PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Colonialism and Urban Change Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you mean by colonialism?
Answer:
Meaning of colonialism is control of one country over the other from political, economic and social point of view.

Question 2.
Which new towns came into existence with the establishment of East India Company?
Answer:
Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

Question 3.
Name the worth seeing places of Madras.
Answer:
Churches, Buildings, Monuments, Beautiful temples and Beaches.

Question 4.
Write down the names of the worth seeing places in Bombay.
Answer:
Juhu Beach, Chaupati, Kolaba, Malabar Hill, Jahangiri Art Gallery, Museum, Bombay University, Mahalaxmi Temple, Victoria Garden, Kamla Nehru Garden, etc.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 5.
Where and when the Britishers established their first trading factory in India?
Answer:
The British established their first trading factory at Calcutta in 1695 A.D.

Question 6.
In which three cities the municipalities were established in India during the British rule?
Answer:
During the British rule, first of all municipalities were established at Madras, Bombay and Calcutta in India.

Question 7.
Which British officer established Public Works Department in India?
Answer:
Public Works Department was established Jjy Lord Dalhousie in India.

Question 8.
Which Governor-General started the department of police in India?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis started department of police in India during the British rule.

Question 9.
When and by whom the first railway line was made in India? What was its route?
Answer:
First railway line in India was made by Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. It was made from Bombay to Thane city.

Question 10.
Write a note on the Madras city.
Answer:
Madras city is situated on the Eastern coast of India. Its present name is Chennai and it is the capital of Tamilnadu state. This city was one of three centres established by the British East India Company i.e. Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. It was also a Centre of Presidency of the East India Company. This centre of the Company was established by Francis De in 1639 A.D. This city was snatched by the French from the British after the first Carnatic war. But this city was taken back by the British at the end of the war. Madras became one of the important and prosperous cities due to last win of the British in the Carnatic wars.

This city was developed into a Port city and industrial Centre very rapidly. Many beautiful places are there in Madras. Churches, buildings, monuments, beautiful temples and beaches are included in these beautiful places.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 11.
Write a note on police System.
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis established police department to maintain law and order in the country. Police duties of Zamindars were taken away by the government. He divided all the districts of Bengal in Divisions (Thanas) in 1792 A.D. The head of every division was a police officer called Daroga (inspector). He worked under District Magistrate. In 1860

A. D., the British Government appointed a police commission to establish the same police administration in all the provinces of the country. On its recommendation, civil police, Inspector General of police, Police Superintendent and Deputy Suprintendent of police were appointed in each district. Police inspector, Head constable and other police officials worked under them. Generally the British officials were appointed on these posts. This structure of police is still going on with very few changes.

II. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In ancient period __________ and Mohanjodaro were two developed towns.
Answer:
Harappa

Question 2.
__________ was the capital of the emperor of Akbar.
Answer:
Fatehpur Sikri

Question 3.
__________ is the present name of Chennai.
Answer:
Chennai

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 4.
Lord set up police department for the maintenance of law and order.
Answer:
Cornwallis.

III. Match the words :

Question 1.

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (i) Inderprastha
2. Engineering College (ii) Kolkatta
3.  of West Bengal (iii) Rurki
4. Delhi in epic (iv) Shahjahanabad

Answer:

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (iv) Shahjahanabad
2. Engineering College (iii) Rurki
3.  of West Bengal (ii) Kolkatta
4. Delhi in epic (i) Inderprastha

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Colonialism and Urban Change Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Political, economic and social control of a country over the other is known
(a) Colonialism
(b) Urbanism
(c) Communism
(d) Socialism.
Answer:
(a) Colonialism.

Question 2.
Once, Fatehpur Sikri was the capital of
(a) Humanyun
(b) Akbar
(c) Shahjahan
(d) Jehangir.
Answer:
(b) Akbar.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
Which presidency cities were developed by the British?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Bombay
(c) Madras
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 4.
Which of the following cities did not develop under the British East India Company in India?
(a) Madras
(b) Mumbai
(c) Chandigarh
(d) Calcutta.
Answer:
(c) Chandigarh.

Question 5.
Madras is situated on the coast of India.
(a) East
(b) West
(c) South
(d) North.
Answer:
(a) East.

Question 6.
Madras (Chennai) is the capital of
(a) Kerala
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Telangana.
Answer:
(b) Tamil Nadu.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 7.
In the first Carnatic war the French Commander La-Bourdnnais took the possession of
(a) Bombay
(b) Calcutta
(c) Madras
(d) Delhi.
Answer:
(c) Madras.

Question 8.
Which City was given in dowry to Charles II King of England by the Portuguese King?
(a) Delhi
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) Madras.
Answer:
(b) Bombay.

Question 9.
Which of these is a famous place of Bombay?
(a) Juhu Beach
(b) Chaupati
(c) Malabar Hills
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
In 1687-88, the British East India campnay for the first time set up Municipal Corporation in
(a) Delhi
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 11.
Delhi became capital of India in
(a) 1911 A.D.
(b) 1912 A.D.
(c) 1913 A.D.
(d) 1914 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1911 A.D.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
During ancient, times __________ and Mohenjodaro were famous cities.
Answer:
Harappa

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2
__________ was the capital of the Mughal Emperor Akbar.
Answer:
Fatehpur Sikri

Question 3.
The present name of __________ is Chennai.
Answer:
Madras

Question 4.
Lord __________ establish Police system in India.
Answer:
Cornwallis.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
The British made Calcutta as their capital in 1911 A.D.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 2.
During medieval tiiftes, Akbar made Delhi as his capital.
Answer:
(✗)

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
The first railway line in India was laid in 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (i) Inderprastha
2. Engineering College (ii) Kolkatta
3.  of West Bengal (iii) Rurki
4. Delhi in epic (iv) Shahjahanabad

Answer:

A B
1. During the reign of Shahjahan Delhi (iv) Shahjahanabad
2. Engineering College (iii) Rurki
3.  of West Bengal (ii) Kolkatta
4. Delhi in epic (i) Inderprastha

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by Urban Change?
Answer:
When political condition of any country changes, the position and importance of towns and cities of that country, also changes. This is known as Urban Change.

Question 2.
Name two developed cities of Ancient Age which are now completely destroyed.
Answer:
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 3.
Why was the importance of Surat as a commercial centre declined?
Answer:
Importance of Surat in the form of commercial centre was declined because Bombay became the port and centre of political power of the East India Company. Most of the Traders of Surat were migrated to Bombay.

Question 4.
Where city of Madras is situated and what is its present name?
Answer:
City of Madras is situated on Eastern Coast of India. Its present name is Chennai.

Question 5.
What is the present name of Calcutta?
Answer:
Present name of Calcutta is Kolkata.

Question 6.
Write the names of capitals of states of Tamil Nadu, Maharasthra and West Bengal.
Answer:

  • Tamil Nadu – Chennai
  • Maharashtra – Mumbai
  • West Bengal – Kolkata.

Question 7.
Where is city of Bombay situated and what is its present name?
Answer:
City of Bombay is situated in the state of Maharashtra at Eastern Coast of Arabian Sea. Its present name is Mumbai.

Question 8.
When was Delhi made the capital of the British India by Britishers?
Answer:
The British made Delhi as capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. Their earlier capital was Calcutta.

Question 9.
Where and when was first Municipal Corporation established by the British Government?
Answer:
At city of Madras in 1687-88 A.D.

Question 10.
When was water released in River Ganga?
Answer:
On 8th April, 1853 A.D.

Question 11.
Write three facilities given to cities under Urban Planning by the British Government. –
Answer:

  1. Supply of Water through pipes
  2. Light in Streets
  3. Parks and Playgrounds.

Question 12.
When railway line was laid from Calcutta (Kolkata) to Raniganj?
Answer:
In 1854 A.D.

Question 13.
How did the East India Company get Bombay (Mumbai)?
Answer:
In 1661 A.D. Portuguese Princess Catherine got married to the king Charles II and the city of Bombay was given to England in Dowry. It was farther given to East India Company on rent.

Question 14.
Name few famous places of Bombay (Mumbai).
Answer:
Juhu Beach, Kolaba, Chaupati, Jahangir Art Gallery, Malabar Hills, Museum, Mahalaxmi Temple, Bombay University, Kamla Nehru Park, Victoria Garden etc.

Question 15.
Name the worth seeing places of Calcutta (Kolkata).
Answer:
Victoria Memorial, Hawrah Bridge, Botanical Garden, Alipur Zoo, Indian Museum, National Library, Velloor Math, Eden Garden stadium etc.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on Public Works Department during the British Rule.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie established Public Works Department in India during the British rule for doing welfare works of the people.

This department made roads, canals and bridges.

  • This department prepared G.T. road from Calcutta to Peshawar.
  • Ganga river was built by it on 8th April, 1853 A.D. and released the water in Ganga river.
  • It established an engineering college in Roorkee.
  • Many other welfare works were also done by this department.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2.
Write a note on the work of laying down Railway lines during the British rule. Also tell that why Railway lines were laid?
Answer:
First railway line iri India was laid during the reign of Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. from Bombay to Thane city. In 1854 A.D. railway line was laid from Calcutta to Raniganj. There were many reasons of laying down railway lines in India by the British rulers.

Some of these reasons are given below :

  • The British wanted to secure their empire in India and wanted to lay down railway lines for the easy transport of army from one place to another.
  • Goods prepared in mills of England could be easily transported from one place to another.
  • The British companies and the British capitalists wanted to earn more profit by using their surplus wealth in laying down railway lines.
  • It was easy to collect raw materials from different parts of the country for the factories of England.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down Colonized organisations and policies which helped in the development of cities.
Answer:
The British government founded many local organizations, to organise their empire, which helped a great deal in the development of cities. Municipal committees, the Public works department, laying down net of railway lines etc. are included in it.

Their brief description is given below :
1. Municipalities. First Municipal Corporation was established by the British East India Company at Madras in 1687-88 A.D. Its members were nominated. After some time, Municipal Corporations were also established at Bombay and Calcutta. Slowly and slowly district boards and municipal committees were established for village and cities of different provinces. Many primary, middle and high schools were, opened through these organizations. Municipal committees used to arrange cleaning of City and light in the streets at night. People were given facility of supplying drinkirig water through pipes. Dispensaries were opened in cities in which arrangements of free medicines and injections were made so that the spreading of diseases could be prevented.

2. Public Works Department. During the British rule, Public Works Department was established by Lord Dalhousie for the welfare of the people. This department prepared many roads, canals, and bridges. G.T. Road from Calcutta to Peshawar was made by this department. This department also prepared Ganga-river on 8th April, 1853 and released water in it. It also established an engineering college in Roorkee. This department also done many other works for the welfare of people.

3. Planning. Many urban facilities were spread in different cities of India during the British rule. Arrangement of supply of drinking water through pipes and proper sanitation was made in most of the cities of India. Except this modern markets, parks and playgrounds were prepared in major cities of country.

4. Railway Lines. First railway line of India was made during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie in 1853 A.D. from Bombay to Thane city. Railway line between Calcutta and Raniganj was also laid in 1854 A.D.

Britishers wanted to start railway in India due to given ahead reasons :

  • The British wanted to secure their empire in India and wanted to lay down railway lines for the easy transport of army from one place to another.
  • Goods prepared in mills of England could be easily transported from one place to another.
  • The British companies and the British capitalists wanted to earn more profit by using their surplus wealth in laying down railway lines.
  • It was easy to collect raw material, from different parts of the country, for the factories of England.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Question 2.
Write down the importance of Calcutta city during the British rule.
Answer:
Calcutta is the capital of West Bengal. Its present name is Kolkata. It was a famous commercial centre of India during the British rule. The British established their first factory over here in 1695 A.D. and fortified it from all sides. Till 1757 A.D., the British East India Company spent most of its time in commercial activities. When war started between Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and the East India Company, the Britishers won the war. Later on their different commercial centres (Bastis), like Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, were developed into cities. Most of Indian traders started to live in these cities because every type of trading facility was available over here. In the battle of Plassey and battle of Buxar respectively in 1757 A.D. and 1764 A.D., Nawabs of Bengal were defeated and the British emerged victorious. That’s why, the importance of city of Calcutta was increased.

These days many beautiful places are there in Calcutta. Howrah Bridge, Victoria Memorial, Botanical Garden, Indian Museum, Alipur Zoo, Vailoor Math, National Library etc. are some of them which increase the importance of Calcutta.

Question 3.
Write down in detail about Delhi city.
Answer:
Delhi is one of the famous cities of India. It is the capital of India. It is situated on the banks of Jamuna river. Delhi was known as ‘Indraprastha’ in the Mahabharat age. Later on, Mughal emperor Shahjahan gave it the name of Shahjahanabad. The British made it the capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. and the name of New Delhi was given to it.

Importance of Delhi. Right from the early age, Delhi was a centre of political, commercial and cultural activities of India. This city became more famous in medieval age because Iltutmish made it his capital. After this, Delhi remained the capital of almost all the kings. During the age of great Mughal King Akbar, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri remained capital of Mughals for quite some time. But all the other Mughal rulers
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 1
kept Delhi as their capital. That’s why, the importance of city of Delhi was increased to a great extent.

Famous places of Delhi: Old fort, Zoo, India gate, Fort Rai Pithar, Fatehpuri Mosque, Tomb of Nizamuddin Aulia, Jantar-Mantar, Tombs of Bahlol Lodhi and Sikandar Lodhi, Parliament House, President’s House, Museum, Raj ghat, Tin Murti Bhawan, Shakti Sthal, Shantivan, Delhi University, Jawahar Lai Nehru University, Birla Mandir, Gurudwara Sis Ghanj, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib etc. are some of the famous places of Delhi.

Question 4.
During urban changes which new cities emerged? Explain them.
Answer:
Three new cities came into existence due to urban change in the British age. These cities were—Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

A brief description of these cities is given below :
1. Madras. The city of Madras is situated on Eastern coast of India. It’s present name is Chennai and it is the capital of State of Tamil Nadu. Madras was one of the three main centres which were-Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. It was also centre of of Presidency of the East India Company. French General La-Bourdnnais snatched it from the British in first Carnatic War (1746-1748). But it was given back to the British at the end of this war (1748 A.D.)

Madras became one of the important and prosperous cities after the British win in three Carnatic wars.
Madras was developed into a port city and a famous industrial city very rapidly. It has many beautiful places to see. Churches, Buildings, Monuments, Attractive Temples and Beaches are some of the beautiful places of Madras.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 2
2. Bombay. The City of Bombay (Mumbai) is situated in Maharashtra on Eastern coast of Arabian Sea. It’s present name is Mumbai. It is not only a famous commercial centre but it is also a centre of industrial and cultural activities. In 1661 A.D., Portuguese princess Catherine was married to the British King Charles II. Then this city was given in the form of dowry by Portuguese to the British. He gave this city on rent to the East India Company. Gradually Bombay became the Presidency of Britishers. Some of the famous places of this city are Juhu Beach, Chaupati, Kolaba, Malabar Hill, Jahangiri Art Gallery, Museum, Bombay University, Mahalaxmi Temple, Victoria Garden, Kamla Nehru
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change 3

3. Calcutta. Calcutta is the Capital of West Bengal. It’s present name is Kolkata. It was a famous commercial centre of India during the British rule. Britishers established their first factory over here in 1695 A.D. and fortified it from all sides. Till 1757 A.D., the British East India Company spent most of its time in Commercial activities. When war started between Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and the East India Company, the British won that war. Later on their different Commercial centres (Bastis), like Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, were developed into cities. Most of Indian traders started living in these cities because every type of trading facility was available over here. In the battle of Plassey and battle of Buxar respectively in 1757 A.D. and 1764 A.D., Nawabs of Bengal were defeated and the Britishers emerged victorious. That’s why, the importance of the city of Calcutta was increased.

These days many beautiful places are there in Calcutta. Howrah Bridge, Victoria Memorial, Botanical Garden, Indian Museum, Alipur Zoo, Vailoor Math, National Library etc. are some of them which increase the importance of Calcutta.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change

Colonialism and Urban Change PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Colonialism: The meaning of colonialism is the subjugation of one country by another which leads to political, economic, social and cultural changes, we refer to the process of colonisation.
  • Urban Change: The meaning of urban change is the change in the position and importance of towns and cities due to change in political condition of any country.
  • End of cities and advent of new cities: New cities and towns emerged when they became the centres of political power, economic activities or centres of religious activities. If related rulers change their capital due to change in political power of any country, some cities lost their importance and they were replaced by new cities.
  • New cities during the British Rule: Three important cities developed during the British rule were—Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. These cities were also the centres of Presidencies.
  • Spread of Delhi: Delhi was made the capital of the British India in 1911 A.D. As a result Delhi spread very rapidly.
  • Facilities available in cities: People were given different facilities of cleanliness, water, roads, lights etc. for the development of cities. Different local institutions were established for this objective.
  • Law and Order. Police department was established for law and order of urban areas.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 19 Colonialism and Urban Change Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.