PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Rural Life and Society Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Who, when and where, started permanent system?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis introduced Permanent Settlement of land in Bengal in 1793 A.D.

Question 2.
Who, when and where introduced Ryatwari system?
Answer:
Ryatwari system was started by a British officer Thomas Munro in 1820 A.D. in Madras and Bombay.

Question 3.
In which three areas Mahalwari system implemented?
Answer:
Mahalwari system was introduced in Uttar Pradesh. Punjab and some states of Central India. In this system, revenue was collected from whole of the community.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
How the commercialization of agriculture started?
Answer:
Agriculture fulfilled the needs of people of villages before the advent of the British. But the British introduced new land settlements because of which farmers started to produce things to sell in the markets so that more and more money could be earned. In this way commercialization of agriculture took place.

Question 5.
Which were the commercial crops?
Answer:
The main commercial crops were wheat, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, jute, etc.

Question 6.
Mention two benefits of the commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:

  1. People started growing different crops due to the commercialization of crops. It lead to increase in production.
  2. Means of transport were developed so that crops could be taken to the market.

Question 7.
Mention two losses of commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:

  1. Indian farmers did agriculture with ancient methods. That’s why their crops were unable to compete with those crops which were grown with the help of machines. That’s why farmers were unable to take maximum advantage out of it.
  2. A farmer had to sell his crop in market through middlemen and middlemen took their share as well. It led to less profit for farmer.

Question 8.
What was permanent Settlement? What were the economic effects of this system? (P.S.E.B. 2004)
Answer:
Permanent Settlement was a type of land settlement. It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal in 1793 A.D. Later on it was also introduced in Bihar, Orissa, Benaras and Northern India. According to this system, zamindars were made the owners of the land. Government fixed the land revenue given by them. They deposited the fixed amount in government treasury. But they collected tax from the farmers according to their wish. If any zamindar was unable to pay the land revenue then government sold some part of his land to complete the amount of fixed revenue.

Economic Impact. Income of government was fixed with this system but it left a very bad impact on farmers. Zamindars started to exploit them. Zamindars were not paying any attention on land reforms. That’s why production of farmers started to reduce day by day.

Question 9.
Write a short note on commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:
Villages, before the British empire in India, were self-dependent. People used to do agriculture whose main aim was to fulfil the needs of the village. Crops were not sold. Other workers of village like blacksmith, carpenter, barber, etc. collectively used to fulfil the needs of the village. But the self-dependency of the villages come to an end after the establishment of the British empire in India. According to new land revenue systems, farmers had to pay the fixed amount to government as land revenue and at a particular time as well. Now the main aim of agriculture was just to earn money. It was known as the commercialization of agriculture. This process of commercialization of agriculture became more complex with the advent of the industrial revolution in England. The farmers were forced to produce those crops which could be used as the raw material in factories of England.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 10.
Write a note on Indigo-revolt.
Or
What do you know about Indigo Revolt?
Answer:
Indigo revolt was started by the Indigo-producing farmers against imposing more tax on the production of Indigo. Indigo revolt took place between 1858 to 1860 A.D. in a large part of Bengal and Bihar. Farmers of this area refused to produce Indigo. Government threatened them but they remained stick to their demand. When government took some hard steps then they attacked the factories of the British. All the efforts to stop them gone in vain.

One revolt also took place in Champaran district in 1866-68 A.D. against the cultivation of Indigo. This revolt remained continued till the beginning of 20th century. Then Gandhiji came in their favour and then their problem was solved.

Question 11.
Write a short note on mahalwari system.
Answer:
Mahalwari system was introduced to remove the shortcomings of Ryatwari system. It was introduced in U.P., Punjab and various parts of central India. Main feature of this system was the land was neither associated with any zamindar and nor with any farmer. This system was actually took place with whole community of the village. Whole of the community was responsible to pay land revenue. It was fixed in community that what a farmer has to pay. If any farmer was unable to give his share then it was taken from the community of the village.

This system was known as the best system because features of both the earlier systems were there in it. The only drawback which was there in it was that people had to pay a lot of tax.

Question 12.
Write down the benefits of ryatwari system.
Or
Write a note on Ryatwari system.
Answer:
Thomas Munro was appointed as the Governor of Madras in 1820 A.D. He made a new system of land which was known as Ryatwari system. It was introduced in Madras and Bombay. Government decided to take land revenue from those people who themselves tilled the land. So all the middlemen between government and farmers were removed. This system was much better than the Permanent Settlement. Farmers were made owners of their land. Their revenue was fixed which was 40% to 55% of the total produce. It led to increase in income of the government.

Some defects were also there in this system. This system reduced the community feeling among the people of the village. Importance of Panchayats was reduced. Except this government started to exploit the farmers. Farmers were forced to take loans from moneylenders by mortgaging their lands to them.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The contractors _______ the farmers.
Answer:
exploited

Question 2.
The _______ became land owners due to permanent settlement.
Answer:
Zamindars

Question 3.
Zamindars committed _______with the farmers.
Answer:
atrocities

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
_______ was the main occupation of the Indians before the British rule.
Answer:
Agriculture

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Warren Hastings (i) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (ii) Ryatwari System
3. Thomas Munro (iii) Permanent Settlement

Answer:

A B
1. Warren Hastings (iii) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (i) Permanent Settlement
3. Thomas Munro (ii) Ryatwari System

IV. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
Due to British rule self sufficiency of the vtllage economy got much benefit in India.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Mahalwari system was made with whole community of the village.
Answer:
True

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
The Britishers implemented sale rule according to Permanent settlement ift Bengal.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Rural Life and Society Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The British came to India as
(a) Conquerer
(b) Sellers of goods
(c) Winner
(d) Traders.
Answer:
(d) Traders.

Question 2.
_______ were known as ryots.
(a) Cultivators
(b) Zamindars
(c) Landlords
(d) Labourers.
Answer:
(a) Cultivators.

Question 3.
The Champaran Movement was against
(a) The British
(b) The Indigo planters
(c) Landlords
(d) Revenue officials.
Answer:
(b) The Indigo planters.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 4.
Who were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay fixed revenue to the company in Permanent Settlement?
(a) Headman of village
(b) Revenue officials
(c) Cultivators
(d) Zamindars.
Answer:
(d) Zamindars.

Question 5.
Who was given the charge to collect and to pay revenue to the company in Mahalwari system?
(a) Headman of village
(b) Cultivators
(c) Zamindar
(d) Revenue officials.
Answer:
(a) Headman of village.

Question 6.
What was done by thousands of Indigo ryots of Bengal in 1859?
(a) Refused to pay rents
(b) Attacked indigo factories
(c) Agents of planters were beaten up
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 7.
_______ introduced Mahalwari System.
(a) Holt Mackenzie
(b) Lord Carnwallis
(c) Lord Hastings
(d) Alexander Read
Answer:
(a) Holt Mackenzie.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 8.
Who introduced Ryotwari System?
(a) Holt Mackenzie
(b) Lord Hasting
(c) Captain Alexander Read
(d) Lord Carnwallis
Answer:
(c) Captain Alexander Read.

Question 9.
Which of these crops were encouraged by the British?
(a) Opium
(b) Tea
(c) Indigo
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
When did a terrible femine occur in Bengal?
(a) 1760
(b) 1770
(c) 1765
(d) 1775.
Answer:
(b) 1770.

Question 11.
Which of these was the demerit of Permanent Settlement?
(a) A new class of landlords loyal to the British came in front
(b) Landlords had to sell their lands to pay the tax
(c) It hardly paid any attention to rights of farmers
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 12.
Between 1866 A.D. and 1868 A.D. Champaran in Bihar witnessed a revolt. The revolt was against which of the following :
(a) Against the Indigo planting
(b) Against the wheat planting
(c) Against the Cotton planting
(d) Against the Sugarcane planting.
Answer:
(a) Against the Indigo planting.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Contractors _______ the farmers.
Answer:
exploited

Question 2.
Due to Permanent Settlement, _______ became owners of land.
Answer:
Zamindars

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
Zamindars committed _______ on farmers.
Answer:
atrocities

Question 4.
Before the establishment of the British rule, main occupation of the Indian people was _______
Answer:
Agriculture.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
The self-sufficient -system of Indian villages got geat advantage of the British administration.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
Mahalwari arrangement was done with the whole village.
Answer:
(✓)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
According to Bengal’s permanent settlement, the British made sales Law.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Warren Hastings (i) Permanent Settlement
2. Lord Cornwallis (ii) Ryatwari System
3. Thomas Munro (iii) Contractual System

Answer:

A B
1. Warren Hastings (iii) Contractual System
2. Lord Cornwallis (i) Permanent Settlement
3. Thomas Munro (ii) Ryatwari System

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why were Indian industries destroyed by economic policies adopted by the Britishers?
Answer:
Some new industries were established by the British. Their main aim was to fulfill the British interests. As a result, Indian industries were destroyed.

Question 2.
Which three new systems were introduced by the British in India to collect land revenue?
Answer:

  1. Permanent Settlement
  2. Ryotwari system and
  3. Mahalwari system.

Question 3.
What was the main aim of the British regarding land policies?
Answer:
To collect more and more money from India.

Question 4.
When did the British get Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa? To whom the work of collecting revenue was given?
Answer:
The British got Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765 A.D. The work of collection of revenue was given to Aamils.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 5.
Who introduced contract system? What is meant by it?
Answer:
Contract system was introduced by Lord Warren Hastings. Its meaning was the system of giving land on contract.

Question 6.
After how many years, the land revenue in Ryatwari system was supported to be increased?
Answer:
After 20 to 30 years.

Question 7.
What was the main defect of Mahalwari system?
Answer:
Farmers had to pay a lot of land revenue.

Question 8.
Which 5 areas were greatly affected by commer-cialization agriculture?
Answer:
Punjab, Bengal, Gujarat, Khandesh and Barar.

Question 9.
What was sales law according the Permanent Settlement of Bengal?
Answer:
According to the sales law, whichever zamindar was unable to pay his land revenue till 31 March, his land was supposed to sell to other zamindars to collect the remaining revenue.

Question 10.
What was the main reason of revolt of farmers?
Answer:
The main reason of farmers revolt was more taxes on land. It led to deteriorating condition of farmers. That’s why they revolted against the Britishers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 11.
Give one merit of Permanent Settlement.
Answer:
The zamindars became rich and they invested money for the development of the industry and trade.

Question 12.
Give one demerit of Permanent Settlement.
Answer:
The income of the company was fixed but the expenditure started to increase. Gradually the company was in loss.

Question 13.
What was the main purpose of the British land revenue policies?
Answer:
The main purpose of the land revenue policies of the British was to get maximum profit and to serve their self interests.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on contract system introduced by Lord Warren Hastings.
Answer:
Meaning of the contract system is the system of giving land on contract. This system was introduced by Warren Hastings. According to this system, land was given for contract of 5 years. Higher bidder was given the contract of land for collection of land revenue for 5 years. Later on in 1777 A.D., this term of 5 years was reduced to 1 year. But this system was very defective. Zamindars or contractors used to collect lot of tax from the farmers. It lead to deterioration of economic condition of farmers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 2.
How were zamindars more benefitted by the Permanent Settlement as compared to the farmers?
Answer:
Zamindars were benefitted by the Permanent Settlement. They became the permanent owners of their lands. They got the right to sell or to change the land. They paid definite land revenue to company but they used to collect more land revenue from the farmers. If any farmer was unable to pay tax they captured his land. Most of the zamindars used to live a leisure life in cities but farmers were forced to live a hell like life. In the end we can say that zamindars were greatly benefitted by the Permanent Settlement as compared to the farmers.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the consequences of land revenue systems introduced by the British?
Answer:
There were some of the evil consequences of the land revenue systems introduced by the British and these are given below :

  1. Zamindars used to exploit the farmers. Even they committed atrocities on farmers while collecting land revenue. The government did not take care of them.
  2. Zamindars became owners of the land by paying definite land revenue to the government. Now zamindars were free to collect land revenue from the farmers according to their own wish. It led to richness of zamindars. Farmers became poorer with this.
  3. The government itself exploited the farmers of those areas where Ryatwari and Mahalwari systems were introduced. One third or half portion of the total produce was collected as the land revenue. Rate, of land revenue was increased each year.
  4. When land became private property then it started to be divided among the members of family. It fed to division of land into small pieces.
  5. Farmers had to pay their land revenue till a particular date. They were forced to pay the land revenue even in the case of femine, flood, etc. That’s why they had to mortgage their land to moneylenders so that they could get money to pay their land revenue. In this way their debt increased day-by-day and they left with no option except by leaving their right over the land.

Actually the main aim of agriculture related policies of the British government was to get more and more money and to fulfil their administration interests. In the end farmers became poor and they came under the clutches of moneylenders.

Question 2.
Explain in brief the permanent settlement, ryatwari system and mahalwari system introduced under the British rule.
Answer:
Permanent Settlement, Ryatwari and Mahalwari system were the new revenue systems introduced by the British. Their brief description is given below :
1. Permanent Settlement: It was a type of land settlement. It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal in!793 A.D. Later on it was also introduced in Bihar, Orissa, Benaras and Northern India. According to this system, zamindars were made the owners of the land. Government fixed the land revenue given by them. They deposited the fixed amount in government treasury. But they collected tax from the farmers according to their wish. If any zamindar was unable to pay the land revenue then government used to sell some part of his land to compensate the amount of fixed revenue.

2. Ryatwari System: Thomas Munro was appointed as the Governor of Madras in 1820 A.D. He made a new system of land which was known as the Ryatwari system. It was introduced in Madras and Bombay. Government decided to take land revenue from those people who themselves used to till the land. So all the middlemen between government and farmers were removed. This system was much better than the Permanent Settlement. Farmers were made owners of their land. Their revenue was fixed which was 40% to 55% of the total produce. It lead t* increase in income of the government.

Some defects were also there in this system. This system reduced the community feeling among the people of the village. Importance of Pancbayats was reduced. Except this government started to exploit the farmers. Farmers were forced to take loans from moneylenders by mortgaging their lands to them.

3. Mahalwari System: It was introduced to remove the shortcomings of the Ryatwari system. It was introduced in U.P., Punjab and some parts of Central India. The main feature of this system was that land was neither associated with any zamindar and nor with any farmer. This system was actually taking place with whole community of the village. Whole of the community was responsible to pay land revenue. It was determined in community that what a farmer has to pay. If any farmer was unable to give his share then it was taken from the community of village.

This system was known as the best system because features of both the earlier systems were there in it. The only drawback which was there in it was that people had to pay a lot of tax.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 3.
What was permanent system? Mention its benefits and losses.
Answer:
During the time of Lord Clive, the British East India Company got the Diwani Rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor. The Company had no means to collect the taxes. Therefore, the work regarding the collection of land revenue was given to the local officers. The method of collecting revenue by these officers was very faulty. Warren Hastings, therefore, made some reforms in this system. But neither the landlords were happy nor the income of the Company was increasing. Cornwallis, therefore, introduced what is called the ‘Permanent ^Settlement’ of land. This system was started in 1793 A.D.

Benefits of Permanent Settlement. The following were the advantages of the Permanent Settlement:

  • Income of the Company became certain. Now it was easy for the Company to prepare its budget.
  • Landlords were now made permanent owners of the land. They, therefore, started making improvements in agriculture and to make their lands fertile.
  • Now the Company had not to assess the land revenue time and again.
  • As the landlords were made the permanent owners of land, they were pleased with the British and sided with the government in times of internal revolts.

Losses:

  1. Landlords became the permanent owners of the land as a result of this settlement. It gave birth to a new class of landlords loyal to the British.
  2. Landlords who lived away from their lands were adversely affected. They could not collect revenue from the farmers and were unable to deposit it with the government in time. As a result, they had to sell their lands to pay the tax.
  3. Due to lack of proper measurement of land, less revenue was fixed. As a result thereof, income of the landlords increased. But the income of the government remained stagnant.
  4. Most of the landlords did not pay attention to the improvement of their lands. They gave their lands on contract and themselves stayed in big cities like Calcutta (Kolkata) and enjoyed a luxurious life there.
  5. The Permanent Settlement did not give due attention to the rights of farmers. They were left at the mercy of the landlords. The landlords collected revenue from them mercilessly and did not behave well with them. As a result, the condition of the farmers worsened.

In brief, we may say that the objective of Lord Cornwallis was to improve the condition of the farmers through Permanent Settlement. But it did not benefit them. Only landlords were benefited. .The condition of the farmers became more miserable.

Question 4.
What were the causes of farmers’ revolt? Explain any one farmer’s revolt.
Answer:
The following were the reasons of revolts of farmers :
1. More taxes: The British introduced new systems of land revenue in their conquered states of India. Farmers were forced to pay high land revenue. That’s why they came in the debt of moneylenders with which their economic condition deteriorated.

2. Sales law: Government introduced sales law according to Permanent Settlement of Bengal. According to this law, if any zamindar was unable to pay his land revenue till March then government was free to sell his land to other zamindar for the recovery of its arear. That’s why zamindars and farmers were very angry with the government.

3. Capturing the Land: Zagirdars were given large pieces of land by the Mughal Emperor as gift. These lands were free of taxes. But these large pieces of land were captured by the British and they again imposed taxes on them. Not only this, taxes were raised. The British took harsh steps to collect taxes.

Farmers’ Revolts:

  1. One revolt took place exactly after the establishment of British rule in Bengal. Farmers, Sanyasi’s and Faqir’s took part in it. They made their groups and even used arms. The British regiments were irritated by these groups. It took 30 long years for the government to suppress this revolt?
  2. Farmers of Chittore and Satara revolted in 1822 A.D. against too much land tax. This revolt was suppressed by the government with the help of military and with politics. Some of the rebels were recruited in police and others were given land to till in die form of grant.
  3. Farmers of the Sendove district revolted against the British government in 1829 A.D. They attacked the British police under the leadership of their leader and they killed a number of Britishers.
  4. Farmers of Ganjam district revolted in 1835 A.D. under the leadership of Dhananjay. This revolt lasted till Feb. 1937. Later on this revolt was also suppressed by government with the help of large number of military forces.
  5. Another farmers’ revolt took place in Sagar in 1842. Its leader was Madhuker, a Bundela Zamindar. A number of police officers were killed by farmers and they plundered many towns.
    A number of farmers’ revolts also broke out against more taxes and the capturing of land by the British. Some of other important farmers’ revolts were revolt of Patiala and Rawalpindi (Modern Pakistan).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society

Question 5.
Write down about the commercialization of agriculture during the British rule.
Answer:
Villages, before the British empire in India, were self dependent. People used to do agriculture whose main aim was to fulfil the needs of the village. Crops were not being sold. Other workers of village like blacksmith, carpenter, barber, etc. collectively fulfilled the needs of the village. But the self-dependency of the villages come to an end after the establishment of the British empire in India.

According to new land revenue system, farmers had to pay the fixed amount to government as land revenue and at a particular time as well. Now the main aim of agriculture was just to earn money. It is known as commercialization of agriculture. This process of commercialization of agriculture became more complex with the advent of Industrial Revolution in England- Now farmers were forced to produce those crops which could be used as the raw material in factories of England.

Impact of Commercialization
Merits:

  • Production of different types of crops was increased.
  • Means of transport were developed to take crops to markets of cities.
  • Things became very cheap due to more production.
  • Farmers came in contact with urban areas because of which their point of view was changed. As a result national consciousness aroused among them.

Demerits:

  1. Indian farmers used to do agriculture with ancient methods. That’s why their crops were unable to compete with those crops which were grown with the help of machines. That’s why farmers were unable to take maximum advantage out of it.
  2. Farmers had to sell their crop in market through middlemen and middlemen took their share as well. It led to less profit for farmers.

Rural Life and Society PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Land Revenue System of the British: The English East India Company got ‘Diwani’ rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam in 1765 A.D, As a result the Company started collecting land revenue from these provinces. The Company wanted to collect more and more revenue. That’s why they adopted many new systems of land. First of all, the company started to give land on contract. Higher bidder was getting the right to collect tax from a particular area.
  • New Land Settlements: After this, the British made land settlements in new different ways in India. Out of these, Permanent Settlement, Ryatwari system, Mahalwari system were important.
  • Permanent Settlement of Land.: Lord Cornwallis introduced the Permanent Settlement of land in Bengal in 1793. According to it, the landlords or zamindars became the permanent owners of the land and the peasants were crushed.
  • Ryatwari System: This system of land settlement was introduced in Madras and Bombay. According to this system, the government officers directly collected land revenue from the farmers.
  • Mahalwari System: This system of land settlement was introduced in Western U.P.. Punjab and Delhi.
  • Impact of Land Revenue System: Farmers became poor with the land revenue systems of the British and came in the clutches of debt.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 12 Rural Life and Society Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.