doab are Gujranwala and Shekhupura.
  3. Bist-Jalandhar Doab: This Doab consists of the plains situated between the rivers Beas and Sutlej. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the leading cities of this Doab.
  4. Bari Doab: The territory between the rivers Beas and Ravi is called the Bari Doab. It is also a fertile region. It is popular as Majha as it refers in central location of the area in Punjab. The two most famous cities of Punjab, namely, Amritsar and Lahore, are situated in this Doab.
  5. Chaj Doab: The territory between the Chenab and Jhelum is called Chaj Doab. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.

(b) Malwa and Bangar. The wide plain situated between the rivers Sutlej and Yamuna is a part of Punjab. The plain can be divided into two parts namely, Malwa and Bangar.
1. Malwa: The area extending from the banks of river Sutlej to the banks of river Yamuna is called Malwa. Ludhiana, Patiala, Nabha, Sangrur, Faridkot, Bhatinda etc. are the prominent cities of Malwa. The area is known in Punjab as Malwa and the people belonging to this area are called Malwais. The area got its name from the name of a republican tribe called Malava, which’ lived here during ancient period of Indian history.

2. Bangar or Haryana: This region extends from river ghaggar to river Yamuna. Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Karnal, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Hissar are the prominent cities of this area. This area has great historical importance because numerous battles which influenced the course of Indian history were fought here.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 2.
Discuss the impact of physical features of Punjab on its political and religious sphere.
Answer:
Punjab is one of the most fertile land. Its ideal location has given its history a distinctive face. Moreover, history of any place takes birth from its geography. Punjab’s history is not an exception.

Its people have achieved great success in political and religious fields.
1. Impact on Political Sphere. The background of the Indian political history was prepared on the lands of Punjab. Almost all the initial invaders entered India from the North-West direction. The brave people of Punjab faced them. Most of the important and decisive wars were fought here. Chandragupta Maurya established first large kingdom in India but its base was prepared at Punjab. First of all, he provoked Punjabi’s against the Greek rule, recruited soldiers and prepared the programme to conquer India. The first Kingdom of Harshvardhana was Thaneshwar (near kurukshetra) and was in Punjab.

2. Impact on Religious Sphere. Many religious movements started in India which are of great importance in the Indian history. Chishti, Suharvardi, Sufi sects etc. originated here which spread in different parts of the country. On this sacred land, Sikhism was originated. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of Sikhism. After him there came 9 Gurus who gave Sikhism a distinctive indentity. Punjabis gave many sacrifices in the interest of humanity. The Sikh religion flourished rapidly in Punjab.

Question 3.
Discuss the impact of foreign invasion on the people of Punjab.
Answer:
The people of Punjab faced lot many foreign invaders. They also tolerated the people who came with the foreign invaders and settled over here. Due to continuous wars, a feeling of bravery and fearlessness came in them. They never lived at place for a very long time. With the advent of many people from foreign countries, their culture, ways of living, religion, language etc. became the part of Punjab. Many of the traits of the Muslim culture got assimilated in the Punjabi culture.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Punjab was annexed into the British Empire in ______________
(a) 1947 A.E),
(b) 1857 A.D.
(c) 1849 A.D.
(d) 1889 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1849 A.D.

Question 2.
Punjab was divided in two parts on the basis of language in ___________
(a) 1947 A.D.
(b) 1966 A.D.
(c) 1950 A.D.
(d) 1971 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1966 A.D.

Question 3.
________ river acted as a boundary between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the British.
(a) Sutlej
(b) Chenab
(c) Ravi
(d) Beas.
Answer:
(a) Sutlej.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Presently which river acts a boundary between India and Pakistan?
(a) Ravi
(b) Chenab
(c) Beas
(d) Sutlej.
Answer:
(a) Ravi.

Question 5.
Shah Jaman attacked India (Punjab) in ________
(a) 1811 A.D.
(b) 1798 A.D.
(c) 1757 A.D.
(d) 1794 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1798 A.D.

Question 6.
Who made Delhi as the capital of India?
(a) Lord William Bentick
(b) Lord Mountbatten
(c) Lord Hardinge
(d) Lord Curzon.
Answer:
(c) Lord Hardinge.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Punjab was called Sapt Sindhu during period.
Answer:
Vedic

Question 2.
The territory between two rivers is known as the ________
Answer:
Doab

Question 3.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar divided Punjab in ________ provinces.
Answer:
two

Question 4.
Under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab was called ________ as a province.
Answer:
Lahore

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 5.
During the Ramayana and Mahabharata age, Punjab was called ________
Answer:
Tsehkia

Question 6.
Alexander attacked India in ________ B. C.
Answer:
326.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is it not correct to use the word Punjab after the partition of India?
Answer:
Before partition, Punjab was a land of five rivers but after independence, three rivers went over to Pakistan and only two (Beas and Sutlej) remained in present Punjab.

Question 2.
What was the impact of Indian partition on Punjab?
Answer:
With the Indian partition, Punjab was divided in two parts.

Question 3.
In how mahy parts, can Punjab be divided from geographical point of view? Name them.
Answer:
From geographical point of view, Punjab can be divided into three parts :

  1. The Himalaya and its North-Eastern mountains,
  2. Sub-Mountainous region,
  3. The plains.

Question 4.
What type of area would Punjab be had the Himalayas not been there?
Answer:
If the Himalayas had not been there in the north of Punjab,it could have been dry and cold.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Doab’?
Answer:
Territory between two rivers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 6.
What is the area between the rivers Sutlej and the Ghaggar called? What are the inhabitants of this area called?
Answer:
The region between the rivers Sutlej and Ghaggar is known as Malwa and people living in this region are called Malwais.

Question 7.
How was the Doab Bist Jalandhar named? Write the names of any two famous cities of this area.
Answer:

  1. Doab Bist Jalandhar is the region between the rivers Beas and Sutlej. By joining the first letters of the names of the rivers Beas and Sutlej, the word Bist is formed
  2. Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur are the two famous cities of this region.

Question 8.
Why is the Doab Bari called Majha? What are the residents of this area called?
Answer:
The Bari Doab is situated in the central Punjab. The word Majha means inner or the centre and that is why it is called the Majha. The people living in this region are called Majhels or Majahis.

Question 9.
Which Mughal ruler had divided the Punjab into two provinces?
Answer:
The Mughal ruler Akbar divided the Punjab into two provinces.

Question 10.
By what name was the Punjab called during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Punjab was called ‘Lahore Kingdom’ during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Question 11.
When did the British annex Punjab?
Answer:
The British annexed Punjab in 1849.

Question 12.
When did the division of Punjab take place on linguistic basis?
Answer:
Punjab was divided in two states namely, Punjab and Haryana in 1966 on Linguistic basis.

Question 13.
Name any four major tribes which invaded Punjab after crossing the passes of the north-west ranges of Himalayas.
Answer:
The four main tribes were the Aryans, Sakas, Greeks and Kushans.

Question 14.
In which two parts are the plains of Punjab divided?
Answer:
The plains of Punjab are divided in two parts namely Eastern plains and Western plains.

Question 15.
Which two rivers have remained in the Indian Punjab?
Answer:
Sutlej and Beas.

Question 16.
What was Punjab called during Ramayana and Mahabharata ages?
Answer:
Panchnand

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 17.
Which Governor-General made Delhi the Capital of India?
Answer:
Lord Hardinge.

Question 18.
Name any two passes situated in the western ranges of the Himalayas. ,
Answer:
Khyber and Tochi.

Question 19.
When did Delhi become the Capital of India?
Answer:
In 1911 A.D.

Question 20.
When did Alexander attack India?
Answer:
In 326 B.C.

Question 21.
When did Shah Zaman attack India (Punjab)?
Answer:
In 1798 A.D.

Question 22.
Which river acted as the boundary between the British and Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
River Sutlej.

Question 23.
Presently, few parts of which river act as a boundary between India and Pakistan?
Answer:
Ravi.

Question 24.
Which was the Capital of Punjab during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Answer:
Lahore.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 25.
Why are the plains of Punjab called Real Punjab? Give any one reason in support of the claim.
Answer:
The plains are fertile and are the main cause of prosperity of Punjab.

Question 26.
Name any four Doabs of the plains of Punjab.
Answer:
Bist Jalandhar Doab, Bari Doab, Rachna Doab and Chaj Doab.

Question 27.
Name the rivers which surround the Malwa region in Punjab?
Answer:
The rivers Sutlej and Ghaggar surround the Malwa region.

Question 28.
Name any four cities of Punjab where decisive historical wars were fought?
Answer:
Terain, Panipat, Peshawar and Thanesar.

Question 29.
What name do we give to Pakistani Punjab?
Answer:
Western Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write any four advantages of the Himalayas.
Answer:
The following are the main four benefits of the Himalayan mountains.

  1. The rivers of Himalayan flow during the whole year. They make the land of the Punjab fertile.
  2. There are dense forests in the Himalayan mountains. These forests provide many herbs and large quantities of wood.
  3. The high snow-covered peaks of the Himalayas protect India from the attacks of foreign invaders from the North.
  4. The Himalayan mountains check the monsoon winds and help in bringing rains.

Question 2.
Write briefly about any three Doabs.
Answer:

  1. The Sindh Sagar Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Indus and Jhelum. It is not a fertile region for farming.
  2. The Chaj Doab. This Doab is the region between the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. The important cities of this Doab are Gujarat, Bhera and Shahpur.
  3. The Rachna Doab. It is the region between the rivers Ravi and Chenab, which is a very fertile region. Gujranwala and Shekhupura are the important towns of this Doab.

Question 3.
How did the rivers of Punjab affect the course of its history?
Answer:
The rivers of Punjab always stopped the march of the invaders of India. When the rivers were in flood in the rainy season, they expanded in the vast area and it became impossible to cross them. Undoubtedly, it was the reason that Alexander was held back for many days on the banks of river Jhelum before crossing it, because it was in flood. These rivers proved insurmountable hurdles for many invaders. The rivers of Punjab had also been used as the natural boundaries for administrative purposes. The Mughal rulers divided the areas of the administrative units like Sarkars, Parganas, and Subas by adopting the rivers as the boundaries. The rivers of Punjab had made its land fertile and brought its people wealth and prosperity. Had the rivers not brought the alluvial soil from the high mountains to the plains, Punjab would not have any fertile land.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 4.
Give information about the boundaries of Punjab in different periods of Indian history.
Answer:
The boundaries of the Punjab territory varied from time to time throughout its history.

  1. According to the Rig Veda, the boundaries of Punjab included the regions covered by the rivers Indus. Jhelum Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Saraswati.
  2. During the Mauryan and Kushan periods, the boundaries of Punjab extended upto the Hindukush mountain ranges and Taxila.
  3. During the Sultanate period (1206-1526), the boundaries of Punjab extended from Lahore to Peshawar. During the Mughal period (1526-1707), the Punjab was diyided into two provinces, namely, Lahore Suba and Multan Suba.
  4. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the boundaries of Punjab extended from the river Sutlej to Peshawar.
  5. The British named the territory of Lahore kingdom of Maharaja Dalip Singh (Son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh) as the Punjab after annexing it to the British Indian Empire.
  6. After the partition of India, a major part^f the Punjab was transferred to Pakistan.
  7. On the basis of language, Punjab was divided into three states, namely Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 5.
How did the Himalayan mountains influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
The Himalayas influenced the history of Punjab in the following manner :

  1. Punjab-The Gateway of India: Punjab remained the Gateway of India for centuries since ancient times due to the North-Western mountain ranges of the Himalayas. The foreign invaders crossed the passes of these ranges to invade India.
  2. The Problem of the North-West Frontier: The security of North-West Frontier of India had always remained a major problem for the rulers of India. Those rulers, who failed to ensure the security of North-West Frontiers, suffered heavy losses.
  3. Protection against Foreign Invasions: It was impossible to cross the high ranges of the Himalayas from north. Consequently, Punjab remained secure in the north for a long time since nobody could invade from the northern side.
  4. Economic Prosperity: The rivers, originating in the Himalayas, replenished her plains with fertile soil from year to year. Consequently, the plains of Punjab were counted among the most fertile lands of the world.

Question 6.
What role did the Punjab play in the history of India?
Answer:
The Punjab played an important role in the history of India due to its special geographical location. It became the cradle of Indian civilization. The oldest ancient culture (Indus Valley Civilization) flourished in the Punjab. The Aryans made it the centre of their political sway. They composed their sacred books like the Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana etc, in the Punjab. Punjab was the the Gateway of India. All the invaders during medieval period came to India by passing through Punjab. Hence, people of Punjab had to fight numerous battles to hold back the advancing invaders. Apart from this, Punjab was the birthplace of Hinduism and Sikhism. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave his divine message on this very land. It was here that Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa Panth and successfully resisted the Mughal oppression. Banda Singh Bahadur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh hold prominent places in the history of India.

Question 7.
Give a brief description of the geographical division of Punjab keeping in view the history of Punjab.
Answer:
The geographical features of Punjab can be divided into three parts, keeping in view the history of Punjab.

  1. Himalayas and the North-West Mountain ranges.
  2. The Terai region (foothills).
  3. The Plains.

The mighty Himalayas form the boundary of Punjab in the north. The high rising peaks of the Himalayas are always covered With snow. The Himalayas have three ranges which run parallel to one another. There are numerous passes in the North West ranges through which the invaders, traders and religious preachers had been coming to India since ancient times. The second geographical division of Punjab is Terai region. It is sandwiched between the mountains and the plains of Punjab. The population in this region is small. The most important geographical division of Punjab is its plains, which are very fertile. They extend from river Indus in the northwest to river Yamuna in the south-east. It is formed by the soil deposited by the rivers from the Himalayas. It is the cause of the prosperity of Punjab since the ancient times.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Question 8.
How did the geographical features of Punjab influence the history of Punjab?
Answer:
Each geographical feature of Punjab has influenced differently the history of Punjab.

  1. The passes of the North-West Mountain Ranges of Himalayas allowed passage to many invaders. Hence the security of the North-west region remained a major problem for every ruler. On the other hand, the snow capped high rising peaks of the Himalayas in the parts of Punjab provided perfect security from all the possible invaders from the northern side.
  2. The distinctive culture of Punjab is a gift of the Himalayas standing in the North and West of Punjab.
  3. The prosperity and wealth of Punjab had always attracted the greedy invaders. Consequently. Punjab had to face their invasions frequently.
  4. The Terai region provided shelter to the Sikhs during their hard times. The Sikhs saved themselves and courageously faced the oppressive rulers.

Question 9.
Who annexed Punjab to the British Empire and when? Describe the role of the Punjab in the freedom struggle of India.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856), the Governor-General of India, annexed the Punjab to the British Indian Empire in 1849. Punjab made a commendable contribution to the freedom struggle of India. Baba Ram Singh started the Kuka Movement in Punjab. He was the first to oppose the British rule. The people of Punjab began the freedom struggle during the 20th century by starting, Gaddhar Movement, Gurudwara Movement, Babbar Akali Movement, Naujwan Sabha (Martyr Bhagat Singh’s Movement), Akali Movement, Praja Mandal Movement etc. Martyr Bhagat Singh sacrificed his life on the gallows for the sake of his motherland. The heroes of freedom struggle like Madan Lai Dhingra, Kartar Singh Sarabha and Udham Singh laid down their lives for the freedom of India. Ultimately, in 1947, India became free.

Question 10.
Describe the main features of Mountain Valleys (Tilhat) or Terai region (foothills) in Punjab.
Answer:
The Terai region of Punjab is situated below the hills of Himachal Pradesh and of Punjab. This region is 308 to 923 metres high above sea level. It presents a different look from the rest of the Himalayan regions in Punjab because of its meadows and valleys. The areas of Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and some areas of Ambala district are parts of this region. It is mostly a hilly area. Consequently, the region is not much fertile. The waterborne diseases rapidly spread here during the rainy season. It has a small population. The people of the region are forced to work hard for their livelihood. This hqrd life has made them strong and sturdy.

Question 11.
How far have the plains influenced the history of Punjab?
Answer:

  1. Punjab had always remained a prosperous .state because its plains are fertile. The wealth and prosperity of Punjab always attracted greedy invaders from outside Punjab.
  2. Many historic battles were fought in the plains of Punjab. Peshawar, Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Sirhind, Bhatinda, Bhera, Kari, Terain, Panipat etc. witnessed major decisive battles. The three major decisive battles, the Battles of Panipat took place in Punjab.
  3. The people of Punjab were made to fight numerous battles because of the geographical location of the plains of Punjab. They suffered numerous atrocities at the hands of invaders. For example, Timur was notorious for his inhuman atrocities, which he inflicted on the people of Punjab.
  4. The people of Punjab developed the qualities of bravery and courage due to their involvement in frequent wars which they were made to fight.
  5. The Aryans developed Hinduism in Punjab. During the medieval period, this very land had the honour of being the birthplace of Guru Nanak Dev Ji who gave his spiritual message in a very simple language.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab.” Justify this statement with your arguments.
Answer:
The Himalayas stand high like a huge wall on the northern side of Punjab. The Himalayas have deeply influenced the history of Punjab :
1. Punjab: The Gateway of India. The Punjab had remained the Gateway of India for centuries because of the North-West ranges of Himalayas. First of all, the Aryans from Iran crossed the North Western mountain passes and invaded India. They faced strong opposition of the people of Punjab. But they ultimately settled in this region.

2. The Problem of North-West Frontier: The protection of North-West Frontiers had always remained a major problem for the Indian rulers. The Indian rulers were forced to spend a large amount of money for the protection of these frontiers.

3. Protection against the attacks of foreigners: The Northern ranges of the Himalayas are very high and always remain covered with snow. Therefore, Punjab remained safe from the attacks of the foreigners from the northern side.

4. Economic Prosperity: The Punjab has remained a prosperous region due to the Himalayas. The rivers of Himalayas replenished the upper soil of its land. Consequently, Punjab plains were counted among the most fertile regions of the world.

5. The Trade Relations with Foreign Countries: The passes in the North-West ranges served as trade routes to the foreign countries. The merchants from West Asian and Central Asian countries visited India by these trade routes. The Punjabi traders also visited their countries.

6. Distinctive Culture of Punjab. The Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals and Afghans came to India crossing the passes of the North-West Himalayas. Their different languages like Arabic, Persian, Turkish, etc. mixed with Sanskrit based local languages and dialects. This fusion of different cultures gave birth to the distinctive culture of Punjab which is now full of Indian and foreign features.

Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Punjab (Meaning): The word Punjab is derived from two Persian words, Panj and Aab. The meaning of Panj is five and the meaning of Aab is water, which is a symbol of river. Thus the Punjab is the region of five waters.
  • Changing Names of Punjab: Punjab was known by different names during different periods of history. The ancient names of Punjab were Sapt Sindhu, Panchnand, Pentapotamia, Tseh-Kia, Lahore Suba, Punjab etc.
  • The Geographical Divisions: From geographical point of view, Punjab can be divided into three divisions :
    (i) The Himalayas and its North-Western mountain ranges,
    (ii) The foothills or Terai region (the sub- Mountainous Region) and
    (Hi) the Plains.
  • The Malwa Region The Malwa region is surrounded by the rivers Sutlej and Ghagghar. During ancient times, the ‘Malava’ tribe lived here. The region is named Malwa after the name of Malava tribe.
  • The effects of Himalayas on the history of the Punjab Punjab was the “Gateway of India’ due to the existence of a number of passes in the North-West ranges of the Himalayas. During the medieval period, all the invaders came through these passes to invade India.
  • The plains of Punjab The plains of Punjab are very fertile. The prosperity of Punjab encouraged foreign invaders to attack India.
  • The influence of rivers of Punjab on its history The rivers of Punjab were a hurdle in the path of the invaders.
  • They also played a role in providing natural boundaries. The Mughal rulers adopted river boundaries as the administrative divisions like Parganas, Sarkars and Subas.
  • Terai Region The Terai region is covered with dense forests. The Sikhs took shelter in these forests during their hard times. They organised themselves, increased their military strength and effectively faced the oppressive rulers.
  • The different Castes and Tribes of Punjab The people of different castes and tribes lived in the Punjab. The prominent were the Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, Khatris, Aroras, Gujjars, Ariansetc.
  • Punjab annexed into the British Empire in – 1849 A.D.
  • The areas of Punjab and Hissar were included in Punjab in – 1857
  • North-Western Frontier Province was made out of Punjab in – 1901
  • Delhi was separated from Punjab in – 1911
  • At the time of Indian Independence, Punjab was divided into Western Punjab and Eastern Punjab in -1947
  • Punjab was divided in two States – Punjab and Haryana on Linguistic basis on – 1st Nov. 1966.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 1 Punjab: Physical Features and its Impact Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.