PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB The Revolt of 1857 Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Write down the any two political causes of the revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
1. Insult of Bahadur Shah: In 1856 A.D., the Governor-General told the Mughal Emperor that he would be the last emperor of India. After his death, his princes will have to vacate the Red fort. This decision of the British annoyed the Muslims.

2. Unjustified annexation of Avadh: Avadh remained a faithful friend of the British but its unjustified annexation annoyed the people.

Question 2.
Which punishment was given to Bahadur Shah Zafar?
Answer:
He was taken prisoner and sent to Rangoon. After some time, Bahadur Shah Zafar died and the Mughal empire came to an end. His two sons were shot dead.

Question 3.
Write down the immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
The episode of the greased cartridges was the immediate cause of rising on May 10, 1857. Some Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use a new type of cartridge which were greased with the fat of the pigs and cows. A portion of the cartridge had to be bitten with one’s teeth before it could be fired. This enraged the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the British army. They refused to obey the orders of their British officers to use the cartridges and rose in revolt.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 4.
With which other two names the revolt of 1857 A.D. is known?
Answer:
The first war of Independence and Soldier Revolt.

Question 5.
Write down in brief the social causes of revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. The Christian missionaries were propagating Christianity in India. They insulted Hindu and Muslim religions while propagating Christianity. The Government never put any restrictions on their activities. So, the Indians were annoyed with this policy of the British.
  2. In 1856 A.D. Religious Inability Act was passed. According to this Act, if someone changed his religion, he could get the share of his father’s property. Bypassing this law, the government encouraged the people to embrace Christianity.
  3. The British did not treat Indians well. They called Indians ‘Rustics’ and ‘Black Indians’. Indians could not bear this insult. This also become a cause of the revolt of 1857.

Question 6.
Write down the causes of failure of the revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
The following were the main causes of failure of Indians in the rising of 1857 :

  • The day of 31st May, 1857 was fixed for the start of revolt. But it started on 29 March. Rebels were not fully prepared for the revolt.
  • Revolt did not spread in entire India.
  • Unity was lacked among rebels.
  • Rebels lacked means to carry on the revolt.
  • Rebels were not fighting for any common objectives.
  • Military generals of rebels were not capable objectives.
  • Some local kingdoms helped the British to crush the revolt.
  • Means of transport were under control of British.
  • Intelligence system of the British was very good.
  • They crushed the revolt with the help of their military.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The cartridges were greased with the fat of cow and ________
Answer:
pig

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 2.
Many states annexed to the British Empire according to the Doctrine of Lapse of Lord
Answer:
Dalhousie

Question 3.
First of all the revolt of 1857 A.D. was started in ________
Answer:
Barrakpur

Question 4.
________ was a famous general of Nana Sahib.
Answer:
Tanya Tope

Question 5.
Indian soldiers declared their emperor.
Answer:
Bahadur Shah Zafar.

III. Write ‘True’ or ‘False* in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
Indians were appointed on high posts.
Answer:
False

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 2.
Good treatment was given to the Indians by the Britishers.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The British made many social reforms.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
Gradually Indian industry and trade declined.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
The Britishers ’adopted the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.
Answer:
True.

IV. Something To Do :

Question 1.
To know about Lakshmi Bai, queen of Jhansi.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 2.
Collect the pictures of prominent freedom fighters and paste them in your scrapbook.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide The Revolt of 1857 Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
When did first war of Independence take place?
(a) 1857 A.D.
(b) 1897 AD.
(c) 1947 AD.
(d) 1965 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1857 A.D.

Question 2.
What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi from the British?
(a) To adopt a daughter
(b) To adopt a son
(c) To give her back her kingdom
(d) To give her pension.
Answer:
(b) To adopt a son.

Question 3.
What was the immediate cause of revolt done by Indian Sepoys?
(a) Use of Canons
(b) Use of new machines.
(c) Use of fat coated cartridges
(d) All of these
Answer:
(c) Use of fat coated cartridges.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 4.
Who was the last Mughal Emperor?
(a) Akbar
(b) Aurangzeb
(c) Jahangir
(d) Bahadur Shah Zafar
Answer:
(d) Bahadur Shah Zafar.

Question 5.
Where was Bahadur Shah Zafar exiled and died?
(a) New Delhi
(b) Kanpur
(c) Rangoon
(d) Nepal.
Answer:
(c) Rangoon.

Question 6.
When did Bahadur Shah Zafar die?
(a) 1857 A.D.
(b) 1862 A.D.
(c) 1860 A.D.
(d) 1865 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1862 A.D.

Question 7.
From where did the Indian revolt of 1857 start?
(a) Delhi
(b) Meerut
(c) Kanpur
(d) Jhansi.
Answer:
(b) Meerut

Question 8.
________ was proclaimed as emperor of India in 1857.
(o) Bahadur Shah Zafar
(b) Tantya Tope
(c) Nana Saheb
(d) Aurangzeb.
Answer:
(a) Bahadur Shah Zafar.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 9.
________ was the first martyer of the revolt of 1857.
(a) Nana Saheb
(b) Mangal Pandey
(c) Rani Laxmi Bai
(d) Tantya Tope,
Answer:
(b) Mangal Pandey.

Question 10.
________ led the revolt of Kanpur.
(a) Tantya Tope
(b) Rani Laxmi Bai
(c) Nana Saheb
(d) Kunwar Singh.
Answer:
(c) Nana Saheb.

Question 11.
Rani Lakshmi Bai died at
(a) Kanpur
(b) Gwalior
(c) Nagpur
(d) Satara.
Answer:
(b) Gwalior.

Question 12.
What was the long term result of revolt of 1857?
(a) Rise of Indian Nationalism
(b) Creation of Awareness
(c) End of Company’s rule
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(a) Rise of Indian Nationalism.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 13.
When was Awadh annexed into the British Empire?
(a) 1850 A.D.
(b) 1856 A.D.
(c) 1860 A.D.
(d) 1857 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1856 A.D.

Question 14.
Who introduced Policy of Lapse in India?
(a) Lord William Bentinck
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Wellington
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Lord Dalhousie.

Question 15.
Who resented high taxes in countryside?
(a) Peasants
(b) Zamindars
(c) Jotdars
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 16.
Which of these reforms was introduced by the British?
(a) Ban on Sati Pratha
(b) Permission of Widow remarriage
(c) Introduction of Western Education System
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 17.
Identify the event with which the persons given in the picture were associated:
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 1
(a) First World War
(b) Revolt of 1857
(c) Peasant Revolt
(d) Indigo Revolt.
Answer:
(b) Revolt of 1857.

Question 18.
The given picture is of Rani Laxmi Bai whose kingdom was annexed by the British under a policy called ________
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 2
(a) Subsidiary Alliance
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
(e) Policy of Paramountcy
(d) Through Conquests.
Answer:
(b) Doctrine of Lapse.

Question 19.
The person in the given picture was declared the leader of the 1857 revolt. Name the person.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 3
(a) Tantya Tope
(b) Raja Kanwar Singh
(c) Bahadur Shah Zafar
(d) Nana Saheb.
Answer:
(c) Bahadur Shah Zafar.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 20.
The person in the given picture is known as the first martyr of the revolt of 1857 AD. Name the person.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 4
(a) Tantya Tope
(b) Mangal Pandey
(c) Kanwar Singh
(d) Nana Saheb.
Answer:
(b) Mangal Pandey.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The cartridges were filled with the fat of cow and ________
Answer:
pig

Question 2.
According to Doctrine of Lapse of Lord ________, many Indian Kingdoms were captured.
Answer:
Dalhousie

Question 3.
Initially, the revolt started at ________
Answer:
Barrackpur

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 4.
________ was a famous general of Nana Sahib.
Answer:
Tantya Tope

Question 5.
Indian soldiers declared ________ at their leader.
Answer:
Bahadur Shah Zafar.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
During British times, Indians were appointed at higher posts.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
Indians were behaved quite well.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
The British introduced many social reforms here in India.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 4.
Gradually Indian trade and industries declined.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 5.
The British adopted the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.
Answer:
(✓)

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (i) Delhi
2. Nana Sahib (ii) Avadh
3. Bahadur Shah Zafar (iii) Kanpur
4. Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal (iv) Punjab

Answer:

A B
1. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (ii) Avadh
2. Nana Sahib (iii) Kanpur
3. Bahadur Shah Zafar (i) Delhi
4. Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal (iv) Punjab

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write two religious causes of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. The British were converting Indians into Christians by promising them many concessions.
  2. The English passed Religious Inability Act, 1856 to spread Christianity.

Question 2.
Write two political causes of Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. There was discontentment among the Indian rulers because of the policy of the subsidiary alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
  2. Title of Emperor was taken away from the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. He was, therefore, annoyed with the British.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 3.
Write the names of the main leaders of the. Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
Names of four important leaders of the revolt were:

  1. Nana Sahib
  2. Tantya Tope
  3. Rani Laxmi Bai and
  4. Kanwar Singh.

Question 4.
Give two reasons of the failure of Revolt of 1857 A.D. in Punjab.
Answer:
Revolt of 1857 A.D. failed in Punjab due to two following reasons :

  1. There was no capable leader of rebels.
  2. Instead of giving help to rebels, the kings of Patiala, Nabha and Jind gave their support to the British.

Question 5.
Which were the four main centres of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.?
Answer:
Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur and Lucknow.

Question 6.
Who was Tantya Tope?
Answer:
Tantya Tope was the General of Nana Sahib. He was the leader of army of Nana Sahib in the revolt. When the British took control of Kanpur, he helped Rani Laxmi Bai.

Question 7.
Why did the Rani of Jhansi took part in the Rising of 1857 A.D.?
Answer:
Rani of Jhansi took part in the rising of 1857 because the British did not allow her to adopt a heir to the throne of Jhansi.

Question 8.
Write two political consequences of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. The rule of the East India Company came to an end. India came under the direct rule of the British Crown i.e. the King and the Parliament of Britain.
  2. The British Government abandoned the policy of annexing Indian States.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 9.
Write two social effects of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. It created bitterness between the Hindus and the Muslims.
  2. The Indians and the Europeans began to hate each other.

Question 10.
Give any two economic effects of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:

  1. After the Sepoy mutiny of 1857, the British purchased raw material at cheap rates from the Indian markets and sent it to England.
  2. They had a monopoly in the trade of Tea, Coffee, Tobacco, Cotton, etc.

Question 11.
In which cantonments of Punjab revolt occurred in the Revolt of 1857 A.D.?
Answer:
During the revolt of 1857 A.D. revolt occurred in cantonments of Lahore, Firozpur, Peshawar, Ambala, Mianwali etc. of Punjab.

Question 12.
What was the contribution of Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal in the revolt?
Answer:
Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal refused to pay tax to the government and rose in revolt against it. He fopght against the English at some places. Ultimately he died while fighting the British near Pakpattan.

Question 13.
Why Nana Sahib became opponent of the British?
Answer:
Peshwa Baji Rao II died in 1857 A.D. But after his death, Lord Dalhousie stopped the pension of his successer i.e. Nana Sahib. That’«s why he became opponent of the British and revolted against them.

Question 14.
How many soldiers at Merrut refused to use the greased cartridges?
Answer:
Nearly 85 soldiers in Merrut refused to use the greased cartridges.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 15.
Who occupied Delhi on 11th September?
Answer:
General Nicklson occupied Delhi on 11th September with the help of the Sikh soldiers.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Where and why did the Revolt of 1857 start?
Answer:
The Revolt of 1857 started at Barrackpur cantonment, Bengal in March. A soldier named Mangal Pandey shot an English officer. He was hanged for this crime. This incident inspired his fellow soldiers with patriotic feelings and they later joined the revolt against the British on 10th May, 1857.

Question 2.
Why were the soldiers of Avadh against the British?
Answer:
The army of Bengal was the best army of the East India Company. A majority of the soldiers in the army belonged to Avadh. Lord Daihousie annexed Avadh into the British Empire. Avadh soldiers did not like it and turned against the British. The English disbanded the Avadh army as a result of which thousands of soldiers became unemployed. They decided to rise in revolt in protest.

Question 3.
Why did the Indian soldiers take part in the Revolt of 1857 A.D.?
Answer:
Following are the reasons of taking part of Indian soldiers in the Revolt of 1857 A.D. :

  1. In 1856, one law was passed according to which soldiers could be sent beyond the sea in a war. But in Hindu religion, it was considered that going beyond the sea is against religion.
  2. Indian soldiers were badly treated during the Parade. It was unbearable for the Indian soldiers to tolerate this disrespect.
  3. Indian soldiers were given very less salary as compared to the British soldiers. That’s why resentment spread among them.
  4. The British officers disrespected the culture of Indian soldiers in front of them. Indian soldiers wanted to take revenge of this disrespect.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 4.
Describe the military consequences of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
Following were the military consequences of the revolt :
1. Consolidation of the Army: There were two types of soldiers before the revolt.

  • The soldiers appointed by the Company and
  • The soldiers appointed by the British government. After the revolt, the two armies were unified.

2. Increase in the number of European Soldiers: The number of European soldiers was increase^ and the number of Indian soldiers was decreased. But the Sikhs of Punjab and the Gorkhas of Nepal were given preference in the recruitment in the army.

3. Reorganisation of Indian Army: Artillery was put under the charge of the British soldiers. Indian soldiers were given weapons of low quality.

Question 5.
Describe the event of Lucknow at the time of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
Lucknow, the capital of Avadh, was the centre of revolt. The rebels uprooted the British administration in this area. The British Commander-in-Chief Havlock marched on Lucknow with a large force and captured it on 31st March, 1858. After sometime, the large landlords of Avadh also lay down their arms. Thus the revolt was crushed in Avadh.

Question 6.
Discuss the importance of freedom struggle of 1857 A.D. in the history of our country on the basis of four things.
Answer:
The First War of Independence was the most important event in the history of India. Its importance may be studied as under :

  • It was the first attempt made by the Indians for the achievement of freedom. Indian soldiers and public collectively faced the enemy in this war of independence. Thus this struggle was a symbol of Indian national unity.
  • People of all castes, creeds and religions made joint efforts to achieve freedom.
  • The British were alarmed as a result of this revolt and they made several reforms in the administration to please the Indians.
  • Several Indians sacrificed their lives in this struggle. The sacrifices of these persons always inspired the coming generations of India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 7.
Write down a note about Regional Focus: Avadh.
Answer:
Avadh was a very prosperous state. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Avadh always remained loyal to the Britishers. But Britishers started to interfere in his kingdom. He was forced to keep the British army in his kingdom. After some time whole of his army was relieved and kept British army over there. Whole expenditure of the British army was on Nawab. All the relieved soldiers of army of Nawab became unemployed. In 1856 A.D., Britishers accused Nawab of mis government of Avadh and removed him. Then his kingdom was annexed into the British empire. Soldiers, formers and zamindars got annoyed with this and they took part in the revolt of 1857 in great number.

Question 8.
Write a note on “Doctrine of Lapse”.
Answer:
The Doctrine of Lapse was adopted by Lord Dalhousie. According to this doctrine, succession to protected state depended upon the will of the British. Lord Dalhousie decided that if the ruler of a dependent state had no male child, he could not adopt a son. It meant that if a native ruler died without leaving a son behind, the dependent state would pass into the hands of the British. On the grounds of Doctrine of Lapse, Dalhousie annexed seven dependent kingdoms into the British Empire which included Nagpur, Jhansi, Jaipur and Satara.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down the main causes of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
The main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were as follows :
1. Political Discontentment: There was a great resentment among the Indian masses on account of wrong political policies of the British. Lord Dalhousie annexed several Indian states on the basis of the Doctrine of Lapse. The rulers, the public and employees of these states turned against the British. The British ruined village self-government. They did not promote the Panchayat system. They also gave setback to village cottage industries. So the villagers too had feelings of hatred against the British.

2. Shortcomings in the Administration: Corruption was rampant in the British administration. Justice was very costly. Land tax system was very faulty and harsh. Actually, the main aim of the British was to collect more and more money. The British rule in India was, therefore, most unpopular.

3. Economic Exploitation: To promote industry in England, the British ruined Indian industries. Now, only the British made goods were sold here. Farmers too were greatly exploited by the Company. All high jobs were given to the British who got their salaries from Indian exchequer. So this exploitation of Indians increased the discontentment against the British rule.

4. Interference in the Religious Matters: The British took many steps to convert the Indians into Christianity. They also tried to change religious customs of the Indians. As a result, Indians belonging to all religions turned against the English.

5. Discontentment in the Army: There was discontentment among Indian soldiers. They were given very low salaries. The British soldiers misbehaved with them. In 1856, Indian soldiers were supplied greased cartridges for use. Soldiers were enraged and rose in revolt.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 2.
What were the causes of the failure of Rising of 1857?
Answer:
The following were the main causes of the failure of Indians in the Rising of 1857:
1. Beginning of the Revolt before time: The rebellion started before time because of the incidents at Behrampur, Barrakpur and Meerut. Unity among the revolutionaries received a setback and the English got sufficient time to suppress the revolt.

2. No common aim: The leaders participating in the struggle did not have any common goal. Some were fighting for the cause of religion, some for the safety of their states, while some others for the independence of the country. Therefore, the failure of revolution was certain.

3. Revolt Unorganised: The rebels had no able leader who could have kept them united. They were unorganised and indisciplined.

4. Untrained Soldiers: The rebels lacked trained soldiers. They had no modern weapons of war. Most of the people who participated in the rising were disbanded soldiers. They had little experience. The rising was bound to fail.

5. The rising did not spread in the whole country: This struggle remained restricted only to the northern India. People of South India did not take active part in it. Had the whole of India stood united against the British, the first war of Indian Independence would not have failed.

6. Control of the British over the means of transport: All the means of transport and communication like railways, post and telegraph etc. were in the hands of the British. They were in a position to send soldiers and weapons of war from one place to another place easily.

7. Harsh methods of the British to suppress the Revolt: The British dealt with revolutionaries very cruelly. Cities were looted and burnt. Many people were hanged. Public got frightened and did not take part in the rising.”

8. Economic difficulties: The rebels lacked money. They were not in a position to purchase good weapons. As a result, they failed in their mission.

Question 3.
Describe the results of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
The rising of 1857 A.D. had some very important results which were as under :
1. Political results:

  1. The rule of the company in India came to an end. India, now, came under the direct control of the British government in England.
  2. The Governer-General of India was given the new title of Viceroy.
  3. Mughal rule in India came to an end.
  4. Indian kings were given permission to adopt son.
  5. After 1857, British discontinued the policy of annexing Indian States into the British Empire.

2. Social results:

  • On 1st of Nov. 1858, Queen Victoria of England proclaimed a Declaration in which it was said that the British government would not interfere in the religious matters of the Indians. Indians would be given jobs on merit and they would also be given higher posts.
  • The British adopted the policy of divide and rule. They started favouring one particular religion and people of one class were made to fight with the people of other class so that their interests in India could be protected.

3. Military results:

  • The number of Indian soldiers in the army was reduced and that of the Europeans increased.
  • After the rising, artillery and ammunition departments were put under the control of British soldiers.
  • Now the soldiers of different castes and different religions were kept into separate regiments so that they could not start revolt again against the Britishers.
  • European soldiers were appointed on higher and important posts. Indian soldiers were given less important positions.
  • Some type of system was made in which Indian soldiers and officers of every level should remain under the supervision of European army.
  • Expenses of European army were put on Indian people.

4. Economic results: Many type of trade restrictions were imposed on Indians by British government. As a result, Indian trade suffered huge losses.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 4.
Explain the four main events of Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Or
Describe the main events of Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
The Indians rose against the British on a large scale for the first time in 1857. Plan for the rising was ready. The message of rising was .sent to soldiers and the public by circulation of roses and chapatis. 31st May, 1857 was fixed for the revolt, but the incident of greased cartridges at Meerut led to the beginning of rising on 10th May.

An account of the events of this rising is as under :
1. Barrakpur. Greased cartridges were supplied to the soldiers stationed at Barrakpur, a cantonment in Bengal on 29th March, 1857 A.D. A soldier named Mangal Pandey refused to use them. In a fit of anger, he shot dead an English officer and asked his companions to pounce upon their British Officers. Mangal Pandey was sentenced to death. All the soldiers of Barrakpur Cantonment got enraged by this incident. Mangal Pandey was the first martyr of the revolt of 1857.

2. Meerut. The fire of revolt engulfed Meerut on 10th May, 1857. The Public and soldiers of Meerut came out in an open revolt against the British. The whole city echoed with slogans like “Maro Firangi Ko”. Soldiers broke open the gates of jails and released their companions. From there, they marched to Delhi.

3. Delhi. The English officers tried to check rebels at Delhi, but they failed to do so. The rebels declared Bahadur Shah as their king and Delhi came under their control within four days.

On 14th September, 1857 differences arose among the rebel soldiers at Delhi. British took advantage by this rift and re-established their control over Delhi. Terror was let loose on the citizens. Bahadur Shah was arrested and sent to Rangoon. Both of his sons were killed.

4. Kanpur. Nana Sahib declared himself as Peshw’a at Kanpur. The British commander Havlock defeated Nana Sahib and the control of Kanpur came in the hands of the English. Tantya Tope tried to re-establish his control there but failed. In the mean time Nana Sahib took shelter in Nepal. Tantya Tope fled and went over to Rani of Jhansi.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 5
Mandal Pandey

5. Lucknow. Lucknow was the capital of Avadh. The English commander Havlock invaded Lucknow with a large army and established his control over the city on 31st March, 1858. After some time, “Talukedars” of Avadh also laid down their arms and as such the fire of revolt in Avadh was also extinguished.

6. Jhansi. Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi led the rising. The British commander attempted to suppress the revolt and occupy Jhansi but failed. Jhansi was again invaded in April, 1858 A.D. This time a few companions of Rani Lakshmi Bai deserted her and joined the British. They however, faced bravely the aggressors. The fort of Jhansi came under the control of the British. The Rani was killed in a battle with the British near Gwalior. In the Central India, Tantya Tope fought many battles with the English but was defeated. He was captured and hanged on April 18th, 1858.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 6

7. Punjab. Yet many rulers of states of Punjab helped the Britishers in revolt, but still revolt occurred at many places against Britishers. Indian soldiers revolted at Ferozpur, Peshawar, Jalandhar and at some other places. But these revolts were suppressed by Britishers and many soldiers were killed.

In modern Harvana, local leaders of Rewari. Bhiwani, Balabhgarh, Hansi, etc. also revolted in 1857 A.D. but they were also suppressed by Britishers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 5.
Explain the political, economic and military causés of the Revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
In 1857, Indians revolted against the British for the first time. They wanted to drive them away from their country. This revolt is considered as the ‘First War of Independence’. Political, military and economic causes of this revolt were as under :

I. Political Causes:
1. Annexationist Policy of Daihousie. LMrd Daihousie wanted the expansion of the British empire in India. He. therefore, adopted the policy of annexation through the Doctrine of Lapse. According to this policy, a ruler who had no male heir was not allowed to adopt a son who might inherit his kingdom. He annexed Satara, Nagpur. Sambalpur, Jaitpur etc. to the British Empire. By following this policy, the British did not allow the widow queen of Jhansi to adopt a son. She, therefore, became a bitter enemy of the British.

2. Injustice with Nana Sahib. Nana Sahib was the adopted son of the last Maratha Peshwa Bajirao II. After the death of Bajirao, the British refused to pay annual pension to Nana Sahib. So, he turned against the British. On seeing injustice done to Rani of Jhansi and Nana Sahib, the Indians were annoyed and felt insulted. They began to make plans to end the British rule in India.

3. Insult of Bahadur Shah. In 1856 A.D, the Governor-General told the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah that he would be the last Emperor of India. After his death, his princes will have to vacate the Red Fort and stay in a rented house near Qutub Minar. This decision of the British annoyed Bcgam Zeenat Mahal, the queen of Bahadur Shah. She started hatching conspiracies to destroy the British rule in India. The Muslim population of the country could not bear this insult to the heir of Akbar and Aurangzeb.

4. Unjustified annexation of Avadh. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Avadh was a faithful friend of the British. His ancestors had also helped the British several times. Even then, the British levelled the charge of maladministration against the Nawab of Avadh and annexed his kingdom to the British empire. They gave pension to Wajid Ali Shah and sent him to Calcutta (Kolkata). The people of Avadh got annoyed over it. There were 60,000 Avadh soldiers in the army of Bengal. They could not tolerate this injustice done to their king and decided to rise in revolt against the British.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 7

II. Military Causes:

  • Low Salaries: The salaries of Indian soldiers were very low. They were not given higher salaries even if they were qualified. Chances of their promotion were very less.
  • Misbehaviour of the Europeans: Indian soldiers were considered to be inferior to European soldiers and English officers used to maltreat the Indian soldiers.
  • The Enlistment Act of 1856: An Act was passed in 1856 by which, it was made obligatory for the soldiers to go overseas, if ordered. As a result of it, dissatisfaction spread among the Indian soldiers.
  • Annexation of Avadh: The British annexed Avadh on the basis of maladministration. The Nawab was deposed and his army was disbanded.
  • The issue of Greased Cartridges: In 1856 A.D, Indian soldiers were given greased cartridges which were to be bitten with one’s teeth before they could be fired. This enraged the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the British army. Indian soldiers were angry over it. First freedom struggle of 1857 A.D. was the result of this discontentment amongst the Indian soldiers.

III. Economic Causes:

  • The British started sending raw materials from India to factories in England. Finished products of England were sold in India. This policy affected Indian industry very badly and many artisans became jobless.
  • The British increased the land tax step by7 step. This tax was collected by very harsh methods. The farmers were dissatisfied due to this reason.
  • Import duties on Indian raw material in England were high whereas import duties in India on British made goods were low. Indian trade was, therefore, suffering from heavy losses.
  • The British confiscated the Jagirs of many ‘Jagirdars’ and increased taxes on other ‘Jagirs’. As a result, many landlords turned against the British.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857

Question 6.
Explain the contribution of Punjabis in the revolt of 1857 A.D.
Answer:
The Punjabis had mixed reaction to the revolt of 1857. The Indian soldiers in some cantonments of Punjab faced the British army bravely, but some rulers of Punjab states sided with the British. As a result, The revolt of 1857 in Punjab could not succeed.

A brief description of the role of the Punjabis in the revolt of 1857 is as under :
1. Revolt by Soldiers. The uprising started on 10th May, 1857 at Meerut. The news about the revolt reached Lahore on May 12th, 1857. Indian soldiers (called sepoys) at Mian Mir cantonment (near Lahore) were disarmed as there was danger of spread of revolt in the Punjab. After this the Indian soldiers in the cantonments of Peshawar, Naushehra, Multan, Ambala, Jalandhar, Rawalpindi, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur and Derajat were disarmed. Even then the soldiers in the eastern region revolted. Army created some disturbances at Jalandhar, Phillaur, Jhelum and Thaneshwar. Hindustani and Punjabi soldiers revolted in other important cantonments also. Some soldiers killed their commanders.

2. Revolt by Commdn people. In view of the deteriorating condition of the British Government, the common people also revolted at several places. For example, people at Sialkot and Sirsa co-operated with the Indian soldiers. Besides, the Muslim tribals of Montgomery, Multan, Bahawalpur and Fazilka also joined the revolt. Similarly, Punjabis rose in an open revolt at Karnal, Rohtak and Rewari. Some jats of Karnal refused to pay the land tax to the British.

3. Revolt by Sardar Ahmed Khan Kharal. Ahmed Khan Kharal was the chief of a tribe. He refused to pay tax to the government and ro#e in revolt against it. Some tribals living on the banks of Ravi sided with him. He fought against the English at some other places also and killed the British soldiers and officers. Ultimately, he died while fighting the British near Pakpattan.

The Revolt of 1857 PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Revolt of 1857: In 1857 A.D, Indian rulers, soldiers and public rose in an armed revolt to oust the British from India. This revolt is known as the ‘First War of Indian Independence’.
  • Political Causes: Indian rulers (of Jhansi, Nagpur, Sitara, Jaitpur, Bilaspur, etc.) and landlords were annoyed with the British on account of their annexationist policies. They collectively planned to struggle against the foreign rule. ,
  • Social and Economic Causes: The British ended the Sati practice, permitted widow marriage and ruined Indian industries.
  • Military Causes: Indian soldiers were paid low salaries and were not treated well. The order to use greased cartridges enraged the Indian sepoys. It was the immediate cause of the revolt.
  • Centres of Revolt: The main centres of revolt were Delhi, Kanpur, Jhansi, Gwalior, Varanasi and Lucknow.
  • Leaders of the Uprising: The chief leaders of the revolt were Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Jafar, Rani Laxmi Bai, Nana Sahib, Tantaya Tope, etc.
  • Failure of the Revolt: There was no co-ordination among the Indian rulers. The rebels were not trained soldiers and had no means of communication. They had no sound financial resources and modern weapons of war like the British had.
  • Effects of Revolt: The rule of the Company came to an end. The number of Indians in the army was reduced. Differences between the Hindus and the Muslims increased.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 15 The Revolt of 1857 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Minerals and Energy Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words :

Question 1.
Write the definition of mineral resources.
Answer:
Minerals are natural substances which are made up of one or more elements. These are found in the interior of the earth. These have a definite chemical composition. These are indentified by their physical and chemical qualities.

Question 2.
Where do iron-ore is found in India?
Answer:

  1. Bihar: Singhbhum.
  2. Orissa: Mayurbhanjh.
  3. Chhattisgarh: Durg and Bastar.
  4. Karnataka: Bellary, Dharwar, Kudremukh.

Question 3.
What are the uses of copper?
Answer:
Copper is used for making utensils, coins, electrical wires and electronics. Their sheets are also made.

Question 4.
Name the famous gold mines in India.
Answer:
In Karnataka, Kolar and Hutti.
In Andhra Pradesh: Ramgiri.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 5.
How should we use atomic minerals?
Answer:
Atomic minerals should be used carefully. These should be used for the development of the country and not for destruction and pollution.

Question 6.
What are the non-conventional sources of energy?
Answer:
Water power, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy and tidal energy.

Question 7.
Name the four types of coal.
Answer:

  1. Anthracite
  2. Bituminous
  3. Lignite
  4. Peat.

Question 8.
What are multipurpose projects?
Answer:
The dams built mainly for power generation are called multi- purpose projects as these provide many benefits at the same time.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
Which are the countries from where iron ore is mainly found? Write down the different types of iron ore :
Answer:
Countries: Russia and its neighbouring countries, Australia, Brazil, U.S.A. produce large quantities of iron ore. India produces 5% iron ore in the world.

Types of Iron ore :

  1. Magnetite
  2. Haematite
  3. Limonite
  4. Siderite.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 2.
Write down a note on the importance of Bauxite.
Answer:
Aluminium is extracted from Bauxite. It makes up about 8 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is light, strong and a very good conductor of electricity. It is largely used in various industries like transportation (aircraft, ship building, automobiles), chemical industries, electrical goods, machines, etc. It is used in making utensils, coins, furniture, sheets, packing material, photo-frames, pipes, etc. It is the basis of our telecommunication systems as it is used in radios, telegraphs, televisions and electrical wires. Due to its wide uses, it has been described as the ‘champion of metals’ or ‘the metal of the twentieth century’.

Question 3.
What is the importance of natural gas in our life and name the major areas in our country where it is found?
Answer:
Natural gas is produced in areas producing petroleum. When an oil well is dug, Natural gas is found in upper layers.

Use: It is used in homes for cooking, in vehicles and in industry.

Production: All the petroleum-producing countries produce Natural gas. The U.S.A. is the leading producer in the world. Russia, Middle East, Canada, Uzbekistan are other producers. Natural gas is produced in some parts of India. These include the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal-Orissa region and Barmer region of Rajasthan. Gulf of Cambay and Kutch region in Gujarat is a potential area. About 75% of the production of India comes from Bombay High.

Question 4.
Name the important factors which are favourable for the generation of Hydroelectricity?
Answer:
The development of water power (Hydro-electric power) depends upon the following factors:

  1. Uneven relief. Mountainous areas provide quite good sites for the development of water power. Such areas provide rapids or falls.
  2. Abundant rainfall. Fairly = heavy rainfall uniformly distributed throughout the year is necessary for water power development.
  3. Presence of huge rivers and waterfalls. There should be some large rivers like Indus or Nile to provide large and regular supply of water.
  4. Presence of lakes. The presence of lakes along the course of a river helps to regulate water flow naturally.
  5. Nearness to market. The consuming areas should be near the power stations to avoid the loss during transmission.

III. Answer the following questions in about 125-130 words :

Question 1.
What are energy resources? What is their contribution towards the development of the country? Write in detail about any two energy resources.
Answer:
Coal: Coal is the prime source of energy. It is often called the ‘Mother of Industries’. It has been the basis of industrial revolution. Coal is used as a raw material in iron and steel, chemical industries. India ranks seventh in the world as regards coal reserves. The total proven coal reserves are nearly 214,000 million tonnes. These reserves will not last long. The major states known for coal reserves are Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, M.P., Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Coal production is 330 million tonnes (4% of world).

Distribution: India has two types of coalfields :
(a) Gondwana coalfields (98%)
(b) Tertiary coalfields (2%).

(a) Gondwana coalfields: These belong to the period of Gondwana age. Nearly 3/ 4th of coal deposits are found in Damodar valley (Damuda series). Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley have also coal deposits.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources 1

  1. W. Bengal. West Bengal has the oldest coalfield of India at Raniganj. It covers an area of 1267 sq. km.
  2. Jharkhand and Bihar. These two states produce 50% coal of India. The major coalfields of Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Daltonganj are found in Damodar valley. Coking coal from this coalfield is supplied to steel centres of Jamshedpur, Asansol, Durgapur and Bokaro.
  3. Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh have Son valley coalfields of Suhagpur, Korba, Rampur, Tatapani, Singrauli.
  4. Petroleum: In about 10 lakh sq. km oil-bearing rocks are found in India. The oil reserves in India are estimated to be about 4000 million tonnes.

The first oilfield in India was discovered in 1867 at Makum in Assam. At present the production is as below (334 lakh tonnes) :

  1. Assam: In Assam oil is produced in Digboi, Moran, Naharkatiya and Sibsagar regions.
  2. Gujarat: In Gujarat oil is produced in the Gulf of Cambay region at Kalol, Ankleshwar, Lunej, etc.
  3. Maharashtra: Oil has struck in the off-shore region at Bombay High along the coast of Mumbai. It is the leading producer of crude oil in India. North Basin and South basin are the important oilfields.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources 2
The production of oil in India is increasing everywhere under the organization of Oil and Natural Gas Commission.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

IV. Map Skill

Question 1.
Show one important area of minerals and energy resources on map of India
1. Iron ore
2. Manganese
3. Gold
4. Mica
5. Coal
6. Petroleum.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources 3

V. Activity

Question 1.
Prepare a list of atleast ten minerals.
Answer:

S.No. Name of the minerals Name of state of India in which mineral is found Use of the mineral
1. Iron ore Jharkhand Iron steel industries
2. Manganese Madhya Pradesh Steelmaking
3. Gold Karnataka Jewellery
4. Copper Jharkhand Electrical industries
5. Mica Bihar Chemical Industries
6. Uranium Jharkhand Utensils
7. Bauxite Andhra Pradesh Chemical
8. Coal Jharkhand Power
9. Petroleum Assam Power
10. Hydroelectricity Maharashtra Power

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Minerals and Energy Resources Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not a type of mining?
(a) Open cast
(b) Shaft
(c) Drilling
(d) Shaft.
Answer:
(d) Shaft.

Question 2.
Which is the hardest mineral?
(a) Diamond
(b) Granite
(c) Basalt
(d) Gatbro.
Answer:
(a) Diamond.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 3.
Which is the first metal discovered by man?
(a) Copper
(b) Silver
(c) Gold
(d) Iron.
Answer:
(a) Copper.

Question 4.
Name the diamond which is rarest diamond.
(a) Green diamond
(b) White diamond
(c) Pink diamond
(d) Brown diamond.
Answer:
(a) Green diamond.

Question 5.
Which is a ferrous mineral?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Iron
(c) Mica
(d) Coal.
Answer:
(b) Iron.

Question 6.
What is the name of mining shown in the picture?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources 4
(a) Open Cast
(b) Shaft
(c) Drilling
(d) Shaft mining.
Answer:
(d) Shaft mining.

Question 7.
Which source of energy is the activity in the picture associated with?
Or
Seeing the picture tell the source to which it belongs.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources 5
(а) Hydroelectricity
(b) Solar energy
(c) Wind energy
(d) Nuclear (Atomic) energy.
Answer:
(a) Hydroelectricity.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The __________ metals do not contain metals.
Answer:
Non-Metallic

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 2.
Gondwana coalfields belong to the period of __________ age.
Answer:
Gondwana

Question 3.
Biogas is produced in __________ areas.
Answer:
Rural

Question 4.
Khetri is famous for __________
Answer:
Copper

Question 5.
In Gujarat oil is produced in the __________ region.
Answer:
Gulf of camboy.

True/False :

Question 1.
Energy generated by Tides is called Tidal energy.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
West Bengal has the oldest coalfield of India.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Iron is a non-ferrous mineral.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Jharia is famous for Atomic energy.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Gold metal is used for decoration.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Into how many categories can minerals be classified? Give two examples of each.
Answer:
Minerals are grouped into three categories :

  1. Metallic Minerals. Iron ore, tin.
  2. Non-metallic Minerals. Diamond, Gypsum.
  3. Atomic Minerals. Uranium, Thorium.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 2.
Distinguish between Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals.
Answer:

Ferrous minerals Non-ferrous minerals
1. The metallic minerals which contain iron content are called ferrous minerals (Fe). 1. The minerals which do not contain iron (ferrous) content are called non-ferrous minerals (Nfe).
2. Iron, Manganese, Chromite, Cobalt, etc. are ferrous minerals. 2. Copper, Lead, Zinc, Aluminium are non-ferrous minerals.

Question 3.

What are the uses of Manganese?
Answer:

  1. It is used for manufacturing bleaching powder.
  2. It is used in insecticides.
  3. It is used for making paints and batteries.

Question 4.
Where does India rank in the production of manganese in the world? Where is it found in India?
Answer:
India ranks second in world production of Manganese. In India the main producing areas are Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Goa.

Question 5.
What is Bronze? What is its use?
Answer:
It is a hard and strong product. Tin and copper are mixed to make it. It is used in making tools and weapons.

Question 6.
Where is copper found in the world ? Name the copper producing areas in India.
Answer:
USA, Russia, Chile, Zambia, Canada and Zaire are the main producers of copper. In India copper is found in Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh) and Jhunjhunu, Alwar (Rajasthan).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 7.
Which two states of India are large producer of Bauxite? Name two copper producing areas of these states.
Answer:
Jharkhand and Rajasthan are Bauxite producing states of India. Copper is mined at Singhbhum and Khetri.

Question 8.
What are the uses of Gold?
Answer:
Gold is a valuable metal :

  1. It is used for making ornaments and articles for decoration.
  2. It is used for gold plating, teeth covers and medicines.

Question 9.
What are the uses of copper?
Answer:
Copper is a soft and brown-coloured metal. It has been used by man for a very long time. It is mixed up with tin to be known as Bronze. It is used in the production of utensils, coins, electric wires.

Question 10.
Which minerals are used to produce atomic energy?
Answer:
Uranium, Thorium, Lithium and Zircon are used to produce atomic energy.

Question 11.
Why is petroleum called Rock oil?
Answer:
Petroleum or ‘mineral oil is called rock oil because it is formed in sedimentary rocks. It is called crude oil.

Question 12.
Which country is the largest producer of Gold in the world? And how much?
Answer:
South Africa is the largest producer of gold in the world. It produces about 70% gold of the world.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 13.
What is Mica? Why is it used in electrical goods industry?
Answer:
Mica is black or brown or white transparent material. It is a non-metallic .mineral. It is non-conductor of electricity. So it is used in electrical goods industry.

Question 14.
Describe the different methods of extracting minerals.
Answer:
Taking out minerals from rocks is called mining :

  • Open cast mining: Minerals at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer.
  • Shaft Mining: Minerals at depth are taken out by making deep bores.
  • Drilling: Deep wells are bored to take out petroleum.
  • Quarrying: Minerals at surface are dug out.

Question 15.
Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
Answer:
Most industries are concentrated around coal mines because coal is an important source of energy. It is key mineral and fuel for the industries. It is used as a power resource in many industries. Many industries use it as a raw material. So most industries are concentrated around coal mines.

Question 16.
Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”. Why?
Answer:
Nowadays petroleum is a major source of energy in the world. Many byproducts such as kerosene, fuel, lubricating oils etc. are obtained from it. Petrochemical products have become very useful. Petroleum is used in agro-industry, paints, perfumes, transport, etc. So it is rightly called the “black gold”.

Question 17.
Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Answer:

Conventional Sources Non-conventional Sources
1. The sources of energy which have been used since a long time are called the conventional sources of energy. . 1. The sources of energy which have not been commonly used are called non conventional sources of energy
2. Wood, fuel, coal, petroleum gas and water power are conventional sources of energy. 2. Wind, tidal power, Geothermal energy, bio gas, solar energy are non conventional sources of energy.

Question 18.
Distinguish between
(i) Thermal power and Hydel power.
Answer:
Thermal Power and Hydel Power

Thermal Power Hydel Power
1. It is expensive. 1. It is comparatively cheaper.
2. It is a limited resource. 2. It is an unlimited resource.
3. It creates problems of atmospheric pollution. 3. It is non polluted.
4. The electricity generated by coal or petroleum is called thermal power. 4. The electricity generated by running water is called hydel power.

(ii) Anthracite coal and Bituminous coal.
Answer:
Anthracite coal and Bituminous coal

Anthracite coal Bituminous coal
1. It is the best quality of coal. 1. It is the low quality of coal.
2. It causes very less pollution. 2. It causes more pollution.
3. It gives more energy. 3. It gives less energy.
4. It is found only in J & K. 4. It is found in West Bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 19.
How should the natural resources be conserved?
Answer:
The natural resources should be used carefully in a planned manner. No resource should be wasted. These should be used so that the future generations can also use these.

Question 20.
Distinguish between Metallic and Non-metallic minerals.
Answer:

Metallic Minerals Non-Metallic Minerals
1. Metals are malleable i.e., they can be beaten into sheets. 1. They are brittle in nature and cannot be beaten into sheets.
2. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. 2. They are bad conductors of heat and electricity.
3. All metals are solids. 3. They may be solids, liquids and gases.
4. For Example iron, copper. 4. For Example sand, diamonds.

Question 21.
‘Human civilisations are associated with discovery of minerals.’ Give example.
Answer:
Mining is an age-old activity. The use of minerals is marked with different stages of human civilisation. During 5000 B.C., copper age existed. During 3000 B.C., Bronze age and during 1400 B.C., iron age were developed.

Question 22.
What are the alternative sources of energy?
Answer:
There are other sources of energy as well. They include hydropower, geothermal, nuclear, solar and wind. These are also referred to as the alternative energy sources.

Question 23.
Many African countries have large potential of water resources but they have not used it to generate hydro-electricity.
Answer:
Large amount of capital is required for making dams on rivers, fixing machines and turbines and buying of transmission lines. So in spite of the water resources they are not used to generate hydro-electricity.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 24.
Name four main belts where iron ore is found.
Answer:
The four main iron ore belts are :

  1. Orissa – Jharkhand belt
  2. Durg – Bastar Chandarpur belt
  3. Bellary – Chick Manglur belt
  4. Maharashtra – Goa belt.

Question 25.
‘Mineral conservation can delay a crisis.’ Explain.
Answer:
Due to growing population, the use of minerals is increasing at an alarming rate. Minerals will not last long. We need to find substitutes, reduce consumption, recycle mineral resources. It can delay a mineral crisis.

Question 26.
Classify the following metals :
(i) Ferrous
Answer:
Ferrous: Iron and Manganese

(ii) Non-ferrous
Answer:
Non-ferrous: Copper and Lead

(iii) Light metal
Answer:
Light metal: Aluminium

(iv) Rare metals.
Answer:
Rare metals: Zirconium.

Question 27.
List three basic ways through which energy is-obtained.
Answer:
Energy is the capacity to do work. It can be obtained by :

  • Direct heating like fire, sun, etc.
  • Electricity
  • Stored energy in the form of a battery.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 28.
Describe the different types of coal.
Answer:

  1. Peat: Peat is the first stage of coal development. It is dark brown in colour. It has about 35 per cent carbon content.
  2. Lignite: Lignite is the next stage of coal formation, which has almost 50 per cent carbon.
  3. Anthracite: Lignite becomes sub-bituminous, bituminous and eventually anthracite coal. Anthracite has more than 85 per cent carbon. It is the best quality of coal. It is very hard, compact, black in colour. It ignites slowly and bums with short blue flame.

Question 29.
Describe the formation of coal.
Answer:
Coal is a black or brown rock consisting mainly of carbon. Coal is formed by the decomposition of vegetation of last ages. Most of coal deposits were formed in carboniferous age about 300 million years ago.

Question 30.
Describe natural gas as a source of conventional energy.
Answer:

  1. Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits.
  2. It is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
  3. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
  4. Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas in the world.
  5. Jaisalmer, Krishna-Godavari delta. Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources in India.
  6. Very few countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own.

Question 31.
Describe solar energy.
Answer:
Solar Energy:

  1. Sun provides heat and light energy every day.
  2. Solar energy trapped from the sun is used in solar cells to produce electricity.
  3. These cells are joined into solar pan&b to generate power for heating and lighting purpose.
  4. The technology of utilising solar energy benefits tropical countries with abundant sunshine.
  5. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers along with community lighting and traffic signals.

Question 32.
Explain wind energy.
Answer:

  1. Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy.
  2. Windmills have been used for grinding grain and lifting water since times immemorial.
  3. At present high speed wind rotate the windmill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity.
  4. Wind farms are clusters of wind mill. They are located in coastal regins and in mountains passes where strong and steady win blows.
  5. Wind farms are found in Netherland, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain, ‘ They are known for wind energy production.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 33.
Give an account of nuclear power.
Answer:
Nuclear power:

  1. Nuclear power is obtained frm energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive fuels like uranium and thorium.
  2. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
  3. USA and Europe are the greatest producers of nuclear power.
  4. In India: Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of uranium.
  5. Thorium is found in large quantities in the monozite sands of Kerala.
  6. Nuclear power stations in India are located in Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Tarapur (Maharashtra), Ranapratap Sagar near Kota (Rajasthan), Narora (Uttar Pradesh) and Kaiga (Karnataka).

Question 34.
How is geothermal energy used?
Answer:
Geothermal Energy

  • Heat energy obtained from the earth is known as geothermal energy.
  • The temperature in the interior of the earth increases with increase in depth.
  • This heat energy comes on the surface in the form of hot springs. This heat energy is used to generate power.

Question 35.
Rajan lives in West Bengal. Which cereal crop should he sow in his field to maximise his profit?
Answer:
Rice.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the production of mica in world and in India.
Answer:
U.S.A., Russia, India, France, Argentina and South Korea are the main producers of Mica. India is the leading producer of mica in the world. But the production of mica is decreasing in India.

It is due to two factors :

  1. The demand for mica is decreasing in the world.
  2. The use of substitutes is increasing.

90% of the production of Mica in India comes from three states of Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jharkhand. Other producers are Bihar, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh. The main districts are Nellore, Vishakhapatnam, Krishna (Andhra Pradesh), Jaipur, Udaipur, Bhilwara (Rajasthan), Gaya (Bihar), Hazaribagh (Jharkhand).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 2.
What is Nuclear Energy? Name the areas in India producing nuclear minerals.
Answer:
The energy generated by nuclear minerals is called nuclear energy. Uranium, Thorium, Lithium are nuclear minerals.

Areas of Production :

  • Uranium. Singhbhum, Hazaribagh (Jharkhand), Gaya (Bihar) Saharanpur (U.P.) and Udaipur (Rajasthan).
  • Thorium. Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
  • Lithium. Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Kerala.

Question 3.
Describe the importance of Natural Resources in our day to day life. Name the main areas of Natural Resources.
Answer:
Natural resources are free gifts of nature. These are very important for our lives. These are the index of a country’s progress and strength. These are called ‘the backbone of a country.

Areas of Natural Resources:

  • India’s 30% of the total area is covered with mountains. These have huge water and forest resources.
  • About 27% of the total area is covered with plateaus. These are storehouses of minerals.
  • About 43% of the total area is covered with plains. These have fertile soils and agriculture is well developed. These are ‘granaries’ of India.

Question 4.
Describe the Non-conventional sources of energy produced in India.
Answer:
Non-conventional sources of energy. Today non-conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geothermal heat, biogas, farm and animal waste including human excreta.

All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible.
1. Wind energy: It can be used for generating electricity. It is estimated that wind alone can provide 2000 MW of electricity. The states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Orissa are better placed in regard to this energy. Areas with constant and high speed winds are suitable for the purpose.

2. Tidal energy: The Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay are ideally suited to develop electricity from the energy produced by high tides entering to narrow creeks.

3. Geo-thermal energy: India is not rich in this source. However, efforts are on to utilize natural energy of the hot springs at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.

4. Energy from urban waste: A pilot for demonstration purposes had already been set up in Delhi to treat solid municipal waste for conversion into energy. It produces nearly 4 MW energy every year. Sewage in cities is used for generating gas and electricity.

5. Biogas based power plants: Bagasse, farm wastes, rice husk are being used to produce electricity.

6. Farm animal and human wastes (Urja Gram): By using biomass, animal poultry waste and human excreta, gobar gas plants are being set up in villages.

7. Solar energy: Solar voltaic cells are used to generate solar energy.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 5.
Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
Answer:

  • Dams create an imbalance in the earth’s equilibrium.
  • Deforestation leads to environmental pollution.
  • People are displaced.
  • Cities/villages/towns are shifted causing untold hardships to people.
  • Silting of lakes a problem.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Russia is rich in __________ resource.
Answer:
Natural gas

Question 2.
Processing of digging out of minerals is known as __________
Answer:
quarrying

Question 3.
Biogas is produced in __________ areas.
Answer:
rural

Question 4.
India __________ in ferrous minerals.
Answer:
is rich

Question 5.
Australia is the largest producer of __________ in the world.
Answer:
bauxite

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 6.
China and India have large __________ are deposits.
Answer:
iron.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Hydel power? How is it generated? Describe its production in India and world.
Answer:
Hydel power is generated through falling water. Dams are built on rivers, the water is dropped from a height to rotate turbines. Due to friction, turbines generate electricity.

Production: Many countries have sufficient water resources. These countries produce large quantities of Hydel power. U.S.A., Russia, Japan, Germany, Canada, England, France, Italy, Poland, Brazil and India are the main producers. U.S.A. produces 31% water power of the world.

Hydel power in India. India produces sufficient Hydel power. But India’s share is only 1% in world production. Rivers and canals are the main sources.

  1. Himalayan rivers
  2. Peninsular rivers.

Ganga, Brahmaputra and tributaries are snow fed and perennial rivers. So these have large capacity to generate water power with 18% of total potential of India. But peninsular rivers are seasonal and depend upon rainfall. So their capacity is low.

Distribution: All the states, except, Goa produce Hydel power. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Kerala states have large capacity. Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh are rich in Hydel power resources. We have to develop these resources.

Important: Projects,

  • Nagarjun Sagar Dam-Karnataka.
  • Ganga Hydro-electric system-U.P.
  • Tata Hydro-electric Grid-Maharashtra.
  • Hirakud Dam-Orissa.
  • Pandoh Project-Himachal Pradesh.
  • Bhakra-Nangal Project-Punjab.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Question 2.
Describe the economic importance of minerals. Explain the main types of minerals.
Answer:
Minerals. Mineral resources are of great use to man. Minerals have been called ‘The Gifts of Nature’. Mineral resources have been used since pre-historic times. Human civilisation has seen many ages like the stone age, copper age and iron age. Modern industrial and economic development depends upon the production and utilization of minerals.

Types of Minerals: There are 70 to 80 minerals found on the surface of the earth. These can be divided into three types :

  1. Non-Metallic Minerals. These include salt, mica, limestone, graphite, potash, gypsum.
  2. Metallic Minerals. These include iron, copper, aluminium, gold, silver. These can be melted into useful metals.
  3. Fuel Minerals. These include coal, oil and natural gas. These are called sources of power.

Importance of Minerals :

  • Industries. Minerals form the basis of heavy industries like iron and steel. Minerals are called ‘vitamins’ of industry.
  • Machinery. Minerals provide machinery for modern manufacturing.
  • Transport. Minerals are used in the making of different means of transportation.
  • Sources of Energy. Minerals provide energy to modern industries.

Question 3.
Describe the production of Petroleum in India.
Answer:
Production. In about 10 lakh sq. km. oil-bearing rocks are found in India. The oil reserves in India are estimated to be 50 crore metric tons.
The first oilfield in India was discovered in 1867 at Makum in Assam. At present the production is as under :

  1. Assam: In Assam, oil is produced in Digboi, Moran, Naharkatiya and Sibsagar regions.
  2. Gujarat: In Gujarat, oil is produced in Gulf of Cambay region at Kalol, Ankleshwer, Lunej, etc.
  3. Maharashtra: Oil has struck in the offshore region at Mumbai High along the coast of Mumbai. It is the leading producer of crude oil in India. North Basin and South Basin and Albet islands are the important oil fields.
    The production of oil in India is increasing everywhere under the organization of Oil and Natural Gas Commission. The production of oil in India was estimated to be about 210 lakh tonnes in 2001.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources

Minerals and Energy Resources PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Rock is a natural substance made up of one a more minerals.
  • Minerals. An inorganic substance which is found in the earth’s crust and it has a definite chemical composition.
  • Metallic minerals. Those minerals containing metals.
  • Minerals may be metallic or non-metallic.
  • Minerals can be ferrous and non-ferrous.
  • Mining. It is an economic activity of extracting valuable minerals from the earth.
  • Mine. It is an excavation in the ground for digging out minerals.
  • Recycling. It means using discarded materials once again.
  • Fossil fuels. They are fuels formed due to decay of plants and animals millions of years ago. ,
  • Petroleum. It is derived from Latin words Petra meaning rock and oleum meaning oil. So, petroleum means rock oil.
  • Fossils. The decomposed creatures ; minute plants and animals buried and sedimented for millions of years.
  • Ore. Metals in their raw state as they are extracted from the earth.
  • Grid. Electricity from large power plants is transmitted through a network of power lines.
  • Minerals are extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying,
  • Minerals can be conserved by recycling.
  • Mining is of four types :
    (i) Open cast
    (ii) Shaft
    (iii) Quarrying
    (iv) Drilling.
  • All rocks are composed of one or more minerals.
  • Copper was probably the first metal to be discovered and mined by man.
  • Mining is the extraction of minerals from the earth.
  • The distribution of mineral resources is uneven in India.
  • Main sources of power are coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  • The non-conventional sources of power are sun, wind, tide, falling water and geothermal sources.
  • Coal is the basis for all industrial development in the world.
  • About 65 per cent of the mineral oil resources are found around the Persian Gulf.
  • Metallic minerals contain metal in raw form.
  • The Non-Metallic minerals do not contain metals.
  • Switzerland has no known mineral deposit in it.
  • A green diamond is the rarest diamond.
  • The oldest rocks in the world are in western Australia.
  • Norway was the first country in the world to develop hydro-electricity.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Handicraft and Industry Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Write down the two reasons of decline of small scale industries in India.
Answer:

  1. Main protectors of these industries were local rulers, their family members and officials. When the British started conquering local kingdoms, then cottage industries were bound to decline.
  2. People of new classes didn’t like the goods made in cottage industries of India. They were under the impact of the British. That’s why they liked the goods made in Europe instead of goods made in India.

Question 2.
Why the goods made by small scale industries were expensive in India?
Answer:
Goods made by cottage industries of India were more expensive because more labour was required to manufacture these goods.

Question 3.
Where and when the first cotton industry was set up in India?
Answer:
First industry (factory) of cotton textile in India was set up in 1853 A.D. at Bombay.

Question 4.
Where and when the first jute industry was set up in India?
Answer:
First Jute industry in India was established in 1854 A.D. at Sarampur (Bengal).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 5.
Where and when the first coffee garden was set up?
Answer:
First coffee garden in India was started in 1840 A.D. in South India.

Question 6.
Where afiid when the first tea garden was set up?
Answer:
First tea-garden in India was established in 1852 A.D. at Assam.

Question 7.
Write down the reasons of decline of small scale industries in India in the 19th century.
Answer:
Indian villages were self-dependent before the establishment of the British rule in India. People of villages such as blacksmiths, farmers, carpenters, cobblers, potters, etc. collectively made things to fulfil needs of the village. Their cottage industry or their art was their means of income. But after the advent of the British rule in the country, rural people also started using goods made in the British factories because they were cheap as well as of good quality. So the small scale industries of villages and Indian cities started to decline and people became unemployed.

Question 8.
Write down the importance of modern Indian industries.
Answer:
Economic and Social life of India was greatly affected by the development of modern industries in India. It led to the emergence of two classes i.e. capitalists and labourers. Capitalists started to exploit the labourers. They gave less wages by taking more work from the labourers. So government passed the Factory Acts to improve condition of labourers. Many new cities came into being with industrial development. These cities became centres of modern life and culture.

Question 9.
Write a note on Indigo industry.
Answer:
Indigo was required by the British for textile industry in England. That’s why they encouraged the cultivation of indigo in India. It was started in Bihar and Bengal in laterpart of 18th century. Europeans established large gardens of Indigo where Indian were employed. 35 Lakh hectare land was there in 1825 under the cultivation of indigo. But this cultivation of indigo started declining in 1879 A.D. when manufacture of artificial indigo started. As a result only 3-4 Lakh hectare remained under the cultivation of indigo in 1915 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 10.
Write down a note on Coal Mines.
Answer:
All the new factories, established by the British in India, were run by coal. Coal was also required to run the railway. That’s why special care was given to take out coal from mines. In 1854 A.D. only two coal mines were there in Raniganj district of Bengal. But this number increased to 56 in 1880 and to 123 in 1885 A.D.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The kings of princely states used to use the things made by industries.
Answer:
small scale

Question 2.
New generation did not the goods prepared by small scale industries.
Answer:
like

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 3.
All new factories were run by
Answer:
power.

III. Write True or False in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
All workers became unemployed due to the decline of small scale industries in towns and villages.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Industrial revolution occurred in England in the 19th century.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The rates of the small scale commodities were high.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Indian raw material began export to England in the 18th century.
Answer:
True

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

IV. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Assam (i) Sarampur (Bengal)
2. Jute Industry (ii) Raniganj
3. Coal Mining Industry (iii) Tea Company
A B
1. Assam (iii) Tea Company
2. Jute Industry (i) Sarampur (Bengal)
3. Coal Mining Industry (ii) Raniganj

Answer:

V. Things To Do :

Question 1.
Dear student! a potter will be making the utensils of clay. You go to him and know how he is doing his professions?
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
If any weaver is weaving the cloth in any village or near the village then you go to him and know how cloth is prepared by him?
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Handicraft and Industry Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which of these was a cause of decline of small scale industries in India?
(а) Abolition of native princely states
(b) High rates of small scale commodities
(c) Better finishing of machine-made goods
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 2.
When was the first Cotton factory established in India?
(a) 1853 A.D.
(b) 1854 AD.
(c) 1855 A.D.
(d) 1856 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1853 A.D.

Question 3.
Where was the first Jute industry set up in 1854 A.D.?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Sarampur
(c) Bokaro
(d) Jharia.
Answer:
(b) Sarampur.

Question 4.
What is Hectare?
(a) A measurement of height
(b) A measurement of Weight
(c) A measurement of land
(d) A measurement of air
Answer:
(c) A measurement of land.

Question 5.
When was Assam Tea company established?
(a) 1844 A.D.
(b) 1834 A.D.
(c) 1854 A.D.
(d) 1864 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1834 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 6.
Where was first tea garden developed in 1852 A.D?
(a) Assam
(b) West Bengal
(c) Karnataka
(d) Meghalaya.
Answer:
(a) Assam.

Question 7.
When was first coffee garden established in India?
(a) 1820 A.D.
(b) 1830 A.D.
(c) 1840 A.D.
(d) 1850 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1840 A.D.

Question 8.
Mahatma Gandhi believed that all Indians must make their cloth by knitting the yarn. In the given picture Mahatma Gandhi is knitting the yarn to make ________ cloth.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry 1
(a) Silk
(b) Khadi.
(c) Jute
(d) Polyster
Answer:
(b) Khadi.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Kings of local kingdoms used products made by ________ industry.
Answer:
cottage

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 2.
New generation never ________ the products of cottage industry.
Answer:
like

Question 3.
All new industries are run on ________
Answer:
coal.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Decline of Indian cottage industry led to the unemployment of artisons.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Industrial revolution in England started in 19th century.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
Machine made goods are costly.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 4.
In 18th century, raw material from India was exported to England.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Assam (i) Sarampur (Bengal)
2. Jute Industry (ii) Raniganj
3. Coal Mines (iii) Tea Company

Answer:

A B
1. Assam (iii) Tea Company
2. Jute Industry (i) Sarampur (Bengal)
3. Coal Mines (ii) Raniganj

Question 1.Very Short Answer Type Questions

What was the economic condition of villages before the establishment of the British rule?
Answer:
Villages were self-dependent from economic point of view before the establishment of the British rule.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 2.
Why goods made by Indian artisans were unable to compete with goods made by machines?
Answer:
Goods made by Indian artisans were unable to compete with machine made goods because machine made goods were not only cheap but they were of good quality as well.

Question 3.
Why goods by cottage industries of India were not liked by people of new classes?
Answer:
Because they were under the impact of western culture.

Question 4.
Which things are made in Jute industry?
Answer:
Mats and sacks of jute.

Question 5.
Why coffee industry suffered huge loss?
Answer:
Indian coffee was in competition with the coffee of Brazil which was much better in quality as compared to the Indian coffee. That’s why coffee industry of India suffered huge loss.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 6.
Name six modern industries developed during the British rule in India.
Answer:

  1. Cotton Textile industry
  2. Jute industry
  3. Coal industry
  4. Indigo industry
  5. Tea
  6. Coffee.

Question 7.
Why were the Factory Acts passed?
Answer:
The Factory Acts were passed to improve the condition of labourers.

Question 8.
Clothes made of which thing were used by early man to keep himself warm?
Answer:
Clothes made by skin of animals.

Question 9.
Where were maximum jute factories opened and who opened them?
Answer:
Maximum Jute factories were opened in Bengal and they were opened by the Europeans.

Question 10.
Why was the cultivation of indigo reduced?
Answer:
The cultivation of indigo was reduced because of the introduction of synthetic indigo in 1879 A.D.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 11.
Why did the Coffee plantation industry suffer a lot?
Answer:
The coffee plantation industry suffered a lot because of the competition with Brazilian coffee.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How was the process of making of cloth developed in India? Which evidences have been found about making of cloth through excavation?
Answer:
Early man wore clothes made by skin of animals to keep himself warm. The process of making of cloth was invented quite late. It has been believed that grass was used to make clothes inTndia. Later on they came to know about use of thread on ‘Khaddi or Kargha’ or to make samples. With the passage of time, the technique of making clothes on charkha or kargha was improved.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry 2
Evidence: Archaeologists, who study ancient goods, have found evidences of coloured cotton cloth and making of thread from the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

Except this, they have found charkhas, mats etc. from excavations of certain places of Kashmir. It tells us that people used to make clothes even 4,000 years ago.

Question 2.
Why did the textile industry decline in India? How it got new life or how was it revived?
Answer:
Indian clothes were famous all around the world. European traders came to India to do trade of cloth and pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon. They established factories of cotton clothes in India. Production in these factories was being done with machines instead of ‘Khaddis’. But textile industry in India started declining after the advent of industrial revolution in England. But in the 20th century, Mahatma Gandhi encouraged the production of Khadi cloth through ancient means of producing clothes i.e. through ‘Charkha’. With this Indian cloth industry was revived.

Government made new economic policy with which cloth industry did enormous progress. Government has also given many facilities for the export and import of the cloth.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 3.
Write a note on Jute industry in India during the British rule.
Answer:
Jute industry makes sacks and mats of jute. This industry was mainly under control of European people. First jute industry in India was established at Serumpur (Bengal) in 1854 A.D. After this, most jute factories were established in the province of Bengal. This number of industries was increased up to 36 in the start of 20th century.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down in detail the causes of decline of small scale industries.
Answer:
The main reasons of decline of cottage industries in India are given below :
1. End of Local Kingdoms of India: A number of Indian kingdoms were annexed by the British. That’s why cottage industries suffered a great loss because the things made by cottage industries were used by family members and kings of local kingdoms.

2. Expensive goods of Indian cottage industries: Goods made by the Indian cottage industries were more expensive because more labour was required to manufacture those products. On the other hand, goods made by machines were very cheap. That’s why the sale of goods made by cottage industries was declined. It lead to decline of Indian cottage industries.

3. Quality of machine-made goods. The quality of machine-made goods of the British ‘ industries was much better than the goods made by local cottage industries. That’s why the machine-made goods were liked by most of the Indians. This thing also led to decline of Indian cottage industries.

4. Interests of people of new classes. People of new classes were under the impact of western culture. With this, the things made by machines were of much better quality as compared to the local goods. That’s why the local goods were not ljked by the people of new generation.

5. Sending Indian raw material to England. Industrial Revolution came in Europe in 18th century. That’s why large industries were established over there. Lot of raw material was required to make goods in such industries. But England itself was unable to fulfill needs of its industries. That’s why the British rulers in India started to send raw material from India to England. It led to the shortage of raw material for the Indian manufacturers. So Indian industries started declining.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry

Question 2.
Write down in detail about modern Indian industries.
Answer:
Many new industries were established in India during the British rule but of which main industries are given below :
1. Cotton Textile Industries. First cotton textile industry in India was established at 1853 A.D. in Bombay. After this, many textile mills were established in 1877 A.D. in cotton-producing areas of Ahmedabad, Nagpur, etc. Till 1879 A.D. around 59 cotton textile mills were established in India in which around 43,000 people were employed. This number of textile mills was increased to 206 in 1905 A.D. Around 1,96,000 labourers were employed in these industries.

2. Jute Industry. Jute industry makes mats and sacks of jute. This industry was mainly under the European people. First jute industry in India was established at Sarampur (Bengal) in 1854 A.D. After this most jute factories were established in the province of Bengal. This number of industries was increased up to 36 in the beginning of 20th century.

3. Coal Mining. All the industries established by the British in India were running with coal. Coal was also required for railway. That’s why special care was given to take out coal from mines. In 1854 A.D. only two coal mines were there in Raniganj district of Bengal. But this number increased to 56 in 1880 and to 123 in 1885 A.D.

4. Indigo Industry. Indigo was required by the British for textile industry in England. That’s why they encourage cultivation of indigo in India. It was started in Bihar and Bengal in later part of 18th century. Europeans established large gardens of indigo where thousands of Indians were employed. 35 Lakh hectare land was there under the cultivation of Indigo. But this cultivation of indigo started to decline in 1879 A.D. when manufacture of artificial indigo started. As a result, only 3-4 Lakh hectare remained under the cultivation of indigo in 1915 A.D.

5. Tea. One company was established in Assam in 1834 A.D. the British planted the first Tea garden in Assam in 1852 A.D. Till 1920 A.D., around 7 Lakh hectare land was there under the cultivation of tea. Tea of around 34 crore Pounds was exported to foreign countries at that time. Later on tea gardens were also planted in the mountains of Kangra and Nilgiri.

6. Coffee. First coffee garden was planted in South India in 1840 A.D. Later on the coffee gardens were planted in the regions of Mysore, Koorg, Nilgiri and Malabar. This industry suffered a huge loss due to its competition with the coffee of Brazil.

7. Other Industries. Many new industries were established in India during later part of 19th century and early part of 20th century. Out of these industries steel, sugar, paper, matchstick, leather industries were more important.

Handicraft and Industry PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Cottage of Industries of India: India was known for its cottage industries from ancient times. But these industries declined during the British rule.
  • Reasons of the decline of cottage industries,
    (i) End of local rule
    (ii) Machine-made goods were of good quality and cheap as well
    (iii) People of new classes liked the machine-made goods, goods of cottage industries were expensive, sending of Indian raw material to Britain.
  • Establishment of modern industries: New (modern) industries were established during the British rule such as-Cotton textile, jute, coal, Tea, Iron, matchstick, etc.
  • Factory Acts: Laborers started to be exploited in new industries. Government passed Factory Acts to improve their condition.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 14 Handicraft and Industry Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Who has written ‘Anand Math’?
Answer:
Anand Math Novel was written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

Question 2.
Write down the names of the writers of short-stories.
Answer:
Famous writers of short-stories were Ravindra Nath Tagore, Premchand, Jaspal, Tejendra Kumar, Krishna Chand, etc.

Question 3.
Who established the printing press in India and when?
Answer:
First printing press of India was started by Portuguese in 1557 A.D.

Question 4.
Which two newspapers Bal Gangadhar Tilak started publishing?
Answer:
Newspapers called ‘Kesari’ in Marathi language and ‘Maratha’ in English language.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
Write down the famous painters of Art School of Baroda University.
Answer:
G.R. Santosh, Ghulam Sheikh, Shanti Dev, etc.

Question 6.
Write down the famous artists of Madras School of Art.
Answer:
D.R. Choudhary, K.C.S. Pannikar, Satish Gujral, Ram Kumar and K.G. Subramaniyam.

Question 7.
Write down a note on the literature of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
Every section of literature developed in 19th and at the beginning of 20th century whose description is given below :
1. Novels, Stories, etc. Katha literature.

  • Famous writers of the Bengali literature were Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Sharat Chandra Chatterjee etc. ‘Anand Math’ novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is known as ‘Bible of modern Bengali Patriotism’.
  • Munshi Premchand throws light on the exploitation of peasants by the British government through his novels ‘Godan’ and ‘Rangbhumi’. He wrote many other novels in Hindi and in Urdu language.
  • Writers like Hemchandra Benarjee, Dinbandhu Mitra, Rabindra Nath Tagore etc. wrote a lot about patriotism.

2. Poetry. Romanticism in Indian poetry started when it came in contact with European literature. But more stress is given on nationalism and national movement in Indian poetry. Famous poets, who prospered Indian poetry, were Rabindra Nath Tagore (Bengali), Iqbal (Urdu), Keshav Sut (Marathi), Subramaniyam Bharti (Tamil) etc.

3. Dramas and Cinema. Indian Dramatists and artists tried to write Eastern and Western style of drama. Famous dramatists of this age were Girish Karnands (Kannada), Vijay Tendulkar (Marathi), Mulakhraj Anand and R.K. Narayan (English). Rabindra Nath Tagore gave stress on National consciousness and International Humanism through his writings.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 8.
Write down a note on the painting of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
A new form to painting was given by different art schools and art groups in 19th and at the start of 20th century.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 1

It’s description is given below :

  • Raja Ravi Verma painted European Naturalism by mixing it with Indian myths legends.
  • Painters of Bengal Art School, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Havell Kumarswami made paintings based on traditional stories, epics and ancient literature.
  • Paintings of Amrita Shergill and George Keyt were very much influenced by modern European art, modern spirit and symbols. Colour-scheme used by George Keyt was very impressive.
  • Rabindra Nath Tagore made beautiful paintings through watercolours and coloured chalks. Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Paintings of flowers and women made by famous artists of Bombay were very beautiful because of their colours. Names of Francis Newton Souza, K.H. Ara, S.K. Banner can be taken in this regard. Except this, there is a great contribution of Baroda University of Art, Madras Art School and National Gallery of Modern Art in making painting popular.

Question 9.
What do you mean by the changes in Performing Arts?
Answer:
Mainly music, painting, dances and dramas are included in the fine-art. Indian heritage was very prosperous in these fields before the advent of Britishers. Classical music, Indian and Carnatic music school of our country are some of the examples of this prosperous heritage of India.

  • Folk music and folk dance of our country fills encouragement among the people. Names of Indian classical dances, Kathakali, Kuchipudi and Kathak are included in this.
  • Dramas played on the stage and puppet shows are important aspects of our cultural tradition.
  • Different types of musical instruments, like Sitar, Tumbi, Drum (Harp), (Sarangi), Tabla (Tabor) etc. are famous in India. Flute, Shehnai (clarionet) are musical instruments that run with air.
  • Great artists of India like Kumar Gandharva, Ravi Shankar, Rukmani Devi, Ragini Devi, Uday Shankar, and Rabindra Nath Tagore became very famous in the fields of Indian music and dance.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Much literature was written in _______ language during the 19th century.
Answer:
Bengali

Question 2.
Bande Matram the national song was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterji

Question 3.
Munshi Prem Chand wrote many novels in _______ and _______ language.
Answer:
Urdu, Hindi

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Amrita Sher Gill and _______ were the great Indian painters.
Answer:
George Keyt.

III. Write True or False in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
Prince of Wales Museum is known as ‘Chhatterpati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalya’.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Marina Coastal is 10 Kilometer long.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
War Memorial is made in the memory of martyrdoms of the First World War.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
The Legislature and Secretariat Offices of Tamil Nadu are located in the Fort St. George building.
Answer:
True.

IV. Things To Do :

Question 1.
Write ‘Bande Matram’ national anthem on chart and sing it.
Answer:
Do it yourself

Question 2.
Make a chart of “Jan Gan, Man’ the National Anthem.
Answer:
Do it yourself

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
To know about famous folk dances – Bhangra and Gidha etc. of Punjab.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
An accepted norm or style is called
(a) Convention
(b) Commission
(c) Engraving
(d) Mural.
Answer:
(a) Convention.

Question 2.
The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture what the eye saw is called
(a) Realism
(b) Picturesque
(c) Portrait
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(a) Realism.

Question 3.
The Style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint, unexplored land is known as
(a) Portrait
(b) Picturesque
(c) Realism
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(b) Picturesque.

Question 4.
Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called
(a) Realism
(b) History painting
(c) Portrait
(d) Picturesque.
Answer:
(c) Portrait.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
_______ are the paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories.
(a) Picturesque
(b) Realism
(c) Portrait
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(d) History painting.

Question 6.
Which of these was brought in India with British art?
(a) Oil painting
(b) Miniatures
(c) Use of perspective
(d) Mural art.
Answer:
(a) Oil painting.

Question 7.
Painting made by Francis Hayman in _______depicts the British victory in the Battle of Plassey.
(a) 1770 A.D.
(b) 1762 A.D.
(c) 1766 A.D.
(d) 1768 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1762 A.D.

Question 8.
Who wanted to develop a national style of art?
(a) Raja Ravi Verma
(b) Ravindranath Tagore
(c) Aabindranath Tagore
(d) Francis Hayman.
Answer:
(c) Aabindranath Tagore.

Question 9.
Who decided to set up a picture production team and printing press in Bombay?
(a) Raja Ravi Verma
(b) Ravindranath Tagore
(c) Aabindranath Tagore
(d) Francis Hayman.
Answer:
(a) Raja Ravi Verma.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 10.
Which of these new things was introduced by colonial rule in India?
(a) New art forms
(b) New Styles
(c) New materials
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 11.
European artists came to India along with British
(a) Sailors
(b) Traders
(c) Warriors
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Traders.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
During _______ century, much of the Bengali literature was written.
Answer:
19th century

Question 2.
Vande Matram was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Question 3.
Munshi Prem Chand wrote many novels in _______ and _______ languages.
Answer:
Urdu, Hindi

Question 4.
_______ is famous beach in Chennai.
Answer:
Marina beach

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
Vande Matram, the national song was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Prince of Wales Museum is presently known as ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Museum’.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Marina beach is 10 kilometer long.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
War Memorial was made in the memory of the soldiers martyred during First World War.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Vande Matram was included in a book Anand Marriage.
Answer:
(✗).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Fort St. George (i) Beach
2. V.G.B. Golden Beach (ii) Madras
3. Anand Math (iii) Munshi Prem Chand
4. Godan (iv) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Answer:

A B
1. Fort St. George (ii) Madras
2. V.G.B. Golden Beach (i) Beach
3. Anand Math (iv) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
4. Godan (iii) Munshi Prem Chand

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
From which novel National Song of Wande Matram’ was taken?
Answer:
From the novel ‘Anand Math’.

Question 2.
Which novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is known as ‘Bible of Bengali Patriotism’ and why?
Answer:
Bengali novel ‘Anand Math’, because many patriotic songs are there in it.

Question 3.
Name any two famous novels of Munshi Premchand.
Answer:
Godan and Rangbhoomi.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Name two newspapers published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Answer:
Samvad Kaumudi and Mirat-ul-Akhbar.

Question 5.
Who was Raja Ravi Verma?
Answer:
Raja Ravi Verma was a famous painter and sculpture of modern India. His pictures and paintings were associated with Indian epics and Sanskrit literature.

Question 6.
Where was Kala Bhavan established by Rabindra Nath Tagore?
Answer:
At Shanti Niketan.

Question 7.
Name two famous painters of Madras Art School.
Answer:
D.R. Chaudhary and K.C.S. Panikar.

Question 8.
Name three musical instruments which run with air.
Answer:

  1. Flute
  2. Shehnai (clarionet)
  3. Algoza.

Question 9.
What is the modern name of Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai? With which building it is situated?
Answer:
Modern name of Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai is ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahqlaya’. It is situated near to Gateway of India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 10.
By which two architects, Gateway of India was built?
Answer:
John Wiltet and his friend John Beigh.

Question 11.
Name two famous Sea Beaches of Chennai.
Answer:
Merina Beach and V.G.B. Golden Beach.

Question 12.
In whose memory, War Memorial of Chennai was built?
Answer:
It was built in the memory of soldiers died in the First World War.

Question 13.
Raja Ravi Verma was a great artist. Which field of art was he associated with?
Answer:
He was a painter.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the development in the field of novels from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century.
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Michael Madhu Sudan Dutt and Sharat Chandra Chatterjee were famous scholars of Bengali literature in modern age. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wrote famous novel ‘Anand Math’ in Bengali language. Many national songs were there in it. Our national song Vande Matram’ is also one of them. Presently it is known as ‘Bible of Bengali Patriotism’.

Munshi Prem Chand also wrote many novels in Urdu and Hindi language. He threw light on the exploitation of peasants by British in his novels ‘Godan’ and ‘Rangbhoomi’. Writings of scholars like Hemchandra Benerjee, Dinbandhu Mitra, Rang Lai, Keshav Chandra Sen, Rabindra Nath Tagore became very popular and they filled sense of patriotism among the people.

Question 2.
Describe the development of poetry from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century.
Answer:
Romanceism started in Indian poetry when it came in contact with European literature. But Indian poetry gave more stress on Nationalism and National movement.

Famous poets of India are Rabindra Nath Tagore (Bengali), Iqbal (Urdu), Qazi Nazrool Islam (Bengali), Keshav Sat (Marathi), Subramaniyam Bharti (Tamil) etc. But poetry after 1936 A.D. tells the story of daily life and misery of the people. Faiz and Mezaz (Urdu), Jivan Nand Dass (Bengali), Agya and Mukti Bodh (Hindi) were some of the poets who gave new poetry. After independence, poetry was composed by poets like Raghuvir Sahai, Kedarnath Singh (Hindi), Shakti Chattopadhyaya (Bengali) etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
Which developments took place in the Helds of dramas and cinema from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century A.D.?
Answer:
Indian artists and dramatists tried to mix western and eastern styles of dramas from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century. Cinema organization gave a great contribution is arosing interests of the people in dramas and cinema. Girish Karnad (Kannada), Vijay Tendulkar (Marathi) etc. were famous dramatists of this age. Mulakh Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan wrote dramas in English language.

Rabindra Nath Tagore was also a famous dramatist of this age. We can find a beautiful mixture of ancient Indian traditions and European culture in his writings. He tried to develop National Consciousness and International Humanism through his writings.

Question 4.
Write down a note on Fort St. George.
Answer:
Fort St. George situated at Chennai was the first British fort in India. It was made in 1639 A.D. It’s name was kept on the name of St. George. This fort became the centre of commercial activities of the British. This fort gave a great contribution in establishing the British supremacy in the Karnatic region. In present age, Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu state and offices of the Secretariate are situated in this building. Pictures of Tipu Sultan are still there on the walls of this fort which increases its glory.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the development in the field of Painting in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
Many changes came in the field of Indian painting during 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century. These changes were brought by art schools and art groups.

Their brief description is given below :
1. Raja Ravi Verma. Raja Ravi Verma was a great artist in the field of painting. He was not only good at painting but he was also famous for the making of sculptures. He made pictures by mixing European naturism with Indian myths legends. Pictures made by him are associated with Indian epics and Sanskrit literature. He expressed Indian glorious past through the medium of paintings.

2. Art School of Bengal. A number of steps were taken by Rabindra Nath Tagore and Havell Kumarswami to popularise Bengali Art school. Famous painters of this school made paintings based on Indian historical stories, epics and ancient literature. They made small pictures with water colours. Rabindra Nath Tagore used water colours in Japanese technique. He even established Kala-Bhavan in Shanti-Niketan.

3. Amrita Shergil and George Keyt. Amrita Shergil and George Keyt were also quite famous Indian painters. They had the knowledge of modern European art, modem animism and symbols. Disserent Paintings of Amrita Shergil were different from each other but she made pictures of Indian females. Colour-style used by George Keyt in his paintings was quite impressive.

4. Rabindra Nath Tagore. Paintings of Rabindra Nath Tagore were based on his own experiences. He made many pictures outlined by coloured chalks and filled with water colours.

5. Famous Artists of Bombay. Francis Newton Souza was one of the most famous artists of this school. He made pictures of different models with impressive colours. Paintings of flowers and women made by K.H. Ara were famous for their colours and specificness. S.K. Bakre, H.A. Gade and M.F. Hussain are other famous painters of Bombay.

6. Art School of Baroda (Vadodhra) University. G.R. Santosh, Ghulam Sheikh, Shanti Dev are famous painters of this school. Every artist of this school has its own style of painting but modernity can be seen in every work of every artist.

7. Art School of Madras. This school was prospered after independence under the guidance of D.R. Chaudhary and K.C.S. Pannikar. Other famous artists of this school were Satish Gujral, Ram Kumar and K.G. Subramaniyam.

Except these art schools, models of modern art can be seen in National Gallery of Modern Art. Lalit Kala Academy has encouraged the artists by giving them scholarships, grants, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 2.
Explain the progress of press in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
There was no printing press in India before the British rule. Newspapers in Mughal rule were hand written which were prepared by Mughal emperor and rich businessmen for their own use. First printing press in India was established by Portuguese in 1557 A.D. But their objective was to print Christian literature and to propagate Christianity.

Development of Press till 1857 A.D.:

  1. Newspapers started to be printed at Calcutta and other cities due to press related liberal policy of Lord Hastings. One famous journalist J.S. started to print newspaper, called ‘Calcutta Journal’, in 1818 A.D. At the same time G.C. Marshman star ted, to print newspapers ‘Darpan’ and ‘Digdarshan’ in Sarumpur.
  2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy started to publish ‘Samvad Kaumudi’ in Bengali language in 1821 A.D. and ‘Mirat-ul-Akhbar’ in Persian language in 1822 A.D. At the same time Furdoonji Murzbaan started to publish a newspaper ‘Bombay Samachar’ in Gujarati language.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 2
Development of Press After 1857 A.D:
A number of newspapers started to publish after 1857-58 A.D. in different parts of the country. Later on, the Press developed to a great deal during 1881-1907 A.D. For example, Bal Gangadhar Tilak started to publish ‘Kesari’ in Marathi language and ‘Maratha’ in English language. Due to efforts of Ghosh brothers, newspapers of ‘Yugantar’ and “Vande Matram’ started to be published in Bengal and they started to raise their voice against the British rule. Monthly papers also started to be published in this age. ‘The Hindustan Review’ from 1899 A.D., ‘The Indian Review’ from 1900 A.D. and ‘The Modern Review’ from 1907 gaj Gangadhar Tilak A.D. were some of the famous monthly papers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
Explain the case study of: Mumbai and Chennai.
Answer:
Bombay is known as Mumbai these days and Madras is known as Chennai. Both of these cities became the main presidencies during British rule. Very quickly these cities became centres of political, commercial and cultural activities. Both of these cities developed to a great deal in music and dance as well.
1. Mumbai. Instead of political and commercial activities, Bombay became the centre of cultural activities under the East India Company in 1668 A.D. This city got royal protection and that’s why, many new schools and colleges were opened over here. All round development of music, dance and dramas took place over here. Field of literature also developed very quickly due to the development of new style of writing. Except this new styles of literature, painting and architecture were also developed.

Buildings of Mumbai. Different models of architecture of Mumbai still remind us about Colonial rulers and their style. All these building are made in Indo-European style.

Their brief description is given below :
(а) Prince of Wales Museum. Prince of Wales Museum is known as the ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalya’ these days. It is situated in south Mumbai near to Gateway of India. It was made in the beginning of 20th century in the memory of Indian Journey of Prince of Wales and Ruler of Britain Edward VII. The work of building was given to a famous architect George Wiltet in 1909 A.D. It was completed in 1915 A.D. It is a beautiful mixture of many elements of architectural technique. This building has three floors and on the top, dome is there. This dome looks alike the dome of Taj Mahal. Its windows and floor match with the palaces of Mughals. Symbols of monuments of ancient India and architecture of Indus Valley Civilization can be seen over here.

(b) Gate Way of India. Gate Way of India is situated near to the Prince of Wales Museum on the coast of Arabic Sea. It was made by George Wiltet and his friend John Beigh. It was made in the memory of Delhi Durbar Journey of George V and Queen Mary in India.

(c) Victoria Terminas. Victoria Terminas was prepared in 1888 A.D. Now it is known as the ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminas’. It’s earlier name was kept on the name of the Ruler of Britain Queen Victoria. Its model was prepared by the famous British architect F.W. Starus (Stievans). It took around 10 years to built this terminas. It was given the name of ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminas’ in March 1996. It was included in the world heritage of UNESCO on the 2nd July 2004.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 3

(d) Other Buildings of Mumbai. There are many other important buildings in Mumbai except the previously mentioned buildings and these are General Post Office, Municipal Corporation, Raja Bhai Tower, Bombay University. All these buildings were built in 19th and 20th centuries.

2. Chennai. Chennai (Madras) was built in 1639 A.D. by taking land from local leader. It was developed into a metropolitan city in 1658 A.D. and it became a presidency. Every type of art of Southern India, like dance and music, were developed over here. Many buildings were built over here in 19th and 20th century.

Following are the famous places of Chennai :
(a) Sea Beaches of Chennai. Sea beaches of Chennai are very famous all over India. Merina Beach is quite famous out of these beaches. It is around 6 km long. Many famous buildings are situated in front of it. V.G.B. Golden beach is one of the other famous beaches of Chennai. It is generally overcrowded by children due to availability of toy train over here.
(b) War Memorial. War memorial is also a beautiful building which was built in Chennai. It was built in the memory of the soldiers which had died during First World War.
(c) High Court. Building of High Court of Chennai completed in 1892 A.D. It is the second famous Judicial complex of the world. It’s dome and galleries are fine examples of Indo-European architectural technique.
(d) Other Famous Buildings. Other famous buildings of Chennai which were made during British rule are George Tower, Saint Thomas Cathedral Basilika, Presidency College, Rippen Building, Chennai Central Station, Southern Railway Headquarters, etc.

The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Arts and Literature in India. There is a great history of painting, literature, architecture, music-dance, cinema, etc. Political power in India changed in 19th century and 20th century and that’s why important changes also took place especially in the sectors of literature and arts.
  • Novels. Novels were prosperous by novelists like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Madhusudan Dutt, Dinbandhu Mitra, Keshva Chandra Sen, etc.
  • Fine Arts. Music, painting and arts are mainly included in these arts. These arts were developed in a great deal during the British rule.
  • Architecture in Mumbai and Chennai. The British made marvelous buildings in Mumbai and Chennai. Most of these buildings were made in Indo-European style.
  • Important buildings of Mumbai. Prince of Wales Museum, Gate Way of India, Victoria Terminal, Rajabai Tower, etc.
  • Beautiful places of Chennai. Marina Beach and V.G.B. Golden Beach, Fort Saint George, War Memorial, High Court, etc.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Colonialism and Urban Change Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you mean by colonialism?
Answer:
Meaning of colonialism is control of one country over the other from political, economic and social point of view.

Question 2.
Which new towns came into existence with the establishment of East India Company?
Answer:
Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

Question 3.
Name the worth seeing places of Madras.
Answer:
Churches, Buildings, Monuments, Beautiful temples and Beaches.

Question 4.
Write down the names of the worth seeing places in Bombay.
Answer:
Juhu Beach, Chaupati, Kolaba, Malabar Hill, Jahangiri Art Gallery, Museum, Bombay University, Mahalaxmi Temple, Victoria Garden, Kamla Nehru Garden, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 5.
Where and when the Britishers established their first trading factory in India?
Answer:
The British established their first trading factory at Calcutta in 1695 A.D.

Question 6.
In which three cities the municipalities were established in India during the British rule?
Answer:
During the British rule, first of all municipalities were established at Madras, Bombay and Calcutta in India.

Question 7.
Which British officer established Public Works Department in India?
Answer:
Public Works Department was established Jjy Lord Dalhousie in India.

Question 8.
Which Governor-General started the department of police in India?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis started department of police in India during the British rule.

Question 9.
When and by whom the first railway line was made in India? What was its route?
Answer:
First railway line in India was made by Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. It was made from Bombay to Thane city.

Question 10.
Write a note on the Madras city.
Answer:
Madras city is situated on the Eastern coast of India. Its present name is Chennai and it is the capital of Tamilnadu state. This city was one of three centres established by the British East India Company i.e. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. It was also a Centre of Presidency of the East India Company. This centre of the Company was established by Francis De in 1639 A.D. This city was snatched by the French from the British after the first Carnatic war. But this city was taken back by the British at the end of the war. Madras became one of the important and prosperous cities due to last win of the British in the Carnatic wars.

This city was developed into a Port city and industrial Centre very rapidly. Many beautiful places are there in Madras. Churches, buildings, monuments, beautiful temples and beaches are included in these beautiful places.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 11.
Write a note on police System.
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis established police department to maintain law and order in the country. Police duties of Zamindars were taken away by the government. He divided all the districts of Bengal in Divisions (Thanas) in 1792 A.D. The head of every division was a police officer called Daroga (inspector). He worked under District Magistrate. In 1860

A. D., the British Government appointed a police commission to establish the same police administration in all the provinces of the country. On its recommendation, civil police, Inspector General of police, Police Superintendent and Deputy Suprintendent of police were appointed in each district. Police inspector, Head constable and other police officials worked under them. Generally the British officials were appointed on these posts. This structure of police is still going on with very few changes.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In ancient period __________ and Mohanjodaro were two developed towns.
Answer:
Harappa

Question 2.
__________ was the capital of the emperor of Akbar.
Answer:
Fatehpur Sikri

Question 3.
__________ is the present name of Chennai.
Answer:
Chennai

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 4.
Lord set up police department for the maintenance of law and order.
Answer:
Cornwallis.

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (i) Inderprastha
2. Engineering College (ii) Kolkatta
3.  of West Bengal (iii) Rurki
4. Delhi in epic (iv) Shahjahanabad

Answer:

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (iv) Shahjahanabad
2. Engineering College (iii) Rurki
3.  of West Bengal (ii) Kolkatta
4. Delhi in epic (i) Inderprastha

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Colonialism and Urban Change Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Political, economic and social control of a country over the other is known
(a) Colonialism
(b) Urbanism
(c) Communism
(d) Socialism.
Answer:
(a) Colonialism.

Question 2.
Once, Fatehpur Sikri was the capital of
(a) Humanyun
(b) Akbar
(c) Shahjahan
(d) Jehangir.
Answer:
(b) Akbar.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
Which presidency cities were developed by the British?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Bombay
(c) Madras
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 4.
Which of the following cities did not develop under the British East India Company in India?
(a) Madras
(b) Mumbai
(c) Chandigarh
(d) Calcutta.
Answer:
(c) Chandigarh.

Question 5.
Madras is situated on the coast of India.
(a) East
(b) West
(c) South
(d) North.
Answer:
(a) East.

Question 6.
Madras (Chennai) is the capital of
(a) Kerala
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Telangana.
Answer:
(b) Tamil Nadu.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 7.
In the first Carnatic war the French Commander La-Bourdnnais took the possession of
(a) Bombay
(b) Calcutta
(c) Madras
(d) Delhi.
Answer:
(c) Madras.

Question 8.
Which City was given in dowry to Charles II King of England by the Portuguese King?
(a) Delhi
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) Madras.
Answer:
(b) Bombay.

Question 9.
Which of these is a famous place of Bombay?
(a) Juhu Beach
(b) Chaupati
(c) Malabar Hills
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
In 1687-88, the British East India campnay for the first time set up Municipal Corporation in
(a) Delhi
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 11.
Delhi became capital of India in
(a) 1911 A.D.
(b) 1912 A.D.
(c) 1913 A.D.
(d) 1914 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1911 A.D.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
During ancient, times __________ and Mohenjodaro were famous cities.
Answer:
Harappa

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2
__________ was the capital of the Mughal Emperor Akbar.
Answer:
Fatehpur Sikri

Question 3.
The present name of __________ is Chennai.
Answer:
Madras

Question 4.
Lord __________ establish Police system in India.
Answer:
Cornwallis.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
The British made Calcutta as their capital in 1911 A.D.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
During medieval tiiftes, Akbar made Delhi as his capital.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
The first railway line in India was laid in 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (i) Inderprastha
2. Engineering College (ii) Kolkatta
3.  of West Bengal (iii) Rurki
4. Delhi in epic (iv) Shahjahanabad

Answer:

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (iv) Shahjahanabad
2. Engineering College (iii) Rurki
3.  of West Bengal (ii) Kolkatta
4. Delhi in epic (i) Inderprastha

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by Urban Change?
Answer:
When political condition of any country changes, the position and importance of towns and cities of that country, also changes. This is known as Urban Change.

Question 2.
Name two developed cities of Ancient Age which are now completely destroyed.
Answer:
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
Why was the importance of Surat as a commercial centre declined?
Answer:
Importance of Surat in the form of commercial centre was declined because Bombay became the port and centre of political power of the East India Company. Most of the Traders of Surat were migrated to Bombay.

Question 4.
Where city of Madras is situated and what is its present name?
Answer:
City of Madras is situated on Eastern Coast of India. Its present name is Chennai.

Question 5.
What is the present name of Calcutta?
Answer:
Present name of Calcutta is Kolkata.

Question 6.
Write the names of capitals of states of Tamil Nadu, Maharasthra and West Bengal.
Answer:

  • Tamil Nadu – Chennai
  • Maharashtra – Mumbai
  • West Bengal – Kolkata.

Question 7.
Where is city of Bombay situated and what is its present name?
Answer:
City of Bombay is situated in the state of Maharashtra at Eastern Coast of Arabian Sea. Its present name is Mumbai.

Question 8.
When was Delhi made the capital of the British India by Britishers?
Answer:
The British made Delhi as capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. Their earlier capital was Calcutta.

Question 9.
Where and when was first Municipal Corporation established by the British Government?
Answer:
At city of Madras in 1687-88 A.D.

Question 10.
When was water released in River Ganga?
Answer:
On 8th April, 1853 A.D.

Question 11.
Write three facilities given to cities under Urban Planning by the British Government. –
Answer:

  1. Supply of Water through pipes
  2. Light in Streets
  3. Parks and Playgrounds.

Question 12.
When railway line was laid from Calcutta (Kolkata) to Raniganj?
Answer:
In 1854 A.D.

Question 13.
How did the East India Company get Bombay (Mumbai)?
Answer:
In 1661 A.D. Portuguese Princess Catherine got married to the king Charles II and the city of Bombay was given to England in Dowry. It was farther given to East India Company on rent.

Question 14.
Name few famous places of Bombay (Mumbai).
Answer:
Juhu Beach, Kolaba, Chaupati, Jahangir Art Gallery, Malabar Hills, Museum, Mahalaxmi Temple, Bombay University, Kamla Nehru Park, Victoria Garden etc.

Question 15.
Name the worth seeing places of Calcutta (Kolkata).
Answer:
Victoria Memorial, Hawrah Bridge, Botanical Garden, Alipur Zoo, Indian Museum, National Library, Velloor Math, Eden Garden stadium etc.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on Public Works Department during the British Rule.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie established Public Works Department in India during the British rule for doing welfare works of the people.

This department made roads, canals and bridges.

  • This department prepared G.T. road from Calcutta to Peshawar.
  • Ganga river was built by it on 8th April, 1853 A.D. and released the water in Ganga river.
  • It established an engineering college in Roorkee.
  • Many other welfare works were also done by this department.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2.
Write a note on the work of laying down Railway lines during the British rule. Also tell that why Railway lines were laid?
Answer:
First railway line iri India was laid during the reign of Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. from Bombay to Thane city. In 1854 A.D. railway line was laid from Calcutta to Raniganj. There were many reasons of laying down railway lines in India by the British rulers.

Some of these reasons are given below :

  • The British wanted to secure their empire in India and wanted to lay down railway lines for the easy transport of army from one place to another.
  • Goods prepared in mills of England could be easily transported from one place to another.
  • The British companies and the British capitalists wanted to earn more profit by using their surplus wealth in laying down railway lines.
  • It was easy to collect raw materials from different parts of the country for the factories of England.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down Colonized organisations and policies which helped in the development of cities.
Answer:
The British government founded many local organizations, to organise their empire, which helped a great deal in the development of cities. Municipal committees, the Public works department, laying down net of railway lines etc. are included in it.

Their brief description is given below :
1. Municipalities. First Municipal Corporation was established by the British East India Company at Madras in 1687-88 A.D. Its members were nominated. After some time, Municipal Corporations were also established at Bombay and Calcutta. Slowly and slowly district boards and municipal committees were established for village and cities of different provinces. Many primary, middle and high schools were, opened through these organizations. Municipal committees used to arrange cleaning of City and light in the streets at night. People were given facility of supplying drinkirig water through pipes. Dispensaries were opened in cities in which arrangements of free medicines and injections were made so that the spreading of diseases could be prevented.

2. Public Works Department. During the British rule, Public Works Department was established by Lord Dalhousie for the welfare of the people. This department prepared many roads, canals, and bridges. G.T. Road from Calcutta to Peshawar was made by this department. This department also prepared Ganga-river on 8th April, 1853 and released water in it. It also established an engineering college in Roorkee. This department also done many other works for the welfare of people.

3. Planning. Many urban facilities were spread in different cities of India during the British rule. Arrangement of supply of drinking water through pipes and proper sanitation was made in most of the cities of India. Except this modern markets, parks and playgrounds were prepared in major cities of country.

4. Railway Lines. First railway line of India was made during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. from Bombay to Thane city. Railway line between Calcutta and Raniganj was also laid in 1854 A.D.

Britishers wanted to start railway in India due to given ahead reasons :

  • The British wanted to secure their empire in India and wanted to lay down railway lines for the easy transport of army from one place to another.
  • Goods prepared in mills of England could be easily transported from one place to another.
  • The British companies and the British capitalists wanted to earn more profit by using their surplus wealth in laying down railway lines.
  • It was easy to collect raw material, from different parts of the country, for the factories of England.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2.
Write down the importance of Calcutta city during the British rule.
Answer:
Calcutta is the capital of West Bengal. Its present name is Kolkata. It was a famous commercial centre of India during the British rule. The British established their first factory over here in 1695 A.D. and fortified it from all sides. Till 1757 A.D., the British East India Company spent most of its time in commercial activities. When war started between Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and the East India Company, the Britishers won the war. Later on their different commercial centres (Bastis), like Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, were developed into cities. Most of Indian traders started to live in these cities because every type of trading facility was available over here. In the battle of Plassey and battle of Buxar respectively in 1757 A.D. and 1764 A.D., Nawabs of Bengal were defeated and the British emerged victorious. That’s why, the importance of city of Calcutta was increased.

These days many beautiful places are there in Calcutta. Howrah Bridge, Victoria Memorial, Botanical Garden, Indian Museum, Alipur Zoo, Vailoor Math, National Library etc. are some of them which increase the importance of Calcutta.

Question 3.
Write down in detail about Delhi city.
Answer:
Delhi is one of the famous cities of India. It is the capital of India. It is situated on the banks of Jamuna river. Delhi was known as ‘Indraprastha’ in the Mahabharat age. Later on, Mughal emperor Shahjahan gave it the name of Shahjahanabad. The British made it the capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. and the name of New Delhi was given to it.

Importance of Delhi. Right from the early age, Delhi was a centre of political, commercial and cultural activities of India. This city became more famous in medieval age because Iltutmish made it his capital. After this, Delhi remained the capital of almost all the kings. During the age of great Mughal King Akbar, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri remained capital of Mughals for quite some time. But all the other Mughal rulers
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 1
kept Delhi as their capital. That’s why, the importance of city of Delhi was increased to a great extent.

Famous places of Delhi: Old fort, Zoo, India gate, Fort Rai Pithar, Fatehpuri Mosque, Tomb of Nizamuddin Aulia, Jantar-Mantar, Tombs of Bahlol Lodhi and Sikandar Lodhi, Parliament House, President’s House, Museum, Raj ghat, Tin Murti Bhawan, Shakti Sthal, Shantivan, Delhi University, Jawahar Lai Nehru University, Birla Mandir, Gurudwara Sis Ghanj, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib etc. are some of the famous places of Delhi.

Question 4.
During urban changes which new cities emerged? Explain them.
Answer:
Three new cities came into existence due to urban change in the British age. These cities were—Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

A brief description of these cities is given below :
1. Madras. The city of Madras is situated on Eastern coast of India. It’s present name is Chennai and it is the capital of State of Tamil Nadu. Madras was one of the three main centres which were-Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. It was also centre of of Presidency of the East India Company. French General La-Bourdnnais snatched it from the British in first Carnatic War (1746-1748). But it was given back to the British at the end of this war (1748 A.D.)

Madras became one of the important and prosperous cities after the British win in three Carnatic wars.
Madras was developed into a port city and a famous industrial city very rapidly. It has many beautiful places to see. Churches, Buildings, Monuments, Attractive Temples and Beaches are some of the beautiful places of Madras.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 2
2. Bombay. The City of Bombay (Mumbai) is situated in Maharashtra on Eastern coast of Arabian Sea. It’s present name is Mumbai. It is not only a famous commercial centre but it is also a centre of industrial and cultural activities. In 1661 A.D., Portuguese princess Catherine was married to the British King Charles II. Then this city was given in the form of dowry by Portuguese to the British. He gave this city on rent to the East India Company. Gradually Bombay became the Presidency of Britishers. Some of the famous places of this city are Juhu Beach, Chaupati, Kolaba, Malabar Hill, Jahangiri Art Gallery, Museum, Bombay University, Mahalaxmi Temple, Victoria Garden, Kamla Nehru
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 3

3. Calcutta. Calcutta is the Capital of West Bengal. It’s present name is Kolkata. It was a famous commercial centre of India during the British rule. Britishers established their first factory over here in 1695 A.D. and fortified it from all sides. Till 1757 A.D., the British East India Company spent most of its time in Commercial activities. When war started between Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and the East India Company, the British won that war. Later on their different Commercial centres (Bastis), like Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, were developed into cities. Most of Indian traders started living in these cities because every type of trading facility was available over here. In the battle of Plassey and battle of Buxar respectively in 1757 A.D. and 1764 A.D., Nawabs of Bengal were defeated and the Britishers emerged victorious. That’s why, the importance of the city of Calcutta was increased.

These days many beautiful places are there in Calcutta. Howrah Bridge, Victoria Memorial, Botanical Garden, Indian Museum, Alipur Zoo, Vailoor Math, National Library etc. are some of them which increase the importance of Calcutta.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Colonialism and Urban Change PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Colonialism: The meaning of colonialism is the subjugation of one country by another which leads to political, economic, social and cultural changes, we refer to the process of colonisation.
  • Urban Change: The meaning of urban change is the change in the position and importance of towns and cities due to change in political condition of any country.
  • End of cities and advent of new cities: New cities and towns emerged when they became the centres of political power, economic activities or centres of religious activities. If related rulers change their capital due to change in political power of any country, some cities lost their importance and they were replaced by new cities.
  • New cities during the British Rule: Three important cities developed during the British rule were—Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. These cities were also the centres of Presidencies.
  • Spread of Delhi: Delhi was made the capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. As a result Delhi spread very rapidly.
  • Facilities available in cities: People were given different facilities of cleanliness, water, roads, lights etc. for the development of cities. Different local institutions were established for this objective.
  • Law and Order. Police department was established for law and order of urban areas.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Rural Life and Society Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Who, when and where, started permanent system?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis introduced Permanent Settlement of land in Bengal in 1793 A.D.

Question 2.
Who, when and where introduced Ryatwari system?
Answer:
Ryatwari system was started by a British officer Thomas Munro in 1820 A.D. in Madras and Bombay.

Question 3.
In which three areas Mahalwari system implemented?
Answer:
Mahalwari system was introduced in Uttar Pradesh. Punjab and some states of Central India. In this system, revenue was collected from whole of the community.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
How the commercialization of agriculture started?
Answer:
Agriculture fulfilled the needs of people of villages before the advent of the British. But the British introduced new land settlements because of which farmers started to produce things to sell in the markets so that more and more money could be earned. In this way commercialization of agriculture took place.

Question 5.
Which were the commercial crops?
Answer:
The main commercial crops were wheat, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, jute, etc.

Question 6.
Mention two benefits of the commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:

  1. People started growing different crops due to the commercialization of crops. It lead to increase in production.
  2. Means of transport were developed so that crops could be taken to the market.

Question 7.
Mention two losses of commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:

  1. Indian farmers did agriculture with ancient methods. That’s why their crops were unable to compete with those crops which were grown with the help of machines. That’s why farmers were unable to take maximum advantage out of it.
  2. A farmer had to sell his crop in market through middlemen and middlemen took their share as well. It led to less profit for farmer.

Question 8.
What was permanent Settlement? What were the economic effects of this system? (P.S.E.B. 2004)
Answer:
Permanent Settlement was a type of land settlement. It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal in 1793 A.D. Later on it was also introduced in Bihar, Orissa, Benaras and Northern India. According to this system, zamindars were made the owners of the land. Government fixed the land revenue given by them. They deposited the fixed amount in government treasury. But they collected tax from the farmers according to their wish. If any zamindar was unable to pay the land revenue then government sold some part of his land to complete the amount of fixed revenue.

Economic Impact. Income of government was fixed with this system but it left a very bad impact on farmers. Zamindars started to exploit them. Zamindars were not paying any attention on land reforms. That’s why production of farmers started to reduce day by day.

Question 9.
Write a short note on commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:
Villages, before the British empire in India, were self-dependent. People used to do agriculture whose main aim was to fulfil the needs of the village. Crops were not sold. Other workers of village like blacksmith, carpenter, barber, etc. collectively used to fulfil the needs of the village. But the self-dependency of the villages come to an end after the establishment of the British empire in India. According to new land revenue systems, farmers had to pay the fixed amount to government as land revenue and at a particular time as well. Now the main aim of agriculture was just to earn money. It was known as the commercialization of agriculture. This process of commercialization of agriculture became more complex with the advent of the industrial revolution in England. The farmers were forced to produce those crops which could be used as the raw material in factories of England.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 10.
Write a note on Indigo-revolt.
Or
What do you know about Indigo Revolt?
Answer:
Indigo revolt was started by the Indigo-producing farmers against imposing more tax on the production of Indigo. Indigo revolt took place between 1858 to 1860 A.D. in a large part of Bengal and Bihar. Farmers of this area refused to produce Indigo. Government threatened them but they remained stick to their demand. When government took some hard steps then they attacked the factories of the British. All the efforts to stop them gone in vain.

One revolt also took place in Champaran district in 1866-68 A.D. against the cultivation of Indigo. This revolt remained continued till the beginning of 20th century. Then Gandhiji came in their favour and then their problem was solved.

Question 11.
Write a short note on mahalwari system.
Answer:
Mahalwari system was introduced to remove the shortcomings of Ryatwari system. It was introduced in U.P., Punjab and various parts of central India. Main feature of this system was the land was neither associated with any zamindar and nor with any farmer. This system was actually took place with whole community of the village. Whole of the community was responsible to pay land revenue. It was fixed in community that what a farmer has to pay. If any farmer was unable to give his share then it was taken from the community of the village.

This system was known as the best system because features of both the earlier systems were there in it. The only drawback which was there in it was that people had to pay a lot of tax.

Question 12.
Write down the benefits of ryatwari system.
Or
Write a note on Ryatwari system.
Answer:
Thomas Munro was appointed as the Governor of Madras in 1820 A.D. He made a new system of land which was known as Ryatwari system. It was introduced in Madras and Bombay. Government decided to take land revenue from those people who themselves tilled the land. So all the middlemen between government and farmers were removed. This system was much better than the Permanent Settlement. Farmers were made owners of their land. Their revenue was fixed which was 40% to 55% of the total produce. It led to increase in income of the government.

Some defects were also there in this system. This system reduced the community feeling among the people of the village. Importance of Panchayats was reduced. Except this government started to exploit the farmers. Farmers were forced to take loans from moneylenders by mortgaging their lands to them.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The contractors _______ the farmers.
Answer:
exploited

Question 2.
The _______ became land owners due to permanent settlement.
Answer:
Zamindars

Question 3.
Zamindars committed _______with the farmers.
Answer:
atrocities

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
_______ was the main occupation of the Indians before the British rule.
Answer:
Agriculture

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Warren Hastings (i) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (ii) Ryatwari System
3. Thomas Munro (iii) Permanent Settlement

Answer:

A B
1. Warren Hastings (iii) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (i) Permanent Settlement
3. Thomas Munro (ii) Ryatwari System

IV. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
Due to British rule self sufficiency of the vtllage economy got much benefit in India.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Mahalwari system was made with whole community of the village.
Answer:
True

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
The Britishers implemented sale rule according to Permanent settlement ift Bengal.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Rural Life and Society Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The British came to India as
(a) Conquerer
(b) Sellers of goods
(c) Winner
(d) Traders.
Answer:
(d) Traders.

Question 2.
_______ were known as ryots.
(a) Cultivators
(b) Zamindars
(c) Landlords
(d) Labourers.
Answer:
(a) Cultivators.

Question 3.
The Champaran Movement was against
(a) The British
(b) The Indigo planters
(c) Landlords
(d) Revenue officials.
Answer:
(b) The Indigo planters.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
Who were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay fixed revenue to the company in Permanent Settlement?
(a) Headman of village
(b) Revenue officials
(c) Cultivators
(d) Zamindars.
Answer:
(d) Zamindars.

Question 5.
Who was given the charge to collect and to pay revenue to the company in Mahalwari system?
(a) Headman of village
(b) Cultivators
(c) Zamindar
(d) Revenue officials.
Answer:
(a) Headman of village.

Question 6.
What was done by thousands of Indigo ryots of Bengal in 1859?
(a) Refused to pay rents
(b) Attacked indigo factories
(c) Agents of planters were beaten up
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 7.
_______ introduced Mahalwari System.
(a) Holt Mackenzie
(b) Lord Carnwallis
(c) Lord Hastings
(d) Alexander Read
Answer:
(a) Holt Mackenzie.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 8.
Who introduced Ryotwari System?
(a) Holt Mackenzie
(b) Lord Hasting
(c) Captain Alexander Read
(d) Lord Carnwallis
Answer:
(c) Captain Alexander Read.

Question 9.
Which of these crops were encouraged by the British?
(a) Opium
(b) Tea
(c) Indigo
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
When did a terrible femine occur in Bengal?
(a) 1760
(b) 1770
(c) 1765
(d) 1775.
Answer:
(b) 1770.

Question 11.
Which of these was the demerit of Permanent Settlement?
(a) A new class of landlords loyal to the British came in front
(b) Landlords had to sell their lands to pay the tax
(c) It hardly paid any attention to rights of farmers
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 12.
Between 1866 A.D. and 1868 A.D. Champaran in Bihar witnessed a revolt. The revolt was against which of the following :
(a) Against the Indigo planting
(b) Against the wheat planting
(c) Against the Cotton planting
(d) Against the Sugarcane planting.
Answer:
(a) Against the Indigo planting.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Contractors _______ the farmers.
Answer:
exploited

Question 2.
Due to Permanent Settlement, _______ became owners of land.
Answer:
Zamindars

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
Zamindars committed _______ on farmers.
Answer:
atrocities

Question 4.
Before the establishment of the British rule, main occupation of the Indian people was _______
Answer:
Agriculture.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
The self-sufficient -system of Indian villages got geat advantage of the British administration.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
Mahalwari arrangement was done with the whole village.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
According to Bengal’s permanent settlement, the British made sales Law.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Warren Hastings (i) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (ii) Ryatwari System
3. Thomas Munro (iii) Contractual System

Answer:

A B
1. Warren Hastings (iii) Contractual System
2. Lord Cornwallis (i) Permanent Settlement
3. Thomas Munro (ii) Ryatwari System

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why were Indian industries destroyed by economic policies adopted by the Britishers?
Answer:
Some new industries were established by the British. Their main aim was to fulfill the British interests. As a result, Indian industries were destroyed.

Question 2.
Which three new systems were introduced by the British in India to collect land revenue?
Answer:

  1. Permanent Settlement
  2. Ryotwari system and
  3. Mahalwari system.

Question 3.
What was the main aim of the British regarding land policies?
Answer:
To collect more and more money from India.

Question 4.
When did the British get Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa? To whom the work of collecting revenue was given?
Answer:
The British got Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765 A.D. The work of collection of revenue was given to Aamils.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 5.
Who introduced contract system? What is meant by it?
Answer:
Contract system was introduced by Lord Warren Hastings. Its meaning was the system of giving land on contract.

Question 6.
After how many years, the land revenue in Ryatwari system was supported to be increased?
Answer:
After 20 to 30 years.

Question 7.
What was the main defect of Mahalwari system?
Answer:
Farmers had to pay a lot of land revenue.

Question 8.
Which 5 areas were greatly affected by commer-cialization agriculture?
Answer:
Punjab, Bengal, Gujarat, Khandesh and Barar.

Question 9.
What was sales law according the Permanent Settlement of Bengal?
Answer:
According to the sales law, whichever zamindar was unable to pay his land revenue till 31 March, his land was supposed to sell to other zamindars to collect the remaining revenue.

Question 10.
What was the main reason of revolt of farmers?
Answer:
The main reason of farmers revolt was more taxes on land. It led to deteriorating condition of farmers. That’s why they revolted against the Britishers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 11.
Give one merit of Permanent Settlement.
Answer:
The zamindars became rich and they invested money for the development of the industry and trade.

Question 12.
Give one demerit of Permanent Settlement.
Answer:
The income of the company was fixed but the expenditure started to increase. Gradually the company was in loss.

Question 13.
What was the main purpose of the British land revenue policies?
Answer:
The main purpose of the land revenue policies of the British was to get maximum profit and to serve their self interests.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on contract system introduced by Lord Warren Hastings.
Answer:
Meaning of the contract system is the system of giving land on contract. This system was introduced by Warren Hastings. According to this system, land was given for contract of 5 years. Higher bidder was given the contract of land for collection of land revenue for 5 years. Later on in 1777 A.D., this term of 5 years was reduced to 1 year. But this system was very defective. Zamindars or contractors used to collect lot of tax from the farmers. It lead to deterioration of economic condition of farmers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 2.
How were zamindars more benefitted by the Permanent Settlement as compared to the farmers?
Answer:
Zamindars were benefitted by the Permanent Settlement. They became the permanent owners of their lands. They got the right to sell or to change the land. They paid definite land revenue to company but they used to collect more land revenue from the farmers. If any farmer was unable to pay tax they captured his land. Most of the zamindars used to live a leisure life in cities but farmers were forced to live a hell like life. In the end we can say that zamindars were greatly benefitted by the Permanent Settlement as compared to the farmers.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the consequences of land revenue systems introduced by the British?
Answer:
There were some of the evil consequences of the land revenue systems introduced by the British and these are given below :

  1. Zamindars used to exploit the farmers. Even they committed atrocities on farmers while collecting land revenue. The government did not take care of them.
  2. Zamindars became owners of the land by paying definite land revenue to the government. Now zamindars were free to collect land revenue from the farmers according to their own wish. It led to richness of zamindars. Farmers became poorer with this.
  3. The government itself exploited the farmers of those areas where Ryatwari and Mahalwari systems were introduced. One third or half portion of the total produce was collected as the land revenue. Rate, of land revenue was increased each year.
  4. When land became private property then it started to be divided among the members of family. It fed to division of land into small pieces.
  5. Farmers had to pay their land revenue till a particular date. They were forced to pay the land revenue even in the case of femine, flood, etc. That’s why they had to mortgage their land to moneylenders so that they could get money to pay their land revenue. In this way their debt increased day-by-day and they left with no option except by leaving their right over the land.

Actually the main aim of agriculture related policies of the British government was to get more and more money and to fulfil their administration interests. In the end farmers became poor and they came under the clutches of moneylenders.

Question 2.
Explain in brief the permanent settlement, ryatwari system and mahalwari system introduced under the British rule.
Answer:
Permanent Settlement, Ryatwari and Mahalwari system were the new revenue systems introduced by the British. Their brief description is given below :
1. Permanent Settlement: It was a type of land settlement. It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal in!793 A.D. Later on it was also introduced in Bihar, Orissa, Benaras and Northern India. According to this system, zamindars were made the owners of the land. Government fixed the land revenue given by them. They deposited the fixed amount in government treasury. But they collected tax from the farmers according to their wish. If any zamindar was unable to pay the land revenue then government used to sell some part of his land to compensate the amount of fixed revenue.

2. Ryatwari System: Thomas Munro was appointed as the Governor of Madras in 1820 A.D. He made a new system of land which was known as the Ryatwari system. It was introduced in Madras and Bombay. Government decided to take land revenue from those people who themselves used to till the land. So all the middlemen between government and farmers were removed. This system was much better than the Permanent Settlement. Farmers were made owners of their land. Their revenue was fixed which was 40% to 55% of the total produce. It lead t* increase in income of the government.

Some defects were also there in this system. This system reduced the community feeling among the people of the village. Importance of Pancbayats was reduced. Except this government started to exploit the farmers. Farmers were forced to take loans from moneylenders by mortgaging their lands to them.

3. Mahalwari System: It was introduced to remove the shortcomings of the Ryatwari system. It was introduced in U.P., Punjab and some parts of Central India. The main feature of this system was that land was neither associated with any zamindar and nor with any farmer. This system was actually taking place with whole community of the village. Whole of the community was responsible to pay land revenue. It was determined in community that what a farmer has to pay. If any farmer was unable to give his share then it was taken from the community of village.

This system was known as the best system because features of both the earlier systems were there in it. The only drawback which was there in it was that people had to pay a lot of tax.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
What was permanent system? Mention its benefits and losses.
Answer:
During the time of Lord Clive, the British East India Company got the Diwani Rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor. The Company had no means to collect the taxes. Therefore, the work regarding the collection of land revenue was given to the local officers. The method of collecting revenue by these officers was very faulty. Warren Hastings, therefore, made some reforms in this system. But neither the landlords were happy nor the income of the Company was increasing. Cornwallis, therefore, introduced what is called the ‘Permanent ^Settlement’ of land. This system was started in 1793 A.D.

Benefits of Permanent Settlement. The following were the advantages of the Permanent Settlement:

  • Income of the Company became certain. Now it was easy for the Company to prepare its budget.
  • Landlords were now made permanent owners of the land. They, therefore, started making improvements in agriculture and to make their lands fertile.
  • Now the Company had not to assess the land revenue time and again.
  • As the landlords were made the permanent owners of land, they were pleased with the British and sided with the government in times of internal revolts.

Losses:

  1. Landlords became the permanent owners of the land as a result of this settlement. It gave birth to a new class of landlords loyal to the British.
  2. Landlords who lived away from their lands were adversely affected. They could not collect revenue from the farmers and were unable to deposit it with the government in time. As a result, they had to sell their lands to pay the tax.
  3. Due to lack of proper measurement of land, less revenue was fixed. As a result thereof, income of the landlords increased. But the income of the government remained stagnant.
  4. Most of the landlords did not pay attention to the improvement of their lands. They gave their lands on contract and themselves stayed in big cities like Calcutta (Kolkata) and enjoyed a luxurious life there.
  5. The Permanent Settlement did not give due attention to the rights of farmers. They were left at the mercy of the landlords. The landlords collected revenue from them mercilessly and did not behave well with them. As a result, the condition of the farmers worsened.

In brief, we may say that the objective of Lord Cornwallis was to improve the condition of the farmers through Permanent Settlement. But it did not benefit them. Only landlords were benefited. .The condition of the farmers became more miserable.

Question 4.
What were the causes of farmers’ revolt? Explain any one farmer’s revolt.
Answer:
The following were the reasons of revolts of farmers :
1. More taxes: The British introduced new systems of land revenue in their conquered states of India. Farmers were forced to pay high land revenue. That’s why they came in the debt of moneylenders with which their economic condition deteriorated.

2. Sales law: Government introduced sales law according to Permanent Settlement of Bengal. According to this law, if any zamindar was unable to pay his land revenue till March then government was free to sell his land to other zamindar for the recovery of its arear. That’s why zamindars and farmers were very angry with the government.

3. Capturing the Land: Zagirdars were given large pieces of land by the Mughal Emperor as gift. These lands were free of taxes. But these large pieces of land were captured by the British and they again imposed taxes on them. Not only this, taxes were raised. The British took harsh steps to collect taxes.

Farmers’ Revolts:

  1. One revolt took place exactly after the establishment of British rule in Bengal. Farmers, Sanyasi’s and Faqir’s took part in it. They made their groups and even used arms. The British regiments were irritated by these groups. It took 30 long years for the government to suppress this revolt?
  2. Farmers of Chittore and Satara revolted in 1822 A.D. against too much land tax. This revolt was suppressed by the government with the help of military and with politics. Some of the rebels were recruited in police and others were given land to till in die form of grant.
  3. Farmers of the Sendove district revolted against the British government in 1829 A.D. They attacked the British police under the leadership of their leader and they killed a number of Britishers.
  4. Farmers of Ganjam district revolted in 1835 A.D. under the leadership of Dhananjay. This revolt lasted till Feb. 1937. Later on this revolt was also suppressed by government with the help of large number of military forces.
  5. Another farmers’ revolt took place in Sagar in 1842. Its leader was Madhuker, a Bundela Zamindar. A number of police officers were killed by farmers and they plundered many towns.
    A number of farmers’ revolts also broke out against more taxes and the capturing of land by the British. Some of other important farmers’ revolts were revolt of Patiala and Rawalpindi (Modern Pakistan).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 5.
Write down about the commercialization of agriculture during the British rule.
Answer:
Villages, before the British empire in India, were self dependent. People used to do agriculture whose main aim was to fulfil the needs of the village. Crops were not being sold. Other workers of village like blacksmith, carpenter, barber, etc. collectively fulfilled the needs of the village. But the self-dependency of the villages come to an end after the establishment of the British empire in India.

According to new land revenue system, farmers had to pay the fixed amount to government as land revenue and at a particular time as well. Now the main aim of agriculture was just to earn money. It is known as commercialization of agriculture. This process of commercialization of agriculture became more complex with the advent of Industrial Revolution in England- Now farmers were forced to produce those crops which could be used as the raw material in factories of England.

Impact of Commercialization
Merits:

  • Production of different types of crops was increased.
  • Means of transport were developed to take crops to markets of cities.
  • Things became very cheap due to more production.
  • Farmers came in contact with urban areas because of which their point of view was changed. As a result national consciousness aroused among them.

Demerits:

  1. Indian farmers used to do agriculture with ancient methods. That’s why their crops were unable to compete with those crops which were grown with the help of machines. That’s why farmers were unable to take maximum advantage out of it.
  2. Farmers had to sell their crop in market through middlemen and middlemen took their share as well. It led to less profit for farmers.

Rural Life and Society PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Land Revenue System of the British: The English East India Company got ‘Diwani’ rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam in 1765 A.D, As a result the Company started collecting land revenue from these provinces. The Company wanted to collect more and more revenue. That’s why they adopted many new systems of land. First of all, the company started to give land on contract. Higher bidder was getting the right to collect tax from a particular area.
  • New Land Settlements: After this, the British made land settlements in new different ways in India. Out of these, Permanent Settlement, Ryatwari system, Mahalwari system were important.
  • Permanent Settlement of Land.: Lord Cornwallis introduced the Permanent Settlement of land in Bengal in 1793. According to it, the landlords or zamindars became the permanent owners of the land and the peasants were crushed.
  • Ryatwari System: This system of land settlement was introduced in Madras and Bombay. According to this system, the government officers directly collected land revenue from the farmers.
  • Mahalwari System: This system of land settlement was introduced in Western U.P.. Punjab and Delhi.
  • Impact of Land Revenue System: Farmers became poor with the land revenue systems of the British and came in the clutches of debt.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Challenge to Caste System Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Questions 1.
Write down in brief the work done by the Jyotiba Phule for the welfare of the lower caste people.
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was a great social reformer of Maharashtra. He did many important works for the welfare of people of Scheduled Castes :

  1. First of all, he opened three schools in Poone for education of the girls of Scheduled Castes. Jyotiba Phule and his wife Savitri Bai themselves taught in these schools.
  2. He criticised the economic exploitation of people of Scheduled Castes by brahmins and purohits through his speeches and his two books.
  3. He advised the people of Scheduled Castes to perform religious sacrament of marriage without Brahmins and Purohits.
  4. Jyotiba Phule established an institution called Satyashodhak Samaj on 24th September, 1873 A.D. This institution criticised the social slavery of people of lower castes and demanded social justice for them.
  5. He also appealed government not to take much land revenue from poor farmers and peasants so that their condition could be improved. Jyotiba Phule spent whole of his life in improving the condition of women of Scheduled Castes. He was given the title of ‘Mahatma’ for the works done by him for the welfare of the people of Scheduled Castes.

Question 2.
Write in brief why caste system was targeted by the social reformers? Write in brief. (P.S.E.B. 2009)
Answer:
Brahmins were greatly respected in the caste based society but the condition of lower castes was very pitiable. They were misbehaved by every one. They were not allowed to keep social relations with the people of upper castes. They were not allowed to use public wells or ponds. They were neither allowed to enter the temples nor they had the permission to read religious books or Vedas. They were considered untouchables. If even shadow of any one of lower caste was coming in the way of any higher caste person, then the person was severely punished. They were forced to adopt the occupation of cleaning, picking up dead animals, taking out their skin, making shoes and leather etc. So, to save these people from the atrocities of society, caste system was victimised by the social reformers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
What Mahatma Gandhi did to end untouchability from society?
Answer:
The meaning of untouchability is to consider touching any person as a .sin. One of the major group of society, was considered as untouchable. The condition of these people was very pitiable.

Mahatma Gandhi took the following steps to eradicate untouchability from society :

  • Gandhiji said that untouchables were the children of God and said that they should be equally treated by society.
  • Gandhiji started his journey from Vardha for the welfare of untouchables. Wherever he had gone, he asked the people to open the doors of schools and temples for backward classes.
  • He also stressed that untouchables should not be stopped from using roads, wells and other public places.
  • He also collected funds during his journeys for the welfare of backward classes.

Question 4.
Write down why Veeresalingam is called the “Prophet” of modern Andhra Pradesh. Write down in brief.
Answer:
Kandukari Veeresalingam was a great social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was not only a social reformer but also a great scholar. While taking education in primary school, he criticized the prevailing hollow customs and religious beliefs of society. When he became the teacher in school, then he started raising his voice for equal rights for women. He was in favour of inter-caste marriages. He criticised caste system and propagated for the eradication of untouchability.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 1
Veeresalingam was also a famous writer. He propagated to eradicate caste system through his essays and dramas.
He always helped the people of poor class and backward class. lie strongly criticized the custom of marriage of boys and girls in very small age. He also raised his voice for¬giving legal sanction to widow remarriage.
Veeresalingam spent whole of his life for social service, social welfare and for the welfare of Scheduled Caste people, that is why he was known as prophet of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 5.
What contribution was made by Sri Narayan Guru for the welfare of the lower caste people?
Answer:
Sri Narayan Guru was a great social reformer of Kerala state. He was born in Kerala in 1856 A.D. He struggled for whole of his life for the welfare of scheduled castes, especially people of Ijhevej castes. People of this caste were known as untouchables. It was not possible for Sri Narayan Guru to tolerate this injustice. So, he struggled for a long time for the welfare of people of Ijhevej caste and other scheduled castes. He established ‘Sri Narayan Dharam Pripaian Yogum’ in 1903 A.D. for social welfare. He strongly opposed discrimination on the basis of caste and religion. He has also done a lot to give better place to people of scheduled castes in society. Sri Narayan Guru
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 2

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 6.
Which word was used by Mahatma Gandhi for the lower caste people and what is its meaning?
Answer:
Harijan. Meaning of the word ‘Harijan’ is ‘Children of God’.

Question 7.
Explain the work done by Mahatma Gandhiji for the low er caste people,
Answer:
1. According to Mahatma Gandhi, untouchability is a sin. In 1920 A.D., Non¬Cooperation Movement was started, against the British government, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Elimination of untouchability from the society was also included in the guidelining programme of this movement. One Sammelan of people of scheduled castes was held at Nagpur in 1920 A.D. Mahatma Gandhi criticised untouchability in this Sammelan. He was of the view at that concept of untouchability among Hindus is the largest sin of India. But Mahatma Gandhi was hurt by the fact that not enough steps were taken by the Congress in Non-Cooperation Movement for the elimination of untouchability from society. That’s why, Non-Coopera cion Movement was not supported by the people of scheduled castes. According to them, the British rule was much better than Hindu-Swaraj.

2. When Non-Cooperation Movement was stopped in its half way, then Mahatma Gandhi ordered the Congress organization that they should organize people of scheduled castes for their interests and they should take some steps to improve social, mental and moral condition of these people. They should be provided all such facilities which are already available for other people.

3. The Congress kept 49.5 lakh rupees for the welfare programmes of scheduled castes from 1921 to 1923 A.D. but only 43,881 rupees were spent on them. Yet people of scheduled castes didn’t participate in the Non-Cooperation movement started by Mahatma Gandhi but still Mahatma Gandhi did a lot for the welfare of these people.

Some important works done by Mahatma Gandhi. Some of the important works done by Mahatma Gandhi for the welfare of untouchables, are given below :

  • Gandhiji said that untouchables were the children of God and said that they should be equally treated by society.
  • Gandhiji started his journey from Vardha for the welfare of untouchables. Wherever he had gone, he asked the people to open the doors of schools and temples for the backward classes.
  • He also stressed that untouchables should not be stopped from using roads, wells and other public places.
  • He also collected funds during his journeys for the welfare of backward classes. Speeches of Mahatma Gandhi were opposed at some places by the conservative Hindus. Even efforts were made to throw bomb on him at Pune. But the conservatives did not get any success.

Question 8.
Explain the effects of the work done by the Indian social reformers for the improvement of lower caste people.
Answer:
Many social evils prevailed in the Indian society from 19th century till the start of 20th century. Sati system, Female infanticide, Caste System, Dowry System, Child Marriage, restriction on marriage of widow were some of the main social evils. Indian social reformers took various steps to remove these social and religious evils from Indian society. Actually it is very difficult to remove prevailing social evils without the efforts of reformers efforts.

Following were the impacts of efforts of social reformers to fremove social evils from society :
1. Reform Movements. Many reform movements were started by social reformers to remove social evils. Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Namdhari Movement, Singh Sabha, Rama Krishna Mission, Aligarh Movement etc. gave a great contribution in it. Just because of the efforts of these movements, many social evils weakened to a great extent such as Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Purdah system, Caste system, etc.

2. Legal Efforts. Indian social reformers stressed a lot and that’s why, the British government passed many laws to eradicate socio-religious movements :
(a) Lord William Bentick passed an Act in 1829 A.D. called ‘Sati Prohibition Act’ and declared the Sati Pratha illegal. He also passed laws against child infanticide and human sacrifice during his tenure.
(b) In 1856 A.D., ‘Widow Remarriage Act’ was passed and Widow remarriage was declared legal.
(c) Child marriage was also declared illegal in 1891 A.D.

3. Advent of Sense of Nationalism. Sense of nationalism was arosed among general masses, just because of the efforts of Indian social reformers. With this it became possible to form a new India.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Society was divided into four classes Brahman, Kshatriyas, _______ and Sudras.
Answer:
Vaishyas

Question 2.
Jyotiba Phule was honored with the title of _______
Answer:
Mahatma

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar established ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1936

Question 4.
Mahatma Gandhi used the word ‘Harijan’ for the lower caste people, which means
Answer:
Children of God.

III. Match the Words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Jyotiba Phule (i) Shri Narayan Dharam Pripalan Yogam
2. Periyar Rama Swami (ii) Prophet of Andhra Pradesh state
3. Veeresalingam (iii) a great social reformer of Tamil Nadu
4. Sri Narayan Guru (iv) association named Satya Shodak Society.

Answer:

A B
1. Jyotiba Phule (iv) association named Satya Shodak Society.
2. Periyar Rama Swami (iii) a great social reformer of Tamil Nadu
3. Veeresalingam (ii) Prophet of Andhra Pradesh state
4. Sri Narayan Guru (i) Shri Narayan Dharam Pripalan Yogam

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Challenge to Caste System Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which reform Association was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
(a) Arya Samaj
(b) Brahmo Samaj
(c) Satya Shodhak Samaj
(d) Prarthna Samaj.
Answer:
(b) Brahmo Samaj.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 2.
In which language Ram Mohan Roy was well versed?
(a) Sanskrit
(b) English
(c) Persian
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
In which year Sati pratha was banned?
(a) 1825
(b) 1827
(c) 1828
(d) 1829.
Answer:
(d) 1829.

Question 4.
Arya Samaj was founded by _______ in 1875.
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) Swami Vivekananda.
Answer:
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

Question 5.
Who worked for the people of low caste Ijhevej in Kerala?
(a) Swami Dayanand
(b) Periyar Swami
(c) Shri Narayan Guru
(d) Haridas Thakur.
Answer:
(c) Shri Narayan Guru.

Question 6.
The book Gulamgiri was written by
(a) Shri Narayan Guru
(b) Jyoti Rao Phuley
(c) Haridas Thakur
(d) Periyar Swami.
Answer:
(b) Jyoti Rao Phuley.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 7.
Satya Shodhak Samaj was founded by
(a) Jyoti Rao Phuley
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Periyar Swami
(d) Shri Narayan Guru.
Answer:
(a) Jyoti Rao Phuley.

Question 8.
Dr. Ambedkar got a fellowship to go to the for higher studies.
(a) Britain
(b) Germany
(c) U.S.A.
(d) France.
Answer:
(c) U.S.A.

Question 9.
When did Dr. Ambedkar start a temple entry movement in which his Mahar caste followers participated?
(a) 1917
(b) 1925
(c) 1922
(d) 1927.
Answer:
(d) 1927.

Question 10.
Periyar Swami was an outspoken critic of
(a) All social evils
(b) Sati System
(c) Hindu Scriptures
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Hindu Scriptures.

Question 11.
When was Prarthana Samaj established?
(a) 1877
(b) 1867
(c) 1872
(d) 1862.
Answer:
(b) 1867.

Question 12.
When was Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College founded by Sayyad Ahmed Khan?
(a) 1875
(b) 1880
(c) 1870
(d) 1885.
Answer:
(a) 1875.

Question 13.
When was Khalsa College established at Amritsar by the leaders of the Singh Sabha Movement?
(a) 1890
(b) 1894
(c) 1892
(d) 1896.
Answer:
(c) 1892.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 14.
When was Singh Sabha formed at Amritsar?
(a) 1870
(b) 1873
(c) 1871
(d) 1872.
Answer:
(b) 1873.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Society was divided into four groups : Brahmins, Kshatriyas, _______ and _______ Shudras.
Answer:
Vaishyas

Question 2.
Jyotiba Phule was honoured with the title of _______
Answer:
Mahatma

Question 3.
Dr, Bhim Rao Ambedkar founded ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1936

Question 4.
Mahatma Gandhi used the word _______ for lower castes.
Answer:
Harijan.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Mahatma Gandhi considered untouchability as Sin.
Answer:
(✓).

Question 2.
Virselingam was in favour of inter-caste marriage.
Answer:
(✓).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Jyotiba Phule was a social reformer of Maharashtra.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Sri Narayan Dharam Pratipalan Yogum (i) Jyotiba Phule
2. Reformer in Andhra Pradesh (ii) Periyar Rama Swami
3. Reformer of Tamil Nadu (iii) Virselinganl
4. Satya Shodhak Samaj (iv) Sri Narayan Guru

Answer:

A B
1. Sri Narayan Dharam Pratipalan Yogum (iv) Sri Narayan Guru
2. Reformer in Andhra Pradesh (iii) Virselinganl
3. Reformer of Tamil Nadu (ii) Periyar Rama Swami
4. Satya Shodhak Samaj (i) Jyotiba Phule

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which four classes, Ancient Indian Society was divided? What was the base of this division?
Answer:
Ancient Indian Society was divided in four classes namely Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and lower castes. Base of this division was occupation of a particular person.

Question 2.
In which age caste system became more rigid and why?
Answer:
Caste system became more rigid in Rajput age because many other castes and sub-castes were originated in this age except main castes.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Name any four social reformers of 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Jyotiba Phule
  2. Veeresalingam
  3. Sri Narayan Guru
  4. Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 4.
Name any four prevailing evils in Indian society during 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Sati system
  2. Child Marriage
  3. Girl infanticide
  4. Restriction on Widow remarriage.

Question 5.
Name any Socio-religious reform movements of 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Brahmo Samaj
  2. Arya Samaj
  3. Ramakrishna Mission
  4. Namdhari Movement.

Question 6.
Who declared Sati system illegal and when?
Answer:
Sati system was declared illegal in 1829 A.D. by Lord William Bentick through an Act called ‘Sati Prohibition Act, 1829’.

Question 7.
When was custom of Child Marriage declared as illegal?
Answer:
Child marriage was declared as illegal in 1891 A.D.

Question 8.
Why people of Scheduled Castes didn’t participate in the Non¬Cooperation Movement of Gandhiji?
Answer:
People of Scheduled Castes didn’t participate in the Non-Cooperation Movement because Congress didn’t take any concrete steps till that time to eradicate untouchability from society.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 9.
Who founded Independent Labour Party of India and when?
Answer:
Independent Labour Party of India was founded by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in 1936 A.D.

Question 10.
Name two political parties organized by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar.
Answer:

  1. Labour Party
  2. Scheduled Caste Federation.

Question 11.
Who was Jyotiba Phule? Which was the first work done by him for the welfare of the lower caste people?
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was a great social reformer of Maharashtra. He did lot of work for the upliftment of Scheduled Castes. For this objective, he opened three schools in Poona where girls of lower castes were given education.

Question 12.
When did Jyotiba Phule establish Satyashodhak Samaj? Who was its first president and secretary?
Answer:
Satyashodhak Samaj was established by Jyotiba Phule op 24 September 1873 A.D. Jyotiba Phule himself was its first President and its secretaries were Narayan Rao and Govind Rao.

Question 13.
When, where and in which caste Sri Naryan Guru was born.
Answer:
Sri Narayan Guru was born in 1856 A.D. in Ijhevej caste of Kerala State.

Question 14.
Which Satyagraha was started by Periyar Ramswamy to eradicate untouchability and which national leaders participated in it?
Answer:
Pariyar Ramaswami started various satyagraha to eradicate untouchability from the society. Other national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, C. Rajgopal Acharya, Vinoba Bhave, etc. participated in this satyagraha.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 15.
Which two organisations were started by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for the welfare of lower caste people and which two newspapers were published by him?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar established ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarni Sabha’ and ‘Samaj Samat Sangha for the welfare of people of scheduled castes. He published newspapers like ‘Mook Nayak’, ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’ and Janata.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was Pariyar Ramaswami? What he has done for the security of interests of the people of Scheduled Castes?
Answer:
Pariyar Ramaswami was a great social reformer of Tamilnadu. He was born on 17th September, 1879 A.D. at Madras (Chennai). He felt that the people of scheduled castes were considered untouchables in society. Except this, they were not allowed to take part in social customs, keeping social relations with other castes and even to take education. So, he founded an organization called ‘Dravid Kazgas’ for the security of interests of these people.

This organization tried a lot in getting reservation in government services for the people of Scheduled Castes. As a result, for these castes, which were discriminated, first amendment of the Constitution took place for the security of their rights. Pariyar Ramaswami started satyagraha called ‘Vaikos’ for the eradication of untouchability. In this way Pariyar Ramaswami protected the interests of scheduled castes in Tamilnadu.

Question 2.
Write four works done by modern reformers to improve the condition of Indian Women. .
Answer:
1. End of Sati system. Sati system was one of the largest obstacle in the way of upliftment of women. This inhuman practice came to an end due to great efforts of modern social-reformers.
2. Permission of Widow Re-marriage. Condition of widows was very pitiable in the
society. They were not allowed to remarry. But they were given legal permission to remarry due to efforts of modern social reformers.
3. Opposition of Purdah System. Modern reformers were of the view that women cannot progress while remain behind the purdah, that’s why, they motivated the women not to use this custom of purdah.
4. Stress on Women Education. Social reformers gave a great stress on women education to uplift their social status. Many schools were opened for the education of women.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Explain the contribution made by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar for the improvement of lower caste people.
Answer:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar is known as Messiha of scheduled castes. He demanded justice for the people of Scheduled Castes from government and society. He did Satyagraha and demonstrated for equal rights of scheduled castes.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 3
His contribution in this direction is given below :
1. In 1918 A.D., Dr. Ambedkar demanded from ‘Southberrow Reforms Committee’ that seats in all the state Legislative Councils and in Central Legislature Council should be kept reserved for the people of scheduled castes according to their population. Except this, he also demanded to fix definite constituencies for these people but his demands were not met.

2. Dr. Ambedkar recommended to give political rights to the people of scheduled castes in the ‘Round Table Conference’ of 1931 A.D. This recommendation was included to a great extent in the ‘Communal Award’ prepared by the British Prime Minister on 16th August, 1932 A.D.

3. Sammelans were held at Nagpur, Kolhapur etc. for the social and political rights of the people of scheduled castes. Dr. Ambedkar participated in these conferences.

4. He established ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarni Sabha’ and ‘Samaj Samat Sangh’ to propagate the welfare of people of these castes. He also started to publish newspaper like ‘Mook Nayak’, ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’, ‘Janata’ etc. for this objective.

5. He also started Satyagraha for the equal rights of people of scheduled castes like other castes about entry in temples and taking water from public wells.

6. As a member of Bombay (Mumbai) Legislative Assembly, he introduced many bills for the welfare of farmers, labourers and other poor people from 1926 A.D. upto 1934 A.D. but these bills were not passed due to opposition of conservative members.

7. He founded ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ on October, 1936 A.D. which won reserved seats of schedules castes in the elections of ‘Presidency Legislative Assembly’ in 1937 A.D.

8. Dr. Ambedkar also organized political parties called ‘Labour Party’ and ‘Scheduled Caste Federation’. Due to his deep requests, special provisions were kept in the Indian Constitution for the people of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

9. The Government of India declared untouchability illegal due to Dr. Ambedkar’s efforts.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Challenge to Caste System PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Caste System. Society in ancient India was divided in four main castes- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and lower castes. Many other castes and sub-castes originated during Rajput age with which caste system became more complex.
  • Untouchability. Brahmins had the highest place in caste-based society. They were greatly respected by all. But the condition of lover castes was very pitiable. They were not allowed to touch the people of higher castes. It was known as untouchability.
  • The challenge to the Caste System. Caste-based differences were challenged by social reformers like Jyotiba Phule, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Pariyar Ramaswami and Mahatma Gandhi. They also demanded the rights of Scheduled Castes.
  • Legislations against Social Evils. The British government passed certain laws to restrict social evils like Sati system (1829 A.D.) and Child Marriage (1891 A.D.)
  • Eradication of Untouchability. Social reformers tried a lot and that’s why Untouchability has been declared as illegal by our Constitution.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Our Agriculture Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words :

Question 1.
What do you understand by Agriculture?
Answer:
Agriculture includes raising of crops, cattle rearing and other agricultural activities. It also includes dairy farming, poultry, bee-hiving, fishing, floriculture, gur production, flour mills, etc.

Question 2.
Which factors affect Agriculture?
Answer:
The following factors affect the agriculture :

  1. Climate
  2. Relief
  3. Type of soil
  4. Irrigation
  5. Method of cultivation
  6. Marketing
  7. Means of transportation and
  8. Banking facilities.

Question 3.
Write a brief note on plantation farming.
Answer:
It includes the cultivation of single crop on large farms.

Question 4.
Write the names of cereal crops.
Answer:
Main cereal crops are Rice, Wheat, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Pulses and Oilseeds.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 5.
What is puddling?
Answer:
For rice cultivation, seeds are planted in the fields. The field is levelled and filled with water. This is called puddling the field where rice plants are transplanted.

Question 6.
What products are prepared from Maize?
Answer:
Glucose, starch, alcohol and vegetable oil is prepared from Maize.

Question 7.
How many types of cotton are there on the basis of the length of staple?
Answer:

  1. Long staple cotton (Best Type)
  2. Medium staple cotton
  3. Short staple cotton.

Question 8.
Which are the things that can be made from jute?
Answer:
Bags, ropes, strings, etc. and shoes are prepared from jute.

Question 9.
How does the tea plant look like?
Answer:
Tea plant is a bush. Its leaves provide tea.

Question 10.
Write the names of three types of coffee.
Answer:

  1. Arabica
  2. Robusta
  3. Liberica.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 11.
What is the percentage of people engaged in agriculture in U.S.A. and Punjab?
Answer:

  • U.S.A.-More than 30% people
  • Punjab-58% people.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
After writing the types of Agriculture differentiate between intensive and extensive agriculture.
Answer:
Types of Agriculture :

  1. Sedentary Agriculture
  2. Shifting Agriculture
  3. Dry Farming
  4. Wet Farming
  5. Intensive Farming
  6. Extensive Farming
  7. Mixed Farming
  8. Horticulture
  9. Individual Agriculture
  10. Co-operative Farming
  11. Collective Farming
  12. Plantation Agriculture
  13. Subsistence Agriculture
  14. Commercial Farming.

The distinction between Intensive and Extensive Farming :

  • Intensive farming is done on small farms while extensive farming is done on large farms.
  • Irrigation and fertilizers are used in intensive farming while machines are used in extensive farming.
  • Intensive farming is done in Punjab while extensive farming is done in U.S.A.

Question 2.
Differentiate between subsistence and commercial type of farming.
Answer:
1. Subsistence Farming: Majority of farmers in the country practise subsistence farming. It is characterised by small and scattered land-holdings and use of primitive tools. As the farmers are poor, they do not use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds in their fields to the extent they should do. These result into low productivity. Important cash crops like sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute are grown. The subsistence agriculture has given way to commercial agriculture to some extent.

2. Extensive Farming: Extensive farming is bush or tree farming. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops. It is capital-intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation and transport facilities. Extensive farming is done in U.S.A. and Canada.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 3.
Which are main Rice producing areas?
Answer:
Cultivation of Rice. Rice is grown in deltas, flood-plains, coastal-plains and some terraced fields in the mountainous areas as well. It is one of the crops for which a lot of human labour is required. All operations including the preparation of seedling beds, ploughing, planting, weeding, harvesting and separation of grain are done by human labour.

Rice requires high temperature of over 20°C to germinate, bloom and mature. Rainfall of 100 cm to 150 cm is required. Paddy is cultivated mainly in India, China, Japan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar.

In India rice is cultivated most widely in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Other producers are Assam, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Punjab.

In Punjab, rice is grown in districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Ferozepur, Jalandhar, Patiala and Ludhiana.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 1

Question 4.
Explain the conditions required for cultivation of cotton and jute.
Answer:
Cotton. Cotton requires cloud free sunny days and uniformly high temperature. It grows best in areas where the temperature is between 30°C to. 40°C. Cotton plants require rainfall of 60 to 100 cm. Alluvial and black soils are best suited for cotton plants.

Jute. Jute fibre is obtained from the bark of the jute plant stem.
The jute plant originated in the Indian subcontinent. It grows best in well drained sandy loam and requires warm and humid climate. Jute plant requires temperature of more than 25°C and rainfall of over 150 cm per year.

Question 5.
Write a note on cotton production in Punjab.
Answer:
Punjab and Haryana together produce 25% cotton of India. The major producers are Ferozepur and Sangrur districts. B.T. cotton has been successfully grown in Punjab. Malwa region is also called white gold.

Question 6.
Write about protection of tea and coffee plants.
Answer:
Tea. Tea plants are planted on cleared slope. So that on well drained slopes, water should not stand in the roots of plants. Fertilizers are used for growth of tea plants. Tea plant needs pruning for its proper growth.

Coffee. Coffee saplings are grown in Nursery and then transplanted in the fields. The plants require use of fertilizers, pruning, and irrigation. Sunny weather is required during growth. The tree is pruned to keep it upto a height of 8 feet.

Question 7.
Write a note on the uses of machines in agricultural operations in U.SA.
Answer:
Two types of farms are functioning in the United States viz.,

  1. specialized farms and
  2. mixed farms.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 2

A specialized farm concentrates on a particular type of crop or livestock, whereas a mixed farm raises a variety of crops. About 95 per cent of farms in the USA are specialized farms. Mostly cereal grains such as corn, wheat, sorghum, rice, barley, oats and rye are grown in specialized farms. However, specialized farms also produce crops such as cotton, groundnut, sugarcane, tobacco, vegetables and fruits. Nearly half the specialized farms in the USA are livestock farms. These livestock farms rear meat animals, raise milk cows, chickens and turkeys. In the mixed farms, farmers produce a variety of crops and rear livestock. The United States is the world’s leader in international agricultural goods market.

III. Answer the following questions in about 125-130 words :

Question 1.
After writing about conditions for the growth of wheat explain the areas of wheat production. (P.B. 2009)
Answer:
Geographical conditions of growth. Wheat needs a cool and wet climate during growing season and a warm dry climate during harvesting season. It requires a rainfall of 50 cm to 75 cm. It is a rabi crop. It grows best in winter due to winter rainfall and regular irrigation. It does not depend on destiny like rice crop. Wheat grows best on loamy soils. Mechanisation and use of chemical fertilizers give higher yields.

Production. Wheat is one of the oldest cereal crops cultivated in the world. Wheat is grown in temperate regions with rainfall ranging between 30 cm to 80 cm.

Three countries: the United States of America, Russia and China are the major producers of wheat. The world’s largest producer is China. Other leading producers are India, Ukraine, France, Canada, Pakistan and Argentina. Winter wheat and spring wheat belts of USA and Canada are quite famous.

Wheat cultivation is mainly carried on in fertile soils or loamy soils. Different climatic conditions and sowing seasons across the world have led to harvesting of wheat in every month of the year in one or the other part of the world. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar. India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world. The production and yield in Punjab has increased due to Green Revolution, Better seeds, fertilizers and irrigation is used. ,

Question 2.
What are the conditions required for the growth of Tea and Coffee? Explain the main areas of tea and coffee production in India.
Answer:
Geographical Conditions of Growth of Tea. Tea is a plant of both tropical and temperate areas.

  1. Temperature. Tea requires uniformly high temperatures (20° – 30°C) throughout the year. Frost is harmful for tea leaves.
  2. Rainfall. An annual rainfall of 150 cm is essential for the growth of tea.
  3. Soil. Tea requires a deep acidic and fertile soil.
  4. Land. Tea is grown on gently sloping, well drained hill slopes and valley-sides.
  5. Labour. Tea is a labour intensive crop. It requires cheap, skilled labour for picking tea-leaves.

Conditions for Growth of Coffee. One-third of the world population drinks coffee, the second largest beverage after tea. There are two types of coffee plants. Coffee Arabica or Mocha and Coffee Robusta. Robusta is the main variety produced in the world.

The coffee plant requires warm climate and moderate rainfall. Both strong sunshine and snowfall are harmful to the plant. During its growth, coffee plant requires rainfall of 100 cm to 150 cm and temperatures between 15°C and 25°C. Irrigation is required where the annual rainfall is less than 100 cm.

Areas of Cultivation of Tea. More tea is produced in Northern India than Southern India. Tea is grown on an area of 4.21 lakh hectares.

The average yield is 1540 kg per hectare. Assam produces about 50% tea of India.
1. Assam. Assam is the largest producer of tea in India. Tea is grown on the valley sides of Brahmaputra and Duar region.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 3

2. West Bengal. Tea is grown in Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in West Bengal. Darjeeling tea has a special flavour. This flavour is due to slow growth under high humidity and low temperature.

3. Southern India. Tea is grown on the slopes of Nilgiris, Cardamom and Anamalai hills, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), Malabar coast (Kerala), Coorg region (Karnataka) and Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) are important areas of tea production. Areas of Cultivation of Coffee.

Karnataka is the largest coffee producing state of India.
(а) Karnataka. Coffee is grown in the districts of Chikamanglur, Coorg, Hassan, Shimoga (Nilgiris) in Karnataka state. High rainfall, sunshine, protected slopes, well- drained soils favour the cultivation of coffee.
(b) Arcot, Tinevelley, Madurai, Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu grow coffee.
(c) In Kerala, Cardamom hills covering the districts of Palghat and Thiruvananthapuram.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 3.
Write down the process involved in Jute production. Write in detail the uses and distribution of Jute in the world.
Answer:
Jute: Jute is an industrial fibre. It is the cheapest fibre. It has commercial importance. It is also called ‘golden fibre’. It is used in the making of carpets, ropes, covers and linoleum. It is used for packing many agricultural commodities. Jute is called ‘Brown Paper of Whole-sale trade’. Jute fibre has softness, strength and length.

Conditions of Growth: Jute is a plant of hot-wet tropical areas.

  1. Temperature. It requires uniformly high temperature (27°C) throughout the year.
  2. Rainfall. Jute requires well distributed heavy rainfall (150 cm).
  3. Soil. It is grown on flood plains and deltas. Fertilizers are also used.
  4. Clean Water. Jute needs an ample supply of clean water for washing.

Area and Production: The jute is grown on an area of about 8 lakh hectares. The total production is about 93 lakh bales (each bale = 180 kg). The average yield is 2014 kg per hectare.

India is the largest producer of jute in the world. Due to partition of India 75% of jute producing areas remained in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). There was shortage of raw jute for jute mills in India. Now India is self-sufficient in jute production. Coarse jute called Mesta is also grown.

Areas of Cultivation

  1. West Bengal. West Bengal is the largest producer of jute in India. Jute is grown in Ganges delta. Murshidabad, Burdwan, Nadiad, Hooghly are the main jute producing districts.
  2. Assam. Jute is grown in Goalpara, Kamrup and Tezpur districts in Brahmaputra valley.
  3. Bihar. Jute is grown in Terai districts of Purnea and Champaran. The major producers of Jute in the world are China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Brazil.

Question 4.
What are the similarities and variations in the agriculture of Punjab and the U.S.A.?
Answer:
(A) Agriculture in the U.S.A.-A Glance :

  • Agriculturally, the U.S.A. is a developed country. About 3% of the total population is engaged in agriculture,
  • The main reason behind this is that all the activities of agriculture are carried on by machines and. not by men.
  • Agricultural activities are carried on about 20% part of the land,
  • The main agricultural areas include North-West, North-East, interior plains and coastal plains of the country. Different types of crops are grown in different parts of the country,
  • The farmers of the U.S.A. have large landholdings as compared to that of India. The farm size is very big. The average farm size in U.S.A. is 700 acres. Due to the large size of the fields, extensive type of agriculture is practised.
  • Machines are used at a very large scale. It is almost impossible to work in farms without machines,
  • In a farm, only one type of crop is cultivated. From the sowing of crop to the taking of the crop to markets or stores, every work is done with the help of machines,
  • Insecticides and pesticides are properly utilized. The farmer of U.S.A. practice agriculture like a businessman and not like a mere farmer.

(B) Agriculture in Punjab (India)-A Glance :

  • Punjab in comparison to other states of India, is much advanced in agriculture. The agriculture sector contributes 35% to the total income of the country. About 58% population of the state is engaged in agriculture,
  • The soils here are fertile in nature. To maintain the fertility of the soils, the farmer also uses fertilisers,
  • The farmers of Punjab do not have too much of land. Landholding mostly range between 5 to 25 acres. Some farmers possess even less land. Six percent farmers of the state have more than 25 acres of land.
  • The farmer grows, different types of crops in his fields. The variations in crops mainly depend on climate, size of landholding, type of soil, irrigation facilities and requirements of the farmer.
  • According to the size of the land holding the farmer uses tractor or combine harvester,
  • Almost all the net sown area comes under irrigation. The farmer of Punjab also uses insecticides and pesticides at a large scale to get more production. Though the farmer of Punjab uses the machines, even then the contribution of labourers is too much. This we can estimate from the number of people working in the agricultural sector. In U.S.A. only 3% of population is engaged in agriculture whereas in Punjab 58% people are working in the agriculture sector,
  • The farmer of Punjab (except a few big farmers) does not practice agriculture like a businessmen. He sows a number of crops in his fields. Two-2 crops are taken at the same time,
  • The agriculture of Punjab is an intensive type of agriculture. Therefore, the yield per acre is more than that of the U.S.A.

IV. Map Skill

Question 1.
Show two place’s each of following crops on outline map of India. Tea, Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Jute.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 4

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

V. Activity

Question 1.
Name three each of Kharif and Rabi crops mentioning geographical conditions need for each.
Answer:

Crop Temp Rainfall Soils
1. Wheat 10°-20°C 50-100 cm Clay soil
2. Rice 20°-30°C 100-200 cm Alluvial soil
3. Maize 18°-27°C 50-100 cm Levelled plain
4. Cotton 20°-30° 50-100 cm Simple slope
5. Tea 20°-30°C 150-300 cm Sloping
6. Jute 29°-35°C 120-150 cm Alluvial soil

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Our Agriculture Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Commercial rearing of silkworm is called
(a) Commercial farming
(b) Pisciculture
(c) Sericulture
(d) Viticulture.
Answer:
(c) Sericulture.

Question 2.
Farming in which the produce is consumed by the farmer’s household is called :
(a) Subsistence
(b) Extensive
(c) Intensive
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) Subsistence.

Question 3.
What does golden filament means?
(a) Cotton
(b) Jute
(c) Silk
(d) Wool.
Answer:
(b) Jute.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 4.
Which country is the largest producer of rice in the world?
(a) India
(b) Brazil
(c) China
(d) U.S.A.
Answer:
(c) China.

Question 5.
India is largest producer of _________
(a) Tea
(b) Coffee
(c) Rice
(d) Cotton.
Answer:
(a) Tea.

Question 6.
For what purpose the following machine is used?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 5
(а) For drilling
(b) For showing wheat / rice
(c) For harvesting
(d) For growing vegetables.
Answer:
(c) For harvesting.

Question 7.
In the following picture a plant is shown, name the areas in which plant is found.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 6
(а) Tropical
(b) Temperate
(c) Tropical & temperate
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Tropical & Temperate.

Question 8.
What is the name of farming of fruit shown in this picture?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 7
(а) Horticulture
(b) Sericulture
(c) Pisciculture
(d) Viticulture.
Answer:
(d) Viticulture.

Question 9.
Which of the following crops does this picture resemble?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture 8
(a) Paddy (Rice)
(b) Wheat
(c) Maize
(d) Cotton.
Answer:
(a) Paddy (Rice).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 10.
What type of crops can be grown on the part of land with plenty of black soil?
(a) Sugarcane
(b) Wheat
(c) Cotton
(d) Jute.
Answer:
(c) Cotton.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_________ agriculture is done with machines in sparsely populated areas.
Answer:
Extensive

Question 2.
_________ is called cultivation of grapes.
Answer:
Viticulture

Question 3.
Shifting cultivation is also called _________
Answer:
Slash and burn

Question 4.
Coarse grain are also called _________
Answer:
Millets

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 5.
Agricultural activity in India is a _________
Answer:
primary activity.

True/False :

Question 1.
Production of fruit and flower is called viticulture.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Punjab state is the largest producer of wheat.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Arabica is a variety of coffee.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Flax is a fibre crop.
Answer:
True

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 5.
Russia is a leading producer of coffee.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by agriculture?
Answer:
The word ‘agriculture’ is derived from the Latin words ‘ager’ or ‘agri’ and ’culture’. Ager means soil and culture means cultivation or tilling the soil. Agriculture, thus, means cultivation of soil. But in broader sense, agriculture is growing crops and rearing of livestock. Livestock include animals (cattle, sheep and goat) and birds that are reared for human use.

Question 2.
What are the different forms of the word ‘culture’?
Answer:
The word cuture has many variants like :

  1. Agriculture. Science and art of cultivation on soil, raising crops or livestock.
  2. Sericulture. Commercial rearing of silkworms.
  3. Pisciculture. Breeding of fish for commercial gains.
  4. Viticulture. Cultivation of grapes.
  5. Horticulture. Growing of vegetables, fruits or flowers for commercial use.

Question 3.
What is Sedentary Agriculture?
Answer:
When a farmer practises settled agriculture at a fixed place, it is called sedentary agriculture. Crops can be grown every year at the same field. Organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers are used to increase the fertility of the soil.

Question 4.
What is mixed farming?
Answer:
In mixed farming, foodgrains, fruit, vegetables are grown along with cattle farming. Fisheries and. bee-hiving is also done. It increases the income of farmers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 5.
What is the main characteristic of plantation farming?
Answer:
Crops are grown on large farms. Tea, coffee, rubber are plantation crops which give yield for many years.

Question 6.
Enlist the fibre crops and the beverage crops.
Answer:
Fibre Crops. Cotton, jute, flax.
Beverage Crops. Tea, coffee, cocoa.

Question 7.
Why the people of rich countries prefer wheat to rice?
Answer:
Wheat contains protein, carbohydrate and vitamins. Therefore, wheat is preferred to rice.

Question 8.
State the conditions of growth, temperature, rainfall and land required for maize.
Answer:

  • Temperature: 18°C – 27°C, Frost free season.
  • Rainfall: 50 cm to 100 cm.
  • Land: Level or rolling.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 9.
What are oilseeds? What is their importance?
Answer:
The seeds which provide oil are called oilseeds. These include til, sunflower, rapeseed, etc. These provide us food and meet our daily needs.

Question 10.
Which sources provide fibre? For which purpose fibre from sheep is used?
Answer:
Fiber is obtained from plants and animals. Wool from sheep is used for woollen clothes.

Question 11.
What is the use of cotton fibre?
Answer:
Cotton fibre is used as a raw material for textile industry. It makes fight and strong clothes.

Question 12.
Explain the term ‘farm system’.
Answer:
Agriculture or farming or cultivation is s system called farm system.

  • Inputs. Include seeds, fertilisers, water, machinery, and labour.
  • Operations. Ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding, and harvesting.
  • Outputs. Crops, wool, dairy, products, poultry, etc.

Question 13.
Name the main states producing cotton. Account for large production in these states.
Answer:
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh produce more than 60% cotton of India. The large production is due to fertile black soils in these states.

Question 14.
Why is tea grown on hill slopes?
Answer:
Tea needs uniform supply of water throughout the year. Water should not stagnate in the roots of tea bush. Hill slopes are well-drained.

Question 15.
How is coffee powder prepared? Which element of it produces excitement in our bodies?
Answer:
Coffee seeds are dried, roasted and grinded to make powder. It contains Caffeine which produces excitement in our bodies.

Question 16.
How is coffee plant grown?
Answer:
Coffee plant is grown in nurseries. After six months, it is transplanted in fields. It starts giving fruit after 3-4 years.

Question 17.
Agricultural development is uneven in different parts. Give one example.
Answer:
Many parts of Africa are not agriculturally developed. But in U.S.A., agriculture is a commercial and profitable occupation.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 18.
What is Green Revolution?
Answer:
The increase in agricultural production by introducing scientific methods like; new varieties of seeds, use of fertilizers and good water supply is called green revolution. The increase was in the yields of certain crops like wheat and rice.

Question 19.
Which activities are included in Agriculture?
Answer:
Dairy farming, poultry, honey bee keeping, pisciculture, gur making, flour milks, floriculture all occupations are a part of agriculture.

Question 20.
State two characteristics of Extensive farming.
Answer:

  1. Size of farms is very large.
  2. Yield per acre is less and machines are used for agriculture.

Question 21.
What is the position of Punjab in production of rice?
Answer:
Per hectare yield of rice in Punjab is the highest in India. Punjab produces about 12.2 per cent of total rice of the country. Punjab ranks second in rice production.

Question 22.
If a person has cultivated crops like Tea, Coffee and Cocoa, then identify the types of these crops.
Answer:
Beverage crops.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the main characteristics of shifting cultivation.
Answer:
Shifting Agriculture. In this type of agriculture, first of all, a piece of forest land is cleared by felling trees and burning of trunks and branches. After the land is cleared, crops are grown for two to three years and then the land is abandoned as the fertility of the soil decreases. The farmers then move to new areas and the process is repeated. Dry paddy maize, millets and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming. The per hectare yield is low.

Question 2.
Distinguish between dry land farming and wetland farming.
Answer:
Dry land farming. It is practised in areas where the rainfall is low and irrigation facilities are inadequate. Here, emphasis is laid on the conservation of moisture and on crops like jowar, bajra and pulses, which need less water. In dry farming, only one crop is grown in the kharif season.

Wet land farming. It is practised in the areas where rainfall is more than 200 cm per year. It is mostly practised in S.E. Asia. In India, it is practised in West Bengal, Orissa and coastal areas. The main crop is Rice, Sugarcane. Multiple Cropping is done in different seasons.

Question 3.
Distinguish between Individual and Cooperative farming.
Answer:
Individual farming. In this farming, the farmer is the owner of the land. The use of tools, fertilizers and management is in the hands of the farmer. The total income is the personal income of the farmer.

Co-operative farming. In this, the Govt, is the owner of the land. A part of the income goes to the government as tax. The rest of income is divided among the labourers and farmers. This type of agriculture was practised in U.S.S.R.

Question 4.
Write a note on Collective farming.
Answer:
In this type, the farmers join together to form a collective organisation. All the farmers cultivate their own land. The accounts of production is in the hands of the organisation. The decisions are taken for the benefit of farmers. All the profit is distributed among farmers in the ratio of their lands. In India, this type of farming is encouraged by the government.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 5.
Describe the favourable conditions for growth of Rice.
Answer:

  • Temperature: 20°C to 30°C.
  • Rainfall: 100-200 cm (Irrigation in dry areas)
  • Soils: Alluvial, clay, loamy and delta or black soils.
  • Land: Level land suitable for irrigation.
  • Labour: Cheap and skilled labour.

Question 6.
Describe the cultivation of maize in India and world.
Answer:
Maize: Maize is known as Makka in India, corn in the United States of America, India and Europe. It originated from the American continent. It was introduced in Europe by Columbus and other explorers. It was Native Americans who taught colonizers how to grow maize.

Maize is used as foodgrains and as fodder. It is grown mainly in Russia, Canada and parts of South America. The United States of America is the largest producer. China is the second-largest producer followed by Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and India.

India: Most of Maize is grown in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan. U.P, Himachal Pradesh, J & K, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat are also the producers of Maize. In Punjab, Rupnagar, Amritsar, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar produce maize.

Question 7.
Write a note on the agricultural development of Punjab.
Answer:
Punjab is one of the leading states of India in agriculture. This is due to :

  • 58% people are engaged in agriculture. 35% of income comes from agriculture.
  • Soils are fertile. Fertilizers are used.
  • Mulitple cropping is done. Better seeds are used. Tractors and Harvesters are used.
  • Irrigation is the basis of agriculture.
  • Pesticides are used to protect crops.
  • Machines are used on large farms.

Question 8.
Why agriculture is called the main stay of the Indian Economy?
Answer:
Indian’s main occupation is agriculture. Two-thirds of India’s population is engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian Economy. Agriculture provides food to the teeming millions in India. It sustains 2/3 of our population. It provides raw material to agro-based industries. Agriculture along with forests and fisheries form 45% of our total national income. Our industrial structure is being built on the broad foundation of Indian agriculture. It is also a great earner of foreign exchange.

Question 9.
What are the main features of Agricultural development in India?
Answer:

  • India is a vast country. More than 70% of its population is dependent upon agriculture for livelihood.
  • The major foodgrains produced in India are rice and wheat.
  • Most of farms are not more than one hectare of land.
  • India is self-sufficient in the production of foodgrains .
  • In India, half of the total cultivable land is irrigated.

Question 10.
What has been the impact of mechanisation on agriculture?
Answer:
The earlier farmers used simple tools. Gradually on-driven ploughs were introduced. But, now in modern times the techniques have been changed. Now in developed countries all farm operations have been mechanised. It has reduced the number of people engaged in agricultural work. Many people can now work in industries and services.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 11.
What is Agriculture?
Answer:
The word Agriculture is derived from two Latin words ‘agri’ and ‘culture’. ‘Agri’ means’soil and ‘culture’ means cultivation or tilling. Agriculture hence refers to the cultivation of soil for growing crops and rearing of livestocks.

Question 12.
Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Answer:
The factors which influence agriculture are :

  1. Relief
  2. Soil conditions
  3. Temperature
  4. Rainfall.

Question 13.
What is plantation agriculture?
Answer:
It is special type of commercial farming which requires large amount of labour, technical efficiency, very large estates and capital. In this type of agriculture a simple crop of tea, rubber, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, banana or cotton is grown. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. A well developed transport . network is also required.

Tropical regions of the world are major plantation areas. Rubber in Malayasia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

Question 14.
Name the different varieties or crops in India.
Answer:

  1. Cereals
  2. pulses and oilseeds
  3. Fibre crops
  4. Beverage crops
  5. Cash crops

Question 15.
Discuss the different types of fibres.
Answer:
Vegetable fibers are obatained from seeds, barks, leaves and fruit cases.
Animals fibres are produced from insects; such as silkworm and animals such as camels, sheep, goats, yaks, Hamas, rabbits, guanacos, alpacas, vicunas and reindeers.

Mineral fibres such as glass is made from silica sand.
Synthetic fibres are derived from chemical treatment of natural cellulose, which is i made from wood pulp.

Question 16.
What do you know about commercial agriculture?
Answer:
In this type of agriculture the main aim is to produce the crop for sale in the market. It can be intensive or extensive agriculture. The farmers try to keep the cost of production low. The framework is done by machines. This type of agriculture is practised in the prairies of North America, Pampas of South America, Steppes of Russia, Western Europe and in some parts of India.

Question 17.
Write the features of Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.
Answer:
It is a type of subsistence agriculture and its features are :

  • Intensive subsistence agriculture is done on small plot with simple tools.
  • Done by farmer and his family as labour.
  • Produce is used mainly by farmer so food grains are grown.
  • Rice is the main crop. Other crops are wheat, maize, pulses etc are cultivated.
  • Done mainly in thickly populated areas of south, southeast and east Asia.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 18.
Describe the main characteristics of shifting agriculture.
Answer:

  • In shifting agriculture, a plot of land is cleared by felling trees and burning them.
  • The ashes are then mixed with soil which works as a fertilizer.
  • After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned. Cultivators move to a new plot.
  • It is practised in areas of heavy rainfall and quick generation of vegetation.
  • It is mainly done in Amazon basin, Tropical Africa, Southeast Asia and northeast India.
  • Crops like maize, yam, potatoes, and cassava are grown. This is also known as the ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.

Question 19.
Distinguish between :
(i) Subsistence farming and Commercial farming
Answer:

Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming
1. The practice of farming in which the crops are grown for home consumption by the farmer. 1. The practice of farming in which crops are grown for sale in the market or trade.
2. It is practised on small farms with simple tools and old technology. 2. It is practised on large farms with modern technology.
3. For example The production of wheat in some parts of country. 3. For example The production of sugarcane in U.P.

(ii) Intensive farming and Extensive farming.
Answer:

Intensive Farming Extensive Farming
1. Production is increased by using higher inputs and better agricultural techniques. 1.            Production is increased by bringing more and more land under cultivation.
2. This is practised in areas which are thickly populated. 2. This is practised in areas which are thinly populated.
3. This is practised in areas where there is less land available. 3.            This is done in areas where abundant land is easily available.
4. Livestock farming is little developed due to poor pastures. 4.            Livestock farming Supplements agriculture due to availability of grasslands.
5. Farms are small in size. 5. Farms are very large in size.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Shifting agriculture is also known as _________
Answer:
Slash and burn

Question 2.
_________, soil and climate are vital factors for agricultural activities.
Answer:
Topography

Question 3.
Advertising is an example of _________ activities.
Answer:
Tertiary

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 4.
Jute is grown intensively in _________ and _________
Answer:
India, Bangladesh

Question 5.
Coarse grains are also called _________
Answer:
Millets.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the importance of cotton? Explain the conditions of growth and areas of production of cotton and jute in India.
Answer:
Cotton. Cotton has been called ‘the universal fibre’. It is one of the most important fibres of all the fibres. It forms the basis of cotton textile industry. Cotton is the leading fibre crop of India. It is known from the writings of Herodotus that cotton has been in use in India since 3000 B.C.

Geographical Conditions of Growth

  • Temperature. Cotton needs uniformly high summer temperature between 22°C to 32°C. It requires a warm climate with bright sunshine. Frost is harmful to cotton plant.
  • Rainfall. Cotton needs light to moderate rainfall between 50 to 100 cm.
  • Irrigation. In arid treas, irrigation is used. It increases the yield per hectare as in Punjab.
  • Soils. Cotton grows best on rich, well drained loamy soils or lava soils.

Types of Cotton

  • The long staple cotton. This cotton has a length of 25 mm and above.
  • The medium staple cotton. This cotton has a staple length between 18 mm to 25 mm.
  • The short staple cotton. This cotton has a fibre length less than 18 mm.

Area of Cultivation
Southern India produces more cotton than Northern India. Gujarat is the leading
producer of cotton in India with a production of 25% of the total production in the country.
1. Black cotton soil region. This is the chief cotton growing area of India on the ‘lava soil’ of N.W. Deccan Plateau. Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh are the major cotton producing states.

2. Red soil region. Medium staple cotton is grown in the red soil areas including the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The yield is low.

3. Alluvial soil region. Long staple cotton is grown on the alluvial soils of Northern Plains. The states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan are the important producers. Punjab has the highest yield per hectare due to warm climate, fertile soils and facilities of irrigation.

World Production. U.S.A. is the leading producer of cotton in the world. China ranks second. India ranks third. Other main producers are Russia, Mexico, Egypt, Swedan and Pakistan. Egypt is known for long staple cotton. In U.S.A., cotton production is decreasing.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 4 Our Agriculture

Question 2.
Describe the different types of Farming.
Answer:
1. Shifting Agriculture. This farming method is practised by primitive people living in dense forests. The land is prepared by felling trees and burning the trees. People move from one area to another when the soil loses its fertility.

2. Subsistence Farming. In this method, farmers use primitive tools to cultivate their lands. Farmers in these regions produce agricultural goods, which are just sufficient to satisfy their own needs.

3. Commercial Farming. When farmers use modern tools and equipments such as tractors, threshers, winnowers etc. and produce crops mainly to sell them in the market, it is called commercial farming.

4. Extensive Farming. This method is practised in countries where the population is sparse and the availability of land is more. Farmers use machines to a great extent, as the size of land holdings is large.

5. Intensive Farming. In this method of farming, the same piece of land is used throughout the year continuously. The soil is also very fertile. Farmers use more labourers, seeds that can yield more, better manures and ensure regular water supply.

6. Irrigation Farming. It is the type of farming, which mainly depends on irrigation through canals, wells and tanks. Farmers cultivate their lands throughout the year.

Some of the important river valleys of the world where this method is followed are, the Ganga valley and the Indus valley in India, the Nile valley in Egypt, the Xi Jiang valley in China, the Missouri and San Joaquin valley in the United States of America.

7. Rainfed Farming. In the regions where the rainfall is not only seasonal but also scanty, farmers use different measures to cultivate their lands and use the scarce amount of rain water efficiently. This is known as rainfed farming.

8. Mono-crop Farming. When the farmers specialize in the production of a single crop or if the soil and other natural factors allow farmers to cultivate only one crop that farming is known as one-crop or mono-crop farming.

9. Double and Multi-crop Farming. When two or more crops are cultivated in a plot of land, it is known as double or multi-crop farming. In this method, farmers apply scientific methods—use seeds that can give high yield, and apply manures in an appropriate manner.

Our Agriculture PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Agriculture: It refers to the cultivation of soil for growing crops and rearing of livestock.
  • Crops: The plant species cultivated by human beings for their use.
  • Livestock: Animals and birds which are reared for human use.
  • Crop Specialization: One particular crop suitable for the region is selected by the farmer to be cultivated by him. This is mainly followed for selling the produce in the market.
  • Organic Farming: In this type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals.
  • Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the produce is consumed by the farmer’s household.
  • Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which the produce is grown by the farmer for selling in the market.
  • Intensive Agriculture: The farmer produces more by working hard and using the same field over and over again making use of better agricultural means.
  • Extensive Agriculture: The agriculturist tries to get good output by bringing more and more areas under plough.
  • Mixed Farming: Farming in which animals are also used on the farm while growing crops. .
  • Multiple Cropping: When two or more crops are grown at the same time on one and the same field.
  • Sericulture: Commercial rearing of silkworms.
  • Horticulture: Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.
  • Pisciculture: Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.
  • Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes.
  • More than half of the world’s population is directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture.
  • Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity.
  • Agriculture depends largely on relief of land, climate conditions , fertility of soil and economic factors.
  • Soils not only support the plant, but also act as a medium to supply moisture and
    nutrients.
  • In intensive agriculture the aim is to get higher yields per unit area.
  • Extensive agriculture is done with machines in sparsely populated areas. ‘
  • In commercial agriculture most of the crops are produced for the market.
  • Production of fruit and flowers is called horticulture.
  • In a co-operative farm all the members work and earn proportionately.
  • Crops and livestock are raised together on the same farm in mixed farming.
  • Shifting cultivation is known by different names in different parts of the world, i.e., Juming, Milpa, Ladang, etc.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 4 Our Agriculture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Natural Resources

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words :

Question 1.
Into which relief features can the land be divided?
Answer:
Mountains, plateaus and plains.

Question 2.
What is the importance of plains?
Answer:
Plains support agriculture and dense population. These meet the human needs. Plains are suitable for development of vegetation and crops.

Question 3.
What are the factors that affect the formation of soils?
Answer:
Parent rocks, climate, plants and animals.

Question 4.
How many types of soils are found in India? Write the names of these types.
Answer:

  • Alluvial soils
  • Black soils
  • Red soils
  • Laterite soils
  • Forest and Mountain soils
  • Desert soils.

Question 5.
What type of crops can be grown on Black soil?
Answer:
Cotton, wheat, jowar, flax, tobacco, sun flower, crops are grown in Black soils. Rice and sugarcane are grown with the help of irrigation.

Question 6.
Write the names of main sources of water.
Answer:

  1. Rainfall
  2. Rivers and streams
  3. Canals
  4. Tanks
  5. Groundwater.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 7.
What is given by the natural vegetation to man?
Answer:

  1. Timber (wood) which is used for buildings.
  2. Fruit, medicines and other products.

Question 8.
Name the types of forests found in India.
Answer:

  1. Evergreen forests
  2. Deciduous forests
  3. Desert forests
  4. Mountain forests
  5. Delta forests.

Question 9.
What are migratory birds and where do they come from?
Answer:
In cold season birds migrate to India. These are called migratory birds. These come from Mosay Siberia and China.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
Write about the land use in India.
Answer:
Land use pattern. India has a total geographical area of 32.8 crore hectares. Main characteristics of land use are given below:

  1. Net Sown Area. About 46% of total land (77 crore hectares) is net sown area. This vast area shows the importance of agriculture in India as crops are grown in it
  2. Fallow land. About 8% land (2.2 crore hectares) is left as fallow land and is cultivated after two or three years.
  3. Forests. About 22.2% of land is (6.6 crore hectares) under forests. It should be 33%. Afforestation be done and’ deforestation be banned.
  4. Plantation crops. About 1% land is under plantation crops like tea, coffee, etc.
  5. Other uses. Land under permanent grassland, cultivable waste and not available for cultivation amounts to about 5 crore hectares.
  6. Area under forests is increasing. Fallow land has been reduced in area. Net sown area under doubled cropped area is also increasing.

Question 2.
After mentioning the types of soil write the importance of alluvial soil.
Answer:
There are six types of soils in India :

  1. Alluvial soils
  2. Black soils
  3. Red soils
  4. Laterite soils
  5. Forest and Mountain soils
  6. Desert soils.

Alluvial Soils: These are made up of fine particles. These are clay soils and fertile soils. Therefore, the alluvial plains are very useful for agriculture. For example, the Indus- Ganga-Brahmputra plain of India. It has two types-Khadar and Bangar soils.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 3.
How is the soil resource being conserved?
Answer:
Soil Conservation. Soil is a very fundamental natural resource. Soil formation is a slow process, but it is easily lost by soil erosion. Sound farming practices and measures be adopted to conserve, protect, renew and maintain soil fertility.

These methods constitute soil conservation.

  • Afforestation: Afforestation and reforestation is needed to hold the soil.
  • Controlled grazing: The number of cattle to be grazed on slopes should be according to the carrying capacity of the pastures.
  • Terraced agriculture: Slopes must be cut into a series of terraces (fields) for cultivation so as to slow down the flow of rain water.
  • River dams: River dams are built in the upper course of rivers to control floods and check soil erosion.
  • Crop rotation: Crop rotation system be applied and the land should be allowed fallow for some time. Soil fertility can be maintained in this way.

Question 4.
Give the importance of rivers and canals.
Answer:
India has a total of 1869 billion cubic metre water resources. Out of this, only 660 billion cubic metres have been utilized for irrigation. India needs to plan these water resources to be utilized for agriculture. For this more multipurpose projects should be planned and completed. Ground water resource should be used for providing water power to tubewells. A lot has been done to manage our water resources, but due to technological and financial limitations, still much of water goes waste to oceans.

Question 5.
How the water can be conserved?
Answer:
Water is a vital resource for the development of economic activities. Water should be conserved in the following ways. Waters of ocean, river and lakes should not be polluted. It should he saved from urban waste and chemicals of industries. It should be recycled to use it again. Dams should be built across the rivers and lakes to store water in reservoirs.

Question 6.
Write a note on Deciduous forests.
Answer:
Deciduous forests shed their leaves in a specific season. In spring season, these leaves become green.’These are the most widespread forests in India. These are economically very important from the point of getting timber. These include Sal, Teak, Bamboo, Shisham and Khair trees.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 7.
What steps have been taken by Govt, of India for protection and conservation of wildlife? (P.S.E.B. 2020)
Answer:
Wildlife plays an important role in the human progress and civilisation. The primitive man had to depend on animals for food and other basic needs. Later on, man began to domesticate animals. Still hunting is carried on in many parts of the world. Many useful and valuable species are becoming extinct due to hunting or killing of animals. Man has upset the ecological balance by killing of birds and animals.

Many steps have been taken for the preservation of wildlife.

  • Parks and sanctuaries have been established in hilly areas and forests.
  • Hunting of some rare species of animals has been banned.
  • Public attention is focused on making efforts for the preservation of wildlife.
  • Wild animals like lion, tiger, deer, etc. are protected during closed season when they cannot be hunted.

III. Answer the following questions in about 125-130 words :

Question 1.
What are Natural Resources? Write down the types and importance of soils and natural vegetation.
Answer:
Natural Resources are free gifts provided by nature. These include land, water, soil, forests, wildlife, minerals, etc.
1. Soils: The main types of soils are :

  • Alluvial soils
  • Black soils
  • Red soils
  • Laterite soils
  • Forests and Mountain soils
  • Desert soils.

Importance: Soil is a valuable resource. It is required for cultivation of crops. Fertile soil is the basis of developed agriculture. It becomes more important for a country like India which is an agricultural country. Many types of soils are found in India and many types of crops are grown on it.

2. Vegetation: The following types of vegetation is found in India :

  • Evergreen forests
  • Deciduous forests
  • Desert forests
  • Mountain forests .
  • Delta forests.

Importance of Forests: Forests are a valuable resource like a river system, it is a multiple resource. Forests provide mankind with a number of products. Forests have greatly influenced human activities. Modem civilization depends more and more on forests.

Following are the direct and indirect advantages of forests :

  • Forests provide many things to meet our food requirements like wild fruits, nuts, berries, etc. Many tribes are dependent on gathering of these products in forests.
  • Forests are a source of timber for house-building, furniture-making, ship-building, etc.
  • Forests supply about 40% of fuel of the world. Wood has been the major source of fuel in house smelting industries and running locomotives.
  • Soft wood trees supply raw materials, wood pulp, paper, rayon industries.
  • Many products like rubber, pitch, gum, tanning materials, cork, camphor, fir, herbs, etc. are gathered from forests.
  • Forests provide plywood and fibre wood for packing purposes

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 2.
How the water and wildlife can be conserved? Express your views.
Answer:
India is rich in fauna and flora. There is a great biological diversity in, India. There are about 90000 known species of animals. It has 2500 species of fish and 1200 species of birds. But many of these fauna have been destroyed by-man. Many rare species have become extinct in India. Our rich wildlife is rich heritage formed through centuries. It must be preserved. Many of the fauna are found only in India such as swamp deer, the one-horned rhinoceros, the bison, Kashmir stag, Nilgai, etc. These rare species are in danger of extinction.

The following measures have been taken for conserving and protecting wildlife as well as its bio diversity in the country. Wildlife is a gift of nature and a thing of beauty. Wildlife Act provides for the protection and conservation of these species.

For this purpose :

  • A network of 89 national parks, 490 sanctuaries and 13 biosphere reserves have been established.
  • Under Project Tiger 27 Tiger Projects in 14 states have been set up.
  • 15 mangroves have already been identified for intensive conservation and management purpose.

Conservation and Management of Water Resources
1. Watershed Management. The management of the divide between two drainage basin called watershed is taken as a physiographic unit. The inter-basin management of water helps to divert water from surplus areas to scarcity areas. It also helps replenish ground water resources. It involves integrated development of two or diverse basins and saves on technical and financial resources.

2. Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater is stored in roof top tanks, on ground Or underground tanks or check dams, percolation pits, etc. during rainy season and then it is used for irrigation, improving vegetation cover in dry season. While it increases productivity it also replenishes ground water resources.

IV. Map Skill

Question 1.
Show the following on the outline map of India :
1. Northern plains of India
2. Ganga and Brahmputra Rivers
3. Region of Alluvial soils
4. A state with black soil
5. An area of evergreen forests
6. A region with mountain and delta vegetation.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 1

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

V. Activity

Question 1.
Show eight types of soils on the map of India.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 2

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Natural Resources Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not a type of forest found in India?
(a) Evergreen forest
(b) Tidal forest
(c) Deciduous forest
(d) Desert forest.
Answer:
(b) Tidal forest.

Question 2.
Cutting down of trees is called :
(a) Afforestation
(b) Deforestation
(c) Slash and Burn
(d) Strip cropping
Answer:
(b) Deforestation.

Question 3.
Sunderbans is the habitat of :
(a) Tiger
(b) Lions
(c) Elephants
(d) Camels
Answer:
(a) Tiger.

Question 4.
Which is the oldest landmass of India?
(a) Northern Plain
(b) Peninsular Plateau
(c) Himalayas
(d) Aravallis.
Answer:
(b) Peninsular Plateau.

Question 5.
Natural vegetation and wildlife is found in :
(a) Biosphere
(b) Hydrosphere
(c) Atmosphere
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) Biosphere.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 6.
Following picture shows a specific type of forests, names these forests.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 3
(a) Evergreen forests
(b) Tidal forests
(c) Deciduous forests
(d) Deserts
Answer:
(a) Evergreen forests.

Question 7.
Study the following picture and give the answer what this picture is explained?
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 4
(a) Afforestation
(b) Deforestation
(c) Slash and Burn
(d) Strip Gopping
Answer:
(b) Deforestation.

Question 8.
Jhoolan Devi does the agricultural work with her family but her family is forced to migrate to other place to do agriculture due to reduction in soil fertility. What type of farming does this situation represent?
(a) Permanent agriculture
(b) Horticulture.
(c) Intensive agriculture
(d) Jhum cultivation.
Answer:
(d) Jhum cultivation.

Question 9.
How much part of total area of India is under forests? (P.S.E.B. 2020)
(a) 11.9%
(b) 52.2%
(c) 22.2%
(d) 32.2%.
Answer:
(c) 22.2%

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In India soils are of types.
Answer:
six

Question 2.
__________ is the upper most layer of the earth crust .
Answer:
soil

Question 3.
Land use depends on __________ factor.
Answer:
physical

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 4.
Ice-sheets are found in __________
Answer:
greenland

Question 5.
About ________% of the total surface area of the earth is under water.
Answer:
71

True/False :

Question 1.
The original rock called Parent Rock.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Pollution means contamination of natural resources.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
A dripping tap wastes 100 litres in a year.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
An average urban Indian uses about 35 litres of water everyday.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Land suitable for agriculture is called Arabic land.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the distribution of Land and Water on earth.
Answer:
29%-Land and 71%-Water.

Question 2.
Why is there need for Afforestation in India?
Answer:
There should be at least 33% area under forests in India. But only 22.2% area is under forests in India. So there is need for growing trees on large scale.

Question 3.
What do you mean by culturable waste?
Answer:
Some land is culturable, but it is not cultivated due to some reasons. Such as scarcity of water, soil erosion, waterlogging, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 4.
In which areas forest and mountain soils are found? State any two characteristics.
Answer:
These soils are found along forests and hill slopes.

Characteristics:

  • These have organic elements.
  • These lack in Potash, Phosphorus, Lime. Therefore, use of fertilizer is essential.

Question 5.
What are alluvial soils?
Answer:
Alluvial soils are formed by deposition of fine sediments. These sediments are brought by the river. Sea waves also deposit these along coasts. Alluvial soils are very fertile.

Question 6.
Why is black soil called cotton soils? Name one other name of it.
Answer:
Black soil is suitable for the cultivation of cotton. So it is called cotton soil. It is also called Regur soil.

Question 7.
Where are desert soils found in India?
Answer:
Desert soils are found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and in some parts of Gujarat.

Question 8.
Why is earth called a ‘watery planet’?
Answer:
Most of the earth (71%) is covered with water. So it is called watery planet due to excess of water.

Question 9.
In which form most of water is found on earth? How much per cent is it of total water?
Answer:
Most of water is found in the form of oceans, seas and salt lakes. It contains 97.20% of total water.

Question 10.
For which purpose, most of water is used and how much?
Answer:
93.37% of total water is used for agricultural purposes.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 11.
Where are Tanks found?
Answer:
Tanks are found in areas where there are no perennial rivers and canals. Ground water is very deep. In India most of tanks are found in southern India.

Question 12.
Write briefly about desert vegetation.
Answer:
Desert vegetation is found in arid areas. The vegetation is scanty. It includes Date palm, Cactus and Thorny bush. In India, this type of vegetation is found in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana.

Question 13.
Name four trees of mountain vegetation.
Answer:

  1. Fir
  2. Deodar
  3. Oak
  4. Nuts.

Question 14.
What is terrace farming?
Answer:
Terrace farming. The growing of crops on level steps or terraces that have been constructed on hillsides.

Question 15.
What is a wildlife sanctuary?
Answer:
A wildlife sanctuary is dedicated to protect wildlife and conserve forests.

Question 16.
What are Protected forests?
Answer:
There are forests reserved for timber but grazing is allowed subject to minor restrictions. These are 29.2% of total forests.

Question 17.
What is contour ploughing?
Answer:
Contour Ploughing: Technique of ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope rather than up and down the slope, so as to reduce soil erosion.

Question 18.
What is strip cropping?
Answer:
Strip Cropping. Growing of different crops on parallel narrow strips of ground, usually following the contour patterns.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 19.
What is a shelterbelt?
Answer:
Shelter belt: In dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement for protecting soil cover.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on alluvial soils. Classify these into two groups.
Answer:
Alluvial soils. These cover 45% land of India :

  1. Alluvial soil is deposited by rivers.
  2. These soils are limited to river basins and plains.
  3. These are very fertile soils.
  4. These consist of fine-grained. clay and sand.
  5. These soils are rich in potash, but poor in phosphorus.
  6. These are usually deep soils.

Types:
(a) Khadar soils
(b) Bangar soils.

(a) Khadar soils are new alluvial soils while
(b) Bangar soils are old alluvial soils.

Question 2.
State the characteristics of Black soils. Describe its distribution in India.
Answer:
Black Soils. Black soils are mainly found over the Deccan Lava tract (Deccan trap) including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. These soils are found in river valleys of Narmada, Tapti, Godavari and Krishna. These soils have

been formed due to weathering of lava rocks. These soils cover an area of about 5 lakh sq. km. These soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. But these lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. These are also called ‘Regur Soils’. These soils are most suitable for cotton cultivation and are known as ‘Black Cotton Soils’. These soils are compared with Chernozem soils of Russia and Prairies soils of U.S.A. These soils can hold water. These soils are suitable for rice, wheat, jawar, sugarcane, tobacco and oilseeds.

Question 3.
Write a note on desert soils.
Answer:
Desert Soils. These soils cover 2 lakh sq. km. area in dry areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana. These coarse soils are suitable for the cultivation of jawar, bajra, cotton, oats, maize, pulses etc. Methods of irrigation are used. These are sandy soils and are infertile. These do not hold water. So these are used for dry crops. In India 4.3% area is covered by desert soils.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 4.
State the characteristics and distribution of Red Soils in India.
Answer:
Red Soils: These soils are found in Chotta Nagpur plateau, Telangana, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and areas on periphery of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to decomposition of underlying igneous rocks under heavy rainfall. These soils have different shades of red and yellow. The red colour of these soils is due to oxidation and diffusion of iron in hard crystalline rocks. These are used for the cultivation of millets, pulses, linseed, tobacco, etc. These soils cover the largest area (10.6%) in Peninsular India, particularly S.E. part of the Peninsula. These soils are poor in lime, nitrogen and humus. Fertilizers are added to make these fertile.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 5

Question 5.
What are the characteristics of laterite soils? Describe its distribution in India.
Answer:

  • The laterite soils are of brick colour.
  • These are shallow, acidic and less fertile.
  • These are less fertile due to leaching of soil.
  • These are poor in nitrogen, potash but very rich in iron.
  • These are found in Tamil Nadu, Western Ghats, Rajmahal hills, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa plateau. These soils cover 7.5% area of the country
  • Some areas of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Jharkhand also have laterite soils.
  • These are suitable for cultivation of Rubber, Tea, Coffee and Coconut.

Question 6.
What do you mean by wildlife? Describe in brief the wildlife of India.
Answer:
Like diverse flora, our fauna is found to be equally rich and varied. There are about 80,000 known species. The country in its fresh and marine waters has as many as 2500 species of fish. Likewise there are about 1200 species of birds. In addition there are amphibians, reptiles, mammals and small insects and worms. Migratory birds also come to India during winter

Mammals: Among the mammals, the elephant is the stately animal. It is a typical animal of hot wet equatorial forests. It is found in the jungles of Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. In these areas, it rains heavily and the forests are very dense. On the other hand camels and wild asses are found in hot deserts. Camels are found in Thar desert.

Question 7.
Why is the Land considered an important resource?
Answer:
Land is considered as an important resource because:

  1. It is used for different purposes like agriculture, forests, pastures.
  2. Human beings make their houses and live on it and also it provides most of the products they need; like food, wood etc.

Question 8.
Name the five factors controlling soil formation.
Answer:
The five factors controlling soil formation are:

  1. Nature of the parent rock
  2. Topography
  3. Climate
  4. Time
  5. Organism in it.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 9.
Write any two reasons for land degradation today.
Answer:
There are many factors which lead to the degradation of land. Both nature and human factors can lead to degradation of land.

  1. Growing population and their ever growing demand is the main reason of land degradation today.
  2. Deforestation is the another main reason of land degradation.

Question 10.
Why is land considered an important resource?
Answer:
Land is considered as an important resource because :

  1. It is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forest, mining, pastures, etc.
  2. Human beings make their houses and five on it and also it provides most of products they need like food, wood, etc.
  3. Human beings set up their industries, build roads and run other commercial activities.

Question 11.
What factors control the utilization of land?
Answer:
The physical and human factors control the utilization of land. These include :

  1. relief of features,
  2. climatic conditions,
  3. soils,
  4. density of population,
  5. technical level of the people,
  6. land tenure,
  7. duration of the occupation of the area etc.

The interplay of physical and human factors has developed many types of land uses.

Question 12.
What is terrace farming?
Answer:
Terrace farming: The growing of crops on level steps or terraces that have been constructed on hillsides.

Question 13.
What is a wildlife sanctuary?
Answer:
A wildlife sanctuary is dedicated to protect wildlife and conserve forests.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 14.
What are the effects of deforestation?
Answer:
The effects of deforestation are as under :

  • It affects the ecosystem.
  • It increases soil erosion.
  • It affects underground flow of water.
  • Disappearance of wildlife as well as variety of plants.
  • Leads to serious deterioration of genetic reserves.

Question 15.
What are Protected forests?
Answer:
These are also forests reserved for timber but grazing is allowed subject to minor restrictions. These are 29.2% of total forests.

Question 16.
What is contour ploughing?
Answer:
Contour ploughing: Technique of ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope rather than up and down the slope, so as to reduce soil erosion.

Question 17.
What is strip cropping?
Answer:
Strip Cropping. Growing of different crops on parallel narrow strips of ground, usually following the contour patterns.

Question 18.
For what purposes land is used? What is land use pattern?
Answer:
Land is used for different purposes.

They are :

  • Cultivation of crops agriculture.
  • Grazing of animals.
  • Building houses and roads.
  • Mining.
  • Industries.

These uses of land is commonly termed as land use pattern.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 19.
What is a shelterbelt?
Answer:
Shelterbelt: In dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement for protecting soil cover.

Question 20.
Write the importance of forests.
Answer:
Importance of forests. Forests play an important role in human life. They provide food, wood and timber to us. Many medicinal plants are found in the forests. They also help in maintaining ecological balance and checking soil erosion. They play an important role in the economy of our country.

Question 21.
What is the role of insects in soil formation?
Answer:
Insects play a very important role in soil formation. Without worms and insects, the work of soil formation will be incomplete. They do it through both physical or mechanical means and speeding up chemical reactions.

Question 22.
Why does soil lose fertility?.
Answer:
The soil loses its fertility when continuously used. When crops are grown every year it loses its nutrients which are necessary for good soil.

Question 23.
What are the factors that control soil formation?
Answer:
Soil formation is controlled by five factors. These are :

  1. Nature of parent rock
  2. The topography
  3. The climate
  4. The organism in the soil
  5. Time.

Question 24.
What is the importance of landforms?
Answer:
Man’s economic activities differ with different landforms.

  1. Mountainous regions are not much suitable for human settlements.
  2. Dense population is found in plains.

Question 25.
‘Land plays a fundamental role.’ Discuss.
Answer:
Plains are known for agriculture and dense population. Plains, 43% area of India, fulfill man’s many needs. The agriculture depends upon plain.

Question 26.
What is fallow land?
Answer:
The land which is not used for agriculture for 1 to 5 years is left vacant. It restores the fertility of the soil. It is called fallow land.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 27.
Examine the importance of water.
Answer:
Water is a valuable and important resource. It is the basis of life on earth. Water fulfils many human requirements. It is used for drinking, bathing, washing and agriculture.

Question 28.
Name the major threats to be environment.
Answer:
Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion and desertification are the major threats to the environment. This is because of expansion of agriculture and construction activities.

Question 29.
Write the steps that can help in conserving degraded land.
Answer:
The following steps may help in conservation and reclamation of degraded land:

  1. Afforestation and control on overgrazing.
  2. Plantation of land reclamation of plants.
  3. Regulated use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers.
  4. Proper discharge of sewage industrial effluents.
  5. Maintain proper mining processes and technique.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Nearly 97% of the earth’s total water is in the form of __________ and __________
Answer:
Sea, oceans

Question 2.
Tiger park at Dudhwa is situated in the state __________
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh

Question 3.
__________ is produced with the help of running and falling water.
Answer:
Hydro-electricity

Question 4.
Polar areas are populated areas.
Answer:
sparsely

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 5.
We can __________ the supply of drinking water by installing desalination plants.
Answer:
increase

Question 6.
In __________ areas landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disaster.
Answer:
mountains.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the sources of fresh water in India? Describe each.
Answer:
Two types of water is found on earth-saline and fresh. Man uses freshwater for different purposes. Its sources are :
1. Rainfall. Rainfall is the major source of water on the earth. Some water is evaporated, some water flows down to the oceans and some water goes underground through percolation. India has average annual rainfall of 118 cm.
Rain water or running water flowing on the surface of land is called surface water. It includes water in oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc. India’s total surface water resources are 1869 billion cubic metres.

2. Ground Water. Rain water that goes beneath the surface of the earth by percolation is called ground water. India has a total ground water resources of 40 million hectare metres. This water can be obtained by digging wells. Sometimes it comes out through springs also.

3. Rivers and Canals. From early periods, rivers and canals have been very important. Many civilisations developed along river banks. Man built dams on rivers to use water for irrigation through canals.

4. Tanks. Tanks are found in areas deficit in rainfall. The water level is very deep so it is difficult to use it. Rain water is collected in depressions called tanks. Tanks are mostly found in southern India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 2.
What do you mean by Natural Vegetation? On what factors does it depend? Describe the different types of forests found in India.
Answer:
Natural vegetation includes plants and trees which grow automatically according to climate. It depends upon climate, soil, drainage, temperature, rainfall and altitude.

We can divide India into the following vegetation belts :

  • The Tropical Rain Forests.
  • The Tropical deciduous or the Monsoon forests.
  • The Thorn Forests.
  • The Tidal Forests.
  • Mountain Forests.

1. The Tropical Rain Forests are of two varieties: evergreen and semi-evergreen. Regions having more than 300 centimetres of rainfall have evergreen forests. The hills of Assam and the rainy slopes of the Western Ghats are such areas. The region where the rainfall is between 200 and 300 centimetres have semi-evergreen forests. Such areas are there in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and in Western Ghats.

2. The Tropical Deciduous or Monsoon Forests are found in the regions where rainfall is between 100 and 200 centimetres. Teak and sal are the most important trees of monsoon forests besides sheesham, mahua, bamboo, etc. The belt of monsoon forests extends from the Western Ghats in the south to the Shiwalik hills in the north.

3. The Thorn Forests are found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, dry parts of Madhya Pradesh and the Deccan, where the rainfall is less than 80 centimetres. Kikar, Babool and Wild Palm are the common trees of this type of forests.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources 6

4. The Tidal Forests are mainly found along the river deltas. Mangrove and Sundri trees are the common trees found in the Ganga delta in Bengal which is also “called the Sundarban.

5. The Mountainous Forests. The foothills of the Himalayas are covered with tropical deciduous forests. At high slopes, oak, chestnuts, chir, pine trees of sub-tropical type are formed. At a height of 3300 metres, coniferous forests like blue pines, cedars silver firs, deodars are found. Alpine pastures are found at high altitudes.

Question 3.
Write a short note on conservation of soils.
Answer:
Soil Conservation. Soil is a fundamental natural resource. Soil formation is a slow process, but it is easily lost by soil erosion. In fact, more soil is being lost each year than nature makes. Soil erosion must be checked. Sound farming practices and measures be adopted to conserve, protect, renew and maintain soil fertility.

These methods constitute soil conservation.
1. Afforestation: In some areas, the original vegetation cover has been removed such as in Shiwalik hills. In such areas afforestation and reforestation is needed to hold the soil. Advance of deserts can be checked by planting trees along the margins of deserts.

2. Controlled grazing: The number of cattle to be grazed on slopes should be according to the carrying capacity of the pastures.

3. Terraced agriculture: Slopes must be cut into a series of terraces (fields) for the cultivation so as to slow down the flow of rain water.

4. Contour Ploughing: It is done to check soil wash on slopes. Ploughing is done at right angles to the hill slopes.

5. Crop rotation: Crop rotation system be applied and the land should be allowed fallow for some time. Soil fertility can be maintained in this way.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 4.
Distinguish between Evergreen Forests and Deciduous Forests.
Answer:

Evergreen Forests Deciduous Forests
1. Evergreen forests are found in regions that experience tropical climate throughout the year. 1. Deciduous forests are found in regions that experience rainy and dry season.
2. They do not shed their leaves in any season of the year. 2. They shed their leaves once a year.
3. Their height exceeds 60 metres. 3. They are less than 50 metres in height.
4. They have less economic importance as the wood from them is very hard and is of not much use. 4. They have more economic value, as their wood is soft and durable.
5. Some trees are ; Rosewood, Mahogany etc. 5. Some trees are ; Teak, Sal, etc.

Question 5.

What is the most important feature of the Landuse pattern in India?
Answer:

  1. India has total geographical area of 828 million sq. km. (3280 lakh hectares). The land use data is available for about 93% of the total area. It shows that 151 million hectares (47%) is net sown area. Thus India has a very high percentage (47%) of total area under cultivation. No other big country has such a large area under cultivation.
  2. Another satisfying feature is that only 8% of land is fallow which is not cultivated so as to restore the fertility of the land. It is notable that fallow land has risen to 8% from earlier figure of 5%. It reflects that care for land resources has become essential.
  3. The area under pastures is also small (4%).
  4. The area under cultivable waste is 5%. This wasteland can be brought under cultivation to increase productivity.
  5. The forest cover is low, only 22%. It is desirable to have about one third of the total land area under forests to maintain a healthy environment.

Question 6.
Explain the factors controlling soil formation.
Answer:
Soil formation is controlled by five factors :

  1. nature of parent rock,
  2. the topography,
  3. the climate,
  4. the organism in the soil and
  5. time.

1. Parent Rock: The original rock called parent rock, from which the soil is formed, determines its basic characteristics. For example, shales contribute clays, while sandstones contribute sand grains.

2. Climate: Temperature and precipitation are the main climatic factors affecting soil formation. Frequent temperature changes and presence of water quicken soil formation through increased weathering.

3. Topography: Topography affects the drainage of an area. On a steep slope, there is hardly any chance of accumulation of weathered rocks. They are moved down the slope by water and under force of gravity. In plains and areas with gentle slope, soils are accumulated without any hindrance.

4. Organisms: Dead plants and animals provide humus to soil. Organisms like earthworms and ants through their movements create space for air and water in the soil.

5. Time: Time factor is also important because longer the time for soil formation, more deeper is the soil layer. Besides weathering of rocks, soil is also formed by deposition of materials by moving waters (rivers) and winds in low-lying areas. Alluvial soils of river valleys are very fertile and deep.

Question 7.
What are water resources? What are their uses?
Answer:
Water Resources. Water is a unique liquid because there is no alternative for it. It is essential for all forms of life. Compared to most other liquids, water has a high capacity to absorb or store heat.

Water is a major body constituent of several plant and animal species. Seventy percent of the human body consists of water. Humans use water for several purposes—domestic (drinking, cooking, washing, etc.), agricultural (irrigation), industrial and generation of electricity.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 Natural Resources

Question 8.
How are vegetation and wildlife useful for us?
Answer:
Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources
1. Plants provide us

  • Timber, fruits, nuts, latex, oil, gum, medicinal herbs, etc.
  • Shelter for animals and birds.
  • Protect soil and storage and water.
  • Oxygen to breathe.

2. Wildlife provide us

  • milk, meat, hides, wool, honey.
  • helps as decomposers, act as scavengers.
  • maintain the ecological balance.
  • The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well.
  • Vulture each dead livestock and act as scavenger. They are considered as a vital cleaner of environment.

Natural Resources PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Conservation: It means using the available resources carefully.
  • Land: The most important resource.
  • Land may be used to agriculture Construction of Roads, Industries, etc.
  • Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth crust.
  • Soil Erosion: The removal of soil, specially top soil, either naturally or as a result of human activity.
  • Land Use: The use of land for different purposes like agriculture, roads, etc.
  • Terrace Farming: The growing of crops on terraces or steps that have been constructed on hillsides.
  • Topography: A detailed account of the features of a tract of country.
  • Strip Cropping: The growing of narrow strips of Cultivated lands, along the contour lines.
  • Shelterbelts: The planting of rows of trees to check the wind movement, to protect the soil.
  • Deforestation: Cutting down trees.
  • Pollution: Contamination of natural resources.
  • Weathering: The breaking up and decay of exposed rocks by temperature changes, plants, animals, etc.
  • Natural vegetation and wildlife is found in Biosphere.
  • National Park: A natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations.
  • Biosphere resources: Series of protected areas linked through a global network intended to demonstrate the relationship between conservation and development.
  • The land covers about 29 per cent of the total surface area of the earth.
  • Land in India actually under cultivation is about 46 per cent of land.
  • The total land resources in our country are fixed.
  • The importance of soils lies in their fertility and capacity to produce crops.
  • Alluvial soils are mostly found in river valleys and floodplains.
  • About 71 per cent of the total surface area of the earth is under water.
  • Wells, tanks and canals are different sources of irrigation in our country.
  • Natural vegetation can be broadly classified into forests, grasses and shrubs.
  • Wildlife refers to plants, animals, birds and other organisms, which live in their natural habitats.
  • Many countries have taken steps to develop the ‘biosphere resources’ to protect the wildlife.
  • Ninety per cent of the world population occupies only thirty per cent of land area. The remaining seventy percent of the land is either sparsely populated or uninhabitated.
  • A dripping tap wastes 1200 litres in a year.
  • Soil formation is a very Slow Process. It takes hundreds of years to make just one centimetre of Soil.
  • The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of earth is called soil.
  • In India soils are of six types.
  • Water can neither be added nor subtracted from the earth.
  • An average urban Indian uses about 135 litres of water everyday.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 2 Natural Resources Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Resources – Types and Conservation Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in 1-15 words :

Question 1.
What do you understand by the term ‘resources’?
Answer:
All the useful elements of environment which satisfy the human needs are called resources. Resources are called ‘Gifts of nature’ such as rocks, minerals, soil, rivers, plants and animals. These are valuable for mankind. Man’s surroundings provide him with resources.

Question 2.
Which are the Natural Resources and who provides us?
Answer:
Forests, minerals, soil and solar energy are natural resources. These make our environment or surroundings. These natural surroundings provide rsesources.

Question 3.
List all the types of resources.
Answer:
The three categories of resources are :

  1. Natural Resources
  2. Human Resources
  3. Human Made Resources.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 4.
Define ‘soil’.
Answer:
The loose and unconsolidated material which forms the upper layer of the crust is called soil. Soil is formed by the breaking of parent rock.

Question 5.
What do we get from Seas?
Answer:
The big water bodies are called seas. Seas provide us organic minerals and power resources, fish, pearls, diamonds, etc. At some places, petroleum is also obtained from sea.

Question 6.
How can you conserve the resources properly?
Answer:
The proper and planned use of resources help in the conservation of resources. These should not be misused.These should not be wasted or destroyed.

II. Answer the following questions in 50-60 words :

Question 1.
Differentiate between Biotic and Abiotic resources.
Answer:

Biotic Resources Abiotic Resources
1. These are obtained from living things. 1. These are obtained from non-living things.
2. Plants and animals are its examples. 2. Minerals and rocks are examples.
3. These are found in Biosphere and provide food, energy (coal and petroleum) and raw materials. 3. These are found on lithosphere and provide raw materials for industries.

Land: Land is the basis of human activities. It helps in agriculture, setting up of industries, means of transportation, sports, tourism, etc. Houses are built on land.Question 2.
Write a short note on the importance of Land and Soil Resources.
Answer:
The following is the importance of Land and Soil :

  1. Soil: Man grows crops on soils. It provides food and other raw materials to man. Fertile soils support dense population.

Question 3.
From where do we get the minerals and where they used?
Answer:
Minerals are obtained from the interior of earth from rocks. These are metallic and non-metallic. Metallic minerals include iron, copper, gold, silver, aluminium. Non- metallic minerals include coal, mica, manganese and oil. These are used in industries. Before use, these are smelted to make pure.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 4.
Explain the Developed and Potential resources with examples.
Answer:

Potential Resources

Developed Resources

1. These are total quantity of a resource found existing in nature. 1. These are only those resources, which have been judged good for use.
2. These have not been put to use. 2. They are put to use fully for economic gain.
3. These are found everywhere. 3. These are not found everywhere.
4. Africa has 40% potential water power resources of world due to large rivers. 4. Africa has only 1% of developed water power resources of world due to lack of technology.

Question 5.
Why should we use the exhaustible resources wisely and with hesitation?
Answer:
The modern civilisation depends upon products—natural as well as man made. With the help of technology, resources are being utilised on a large scale. The exhaustible resources will not last long. 80% of the fossil fuels will be finished in one century With the exhaustion of resources, the civilisation will come to an end. Therefore conservation of resources is necessary. A balance should be maintained between population growth and utilisation of resources so that the continuity of modern civilisation goes on. The natural resources are common heritage. We have to share these with future generations.

Question 6.
What is the contribution of human resources to the development of other resources ?
Answer:
Resources are the elements of Bio-physical environment. But these become resources only when humans preserve these. Coal was always there, but it became a resource only when man used it as a source of energy. So it has been rightly said that the resources are not, they become so. Man uses technology and skill to develop resources. Machines and tools are used. Japan is a very good example where in spite of non existence of resources, the country has progressed to a great extent.

III. Answer the following questions in about 125-130 words :

Question 1.
What do you understand by the resources ? Name their types and explain their importance and methods of conservation.
Answer:
Type of Resources: Resources are generally classified into three types :

  1. natural
  2. human and
  3. human-made.

Natural or man-made resources are of various types. On the bases of life, existence, availability, level of development and utilization these resources can be divided into the following types :

  • Biotic and Abiotic Resources
  • Developed and Potential Resources
  • Exhaustible and Inexhaustible Resources
  • Soil and Land Resources
  • Marine-and Mineral Resources
  • Human Resources

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation 3
Resource Types

1. Biotic and Abiotic Resources. Biotic resources are those basic resources which originate from the living things. Approximately 85% of the world’s total food depend upon these biotic resources. Plants and other living creatures are included in these types of resources. These resources provide raw material for our industries. Coal and petroleum are also included in the category of biotic resources as they are produced from the plants and animals.
The non-living products like minerals, water etc., which are provided by the nature are called ‘Abiotic Resources’. The minerals are the base of our industry. If we do not use the minerals with care, these will exhaust very soon.

2. Developed and Potential Resources. The resources which are used for some economic gain are termed as ‘Developed resources’. On the other hand, the resources which are available but are not being used or can be used in the future are called ‘Potential Resources’. The rivers descending the mountains can be used to produce electricity and are included in the category of potential resources. When the water of these rivers is used to produce electricity then this water is known as a developed resources. The coal lying underneath the earth is a potential resource whereas the coal which is being used is considered as a developed resource.

3. Exhaustible and Inexhaustible Resources. The resources which are being depleted very fast .because of their continuous and excess use are called exhaustible resources, as petroleum products are being used very fast. The time is not very far away when there will be shortage or non-existence of these resources. Therefore, the exhaustible resources should be used wisely and carefully. ‘

The resources which get renewed as we use them are called inexhaustible resources. For example : We are using sun energy, wind energy, water and forests but these resources do not get depleted rather get renewed. These types resources are being made available continuously. ‘

4. Soil and Land Resources. Soil is a small and uppermost layer of the earth which is formed by breaking of parent rock, due to climate effect and decomposition of plants and animals. Soil is a very important resource for man. It plays an important role in the growth of plants and crops. The soils are of different types like sandy soil, clayey soil, loamy soil, alluvial soil, mountain soil, red soil, black soil etc. Man gives preference to fertile soil for growing crops. The areas with fertile soil are densely populated and are full of economic activities.
Land means the earth’s surface where man carries on his economic or other activities. Man had been using the land resource for a very long time. The land resource is being used for the purpose of agriculture, industry, to develop means of transport, sports, tourism etc. Man uses the land, keeping in view its relief, slope, type of soil, drainage or his requirements.

5. Marine and Mineral Resources Marine Resources. Water is a basic and a very important resource for man. Approximately 71% part of the earth is water. Big water bodies are called ‘seas’. These water bodies provide many biotic, mineral and energy resources. It is believed that the life on the earth started from the seas and oceans. 75% of the total land creatures originated from the water bodies. We get fish, pearls, shells, diamonds etc. from the seas in large quantities. At some places we get petroleum substances from the sea coasts. The fish provide food to the large part of the World’s population.

Mineral Resources: Mineral resources are the substances which are taken from the earth. Basically these are of two types-Metallic and non-metallic minerals. Metallic minerals include iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminium etc.

Petroleum, coal, mica, manganese etc. are some of the non-metallic minerals. The minerals are taken from different types of rocks. The minerals are the bases for our industries, therefore, much significance is attached to them.

6. Human Resources: Man has been awarded the best status of all the creatures produced by the nature. With his intelligence and ability to work, man himself is a very huge resource. Man’s capability plays an important role in the use of all other resources. The development of human resources is reflected from the development of any area. Japan is a very good example where inspite of the deficiency or non-existence of resources, the country has progressed to a great extent. The development of all other resources is incomplete till the human resource is fully developed. Man’s qualities, capacity, educational and technical qualification etc. play an important role in the development.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

IV. Activity

Question 1.
Make a list of Hydroelectricity producing dams related to Punjab. Note down the names of rivers on which these dams are situated and names of districts in which these dams have been constructed.
Answer:

Dams

Rivers

Districts

1. Bhakra Sutlej Himachal Pradesh
2. Ganguwal Nangal Hydel Channel Ropar
3. Kotla Nangal Hydel Channel Ropar
4. Pong Dam Beas Hoshiarpur
5. Thein Daam Ravi Gurdaspur
6. Mukerian Beas Hoshiarpur

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Resources – Types and Conservation Important Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which are the biotic resources?
(a) rocks
(b) minerals
(c) plants
(d) hills
Answer:
(c) plants.

Question 2.
What are the basis of classifying resources?
(a) life
(b) achievement
(c) use
(d) all of the above.
Answer:
(d) all of the above.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 3.
Which is not termed of human resource?
(a) knowledge
(b) efficiency
(c) intelligence
(d) transparency.
Answer:
(d) transparency.

Question 4.
Which of the following are the ubiquitous resource?
(a) air, water
(b) coal, copper
(c) iron, ore
(d) uranium.
Answer:
(a) air, water.

Question 5.
Nager coil is famous for __________
(a) coal mining
(b) windmills
(c) solar energy
(d) oil refinery.
Answer:
(b) windmills.

Question 6.
In this picture some resources are shown these resources are :
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation 1
(a) Abiotic resources
(b) Biotic resources
(c) Ubiquitous resources
(d) Human resources.
Answer:
(b) Biotic resources.

Question 7.
We enjoy a lot the beauty of waterfalls mountains, sea etc. Thus, they are natural resources which have ______value.
(a) Ethical Value
(b) Artistic Value
(c) Aesthetic Value
(d) Economic Value.
Answer:
(c) Aesthetic Value.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 8.
The following picture shows a specific type of plant. Identify the name of this plant :
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation 2
(a) Thermal Plant
(b) Nuclear Plant
(c) Biogas Plant
(d) Hydro electric plant
Answer:
(c) Biogas Plant.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_______ resources are derived from living things.
Answer:
Biotic

Question 2.
Localised resources are found only in _______ place.
Answer:
certain

Question 3.
The example of human resource is _______
Answer:
people

Question 4.
Anything that satisfy human needs is called _______
Answer:
resource

Question 5.
Non living resources are called _______ resources.
Answer:
Abiotic.

True/False :

Question 1.
Solar and wind energy is an example of renewable resources.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Environment means set of surroundings.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Resources are generally classified into two types.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 4.
Land use depend upon relief, slope, soil etc.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Coal and petroleum are not biotic resource.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does something become a resource?
Answer:
That thing which has a value and utility become a resource.

Question 2.
Why is modern man dependent on resources?
Answer:
In early times, human needs were limited. But now-a-days the needs have increased. So man has to depend upon many resources.

Question 3.
Explain, with examples, that the proper use of resources is real development of resources.
Answer:
Before the invention of coal, petroleum, and aeroplane, man was not aware of the Aluminium. Due to utility of Aluminium, its use increased. So we can say that proper use has led to the development of resources.

Question 4.
What are the four basis of classifying resources?
Answer:

  1. life
  2. achievement
  3. stage of development
  4. use.

Question 5.
Which resources are most important to obtain food-resources?
Answer:
To get food resources, agriculture is the most important source as it provides 85% of food resources.

Question 6.
Why coal and petroleum are biotic resources?
Answer:
Coal and petroleum are formed by organic and living plants and animals. So these are grouped as biotic resources.

Question 7.
How can you assess a country as a rich country?
Answer:
The wealth of a country is measured by its resources. The more developed resources make a country richer.

Question 8.
Why are fertile soil areas densely populated with large economic activities?
Answer:
Fertile soils help in growing crops. In fertile soils agriculture is developed. It leads to dense population and many economic activities.

Question 9.
On what factors does the landuse depend?
Answer:
Landuse depends upon relief, slope, soils, drainage and human needs.

Question 10.
What is human resource?
Answer:
Man made resources include machinery, transportation, industries. Human intelligence, knowledge and efficiency is termed as human resource.

Question 11.
Concept of Resource is changing. Why?
Answer:
The concept of resource is changing. It may expand or contract with the development of knowledge and technology.

Question 12.
Name the important types of soil.
Answer:
Sandy soil, Clayey soil, Loamy soil, Alluvial soil, Red soil, Black soil.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 13.
Classify resources on the basis of their source of origin.
Answer:
Based on their origin, resources can be biotic or abiotic. For example plants, animals, rocks, minerals, soils etc.

Question 14.
How can we conserve the resources?
Answer:
We can conserve resources by reducing consumption, recycling and reusing things.

Question 15.
What is technology?
Answer:
Technology is human made resource. It is the application of latest knowledge and skill in doing or making things.

Question 16.
The population of India is lesser than only one country. Name that country.
Answer:
China.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a resource?
Answer:
All the useful elements of environment which satisfy the human needs are called resources. Resources are called ‘Gifts of nature’ such as soils, rivers, plants, animals, rocks and minerals. These are valuable for mankind.

Question 2.
Why are humans also called a resource?
Answer:
They are called a resource because by developing the human skills only the resources can be developed. Resources are not, but they become due to man.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 3.
What do you understand by the statement “natural resources have utility and value”?
Answer:
Natural resources have utility and value is true. All the materials that are available in nature have some use or value and that’s what makes them valuable.

  1. Water, air vegetation all have utility or usability, they may or may not have economic value.
  2. Metals have economic value but a landscape may not have; but both are important to satisfy human need.
  3. Time and technology makes them a resource.

Question 4.
What leads to creation of new resources?
Answer:
The knowledge, ideas, inventions and discoveries by people leads to creation of more resources. The discovery of fire led to idea of cooking and other related processes. Invention of wheels led to changes in modes of transport.

Question 5.
Discuss the role of technology in the utilisation of resources.
Answer:
Technology helps to develop the means of production. It increases the value of natural resources. Technology depends upon the human skill and technical knowledge. Mechanism helps in the better utilisation of natural resources. A resource is no resource until it is used.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Natural Resources and Human-made Resources.
Answer:

Natural Resources

Human made Resources

1. They are free gifts of nature. 1. They are not free gifts of nature.
2. They are both renewable and non-renewable. 2. They are non-renewable.
3. They help in the economic development of the country. 3. They help in economic and social development.

Question 7.
Distinguish between Exhaustible and Inexhaustible Resources.
Answer:

Exhaustible Resources

Inexhaustible Resources

1. These resources get exhausted after use. 1. These resources do not get exhausted after use.
2. These resources are regenerated after a very long time. 2. These are renewable or flow resources.
3. Minerals and metals are exhaustible resources. 3. Forests, water power are inexhaustible resources.

Question 8.
What do we mean by a reserve?
Answer:
It refers to that portion of resource which<can be developed profitably with the help of available technology.
For example : High quality iron is used for steel making. But sometimes a low grade iron ore or coal (lignite—Less than 40% carbon content) is used for steel making. Lignite coal in Neyvelli (Tamilnadu) is an example of a reserve resource.

Question 9.
What is meant by human-made resources?
Answer:
They are those resources which are created by human being with the help of machines. Some of the examples are buildings, tools etc.

Question 10.
Give two examples of human made resources.
Answer:
The human made resources are those resources which are created by human beings.

Some examples are :

  1. Buildings,
  2. Machines.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 11.
Give an account of natural resources.
Answer:
Natural Resources:
Resouces drawn from (nature) and used without much modification are called natural resources.

  • Water, soils, minerals are all natural resources.
  • Many of the resources are free gift of nature.
  • They can be used directly.
  • In some cases tools and technology are needed to use a natural resource in the best way.

Question 12.
How are natural resources classified?
Answer:
Natural resources are classified into different groups :

  • Level of development and use
  • origin
  • stock
  • distribution.

Question 13.
Why natural resources are important?
Answer:

  • These are important for the economic development of a region or a country.
  • They are the main sources of our agricultural activities.
  • They provide raw materials for the industry.
  • All activities depend on them directly or indirectly.
  • They help in maintaining the ecological balance of nature. Thus they should be used carefully.

Question 14.
What is meant by conservation?
Answer:
It means the use of the natural resources carefully without any wastage. They are important to us, so they should be used wisely so that they are not exhausted and we may have to face their scarcity.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 15.
‘Resources are not resources, they become so.’ Explain.
Answer:
Resources are elements of Bio-physical environment. But these become resources only when humans preserve these. Coal was always there, but it became a resource only when man used it as a source of energy. So it has been rightly said that resources are not resources, they become so.

Question 16.
What are the ill effects of overuse of resdUrces? What are the measures to make the earth habitate? ”
Answer:
Ill effects :
Degradation of resources: The rising demand for various resources has caused degradation or depletion of many valuable resources.

Example :

  • Overuse of soil has caused infertility in many areas.
  • Similarly widespread deforestation and killing of birds and animals have endangered many plants and animal species.
  • The quality of air, water and land resources has also been affected badly due to misuse or overuse of resources.

Question 17.
Distinguish between Renewable and Non-renewable resources.
Answer:

Renewable Resources

Non-renewable Resources

1. These have the capacity to regenerate. 1. These cannot regenerate that quickly.
2. These are free gifts of nature. 2. These are not free gifts of nature.
3. These are those resources which can be used again. 3. These cannot be used again.
4. For example air, water, etc. 4. For example coal, natural oil.

Question 18.
Future of our planet is linked with life support system. Discuss.
Answer:
Our earth is the only planet where life has been found till today. Future of our planet and its people, is linked with our ability to maintain and preserve the life support system that nature provides. This makes it our duty to ensure that the natural environment is preserved and properly managed.

Question 19.
What is sustainable development?
Answer:
By sustainable development, we mean that resources are utilised carefully so that besides meeting the present requirement it also takes care of the future generations.

Question 20.
What is our duty regarding resources?
Answer:
It is our duty to ensure that

  • The diversity of life on the earth is conserved.
  • All uses of renewable resources are sustainable.
  • The damage to natural environment system is minimised.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 21.
Distinguish between Natural Resources and Human Resources.
Answer:

Natural Resources

Human Resources

1. They are free gifts of nature. 1. They are not free gifts of nature.
2. They are both renewable and non renewable. 2. They are non renewable.
3. They help in the economic development of the country. 3. They help in the economic and social development.

Question 22.
In how many ways man uses his environment?
Answer:
Environment means set of surroundings. It provides many resources to get food, shelter and clothing. Man uses land for crops, houses, factories,- construction of transport network. Man uses minerals for industries. He uses forests for timber, herbs and shrubs. Man gets fish and other benefits from seas and oceans.

Question 23.
How are development and resources interdependent?
Answer:
Development is possible through resources. Resources are the foundations of development. These have economic significance for human beings. Land, water and air are basic requirements for agriculture. We can’t do agriculture without these resources. Minerals are basic requirement for industries. Industries cannot run without minerals. Thus development and resources are inter-dependent.

Question 24.
Distinguish between actual resources and reserve resources.
Answer:
Actual Resources. Actual resources depend upon physical conditions of environment. These are surveyed. Their quantity is determined and are actually used. Their quantity is known.

Reserve resources are a part of actual resources. These can be made useful with technology. A low grade coal-lignite is a reserved resource in some areas.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 25.
Give one example each of developed and potential resources.
Answer:
When the water of river is used to produce electricity, it is called a developed resource. The coal underlying the earth is a potential resource.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
_______ resources are derived from living things.
Answer:
Biotic

Question 2.
Localised resources are found only in places.
Answer:
certain

Question 3.
The example of human resource is _______
Answer:
people

Question 4.
Solar and wind energy is an example of _______
Answer:
Renewable resources

Question 5.
Anything that is used to satisfy a need is called a _______
Answers :
resource

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Question 6.
Petroleum in _______ is an example of actual resource.
Answer:
West Asia

Question 7.
_______ is the application of latest knowledge and skill is doing or making things.
Answer:
Technology.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a detailed note on conservation of resources with special reference to marine and mineral resources.
Answer:
Conservation of Resources. Man depends upon its environment to meet his needs. He uses water,.land, soil, vegetation, etc. to satisfy his needs. Man is using these resources at such an alarming rate that there will be serious shortage of these resources in the near future. Natural resources are of a very limited supply. So conservation of resources is essential for the survival of man.

To some people conservation means that the available resources should not be used. These should be held back. But conservation of resources means a careful and rational utilization of resources. These resources should be used intelligently for the welfare of mankind. It means a careful control and management of resources so that these may be used for the benefit of future generations also. These should be preserved from reckless exploitation and wanton destruction. These resources should not be wasted in a short time. The resources should be maintained in a healthy condition for their use so as to achieve a high standard of living for mankind.

Importance:
Conservation of all resources has an economic, scientific and aesthetic value for mankind :

  • Conservation of resources is necessary as these are the basis of economic activities of man.
  • Resources must be conserved to meet the different human needs.
  • Conservation of resources is essential as life depends on these useful elements of environment such as air, water, soil, rocks, forests and water bodies.
  • Many areas of the world are still under-developed because the resources of these areas have not been used in a planned and rational manner.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation

Resources – Types and Conservation PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Resources: The base for economic strength and prosperity.
  • Types:
    (a) Natural
    (b) human made
    (c) human.
  • Utility: What makes an object or substance a resource.
  • Value: It means worth.
  • Stock of Resources: Amount of resources available for use.
  • Patent: It means the exclusive right over any idea or invention.
  • Resources: They are the means which help in attaining given ends or satisfying human wants.
  • Actual or Potential Resources: On the basis of development natural resource may be actual or potential. We know the usage and quantity of the actual resource like coal deposits. A potential resource is not being used
  • Natural Resources: The gifts of nature, such as land, rivers, plants, animals, etc. They are used by all living things.
  • Human Resources: The human beings living in a particular area or country. It also refers to the ability of humans to use the natural resources usefully:
  • Renewable Resources: Those resources which can be obtained continuously for human needs, such as water, plants etc. They can regenerate themselves.
  • Non-Renewable Resources: Those resources which have a limited or fixed source of supply. Once used they cannot be regenerated easily again.
  • Technology: It is the knowledge to do or make things. It is a human made resource.
  • Conservation: It is planned and careful use of natural resources, so that these resources can be used for longer period of time.
  • Abiotic or Biotic Resources: On the basis of origin a resource may be: abiotic or non-living-like soil, rocks or biotic-living-like plants, animals.
  • Renewable and Non-renewable Resources: Natural resources may also be classified as renewable-that exist in unlimited quantity like sunlight or non-renewable—that are in limited quantity like petroleum.
  • On the basis of distribution a resource may be ubiquitous like, air-found everywhere or localized-found in certain parts only like minerals.
  • Humans have used their intelligence to create certain resources like; vehicles, buildings, roads etc.
  • Human themselves are a resource like, farmer, labourer, teacher, doctor etc. Human resource development is essential for further development.
  • We need to conserve resources for fulfilling present and future needs. This is known as sustainable development.
  • Early man was fully dependent upon the environment.
  • Human needs depend upon natural environment and level of social, cultural and technological development.
  • All biotic resources can reproduce and regenerate and thus are renewable.
  • The utility of resources largely depends on their location.
  • Anything that can be used to satisfy a need is called resource.
  • Time and technology are two important factors that can change substances into resources.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions Geography Chapter 1 Resources – Types and Conservation Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.