PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Who has written ‘Anand Math’?
Answer:
Anand Math Novel was written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

Question 2.
Write down the names of the writers of short-stories.
Answer:
Famous writers of short-stories were Ravindra Nath Tagore, Premchand, Jaspal, Tejendra Kumar, Krishna Chand, etc.

Question 3.
Who established the printing press in India and when?
Answer:
First printing press of India was started by Portuguese in 1557 A.D.

Question 4.
Which two newspapers Bal Gangadhar Tilak started publishing?
Answer:
Newspapers called ‘Kesari’ in Marathi language and ‘Maratha’ in English language.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
Write down the famous painters of Art School of Baroda University.
Answer:
G.R. Santosh, Ghulam Sheikh, Shanti Dev, etc.

Question 6.
Write down the famous artists of Madras School of Art.
Answer:
D.R. Choudhary, K.C.S. Pannikar, Satish Gujral, Ram Kumar and K.G. Subramaniyam.

Question 7.
Write down a note on the literature of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
Every section of literature developed in 19th and at the beginning of 20th century whose description is given below :
1. Novels, Stories, etc. Katha literature.

  • Famous writers of the Bengali literature were Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Sharat Chandra Chatterjee etc. ‘Anand Math’ novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is known as ‘Bible of modern Bengali Patriotism’.
  • Munshi Premchand throws light on the exploitation of peasants by the British government through his novels ‘Godan’ and ‘Rangbhumi’. He wrote many other novels in Hindi and in Urdu language.
  • Writers like Hemchandra Benarjee, Dinbandhu Mitra, Rabindra Nath Tagore etc. wrote a lot about patriotism.

2. Poetry. Romanticism in Indian poetry started when it came in contact with European literature. But more stress is given on nationalism and national movement in Indian poetry. Famous poets, who prospered Indian poetry, were Rabindra Nath Tagore (Bengali), Iqbal (Urdu), Keshav Sut (Marathi), Subramaniyam Bharti (Tamil) etc.

3. Dramas and Cinema. Indian Dramatists and artists tried to write Eastern and Western style of drama. Famous dramatists of this age were Girish Karnands (Kannada), Vijay Tendulkar (Marathi), Mulakhraj Anand and R.K. Narayan (English). Rabindra Nath Tagore gave stress on National consciousness and International Humanism through his writings.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 8.
Write down a note on the painting of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
A new form to painting was given by different art schools and art groups in 19th and at the start of 20th century.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 1

It’s description is given below :

  • Raja Ravi Verma painted European Naturalism by mixing it with Indian myths legends.
  • Painters of Bengal Art School, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Havell Kumarswami made paintings based on traditional stories, epics and ancient literature.
  • Paintings of Amrita Shergill and George Keyt were very much influenced by modern European art, modern spirit and symbols. Colour-scheme used by George Keyt was very impressive.
  • Rabindra Nath Tagore made beautiful paintings through watercolours and coloured chalks. Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Paintings of flowers and women made by famous artists of Bombay were very beautiful because of their colours. Names of Francis Newton Souza, K.H. Ara, S.K. Banner can be taken in this regard. Except this, there is a great contribution of Baroda University of Art, Madras Art School and National Gallery of Modern Art in making painting popular.

Question 9.
What do you mean by the changes in Performing Arts?
Answer:
Mainly music, painting, dances and dramas are included in the fine-art. Indian heritage was very prosperous in these fields before the advent of Britishers. Classical music, Indian and Carnatic music school of our country are some of the examples of this prosperous heritage of India.

  • Folk music and folk dance of our country fills encouragement among the people. Names of Indian classical dances, Kathakali, Kuchipudi and Kathak are included in this.
  • Dramas played on the stage and puppet shows are important aspects of our cultural tradition.
  • Different types of musical instruments, like Sitar, Tumbi, Drum (Harp), (Sarangi), Tabla (Tabor) etc. are famous in India. Flute, Shehnai (clarionet) are musical instruments that run with air.
  • Great artists of India like Kumar Gandharva, Ravi Shankar, Rukmani Devi, Ragini Devi, Uday Shankar, and Rabindra Nath Tagore became very famous in the fields of Indian music and dance.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Much literature was written in _______ language during the 19th century.
Answer:
Bengali

Question 2.
Bande Matram the national song was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterji

Question 3.
Munshi Prem Chand wrote many novels in _______ and _______ language.
Answer:
Urdu, Hindi

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Amrita Sher Gill and _______ were the great Indian painters.
Answer:
George Keyt.

III. Write True or False in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
Prince of Wales Museum is known as ‘Chhatterpati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalya’.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Marina Coastal is 10 Kilometer long.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
War Memorial is made in the memory of martyrdoms of the First World War.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
The Legislature and Secretariat Offices of Tamil Nadu are located in the Fort St. George building.
Answer:
True.

IV. Things To Do :

Question 1.
Write ‘Bande Matram’ national anthem on chart and sing it.
Answer:
Do it yourself

Question 2.
Make a chart of “Jan Gan, Man’ the National Anthem.
Answer:
Do it yourself

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
To know about famous folk dances – Bhangra and Gidha etc. of Punjab.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
An accepted norm or style is called
(a) Convention
(b) Commission
(c) Engraving
(d) Mural.
Answer:
(a) Convention.

Question 2.
The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture what the eye saw is called
(a) Realism
(b) Picturesque
(c) Portrait
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(a) Realism.

Question 3.
The Style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint, unexplored land is known as
(a) Portrait
(b) Picturesque
(c) Realism
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(b) Picturesque.

Question 4.
Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called
(a) Realism
(b) History painting
(c) Portrait
(d) Picturesque.
Answer:
(c) Portrait.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
_______ are the paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories.
(a) Picturesque
(b) Realism
(c) Portrait
(d) History painting.
Answer:
(d) History painting.

Question 6.
Which of these was brought in India with British art?
(a) Oil painting
(b) Miniatures
(c) Use of perspective
(d) Mural art.
Answer:
(a) Oil painting.

Question 7.
Painting made by Francis Hayman in _______depicts the British victory in the Battle of Plassey.
(a) 1770 A.D.
(b) 1762 A.D.
(c) 1766 A.D.
(d) 1768 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1762 A.D.

Question 8.
Who wanted to develop a national style of art?
(a) Raja Ravi Verma
(b) Ravindranath Tagore
(c) Aabindranath Tagore
(d) Francis Hayman.
Answer:
(c) Aabindranath Tagore.

Question 9.
Who decided to set up a picture production team and printing press in Bombay?
(a) Raja Ravi Verma
(b) Ravindranath Tagore
(c) Aabindranath Tagore
(d) Francis Hayman.
Answer:
(a) Raja Ravi Verma.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 10.
Which of these new things was introduced by colonial rule in India?
(a) New art forms
(b) New Styles
(c) New materials
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 11.
European artists came to India along with British
(a) Sailors
(b) Traders
(c) Warriors
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Traders.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
During _______ century, much of the Bengali literature was written.
Answer:
19th century

Question 2.
Vande Matram was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Question 3.
Munshi Prem Chand wrote many novels in _______ and _______ languages.
Answer:
Urdu, Hindi

Question 4.
_______ is famous beach in Chennai.
Answer:
Marina beach

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 5.
Vande Matram, the national song was written by _______
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Prince of Wales Museum is presently known as ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Museum’.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
Marina beach is 10 kilometer long.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
War Memorial was made in the memory of the soldiers martyred during First World War.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Vande Matram was included in a book Anand Marriage.
Answer:
(✗).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Fort St. George (i) Beach
2. V.G.B. Golden Beach (ii) Madras
3. Anand Math (iii) Munshi Prem Chand
4. Godan (iv) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Answer:

A B
1. Fort St. George (ii) Madras
2. V.G.B. Golden Beach (i) Beach
3. Anand Math (iv) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
4. Godan (iii) Munshi Prem Chand

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
From which novel National Song of Wande Matram’ was taken?
Answer:
From the novel ‘Anand Math’.

Question 2.
Which novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is known as ‘Bible of Bengali Patriotism’ and why?
Answer:
Bengali novel ‘Anand Math’, because many patriotic songs are there in it.

Question 3.
Name any two famous novels of Munshi Premchand.
Answer:
Godan and Rangbhoomi.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 4.
Name two newspapers published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Answer:
Samvad Kaumudi and Mirat-ul-Akhbar.

Question 5.
Who was Raja Ravi Verma?
Answer:
Raja Ravi Verma was a famous painter and sculpture of modern India. His pictures and paintings were associated with Indian epics and Sanskrit literature.

Question 6.
Where was Kala Bhavan established by Rabindra Nath Tagore?
Answer:
At Shanti Niketan.

Question 7.
Name two famous painters of Madras Art School.
Answer:
D.R. Chaudhary and K.C.S. Panikar.

Question 8.
Name three musical instruments which run with air.
Answer:

  1. Flute
  2. Shehnai (clarionet)
  3. Algoza.

Question 9.
What is the modern name of Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai? With which building it is situated?
Answer:
Modern name of Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai is ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahqlaya’. It is situated near to Gateway of India.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 10.
By which two architects, Gateway of India was built?
Answer:
John Wiltet and his friend John Beigh.

Question 11.
Name two famous Sea Beaches of Chennai.
Answer:
Merina Beach and V.G.B. Golden Beach.

Question 12.
In whose memory, War Memorial of Chennai was built?
Answer:
It was built in the memory of soldiers died in the First World War.

Question 13.
Raja Ravi Verma was a great artist. Which field of art was he associated with?
Answer:
He was a painter.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the development in the field of novels from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century.
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Michael Madhu Sudan Dutt and Sharat Chandra Chatterjee were famous scholars of Bengali literature in modern age. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wrote famous novel ‘Anand Math’ in Bengali language. Many national songs were there in it. Our national song Vande Matram’ is also one of them. Presently it is known as ‘Bible of Bengali Patriotism’.

Munshi Prem Chand also wrote many novels in Urdu and Hindi language. He threw light on the exploitation of peasants by British in his novels ‘Godan’ and ‘Rangbhoomi’. Writings of scholars like Hemchandra Benerjee, Dinbandhu Mitra, Rang Lai, Keshav Chandra Sen, Rabindra Nath Tagore became very popular and they filled sense of patriotism among the people.

Question 2.
Describe the development of poetry from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century.
Answer:
Romanceism started in Indian poetry when it came in contact with European literature. But Indian poetry gave more stress on Nationalism and National movement.

Famous poets of India are Rabindra Nath Tagore (Bengali), Iqbal (Urdu), Qazi Nazrool Islam (Bengali), Keshav Sat (Marathi), Subramaniyam Bharti (Tamil) etc. But poetry after 1936 A.D. tells the story of daily life and misery of the people. Faiz and Mezaz (Urdu), Jivan Nand Dass (Bengali), Agya and Mukti Bodh (Hindi) were some of the poets who gave new poetry. After independence, poetry was composed by poets like Raghuvir Sahai, Kedarnath Singh (Hindi), Shakti Chattopadhyaya (Bengali) etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
Which developments took place in the Helds of dramas and cinema from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century A.D.?
Answer:
Indian artists and dramatists tried to mix western and eastern styles of dramas from 19th century till the beginning of 20th century. Cinema organization gave a great contribution is arosing interests of the people in dramas and cinema. Girish Karnad (Kannada), Vijay Tendulkar (Marathi) etc. were famous dramatists of this age. Mulakh Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan wrote dramas in English language.

Rabindra Nath Tagore was also a famous dramatist of this age. We can find a beautiful mixture of ancient Indian traditions and European culture in his writings. He tried to develop National Consciousness and International Humanism through his writings.

Question 4.
Write down a note on Fort St. George.
Answer:
Fort St. George situated at Chennai was the first British fort in India. It was made in 1639 A.D. It’s name was kept on the name of St. George. This fort became the centre of commercial activities of the British. This fort gave a great contribution in establishing the British supremacy in the Karnatic region. In present age, Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu state and offices of the Secretariate are situated in this building. Pictures of Tipu Sultan are still there on the walls of this fort which increases its glory.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the development in the field of Painting in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
Many changes came in the field of Indian painting during 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century. These changes were brought by art schools and art groups.

Their brief description is given below :
1. Raja Ravi Verma. Raja Ravi Verma was a great artist in the field of painting. He was not only good at painting but he was also famous for the making of sculptures. He made pictures by mixing European naturism with Indian myths legends. Pictures made by him are associated with Indian epics and Sanskrit literature. He expressed Indian glorious past through the medium of paintings.

2. Art School of Bengal. A number of steps were taken by Rabindra Nath Tagore and Havell Kumarswami to popularise Bengali Art school. Famous painters of this school made paintings based on Indian historical stories, epics and ancient literature. They made small pictures with water colours. Rabindra Nath Tagore used water colours in Japanese technique. He even established Kala-Bhavan in Shanti-Niketan.

3. Amrita Shergil and George Keyt. Amrita Shergil and George Keyt were also quite famous Indian painters. They had the knowledge of modern European art, modem animism and symbols. Disserent Paintings of Amrita Shergil were different from each other but she made pictures of Indian females. Colour-style used by George Keyt in his paintings was quite impressive.

4. Rabindra Nath Tagore. Paintings of Rabindra Nath Tagore were based on his own experiences. He made many pictures outlined by coloured chalks and filled with water colours.

5. Famous Artists of Bombay. Francis Newton Souza was one of the most famous artists of this school. He made pictures of different models with impressive colours. Paintings of flowers and women made by K.H. Ara were famous for their colours and specificness. S.K. Bakre, H.A. Gade and M.F. Hussain are other famous painters of Bombay.

6. Art School of Baroda (Vadodhra) University. G.R. Santosh, Ghulam Sheikh, Shanti Dev are famous painters of this school. Every artist of this school has its own style of painting but modernity can be seen in every work of every artist.

7. Art School of Madras. This school was prospered after independence under the guidance of D.R. Chaudhary and K.C.S. Pannikar. Other famous artists of this school were Satish Gujral, Ram Kumar and K.G. Subramaniyam.

Except these art schools, models of modern art can be seen in National Gallery of Modern Art. Lalit Kala Academy has encouraged the artists by giving them scholarships, grants, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 2.
Explain the progress of press in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Answer:
There was no printing press in India before the British rule. Newspapers in Mughal rule were hand written which were prepared by Mughal emperor and rich businessmen for their own use. First printing press in India was established by Portuguese in 1557 A.D. But their objective was to print Christian literature and to propagate Christianity.

Development of Press till 1857 A.D.:

  1. Newspapers started to be printed at Calcutta and other cities due to press related liberal policy of Lord Hastings. One famous journalist J.S. started to print newspaper, called ‘Calcutta Journal’, in 1818 A.D. At the same time G.C. Marshman star ted, to print newspapers ‘Darpan’ and ‘Digdarshan’ in Sarumpur.
  2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy started to publish ‘Samvad Kaumudi’ in Bengali language in 1821 A.D. and ‘Mirat-ul-Akhbar’ in Persian language in 1822 A.D. At the same time Furdoonji Murzbaan started to publish a newspaper ‘Bombay Samachar’ in Gujarati language.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 2
Development of Press After 1857 A.D:
A number of newspapers started to publish after 1857-58 A.D. in different parts of the country. Later on, the Press developed to a great deal during 1881-1907 A.D. For example, Bal Gangadhar Tilak started to publish ‘Kesari’ in Marathi language and ‘Maratha’ in English language. Due to efforts of Ghosh brothers, newspapers of ‘Yugantar’ and “Vande Matram’ started to be published in Bengal and they started to raise their voice against the British rule. Monthly papers also started to be published in this age. ‘The Hindustan Review’ from 1899 A.D., ‘The Indian Review’ from 1900 A.D. and ‘The Modern Review’ from 1907 gaj Gangadhar Tilak A.D. were some of the famous monthly papers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture

Question 3.
Explain the case study of: Mumbai and Chennai.
Answer:
Bombay is known as Mumbai these days and Madras is known as Chennai. Both of these cities became the main presidencies during British rule. Very quickly these cities became centres of political, commercial and cultural activities. Both of these cities developed to a great deal in music and dance as well.
1. Mumbai. Instead of political and commercial activities, Bombay became the centre of cultural activities under the East India Company in 1668 A.D. This city got royal protection and that’s why, many new schools and colleges were opened over here. All round development of music, dance and dramas took place over here. Field of literature also developed very quickly due to the development of new style of writing. Except this new styles of literature, painting and architecture were also developed.

Buildings of Mumbai. Different models of architecture of Mumbai still remind us about Colonial rulers and their style. All these building are made in Indo-European style.

Their brief description is given below :
(а) Prince of Wales Museum. Prince of Wales Museum is known as the ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalya’ these days. It is situated in south Mumbai near to Gateway of India. It was made in the beginning of 20th century in the memory of Indian Journey of Prince of Wales and Ruler of Britain Edward VII. The work of building was given to a famous architect George Wiltet in 1909 A.D. It was completed in 1915 A.D. It is a beautiful mixture of many elements of architectural technique. This building has three floors and on the top, dome is there. This dome looks alike the dome of Taj Mahal. Its windows and floor match with the palaces of Mughals. Symbols of monuments of ancient India and architecture of Indus Valley Civilization can be seen over here.

(b) Gate Way of India. Gate Way of India is situated near to the Prince of Wales Museum on the coast of Arabic Sea. It was made by George Wiltet and his friend John Beigh. It was made in the memory of Delhi Durbar Journey of George V and Queen Mary in India.

(c) Victoria Terminas. Victoria Terminas was prepared in 1888 A.D. Now it is known as the ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminas’. It’s earlier name was kept on the name of the Ruler of Britain Queen Victoria. Its model was prepared by the famous British architect F.W. Starus (Stievans). It took around 10 years to built this terminas. It was given the name of ‘Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminas’ in March 1996. It was included in the world heritage of UNESCO on the 2nd July 2004.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture 3

(d) Other Buildings of Mumbai. There are many other important buildings in Mumbai except the previously mentioned buildings and these are General Post Office, Municipal Corporation, Raja Bhai Tower, Bombay University. All these buildings were built in 19th and 20th centuries.

2. Chennai. Chennai (Madras) was built in 1639 A.D. by taking land from local leader. It was developed into a metropolitan city in 1658 A.D. and it became a presidency. Every type of art of Southern India, like dance and music, were developed over here. Many buildings were built over here in 19th and 20th century.

Following are the famous places of Chennai :
(a) Sea Beaches of Chennai. Sea beaches of Chennai are very famous all over India. Merina Beach is quite famous out of these beaches. It is around 6 km long. Many famous buildings are situated in front of it. V.G.B. Golden beach is one of the other famous beaches of Chennai. It is generally overcrowded by children due to availability of toy train over here.
(b) War Memorial. War memorial is also a beautiful building which was built in Chennai. It was built in the memory of the soldiers which had died during First World War.
(c) High Court. Building of High Court of Chennai completed in 1892 A.D. It is the second famous Judicial complex of the world. It’s dome and galleries are fine examples of Indo-European architectural technique.
(d) Other Famous Buildings. Other famous buildings of Chennai which were made during British rule are George Tower, Saint Thomas Cathedral Basilika, Presidency College, Rippen Building, Chennai Central Station, Southern Railway Headquarters, etc.

The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Arts and Literature in India. There is a great history of painting, literature, architecture, music-dance, cinema, etc. Political power in India changed in 19th century and 20th century and that’s why important changes also took place especially in the sectors of literature and arts.
  • Novels. Novels were prosperous by novelists like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Madhusudan Dutt, Dinbandhu Mitra, Keshva Chandra Sen, etc.
  • Fine Arts. Music, painting and arts are mainly included in these arts. These arts were developed in a great deal during the British rule.
  • Architecture in Mumbai and Chennai. The British made marvelous buildings in Mumbai and Chennai. Most of these buildings were made in Indo-European style.
  • Important buildings of Mumbai. Prince of Wales Museum, Gate Way of India, Victoria Terminal, Rajabai Tower, etc.
  • Beautiful places of Chennai. Marina Beach and V.G.B. Golden Beach, Fort Saint George, War Memorial, High Court, etc.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 20 The Changes in Arts, Painting, Literature and Architecture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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