Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Source Based Questions and Answers
Read the following quotes carefully and answer the given questions : The Indian Republic is a large country with a large geographical spread. India is a distinct geographical unit, in which a distinct culture has developed. It is the seventh largest country in the world. Where as in terms of population, it ranks second in the world after China. It is clear from this that 17.5% (2011 data) population is on 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. On the northern border of China, there are mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas which extend parallel to each other. She makes India a separate territory from Asia. The vast fertile plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers provide food security to our country. The peninsular plateau is a storehouse of natural minerals. Surrounded by many major rivers, lakes and vast oceans on all three sides of the world, India holds the status of an independent landform or subcontinent.
(A) What is the place in the world in terms of area and population of India?
India ranks seventh in the world in terms of area. In terms of population, India is second.
(B) Why is India called the sub-continent?
India is located to the South of the continent of Asia. Part of Asia is a distinct geographical entity. It is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan mountains. India has been given the status of a sub-continent due to its’ features. The Indian sub-continent consists of countries other than India including Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives etc.
Plains of Punjab-Haryana-These plains are spread over an area of about 640 Kilometres from northwest to south-east. Their average width is up to 300 km. The total area of this ground is up to 1.75 lakh km. This plain is made up of alluvial deposits of Indus and its tributaries: Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this ground, including Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doaba (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Sindhu (middle) area of the river).
(A) Write about the extension of the plain of Punjab-Haryana?
The plain of Punjab-Haryana has spread about 640 km from North-West to South-East. Its average width is 300 km. Its total area is 1.75 lakh square kilometres.
(B) How did these plains become? Write the names of its doabs.
This plain is formed by the accumulation of alluvium of Indus and its tributaries; Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this plain, Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doab (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Indus River of middle area.)
The plains of the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers are one of the largest plains in the world. These plains are about 2,400 km long and 150 to 130 km wide. These plains are made of alluvial soil. In millions of years, this fertile plain has been created due to the deposition of alluvium in a very large basin situated in Giripad, Himachal. Many plains are also built-in these plains such as Alluvial fans, alluvial cone, crooked or meandering rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.
(A) How was India’s vast northern plains formed?
The vast plains of India have been formed by the deposition of alluvial soil brought by the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. These deposits occurred in a huge basin in Girpad in the Himalayas.
(B) Name the main landforms of these plains.
Many landscapes are found in these plains, like alluvial fans, alluvial cone, meanders, crooked or erosive flow, rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.
A network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. Nature has given India hundreds of big and small rivers. It is very important for students to understand some facts related to water flow, such as Doab, water separator and drainage pattern etc. The area between the two rivers is called Doab. Any elevated area, such as a mountain or high land that divides two water streams, is called a water divide. The water flowing over any part of the earth creates many different forms which are called drainage forms.
(A) What is the meaning of water flow?
The network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. This means that the network of all the rivers or canals flowing in a particular area is called water flow.
(B) Who is called Doab?
The area between two rivers is called Doab. This means that the area or plain between two rivers is called Doab.
(C) Explain the meaning of water divide.
The elevated area, such as a mountain or a high land that divides two water streams is called a water divide.
Rivers have been of great importance throughout human history. The Indus Valley civilization is an example of this. Water has attracted humans since ancient times. Our life depends on water only. The survival or absence of population is dependent on water. Folk songs, stories, folk-dances, agriculture are all dependent on water. Water is the most important natural resource. For livelihood, water is very important everywhere in agriculture, irrigation, hydroelectric construction, industiral area, construction and homes. Internal water ways are possible only due to rivers.
(A) What is the importance of rivers in our life?
- Rivers give us drinking water. This water is purified to make it potable.
- Many multipurpose projects are put on these rivers which not only provide electricity but also provide water for irrigation.
- Many civilizations flourish on the banks of these rivers. Indus valley civilization is an example of this.
- Rivers bring alluvial soil from the mountains in which our plains become fertile.
(B) What is an internal waterway?
Many rivers flow in India and many of these rivers go and merge in some sea. But there are some rivers that cannot reach the sea and dissolve on the way. All these are called internal waterways.
Human life is greatly influenced by climate. Man is completely subject to climate at every stage of life, including food, clothes, design of homes, health work, employment etc. In cold climate regions, hot things are used in food such as tea, coffee and hot food. Colder substances like lassi, ice, sorket etc. are used more, in countries with hot climate. Warm clothes such as coats, sweaters (Woollen garments), jackets, blankets etc. are used in cold countries. Homes are open and ventilated in areas with hot climates. The roofs of houses in hilly areas are sloping. Fruits like apples, almonds, cherries in cold winter. Climate and crops of sugarcane, cotton, rice, jute etc. are grown in hot climatic regions.
(A) How is human life affected by climate?
Human life is greatly influenced by climate such as:
- Our food habits are affected by climate such as hot things are eaten in cold areas,
- Our clothes are also affected by climate such as wearing warm clothes in cold areas,
- The structure and size of our houses are also affected by climate such that houses in hot areas are open and ventilated,
- People living in cold and mountainous areas are physically stronger.
(B) Which crops grow in cold and hot climate areas?
- Fruits like apple, almond, cherry are grown in cold climate areas.
- Crops like cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, jute etc. are grown in areas with hot climate.
Natural vegetation is a boon for humans or for the provincial economy. There is an acute need for its protection and development. We are aware that the situation of Punjab in this region is not favourable as only 6.07 percent of the forests are found here. The other part of the ground is being used’for the development of agriculture, industry, roads and railways, villages and cities. In terms of population, the area of Punjab is much less than the average of the country. The state’s population and pollution rate are constantly increasing. Therefore, there is a great need to increase the area under vegetation. To accomplish this goal, more and more trees should not be planted in the arable land.
(A) What is the benefit of natural vegetation to us?
- We get oxygen from natural vegetation which gives us clean air.
- We get many types of wood from natural vegetation which makes our furniture.
- Many types of herbs are found from natural vegetation which are used in making many types of medicines.
- There is no land degradation due to natural vegetation.
(B) Why should we increase the area of natural vegetation?
- We should increase natural vegetation to increase fresh air.
- It is necessary to increase the forests to meet its wood requirements.
- It is necessary to increase the area of natural vegetation to save land degradation.
- To give good life to the coming generations, natural vegetation needs to be more and more.
If we want to live our life comfortably and think the same for future generations then we should protect our forests properly. Planting of plants is called afforestation. We can plant saplings or barren land or non-agricultural land without converting them into forests. You can improve the deteriorating state of forests by planting 311 social forests, agricultural forests, commercial forests. The government should make every effort to awaken the people regarding the importance of forests and cooperation for their protection. Laws should be strictly enforced by the Forest Department and punish the culprits for cutting down trees, either illegally or without adopting the right method.
(A) What are the benefits of forests?
- Forests control the climate compact, forests prevent temperature rise in summer and increase the temperature in winter.
- The roots of dense forests help in reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the outbreak of floods.
- The roots of trees strengthen the soil tightness and prevent soil erosion.
- The soil gets green manure in the form of bacteria due to dry leaves falling.
(B) How can we save the dwindling forests?
- We can imporove the deteriorating state of forests continuously by dividing forests into different parts.
- People should be awakened from time to time for the benefits and care of the forests.
- Cutting of forests should be declared as a legal offence and strict punishment should be given to those who cut down trees without proper law.
- People should be constantly encouraged to plant new trees.
In our country, the girl is worshipped on one side and on the other side, she tries to take away her right to live. But now the time has come when we have to get rid of the priority of men and children have to understand the gift of nature without any gender discrimination. In future, we can not imagine a society without women. Misconceptions about women need to be changed. By punishing the guilty, the law has to be strictly enforced. We must end shameful and illegal acts such as female feticide and forced abortions.
(A) What is the meaning of female feticide?
When it is found out about a pregnant woman that she is having a daughter in her womb, she is killed in the womb or the woman is miscarried. This process is called female feticide.
(B) Why female feticide is done?
- Dowry has to be given at the time of marriage of the girl. That’s why people don’t want girls. So they commit female feticide.
- It is written in religious texts that to attain liberation one must have a boy. So they kill the female fetus.
- Use of modern techniques has promoted female feticide.
- People also commit female feticide in order to gain respect in society.