PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Physical Education Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the name of two intoxicants.
Answer:

  • Wine
  • Hashish.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Question 2.
Name any two systems which are being effected by intoxicants.
Answer:
On Digestive system and circulatory system.

Question 3.
Write any two harms of intoxicants.
Answer:

  • Face becomes pale.
  • Disturbance of Mantle concentration.

Question 4.
Write any two harm of sports person of intoxicants.
Answer:

  • Carelessness and irresponsibility.
  • End of Sportsmanship

Question 5.
Intoxicants causes depart in sport. (Right or wrong)
Answer:
Right.

Question 6.
Alcohol effects on brain. (Right or wrong)
Answer:
Right.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Question 7.
Chewing Tobacco causes weak eyesight. (Right or wrong)
Answer:
Right.

Question 8.
Smoking causes cancer or not.
Answer:
Causes cancer.

Question 9.
Use of Tobacco does not causes cough and the consumption of tobacco is not prone to T.B. (Right or wrong)
Answer:
Wrong.

Question 10.
Under the influence of intoxicants player become careless. (Right or wrong)
Answer:
Right.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Prepare a list of intoxicants.
Answer:
List of Intoxicants:

  • Alcohol
  • Opiumh
  • Tobacco
  • Bhang
  • Hashis
  • Snuff
  • Caffeine
  • Adernwin.

Question 2.
Describe how intoxicants effect on digestion and memory or thinking of a person.
Answer:
Effect on Digestion:
Intoxicants have highly adverse effect on digestive system. They are highly acidic in nature. As a result of acidic characteristic, the working capacity of liver decreases, and our suffers from many stomach ailments.

Effect on Memory:
Under the influence of intoxicants person cannot speak properly. He only stammers. He loses self-control. He cannot properly judge the changed conditions during the play, and fails to exploit such situations.

Question 3.
Intoxicants cause defeat in sports. How?
Answer:

  • Intoxicated players fail to assess the ever changing condition during the play, and become the cause of their team’s defeat in the end. .
  • An intoxicated player becomes careless and irresponsible.
  • If anybody is found having played under the influence of some intoxicants, he may be debarred from play, his reward is cancelled. In this way victory turns into defeat.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Question 4.
What are the effects of Alcohol on our body? Discuss harm of alcohol.
Answer:
Effects of Alcohol on Health:
Alcohol is a liquid intoxicant. It is legally binding to write on each bottle of alcohol-“Drinking is injurious to health.” Even then more and more people are becoming addict to alcohol, and seem to ignore the statutory warning totally. Thus, more and more such people are becoming prey to many diseases. Their lungs get defected. The liver is damaged. Age declines. Alcohol, in fact, adversely affects all parts of the body. At first man takes alcohol, then alcohol begins to take (consume) him.

Alcohol has several bad effects, some of which are listed below:

  • Alcohol affects the brain first of all. Nervous system gets affected and the brain weakens. The thinking power or faculty declines.
  • The kidneys in the body weaken.
  • Alcohol becomes a hindrance in the production of digestive juices, as a result of which digestion worsens.
  • Respiration increases, and one catches diseases pertaining to respiratory system.
  • Blood vessels expand under the influence of regular drinking. Brain has to exert more, and one may suffer a heart attack any moment.
  • Regular drinking decreases the work-capacity of muscles. The body gets weakened to face the attack of disease germs.
  • The studies have revealed that a drunkard works less than a normal person. A drunkard also catches various diseases sooner than a normal individual.
  • Drinking is a social evil as it ruins home, health and wealth.

Question 5.
What is the effects of cigarettes and tobacco on our body? What are the harms of smoking?
Answer:
Effect of Smoking on Health:
In our country smoking and taking tobacco has become a habit and a fashion. There are several ways to consume tobacco such as smoking cigarettes, bidis, cigars, hubble-bubble, etc. Tobacco is also eaten in many forms such as eating “paan”, tobacco mixed with lime, “jarda”, etc. There is a dangerous toxic substance called Nicotine in tobacco. There are other toxins like ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc. Nicotine has its adverse effect on the head which begins to feel giddy, and then the heart is badly affected.

The harms of tobacco on health are as under:

  • Eating or taking tobacco weakens eyesight.
  • It increases heart beat. One catches heart diseases which often prove fatal.
  • Studies have revealed that tobacco consuming contracts blood vessels.
  • Tobacco benumbs the body tissues. One does not have good sleep and ultimately suffers from sleeplessness.
  • Stomach begins to remain upset with tobacco consumption.
  • Tobacco also causes cough, and the consumer of tobacco is prone to lung diseases like T.B.
  • The possibility of catching cancer increases with the excessive use of tobacco, particularly the cancer of lungs and throat.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are intoxicants? Discuss their harms.
Answer:
Intoxicants and their Abuses:
Ever since time immemorial man has been using intoxicants. He was of the opinion that their use was helpful in removing some diseases and in making one feel fresh. But later on the harmful effects of intoxicants came to light. In today’s world, many types of intoxicants have come into use and are easily available. The sports world, in particular, feels concerned and worried. There is no doubt that man can work overtime by consuming some intoxicants, but in the long run overwork results in his fast decay and death.

Among these intoxicants some are worse than leprosy. Such intoxicants as alcohol, tobacco, opium, hashish, bhang, etc. are very harmful to ones’ health. Everybody takes part in some sports for his recreation. He has goodwill and sense of co-operation, and thinks of the well-being of all on the other hand, an intoxicant cannot think of anybody and anything else except his own self, and sometimes not even about his own well-being.

Such a person is a burden on society. He becomes a thorn in the flesh of others. Not only does he make his own life sorrowful but also makes others sorrowful, and turns the life of his family and relatives into a virtual hell. The fact is that intoxicants had highly injurious .effect on one’s health. The use of intoxicants makes one catch diseases of liver, lungs, heart, blood, digestive system, etc. It is not good for players in particular.

Harms of Intoxicants:
Those players who use intoxicants develop the following defects-

  • The face turns pale.
  • One’s steps stagger.
  • The mental balance is lost.
  • The playfield turns into a battlefield.
  • Digestion gets defective.
  • Acidic elements decrease the efficiency of liver.
  • Many stomach ailments are caught.
  • The working capacity of muscles decreases.
  • The player fails to show good performance on the playfield.
  • One catches such dreadful diseases as cancer, asthma etc.
  • The memory of the player suffers.
  • Intoxicated players fail to assess the ever-changing conditions during the play, and become the cause of their team’s defeat in the end.
  • An intoxicated player becomes careless and irresponsible.
  • Body loses the needed co-ordination.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance

Question 2.
Mention the adverse effects of intoxicants on the players and their games.
Answer:
The adverse effects of intoxicants on the players and their game are as under:
1. The Lack of Bodily co-ordination and Agility:
The player under the effect of an intoxicant loses his usual agility and physical co-ordination. These are essential qualities for a good game of hockey, football, etc.

2. The Lack of Mental balance and Concentration:
A slight mistake of a player may prove to be very harmful to the team. An intoxicated player cannot play with concentration. Therefore, he commits such mistakes as result in the team’s defeat.

3. Carelessness and Irresponsibility:
An intoxicated player is extremely careless and carefree. He fails to judge his own strength and efficiency. Sometimes such a player receives such an injury that he has to repent later throughout his life.

4. The Loss of the Spirit of Sportsmanship:
The intoxicated player loses his sense of sportsmanship. As he is in semi-conscious state, he has no self-control. He loses his balance of mind, becomes self-willed and plays as he wishes without paying any heed to what his team-mates say or desire.

5. The Lack of Tolerance:
An intoxicated player often expresses his unhappiness over the decisions of the umpire or referee. He has no control on his reasoning, so he behaves indecently.

6. Disobedience of Rules: Such a player often disobeys rules of the game.

7. Turning of Playground into a Battlefield:
A player under the influence of intoxicant turns the playground into a battlefield.
International Olympic Committee has banned the use of intoxicants during games. If anybody is found having played under the influence of some intoxicant, his medal or reward is cancelled. Therefore, players should try to avoid all kinds of intoxicants, show their best performance and brings laurels to their country.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Chapter 3 Effects of Intoxicants on Sports Performance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Physical Education Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

Very Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Write any two advantages of Sports.
Answer:
Make a person physically fit and mantly sound.

Question 2.
Write about the behaviour of sportsman. Write two lines.
Answer:
Accept defeat with honour and dignity every body consider equals.

Question 3.
Mention any two qualities of sportsperson.
Answer:

  • Co-operation
  • Tolerance.

Question 4.
Defeat and victory are equal. What it is called?
Answer:
Qualities of players.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

Question 5.
How the quality of order and abide by comet.
Answer:
To participate in game.

Question 6.
The quality of self confidence and responsibility. What an able a person.
Answer:
Good citizenship.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write two qualities of sportsman.
Answer:

  • Spirit of Discipline
  • Tolerance
  • Spirit of sacrifice.

Question 2.
Describe two values of sports.
Answer:

  • Sound health
  • Good citizenship
  • Full control over emotions.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

Question 3.
What do you understand by “sportsmanship”?
Answer:
‘Sportsmanship’ and ‘sportsman’ are important words related to games. Sportsmanship is the spirit with which a sportsman takes part in a game from beginning to the end. Sportsmanship is the collection of those qualities that are essential for a sportsman. For example it is essential for a player to be healthy, lively, disciplined, co-operative, active and obedient to the captain of his team.

Question 4.
What system of behaviour is accepted by a sportsman?
Answer:
System of behaviour for a sportsman accepted internationally by sportsmen has following features:

  • The decisions of the authorities are accepted to be correct and final.
  • The rules of the games are in fact the consensus of good people.
  • The greatest assurance is the best and clean performance of the teams.
  • Accept defeat with grace.
  • Treat victory in a natural way.
  • Acknowledging others virtues gives you respect.
  • Finding excuses for defeat or bad performance is not good.
  • A nation or team is respected according to behaviour.
  • Teams coming from outside should be respected.
  • Treat all teams equal.

Question 5.
How can the audience become good sportsmen?
Answer:
Following qualities are essential for the audience to become good sportsmen:

  • They should not obstruct the appreciation of good performance of the players.
  • If the decision goes against their wishes, they should not say anything against the Judge.
  • If the team supported by them is weak, they should not expect to win because only that team can win which has the qualities of good sportsmanship and strength.
  • They should not quarrel with other spectators simply for supporting the other team.
  • If the team they are supporting faces defeat they should not indulge in bad behaviour such as throwing filth in the ground or trying to stop the game so that it may end without any decision.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the Values of Sports.
Answer:
Values of Sports:
Sports have attraction for man due to their values.Following are the reasons for the emphasis being given on sports:

1. Sound Health:
Health is invaluable. A sound mind lives in a sound body. Tiredness, idleness remain away from a healthy man.
All the parts of one’s body are activated by jumping, running and other activities related to sports. All the vital parts of body like heart, lungs etc. start functioning well. Thus sports make one active and smart.

2. Sound Body:
Games and Sports develop sound body. Different sports provide strength to different parts of the body. Sports help in increasing height. The co-ordination of muscles and nerves makes a man look attractive.

3. Full Control over Emotions:
For a balanced and successful life full control over emotions is necessary. If the emotions are not controlled the emotions like anger, sadness and pride may destroy man’s personality. Sports keep human mind free from everyday worries, keep him happy and provide control over emotions.

4. Development of Sound Reason:
Man has to face many problems in life. Sound reasoning is needed to face these problems. Sports help in the development of sound reason. During the game a sportsman has to face different problems and situations. He has to take quick decisions and find quick solutions. Delay in such cases may turn the whole situation upside down. One learns to solve one’s problems. This develops sound reason.

5. Development of Character:
A man of character is respected every where. He does not come under the influence of temptations. Sometimes players are offered pecuniary rewards for victory or defeat. But a good player avoids this. If a sportsman indulges in such activities that prove disloyal to his team he is disliked and becomes hatable in the eyes of his fellow sportmen and the audience. No player tries to play foul in front of the public and in the presence of referees. All these things develop qualities of good character.

6. Development of strong Will-Power:
Sports strengthen will power. It enables the sportsman to work with concentration and acheive new heights of glory. Sportsman tries to achieve success and he tries hard for it. This becomes his habit to work with single minded devotion for success in life also. In this way sports develop strong will-power.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

7. Development of the feeling of Brotherhood:
Sports help in the development of brotherhood. Sportsmen play in groups and it makes him behave properly according to the expectations of the group. He has to give up those habits that do not correspond with the expectations of the group. Apart from this playing in a group
has an impact on each other. This develops a feeling of love and brotherhood among the members of the group. This moulds their nature according to the group and they command respect in life.

8. Self-expression:
Sports provide an opportunity to the player to express their views without inhibitions. In the playground the players demonstrate their feats and personal qualities in front of the spectators. The expression of these qualities is possible in the playground only.

9. Leadership:
A good leader in sports develops into a good leader in life also. A good leader brings good name to his nation. On the other hand a bad leader endangers the interests of his country. We get disciplined, controlled, self-sacrificing, co-operative soldiers and good officers who sacrifice everything for the country. Therefore the Duke of Wellington, after Napolean’s defeat in the battle of Waterloo, said, “The battle of Waterloo was won at the playing-fields of Eton and Harrow.”

10. Proper Use of Leisure Time:
After day’s work one has ample free time. It becomes a problem to make the proper use of this spare time. If we do not make proper use of this time naturally we indulge in mischief. An idle mind is devil’s workshop. Sports and games help us in making the proper use of this free time. Sports not only help in spending free time usefully but also develop good health.

11. Spirit of Competition and Co-operation:
Competition is the basis of progress and co-operation is the means to great achievements. Every man has the feelings of competition and co-operation. The development of these feelings bring progress in society and take a country to the road to progress. Sports develop these feelings. A great competition takes place in the games of hockey, cricket, football etc. The teams try hard to win the match. The co¬operation of all the players is required to win the match. The efforts of only a single player cannot win the game. In order to develop the feeling of competition and co-operation, games have an important role to play.

12. Free from Casteism and Development of International Understanding:
Games and sports free us from the differences of casteism that cause a great hurdle in the progress of a country. The players belonging to different castes are there in every team. Their living together and making joint efforts to win the game abolish the differences based on casteism. In international competitions the players of different countries participate and have an active interaction with one another. A feeling of friendship develops and it paves way for international co-operation.

13. Spirit of Discipline:
The players remain in discipline and do there duty in the playground. We can say that a man or a player remaining in discipline in the playground develops a habit of discipline in life also.

14. Tolerance:
Games and sports develop a feeling of tolerance in players. We exchange our views with others. A feeling of co-operation and tolerance develops in us.

15. Good Citizenship:
Sports develop the qualities of a good citizen in the players. The players live in discipline, abide by the rules of the games and co-operate with other players. This makes them develop into good citizens.
In short we can say that sports develop the feelings of co-operation brotherhood, good leadership, equality etc. They help us in becoming good citizens.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship

Question 2.
What do you understand by ‘Sportsmanship’? What should be the qualities of a good sportsman?
Answer:
Meaning of Sportsmanship:
Many of the words from English language have been adopted by Indian languages. ‘Sportsmanship and ‘sportsman’ are important words related to games. Sportsmanship is the spirit with which a sportsman takes part in a game from beginning to the end. Sportsmanship is the collection of those qualities that are essential for a sportsman. For example it is essential for a player to be healthy, lively, disciplined, co-operative, active and obedient to the captain of his team. The collection of these qualities is known as sportsmanship.

Qualities of a Sportsman:

1. Spirit of Discipline:
The greatest quality of a sportsman is to remain in discipline and abide by the rules of the game. A person having this quality can be called a good sportsman.

2. Tolerance:
One of the important qualities of sportsmanship is tolerance. One faces different situations in games. Victory enthralls and defeat disappoints. But a good sportsman is that who encourages the defeated team and accepts his own defeat with a smiling face and congratulates the victorious team.

3.Spirit of Co-operation:
The spirit of co-operation is the third major quality of sportsman. This feeling keeps the players together and makes them work hard to win the game. A good sportsman co-operates with players, captain, coach, the referee and even the players of the opposite team.

4. No Difference between Victory and Defeat:
Every sportsman tries to win the game and makes every possible effet to achieve success. He can be called a good sportsman if he plays not only to win the game but only to demonstrate a good game. If he wins he should not make fun of the defeated team. In case of defeat he should not be disappointed. A good sportsman treats the defeated players not as inferiors rather he considers them his equals.

5.Ability of Obedience and Order:
A good sportsman should have the ability to obey the commands and in certain cases issue commands. In some cases players lose self-control and disobey their captain. They are not true sportsmen.

6.Spirit of Sacrifice:
The aim of a sportsman is to achieve success for his team. He does not play for his self-interest. It is another quality of a sportsman. A player gives the credit of success to his school, college, state and country.

7. Spirit of Brotherhood:
A good sportsman does not give importance to the differences on the basis of caste, creed, religion, language, region etc. He treats all the players in the same way.

8. Spirit of Competition:
Spirit of competition is essential in a good sportsman. This spirit makes him work hard. In fact the key to progress is the spirit of competition. But this spirit of competition should be free from prejudice and maliee.

9. Spirit of Punctuality:
Sportsman respect the sense of punctuality and make maximum use of each and every opportunity. Every record in a game is valuable. A minor negligence may turn victory into defeat.
PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship 1

10. Spirit of being Active and Alert: A sportsman always remains active and smart. He does not lose any opportunity.

11. Spirit of Self-Confidence:
Without self-confidence nobody can play a game well. Every player has self-confidence and faith in his ability. The self- confidence of the Japanese won them maximum medals in 1974 Asian Games. In 1978 they again got the first position. In the same way they won in 1982 Asian Games held in Delhi.

12. Spirit of Responsibility: The sense of responsibility is a must for a sportsman. He should not behave in an irresponsible way. A minor irresponsible act on his part may bring defeat.

13. Knowledge of New Rules:
A sportsman should be aware of the latest rules of games and sports. Every year new rules and regulations are framed. A sportsman should be aware of them.In short, we can say that sportsmanship is not a single unit rather a collection of good elements and a sportsman should have the qualities of discipline, tolerance, self confidence, self-sacrifice and co-operation.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Chapter 2 Qualities of Sports and Sportsmanship Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Physical Education Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is aim of Physical Education?
Answer:
Aim of Physical Education is to a such atmosphere which is suitable to a person for harmonioes development.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Question 2.
What is Physical Education?
Answer:
Physical Education is that Education which make a person physically fit. Mently sound through exercise.

Question 3.
Name any two objectives of Physical Education.
Answer:

  • Physical development
  • Mentle development.

Question 4.
Give any two contribution of Physical Education for the development of a person and society.
Answer:

  • Proper use of leisure time
  • Realisation of aim of life
  • Social feeling.

Question 5.
Which are the objectives which are attain in the field of sports. Name any two.
Answer:

  • Tolerance
  • Discipline
  • Character development.

Question 6.
Mention the quality which are introduced in sports and game.
Answer:
Quality of Leadership.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Physical Education?
Answer:
Physical Education deals with the knowledge pertaining to human body. It gives direction in the development and growth of the body and its means Physical Exercises.

Question 2.
Define Physical Education according to D. Oberteuffer.
Answer:
D. Oberteuffer says: “Physical education is the sum of those experiences which come to the individual through movement.”

Question 3.
Define Physical Education according to J.F. Williams and R. Cassidy & J.B. Nash.
Answer:
According to J.F. Williams:
“Physical education is the sum of men’s physical activities selected as to kind and conducted as to outcomes.” According to R. Cassidy, “Physical education is the sum of change in the individual caused by experiences which bring in motor activity.” J.B. Nash thinks, “Physical education is that phase of the whole field of education that deals with big muscle activities and their related responses.”

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Question 4.
What is the aim of Physical Education?
Answer:
“The aim of Physical Education’ is to influence the experiences of persons to the extent that each individual within the limits of the capacity may be helped to adjust sucessfully in society, to increase and improve his wants and to develop the ability to satisfy his wants.”

Question 5.
Write the objectives of Physical Education according to J.B. Nash.
Answer:
J.B. Nash has given the following four objectives of Physical Education:

  • Neuro-muscular Development
  • Emotional Development
  • Interpretative Development
  • Organic Development.

Question 6.
Write the objectives of Physical Education according to Laski.
Answer:
According to Laski:
Physical Education has the following five objectives:

  • Physical Aspect of Development.
  • Emotional Aspect of Development.
  • Social Aspect of Development.
  • Intellectual Aspect of Development.
  • Neuro-muscular Aspect of Development.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Question 7.
“Games make good leaders.” How?
Answer:
Games develop good leadership qualities in man. The field of Physical Education is quite vast. In games the students get opportunities to work as captain, secretary, referee or umpire. He behaves according to his aptitude in these situations. As a captain he directs his team mates and as an umpire and referee he gives in partial judgements. He organises his team very well as a secretary. All these things develop in him the qualities of a good leader.

Qualities of good character are a must for a leader:
He should have the qualities of discipline, punctuality, sympathy, love, equality in attitude towards others. One learns all these qualities by taking part in games.Games also make a person active and smart also.All these things indicate how games develop leadership qualities.

Question 8.
How can Leisure Time be usefully spent? Describe in brief.
Answer:
It has been rightly said, “An idle brain is devil’s workshop.” It is often observed that an idle man indulges in mischiefs. Sometimes an idle man starts indulging in such activities that cannot be accepted socially or ethically. It is due to the fact that the man has idle time but he does not know how to make use of it.

The misuse of free time leads him astray and he is struck in different problems. If a man Knows the proper use of time he can achieve heights of glory. Many inventions have been made by the people who knew the art of making proper use of time. In this way many inventions are the contribution of free time.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Physical Education? Mention its Aim.
Answer:
Physical Education:
Physical Education deals with the knowledge-pertaining to human body. It gives direction in the development and growth of the body, and its means are physical exercises. Many scholars have given definitions about this subject, some of which are given below:

1. D. Oberteuffer says:
“Physical education is the sum of those experiences which come to the individual through movement.”

2. According to R. Cassidy:
“Physical education is the sum of change in the individual caused by experiences which bring in motor activity.”

3. J.B. Nash thinks:
“Physical education is that phase of the whole field of education that deals with big muscle activities and their related responses.”

4. According to J.F. Williams:
“Physical education is the sum of men’s physical activities selected as to kind and conducted as to outcomes.”

5. In the words of Charles A. Bucher:
“Physical education is an integral part of total education process in a field of endeavour which has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities, which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes.”

6. J.R. Sharman thinks:
“Physical education is that part of education which takes place through activities which involve that motor mechanism of the human body and which results in the individual’s formulating behaviour patterns.” According to the definition provided by Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation, “Physical Eudcation is education. It is education through physical activities for the development of the total personality of the child to its perfection in body, mind and spirit.”

7. In the words of A.R. Wayman:
“Physical Education is that part of Education which has to do with the development and training of the whole individual through physical activities.”
The following points emerge from the study of above-mentioned definitions:

  • Physical education is an integral part of education.
  • Physical activities are the medium of Physical Education.
  • The aim of Physical Education is not merely to make human body healthy and beautiful but also to ensure all-round development of human personality.
  • Today’s physical education is planned and organised on scientific lines.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Question 2.
Describe the main objectives of Physical Education.
Answer:
Difference in the terms ‘Aim’ and ‘Objectives’:
It is essential to differentiate ‘aim’ from ‘objectives’ before we understand them individually. Generally, aim and objective are treated as synonyms,, but in fact these two terms are not synonyms. There is a distinct line that divides the two, and brings out the difference in their meanings. “Aim” is the final goal whereas ‘objective’ is a definite and distinct stage. If our aim is the top-most floor, then the objective constitutes small stages in the way to this floor, and by crossing these stages we reach the destination.

So we can say that in climbing the staircase to our destination objective serves as stairs. When the aim of Physical Education is to produce superior citizens, its objective is to keep them physically healthy. Among its others objectives are to inculcate good habits in man and to endow him with traits of good character. In order to realize the aim of total development of a man’s personality, his physical, mental and moral development are the essential objectives.

Aim of Physical Education:
Different scholars have expressed their opinions in their own way about the aim of Physical Education. The opinion of some of these scholars are as follows :

1. Views of J.F. Williams:
“Physical Education should aim to provide the skilled leadership, adequate facilities and ample time. For affording full opportunity for individuals and groups to participate in situation that are physically wholesome, mentally stimulating and satisfying and socially sound.”

2. Views of J.R. Sharman:
“The aim of Physical Education is to influence the experiences of persons to the extent that each individual within the limits of his capacity may be helped to adjust successfully in society, to increase and improve his wants and to develop the ability to satisfy his wants.” Views of Central Advisory Board of Physical Education. “The aim of Physical Education is to make every child physically, mentally and constitutionally fit and also to develop in him such personal and social qualities as will help him live happily with others and build him up as a good citizen.”

3. Views expressed in Conference of Principals of Physical Training Colleges. “Physical Education should aim to provide opportunities that will make the children and youth of India physically, mentally and constitutionally fit and develop in them the skills and attitudes conducive to long, happy and creative living in a changing society.”

Conclusion:
From the above-mentioned definitions we arrival the conclusion that the aim of Physical Education is the total development of man. Almost all scholars agree that through the medium of Physical Education such qualities should be inculcated in man that may ensure his physical, mental and emotional development.

Objectives of Physical Education:
As has already been mentioned, aim is the final goal for the realization of which there are some objectives. Generally, the aim is one whereas to realize that aim there may be more than one objectives. So Physical Education has only one aim man’s total all-round development, but there are many objectives to realize this aim.

Different scholars have expressed different views about the objectives of Physical Education. The views of some prominent scholars are given ahead:
1. According to Laski.
Physical Education has the following five objectives:

  • Physical Aspect of Development.
  • Emotional Aspect of Development.
  • Social Aspect of Development.
  • Intellectual Aspect of Development.
  • Neuro-muscular Aspect of Development.

2. J.B. Nash has given the following four objectives of Physics Education:

  • Neuro-muscular Development
  • Emotional Development
  • Interpretative Development
  • Organic Development.

3. Another scholar named Buck Walter has divided the objectives. Physical Education into three main categories.
They are as follows:

  • Health
  • Ethical Character
  • Worthy Use of Leisure.

4. Renowned scholar H.C. Buck has categorized the objectives Physical Education as follows:

  • Organic Development
  • Development of Neuro-muscular Co-ordination
  • Development of Right Attitude towards Play and Physical Activities
  • Development of Right Social Attitude and Conduct
  • Development of Correct Health Habits.

In similar says, many other scholars have expressed their opinion about the objectives of Physical Education. Among these scholar the prominent are H. Clark, Hetherington, Wood, Cassidy etc.

Conclusion:
A study of all the above-mentioned views given by differer scholars about the objectives of Physical Education make if clea that Physical Education has the following four main objectives:

  • Physical Development Objectives
  • Mental Development Objectives
  • Motor Development Objectives
  • Social Development Objectives.

PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives

Question 3.
What are the objectives of Physical Education the we acquire in game and sports.
Answer:
1. Physical Development Objectives:
Those objectives included in this category by which man develops physically b making his body strong, healthy and attractive. He does physical activities and takes active part in games in order to achieve these objectives.

2. Mental Development Objectives:
Those objectives fall under this category by which mental tension and stress are removed from the child’s mind. Children are trained to think properly. Moreover, they are given training in overcoming and solving various problems and obstacles that come in their way of achieving some aim.

3. Motor Development Objectives:
Those objectives are included in this category by which man becomes capable of doing physical activities easily and without exerting too much.

4. Social Development Objectives:
Those objectives are included in this category by which qualities like leadership, tolerance, co-operation, boldness, self-discipline and self-expression are developed in a person. Such qualities enable one to become an ideal citizen and useful member of society.
PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives 1

Character Formation or Moral Development:
Playground is a school for character formation-
In the playground the players abide by the rules of the game. They learn to lead a good life and become refined personalities. If the umpire gives a decision that is not liked by them even then they continue with the game and never indulge in bad behaviour. The qualities like discipline, abiding by the rules, love and co-operation are learnt in the playground. It results in character formation and moral development.

5. Neuro-muscular Co-ordination:
It is essential to conduct our daily activities in an organised manner so that neuro-muscular co-ordination develops. Physical education helps in it.

6. Prevention from Diseases:
An important aim of physical education is to protect students from diseases. Many of the diseases result from ignorance. The students are educated about the causes of many diseases. This can protect them from many diseases. To conclude we can say that Physical Education is very useful for the all round development, citizenship, human values and national integration.

Question 3.
What are the objectives of Physical Education that one acquires in the game of hockey?
Answer:
There are many aims of physical education that the students learn from hockey ground. This helps him to achieve great success and lead an enjoyable life. Following objectives of Physical Education are achieved in a hockey ground:

1. Tolerance:
We learn the lesson of tolerance in the hockey playground. All the players want their team to win. But sometimes, in spite of their best efforts, the opposite team wins the match. In such kind of a situation, the members of the defeated team do not lose heart. They remain in high spirits. They treat victory and defeat in the same way. They gain practical training of tolerance.

2. Discipline:
Students learn to live in discipline. They come to know that discipline is the key to success. They remain in discipline. They abide by the commands of the captain and happy accept the decisions of the referee. Even at the face of imminent depat. They do not indulge in indiscipline.

3. Character Development:
Participation in the game of hockey inculcates a sense of discipline, co-operation and tolerance in the students. It helps in the development of their character. They sacrifice their personal interests for the common cause.

4. Development of Personality:
Taking part in the game of hockey develops certain qualities in the students that help in the development of their personality. The qualities of co-operation and tolerance develop in them and their body also becomes attractive and healthy. All these are the qualities of a good personality.

5. Creation of Good Citizens:
The qualities of discipline, duty, tolerance etc. develop in the students in the hockey playground. These qualities help them in becoming good citizens.

6. Co-operation:
The player in the game of hockey co-operates with his fellow players. He does not force his own views on others-rather politely puts his Views to develop consensus. It develops a sense of co-operation.

7. National Spirit:
Hockey playground is the place where the players take part in the game irrespective of his caste, religion or creed. No player is turned out of the playground on the basis of his religion. It helps develop national spirit.

8. Self-Confidence:
A feeling of self-confidence develops in the students by taking part in the game of hockey. Only a confident player having a lot of patience can win this game. It proves the development of these qualities in the students by taking part in the game of hockey.

9. Spirit of giving equal importance of victory or defeat:
The game of hockey develops the spirit of giving equal importance to victory or defeat. We should not make fun of the opposite team. And we should not be carried away by our success. The defeated team should be encouraged.

10. Spirit of Sacrifice:
The spirit of sacrifice is very essential in the game of hockey. When we play for our school, college, state or country we give the credit of victory to these institutions. Games always demand saprifice. Duke of Wellington- after defeating Napolean in the battle of Waterloo, said, “The Battle of Waterloo was won at the playing-fields of Eton and Harrow.” It proves that games help in producing good leaders.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Chapter 1 Physical Education-Its Aim and Objectives Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.