PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
We require a number of goods and services in our daily life. For example, we need food to satisfy our hunger, clothes to cover our body, houses for shelter, vehicles for transportation, television or radio for our entertainment, services of a doctor for treatment etc. These goods and services are called ‘means’ to satisfy our wants. When one of our wants is satisfied, there are other new wants that need to be satisfied. So our wants are unlimited and the means to satisfy these unlimited wants are limited and scarce. Man has to decide how to satisfy his maximum wants with available limited and scarce resources.
(а) What do you mean by Economics?
Economics is a science concerned with the allocation of scarce means of resources in such a manner that consumers can maximize their satisfaction, producers can maximize their profits and society can maximize its social welfare.

(b) State the basic concepts of Economics.
Following are the basic concepts of economics :

  • Goods. Goods are those visible things that satisfy human wants. Otherwise speaking, anything capable of satisfying a want is called a good. For example, radio, fan, mobile phone etc. are goods.
  • Services. In economics, besides goods, services such as teaching by teacher, treatment given by a doctor etc. also satisfy human wants. They don’t have physical existence.
  • Utility. Wants satisfying power of a good is called utility. In other words, utility is the ability of a good to satisfy a want.
  • Price. Price can be defined as the value of goods and services which can be expressed in terms of money.
  • Wealth. All those goods and services for which we have to pay a price for their consumption are called wealth.

Question 2.
In ordinary sense ‘Labour’ means any type of physical or mental work done for any purpose. But in economics ‘Labour’ means all human efforts, physical as well as mental, done for the sake of monetary gain. If a student plays a game for pleasure or a mother looks after her child out of affection, then these activities are not considered as labour because they have not done the work with the objective of earning money. But when a cricketer coach or a football coach gives coaching to players or a nurse attends to a child in hospital, such efforts are called ‘labour’ because these have been done to gain monetary remuneration.
(а) What is labour? State its features.
Labour means all humans efforts, physical as well as mental, done for the sake of monetary gain.


  • It is the only active factor of production.
  • Supply of labour can be increased or decreased.
  • In India, labour is available in abundance.
  • Labour can be bought or sold.
  • Labour is mobile.

(b) Who will provide labour for farming?
In the village, some families are small. Farmers, along with their families, use to cultivate their own fields. Thus, they themselves provide the labour required for farming. Besides this, some landless families work as labourers in the fields of big landlords to earn their living. Some farmers with very small landholdings have to give up their land to big landlords for the repayment of their loans taken from the big landlords. These farmers become landless and have to work in the fields of big farmers. In this way, big landlords and farmers with average landholdings engage labour for the work in the field.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Capital means all those man-made goods which are used in further production of goods. It is the produced means of production or in other words, it is used as an input in producing other goods. A building is not capital if it is used for private housing. But it is called capital if it is used for productive purpose. For example, a factory building, which is used for producing various goo^p is a capital. Money kept in the bank as deposits is capital because the bank lends the .money to producers who use it as capital although the depositor also gets interest on it. A T.V. set used in the reception of a company is capital but when used in a residential house is not capital.
(a) What is Capital? State its features.
Capital means all those man-made goods which are used in further production of goods.

Features :

  • It is a man-made factor.
  • It is a secondary factor of production.
  • It is transferrable.
  • Capital involves depreciation.

(b) State need of capital in farming.
Much money is needed to implement the modern farming methods, for instance: to buy seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machine equipment etc. for agriculture.

Large and medium scale farmers earn more as compared to the small scale farmers. So these farmers, out of their own savings from farming, arrange for the capital needed in farming. Small scale farmers have to take loans on high rates of interest from the large scale farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders. Sometimes, they have to mortgage their houses or small landholdings to repay the loans. If they are unable to repay the loans, their property is seized. Government has opened special institutions such as RRBs, Cooperative Societies, Lands Development Bank and NABARD to provide capital to the farmers. To fulfil the need of capital, farmers have to take loans from these institutions.

Question 4.
Efforts made by a nation, an organization or any individual to raise their incomes are known as resources. Some resources like air, minerals, soil, water etc. are natural. These are used to satisfy human needs and are called ‘natural resources. The size of the population of a country along with its efficiency, educational qualities, productivity etc. is known as ‘human resources. Human resources is the most important resource because it makes the natural resources more useful. A country with highly educated and trained people can efficiently increase its productivity. Most of the developing and backward countries of the world are economically backward not because they lack natural resources but due to lack of quality in human resources.
(a) What is human capital formation?
A country’s working population, with their existing productive skills and ability, contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product. This is referred to as human resources. So when investment in the form of education, training and medical care is made in human resources, human capital is formed which adds to the country’s Gross National Product which leads to the economic development of a country. Investment in human capital in the form of education and training yields higher incomes earned because of higher productivity by the more educated and better-trained people.

(b) Why is investment in human resources essential?
Human Capital is superior to other resources like land and physical capital which are not useful at their own. Human resources can make use of land and capital. So, a large population is not a liability. It can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital. For example, by spending on education and health for all, training of industrial and agriculture workers in the use of modern technology etc. development of a country can be increased.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 4.
Unemployment refers to a situation in which people are willing to work at the current wages but cannot find work. The workforce population includes people from 15 years to 59 years. So, whenever a country’s unemployment is determined, persons who are not able to work, for example, patient, old people, small children, students etc. are not included. According to Statistics and Programme Implementation Department of Government of India’s National Sample Survey Report, the state of Kerala has the highest rate of unemployment and the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat have the lowest rate of unemployment.
(а) State the types of unemployment.
There are many types of unemployment. We have unemployment in rural and urban areas, though the nature of unemployment differs in both areas. In case of rural areas there is seasonal and disguised unemployment. Urban areas have educated unemployment.

Seasonal unemployment means when people find jobs during some months and during remaining months they are unemployed. In the agriculture sector people remain employed during the sowing and harvesting season but after this for nearly 5 to 7 months they remain unemployed.

Disguised unemployment means more people are engaged in a particular work than required. Even if some men are relieved from work the total productivity will not decline.

In case of urban areas the rapidly increasing number of schools and colleges lead to educated unemployment as the job opportunities have not increased at the same rate.

(b) State the effects of unemployment.
Unemployment leads to the wastage of manpower resources. Unemployed people become a liability for society rather than an asset. Unemployment increases poverty. There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth as they are unable to financially support their family. The dependency of the unemployed on the working population adversely affects the quality of life of a society. There is a general decline in its health status and rising withdrawal from the school system. An increase in unemployment is an indicator of a weak economy. So unemployment is a serious problem because unemployed people have become a liability on society.

Question 6.
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, like food, clothing, shelter, education and health facilities. Man struggles to fulfil these minimum basic needs. If the minimum basic needs are not fulfilled then there is loss of health and efficiency among those living in poverty in the country.
(a) State the measures of poverty.
Poverty has two measurements

  1. Relative Poverty. The economic conditions of different regions of countries is compared under relative poverty. Per capita income and national income are the two indicators of relative poverty.
  2. Absolute Poverty. It refers to income and consumption levels in a country. If the daily intake of calories by a person is less than the required calories (2000-2500) per day then the person is absolutely poor.

(b) State the meaning of the poverty line.
Poverty line is the method to measure the minimum income required to satisfy the basic needs of life. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. People living below the poverty fine are considered poor.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Economics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 7.
The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas, though the calorie needs vary depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does. Due to the hard work done by the people living in rural areas, they require more calories than the urban people.
(a) What are the indicators of poverty?
Keeping in view the different aspects of poverty, social scientists are trying to use a variety of indicators to measure poverty. Usually, the indicators used to measure poverty are related to the levels of income and consumption. But social scientists have also included social indicators like illiteracy level, malnutrition, lack of access to health care, lack of job opportunities, and lack of safe drinking water. Social exclusion can be a cause as well as consequences of poverty. Sometimes people under social exclusion are deprived of equal opportunities.

(b) What are the income levels of measuring poverty line in India?
(a) Lack of feeling of security in the backward classes is yet another indicator on which the analysis of poverty is based.
(b) On the basis of 2011-12 data, people below the consumption expenditure of? 816 per person per month in rural areas and? 1000 in urban areas are called poor.

Question 8.
Poor segment of the society needs food security at all times as the low purchasing power of the poor people does not allow them to buy food as per their requirements. There is a need for food security due to continuous and rapid growth in population. Besides this, during natural calamities like drought etc. production of food grain decreases because Indian agriculture mostly depends upon the monsoon. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas due to which prices go up. Many people are unable to buy food at high prices. If this situation continues for a long period, it may cause a situation of stravation.
(а) What is food security? What are its dimensions.
Simply speaking food security means accessibility and affordability of food to all the people at all times.

Following are the main dimensions :

  • Availability of food means there should be food production within the country.
  • Accessibility of food means that sufficient quantity of food should be within the reach of people.
  • Affordability of food means that a person has enough money to buy sufficient food. Sufficient stocks of food should be maintained by the government to meet the shortage of food during natural calamities like drought, floods etc.

(b) Who are food insecure?
There is a large segment of people who suffer from food and nutritional insecurity in India but the following people are more food insecure than others :

  • The landless people who depend on others for their food supplies.
  • Traditional artisans who provide traditional services.
  • Petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars.
  • In urban areas, the food insecure persons are those who are employed in all paid occupation and casual labour market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure their bare survival.
  • After a natural calamity people migrating from the affected areas are the most food-insecure people.
  • Malnutrition prevails more among women and children and they constitute a significant segment of the population affected by food insecurity.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Read the following quotes carefully and answer the given questions : The Indian Republic is a large country with a large geographical spread. India is a distinct geographical unit, in which a distinct culture has developed. It is the seventh largest country in the world. Where as in terms of population, it ranks second in the world after China. It is clear from this that 17.5% (2011 data) population is on 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. On the northern border of China, there are mountain ranges of the Great Himalayas which extend parallel to each other. She makes India a separate territory from Asia. The vast fertile plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers provide food security to our country. The peninsular plateau is a storehouse of natural minerals. Surrounded by many major rivers, lakes and vast oceans on all three sides of the world, India holds the status of an independent landform or subcontinent.
(A) What is the place in the world in terms of area and population of India?
India ranks seventh in the world in terms of area. In terms of population, India is second.

(B) Why is India called the sub-continent?
India is located to the South of the continent of Asia. Part of Asia is a distinct geographical entity. It is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan mountains. India has been given the status of a sub-continent due to its’ features. The Indian sub-continent consists of countries other than India including Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives etc.

Question 2.
Plains of Punjab-Haryana-These plains are spread over an area of about 640 Kilometres from northwest to south-east. Their average width is up to 300 km. The total area of this ground is up to 1.75 lakh km. This plain is made up of alluvial deposits of Indus and its tributaries: Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this ground, including Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doaba (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Sindhu (middle) area of the river).
(A) Write about the extension of the plain of Punjab-Haryana?
The plain of Punjab-Haryana has spread about 640 km from North-West to South-East. Its average width is 300 km. Its total area is 1.75 lakh square kilometres.

(B) How did these plains become? Write the names of its doabs.
This plain is formed by the accumulation of alluvium of Indus and its tributaries; Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. There are five Doabs of this plain, Bist Doab (Beas and Sutlej), Bari Doab (Beas and Ravi), Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab), Chaj Doab (Chenab and Jehlum) and Sindh-Sagar Doab (Jehlum, Chenab and Indus River of middle area.)

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
The plains of the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers are one of the largest plains in the world. These plains are about 2,400 km long and 150 to 130 km wide. These plains are made of alluvial soil. In millions of years, this fertile plain has been created due to the deposition of alluvium in a very large basin situated in Giripad, Himachal. Many plains are also built-in these plains such as Alluvial fans, alluvial cone, crooked or meandering rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.
(A) How was India’s vast northern plains formed?
The vast plains of India have been formed by the deposition of alluvial soil brought by the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. These deposits occurred in a huge basin in Girpad in the Himalayas.

(B) Name the main landforms of these plains.
Many landscapes are found in these plains, like alluvial fans, alluvial cone, meanders, crooked or erosive flow, rivers, natural leaves, flood plains etc. Most of the Terai Region of Punjab, Uttarakhand has been cut into forests and made into arable land.

Question 4.
A network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. Nature has given India hundreds of big and small rivers. It is very important for students to understand some facts related to water flow, such as Doab, water separator and drainage pattern etc. The area between the two rivers is called Doab. Any elevated area, such as a mountain or high land that divides two water streams, is called a water divide. The water flowing over any part of the earth creates many different forms which are called drainage forms.
(A) What is the meaning of water flow?
The network of rivers and canals flowing in an area is called water flow. This means that the network of all the rivers or canals flowing in a particular area is called water flow.

(B) Who is called Doab?
The area between two rivers is called Doab. This means that the area or plain between two rivers is called Doab.

(C) Explain the meaning of water divide.
The elevated area, such as a mountain or a high land that divides two water streams is called a water divide.

Question 5.
Rivers have been of great importance throughout human history. The Indus Valley civilization is an example of this. Water has attracted humans since ancient times. Our life depends on water only. The survival or absence of population is dependent on water. Folk songs, stories, folk-dances, agriculture are all dependent on water. Water is the most important natural resource. For livelihood, water is very important everywhere in agriculture, irrigation, hydroelectric construction, industiral area, construction and homes. Internal water ways are possible only due to rivers.
(A) What is the importance of rivers in our life?

  • Rivers give us drinking water. This water is purified to make it potable.
  • Many multipurpose projects are put on these rivers which not only provide electricity but also provide water for irrigation.
  • Many civilizations flourish on the banks of these rivers. Indus valley civilization is an example of this.
  • Rivers bring alluvial soil from the mountains in which our plains become fertile.

(B) What is an internal waterway?
Many rivers flow in India and many of these rivers go and merge in some sea. But there are some rivers that cannot reach the sea and dissolve on the way. All these are called internal waterways.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Human life is greatly influenced by climate. Man is completely subject to climate at every stage of life, including food, clothes, design of homes, health work, employment etc. In cold climate regions, hot things are used in food such as tea, coffee and hot food. Colder substances like lassi, ice, sorket etc. are used more, in countries with hot climate. Warm clothes such as coats, sweaters (Woollen garments), jackets, blankets etc. are used in cold countries. Homes are open and ventilated in areas with hot climates. The roofs of houses in hilly areas are sloping. Fruits like apples, almonds, cherries in cold winter. Climate and crops of sugarcane, cotton, rice, jute etc. are grown in hot climatic regions.
(A) How is human life affected by climate?
Human life is greatly influenced by climate such as:

  • Our food habits are affected by climate such as hot things are eaten in cold areas,
  • Our clothes are also affected by climate such as wearing warm clothes in cold areas,
  • The structure and size of our houses are also affected by climate such that houses in hot areas are open and ventilated,
  • People living in cold and mountainous areas are physically stronger.

(B) Which crops grow in cold and hot climate areas?

  • Fruits like apple, almond, cherry are grown in cold climate areas.
  • Crops like cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, jute etc. are grown in areas with hot climate.

Question 7.
Natural vegetation is a boon for humans or for the provincial economy. There is an acute need for its protection and development. We are aware that the situation of Punjab in this region is not favourable as only 6.07 percent of the forests are found here. The other part of the ground is being used’for the development of agriculture, industry, roads and railways, villages and cities. In terms of population, the area of Punjab is much less than the average of the country. The state’s population and pollution rate are constantly increasing. Therefore, there is a great need to increase the area under vegetation. To accomplish this goal, more and more trees should not be planted in the arable land.
(A) What is the benefit of natural vegetation to us?

  • We get oxygen from natural vegetation which gives us clean air.
  • We get many types of wood from natural vegetation which makes our furniture.
  • Many types of herbs are found from natural vegetation which are used in making many types of medicines.
  • There is no land degradation due to natural vegetation.

(B) Why should we increase the area of natural vegetation?

  • We should increase natural vegetation to increase fresh air.
  • It is necessary to increase the forests to meet its wood requirements.
  • It is necessary to increase the area of natural vegetation to save land degradation.
  • To give good life to the coming generations, natural vegetation needs to be more and more.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Geography Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 8.
If we want to live our life comfortably and think the same for future generations then we should protect our forests properly. Planting of plants is called afforestation. We can plant saplings or barren land or non-agricultural land without converting them into forests. You can improve the deteriorating state of forests by planting 311 social forests, agricultural forests, commercial forests. The government should make every effort to awaken the people regarding the importance of forests and cooperation for their protection. Laws should be strictly enforced by the Forest Department and punish the culprits for cutting down trees, either illegally or without adopting the right method.
(A) What are the benefits of forests?

  • Forests control the climate compact, forests prevent temperature rise in summer and increase the temperature in winter.
  • The roots of dense forests help in reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the speed of flowing water, thus reducing the outbreak of floods.
  • The roots of trees strengthen the soil tightness and prevent soil erosion.
  • The soil gets green manure in the form of bacteria due to dry leaves falling.

(B) How can we save the dwindling forests?

  • We can imporove the deteriorating state of forests continuously by dividing forests into different parts.
  • People should be awakened from time to time for the benefits and care of the forests.
  • Cutting of forests should be declared as a legal offence and strict punishment should be given to those who cut down trees without proper law.
  • People should be constantly encouraged to plant new trees.

Question 9.
In our country, the girl is worshipped on one side and on the other side, she tries to take away her right to live. But now the time has come when we have to get rid of the priority of men and children have to understand the gift of nature without any gender discrimination. In future, we can not imagine a society without women. Misconceptions about women need to be changed. By punishing the guilty, the law has to be strictly enforced. We must end shameful and illegal acts such as female feticide and forced abortions.
(A) What is the meaning of female feticide?
When it is found out about a pregnant woman that she is having a daughter in her womb, she is killed in the womb or the woman is miscarried. This process is called female feticide.

(B) Why female feticide is done?

  • Dowry has to be given at the time of marriage of the girl. That’s why people don’t want girls. So they commit female feticide.
  • It is written in religious texts that to attain liberation one must have a boy. So they kill the female fetus.
  • Use of modern techniques has promoted female feticide.
  • People also commit female feticide in order to gain respect in society.