PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

SST Guide for Class 8 PSEB Challenge to Caste System Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Questions 1.
Write down in brief the work done by the Jyotiba Phule for the welfare of the lower caste people.
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was a great social reformer of Maharashtra. He did many important works for the welfare of people of Scheduled Castes :

  1. First of all, he opened three schools in Poone for education of the girls of Scheduled Castes. Jyotiba Phule and his wife Savitri Bai themselves taught in these schools.
  2. He criticised the economic exploitation of people of Scheduled Castes by brahmins and purohits through his speeches and his two books.
  3. He advised the people of Scheduled Castes to perform religious sacrament of marriage without Brahmins and Purohits.
  4. Jyotiba Phule established an institution called Satyashodhak Samaj on 24th September, 1873 A.D. This institution criticised the social slavery of people of lower castes and demanded social justice for them.
  5. He also appealed government not to take much land revenue from poor farmers and peasants so that their condition could be improved. Jyotiba Phule spent whole of his life in improving the condition of women of Scheduled Castes. He was given the title of ‘Mahatma’ for the works done by him for the welfare of the people of Scheduled Castes.

Question 2.
Write in brief why caste system was targeted by the social reformers? Write in brief. (P.S.E.B. 2009)
Answer:
Brahmins were greatly respected in the caste based society but the condition of lower castes was very pitiable. They were misbehaved by every one. They were not allowed to keep social relations with the people of upper castes. They were not allowed to use public wells or ponds. They were neither allowed to enter the temples nor they had the permission to read religious books or Vedas. They were considered untouchables. If even shadow of any one of lower caste was coming in the way of any higher caste person, then the person was severely punished. They were forced to adopt the occupation of cleaning, picking up dead animals, taking out their skin, making shoes and leather etc. So, to save these people from the atrocities of society, caste system was victimised by the social reformers.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
What Mahatma Gandhi did to end untouchability from society?
Answer:
The meaning of untouchability is to consider touching any person as a .sin. One of the major group of society, was considered as untouchable. The condition of these people was very pitiable.

Mahatma Gandhi took the following steps to eradicate untouchability from society :

  • Gandhiji said that untouchables were the children of God and said that they should be equally treated by society.
  • Gandhiji started his journey from Vardha for the welfare of untouchables. Wherever he had gone, he asked the people to open the doors of schools and temples for backward classes.
  • He also stressed that untouchables should not be stopped from using roads, wells and other public places.
  • He also collected funds during his journeys for the welfare of backward classes.

Question 4.
Write down why Veeresalingam is called the “Prophet” of modern Andhra Pradesh. Write down in brief.
Answer:
Kandukari Veeresalingam was a great social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was not only a social reformer but also a great scholar. While taking education in primary school, he criticized the prevailing hollow customs and religious beliefs of society. When he became the teacher in school, then he started raising his voice for equal rights for women. He was in favour of inter-caste marriages. He criticised caste system and propagated for the eradication of untouchability.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 1
Veeresalingam was also a famous writer. He propagated to eradicate caste system through his essays and dramas.
He always helped the people of poor class and backward class. lie strongly criticized the custom of marriage of boys and girls in very small age. He also raised his voice for¬giving legal sanction to widow remarriage.
Veeresalingam spent whole of his life for social service, social welfare and for the welfare of Scheduled Caste people, that is why he was known as prophet of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 5.
What contribution was made by Sri Narayan Guru for the welfare of the lower caste people?
Answer:
Sri Narayan Guru was a great social reformer of Kerala state. He was born in Kerala in 1856 A.D. He struggled for whole of his life for the welfare of scheduled castes, especially people of Ijhevej castes. People of this caste were known as untouchables. It was not possible for Sri Narayan Guru to tolerate this injustice. So, he struggled for a long time for the welfare of people of Ijhevej caste and other scheduled castes. He established ‘Sri Narayan Dharam Pripaian Yogum’ in 1903 A.D. for social welfare. He strongly opposed discrimination on the basis of caste and religion. He has also done a lot to give better place to people of scheduled castes in society. Sri Narayan Guru
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 2

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 6.
Which word was used by Mahatma Gandhi for the lower caste people and what is its meaning?
Answer:
Harijan. Meaning of the word ‘Harijan’ is ‘Children of God’.

Question 7.
Explain the work done by Mahatma Gandhiji for the low er caste people,
Answer:
1. According to Mahatma Gandhi, untouchability is a sin. In 1920 A.D., Non¬Cooperation Movement was started, against the British government, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Elimination of untouchability from the society was also included in the guidelining programme of this movement. One Sammelan of people of scheduled castes was held at Nagpur in 1920 A.D. Mahatma Gandhi criticised untouchability in this Sammelan. He was of the view at that concept of untouchability among Hindus is the largest sin of India. But Mahatma Gandhi was hurt by the fact that not enough steps were taken by the Congress in Non-Cooperation Movement for the elimination of untouchability from society. That’s why, Non-Coopera cion Movement was not supported by the people of scheduled castes. According to them, the British rule was much better than Hindu-Swaraj.

2. When Non-Cooperation Movement was stopped in its half way, then Mahatma Gandhi ordered the Congress organization that they should organize people of scheduled castes for their interests and they should take some steps to improve social, mental and moral condition of these people. They should be provided all such facilities which are already available for other people.

3. The Congress kept 49.5 lakh rupees for the welfare programmes of scheduled castes from 1921 to 1923 A.D. but only 43,881 rupees were spent on them. Yet people of scheduled castes didn’t participate in the Non-Cooperation movement started by Mahatma Gandhi but still Mahatma Gandhi did a lot for the welfare of these people.

Some important works done by Mahatma Gandhi. Some of the important works done by Mahatma Gandhi for the welfare of untouchables, are given below :

  • Gandhiji said that untouchables were the children of God and said that they should be equally treated by society.
  • Gandhiji started his journey from Vardha for the welfare of untouchables. Wherever he had gone, he asked the people to open the doors of schools and temples for the backward classes.
  • He also stressed that untouchables should not be stopped from using roads, wells and other public places.
  • He also collected funds during his journeys for the welfare of backward classes. Speeches of Mahatma Gandhi were opposed at some places by the conservative Hindus. Even efforts were made to throw bomb on him at Pune. But the conservatives did not get any success.

Question 8.
Explain the effects of the work done by the Indian social reformers for the improvement of lower caste people.
Answer:
Many social evils prevailed in the Indian society from 19th century till the start of 20th century. Sati system, Female infanticide, Caste System, Dowry System, Child Marriage, restriction on marriage of widow were some of the main social evils. Indian social reformers took various steps to remove these social and religious evils from Indian society. Actually it is very difficult to remove prevailing social evils without the efforts of reformers efforts.

Following were the impacts of efforts of social reformers to fremove social evils from society :
1. Reform Movements. Many reform movements were started by social reformers to remove social evils. Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Namdhari Movement, Singh Sabha, Rama Krishna Mission, Aligarh Movement etc. gave a great contribution in it. Just because of the efforts of these movements, many social evils weakened to a great extent such as Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Purdah system, Caste system, etc.

2. Legal Efforts. Indian social reformers stressed a lot and that’s why, the British government passed many laws to eradicate socio-religious movements :
(a) Lord William Bentick passed an Act in 1829 A.D. called ‘Sati Prohibition Act’ and declared the Sati Pratha illegal. He also passed laws against child infanticide and human sacrifice during his tenure.
(b) In 1856 A.D., ‘Widow Remarriage Act’ was passed and Widow remarriage was declared legal.
(c) Child marriage was also declared illegal in 1891 A.D.

3. Advent of Sense of Nationalism. Sense of nationalism was arosed among general masses, just because of the efforts of Indian social reformers. With this it became possible to form a new India.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Society was divided into four classes Brahman, Kshatriyas, _______ and Sudras.
Answer:
Vaishyas

Question 2.
Jyotiba Phule was honored with the title of _______
Answer:
Mahatma

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar established ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1936

Question 4.
Mahatma Gandhi used the word ‘Harijan’ for the lower caste people, which means
Answer:
Children of God.

III. Match the Words :

Question 1.

A B
1. Jyotiba Phule (i) Shri Narayan Dharam Pripalan Yogam
2. Periyar Rama Swami (ii) Prophet of Andhra Pradesh state
3. Veeresalingam (iii) a great social reformer of Tamil Nadu
4. Sri Narayan Guru (iv) association named Satya Shodak Society.

Answer:

A B
1. Jyotiba Phule (iv) association named Satya Shodak Society.
2. Periyar Rama Swami (iii) a great social reformer of Tamil Nadu
3. Veeresalingam (ii) Prophet of Andhra Pradesh state
4. Sri Narayan Guru (i) Shri Narayan Dharam Pripalan Yogam

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Guide Challenge to Caste System Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which reform Association was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
(a) Arya Samaj
(b) Brahmo Samaj
(c) Satya Shodhak Samaj
(d) Prarthna Samaj.
Answer:
(b) Brahmo Samaj.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 2.
In which language Ram Mohan Roy was well versed?
(a) Sanskrit
(b) English
(c) Persian
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question 3.
In which year Sati pratha was banned?
(a) 1825
(b) 1827
(c) 1828
(d) 1829.
Answer:
(d) 1829.

Question 4.
Arya Samaj was founded by _______ in 1875.
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) Swami Vivekananda.
Answer:
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

Question 5.
Who worked for the people of low caste Ijhevej in Kerala?
(a) Swami Dayanand
(b) Periyar Swami
(c) Shri Narayan Guru
(d) Haridas Thakur.
Answer:
(c) Shri Narayan Guru.

Question 6.
The book Gulamgiri was written by
(a) Shri Narayan Guru
(b) Jyoti Rao Phuley
(c) Haridas Thakur
(d) Periyar Swami.
Answer:
(b) Jyoti Rao Phuley.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 7.
Satya Shodhak Samaj was founded by
(a) Jyoti Rao Phuley
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Periyar Swami
(d) Shri Narayan Guru.
Answer:
(a) Jyoti Rao Phuley.

Question 8.
Dr. Ambedkar got a fellowship to go to the for higher studies.
(a) Britain
(b) Germany
(c) U.S.A.
(d) France.
Answer:
(c) U.S.A.

Question 9.
When did Dr. Ambedkar start a temple entry movement in which his Mahar caste followers participated?
(a) 1917
(b) 1925
(c) 1922
(d) 1927.
Answer:
(d) 1927.

Question 10.
Periyar Swami was an outspoken critic of
(a) All social evils
(b) Sati System
(c) Hindu Scriptures
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Hindu Scriptures.

Question 11.
When was Prarthana Samaj established?
(a) 1877
(b) 1867
(c) 1872
(d) 1862.
Answer:
(b) 1867.

Question 12.
When was Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College founded by Sayyad Ahmed Khan?
(a) 1875
(b) 1880
(c) 1870
(d) 1885.
Answer:
(a) 1875.

Question 13.
When was Khalsa College established at Amritsar by the leaders of the Singh Sabha Movement?
(a) 1890
(b) 1894
(c) 1892
(d) 1896.
Answer:
(c) 1892.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 14.
When was Singh Sabha formed at Amritsar?
(a) 1870
(b) 1873
(c) 1871
(d) 1872.
Answer:
(b) 1873.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Society was divided into four groups : Brahmins, Kshatriyas, _______ and _______ Shudras.
Answer:
Vaishyas

Question 2.
Jyotiba Phule was honoured with the title of _______
Answer:
Mahatma

Question 3.
Dr, Bhim Rao Ambedkar founded ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ in _______ A.D.
Answer:
1936

Question 4.
Mahatma Gandhi used the word _______ for lower castes.
Answer:
Harijan.

Tick the Right (✓) or Wrong (✗) Answer :

Question 1.
Mahatma Gandhi considered untouchability as Sin.
Answer:
(✓).

Question 2.
Virselingam was in favour of inter-caste marriage.
Answer:
(✓).

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Jyotiba Phule was a social reformer of Maharashtra.
Answer:
(✓).

Match the Following :

Question 1.

A B
1. Sri Narayan Dharam Pratipalan Yogum (i) Jyotiba Phule
2. Reformer in Andhra Pradesh (ii) Periyar Rama Swami
3. Reformer of Tamil Nadu (iii) Virselinganl
4. Satya Shodhak Samaj (iv) Sri Narayan Guru

Answer:

A B
1. Sri Narayan Dharam Pratipalan Yogum (iv) Sri Narayan Guru
2. Reformer in Andhra Pradesh (iii) Virselinganl
3. Reformer of Tamil Nadu (ii) Periyar Rama Swami
4. Satya Shodhak Samaj (i) Jyotiba Phule

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which four classes, Ancient Indian Society was divided? What was the base of this division?
Answer:
Ancient Indian Society was divided in four classes namely Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and lower castes. Base of this division was occupation of a particular person.

Question 2.
In which age caste system became more rigid and why?
Answer:
Caste system became more rigid in Rajput age because many other castes and sub-castes were originated in this age except main castes.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 3.
Name any four social reformers of 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Jyotiba Phule
  2. Veeresalingam
  3. Sri Narayan Guru
  4. Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 4.
Name any four prevailing evils in Indian society during 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Sati system
  2. Child Marriage
  3. Girl infanticide
  4. Restriction on Widow remarriage.

Question 5.
Name any Socio-religious reform movements of 19th and 20th centuries.
Answer:

  1. Brahmo Samaj
  2. Arya Samaj
  3. Ramakrishna Mission
  4. Namdhari Movement.

Question 6.
Who declared Sati system illegal and when?
Answer:
Sati system was declared illegal in 1829 A.D. by Lord William Bentick through an Act called ‘Sati Prohibition Act, 1829’.

Question 7.
When was custom of Child Marriage declared as illegal?
Answer:
Child marriage was declared as illegal in 1891 A.D.

Question 8.
Why people of Scheduled Castes didn’t participate in the Non¬Cooperation Movement of Gandhiji?
Answer:
People of Scheduled Castes didn’t participate in the Non-Cooperation Movement because Congress didn’t take any concrete steps till that time to eradicate untouchability from society.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 9.
Who founded Independent Labour Party of India and when?
Answer:
Independent Labour Party of India was founded by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar in 1936 A.D.

Question 10.
Name two political parties organized by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar.
Answer:

  1. Labour Party
  2. Scheduled Caste Federation.

Question 11.
Who was Jyotiba Phule? Which was the first work done by him for the welfare of the lower caste people?
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was a great social reformer of Maharashtra. He did lot of work for the upliftment of Scheduled Castes. For this objective, he opened three schools in Poona where girls of lower castes were given education.

Question 12.
When did Jyotiba Phule establish Satyashodhak Samaj? Who was its first president and secretary?
Answer:
Satyashodhak Samaj was established by Jyotiba Phule op 24 September 1873 A.D. Jyotiba Phule himself was its first President and its secretaries were Narayan Rao and Govind Rao.

Question 13.
When, where and in which caste Sri Naryan Guru was born.
Answer:
Sri Narayan Guru was born in 1856 A.D. in Ijhevej caste of Kerala State.

Question 14.
Which Satyagraha was started by Periyar Ramswamy to eradicate untouchability and which national leaders participated in it?
Answer:
Pariyar Ramaswami started various satyagraha to eradicate untouchability from the society. Other national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, C. Rajgopal Acharya, Vinoba Bhave, etc. participated in this satyagraha.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Question 15.
Which two organisations were started by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for the welfare of lower caste people and which two newspapers were published by him?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar established ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarni Sabha’ and ‘Samaj Samat Sangha for the welfare of people of scheduled castes. He published newspapers like ‘Mook Nayak’, ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’ and Janata.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was Pariyar Ramaswami? What he has done for the security of interests of the people of Scheduled Castes?
Answer:
Pariyar Ramaswami was a great social reformer of Tamilnadu. He was born on 17th September, 1879 A.D. at Madras (Chennai). He felt that the people of scheduled castes were considered untouchables in society. Except this, they were not allowed to take part in social customs, keeping social relations with other castes and even to take education. So, he founded an organization called ‘Dravid Kazgas’ for the security of interests of these people.

This organization tried a lot in getting reservation in government services for the people of Scheduled Castes. As a result, for these castes, which were discriminated, first amendment of the Constitution took place for the security of their rights. Pariyar Ramaswami started satyagraha called ‘Vaikos’ for the eradication of untouchability. In this way Pariyar Ramaswami protected the interests of scheduled castes in Tamilnadu.

Question 2.
Write four works done by modern reformers to improve the condition of Indian Women. .
Answer:
1. End of Sati system. Sati system was one of the largest obstacle in the way of upliftment of women. This inhuman practice came to an end due to great efforts of modern social-reformers.
2. Permission of Widow Re-marriage. Condition of widows was very pitiable in the
society. They were not allowed to remarry. But they were given legal permission to remarry due to efforts of modern social reformers.
3. Opposition of Purdah System. Modern reformers were of the view that women cannot progress while remain behind the purdah, that’s why, they motivated the women not to use this custom of purdah.
4. Stress on Women Education. Social reformers gave a great stress on women education to uplift their social status. Many schools were opened for the education of women.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Explain the contribution made by Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar for the improvement of lower caste people.
Answer:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar is known as Messiha of scheduled castes. He demanded justice for the people of Scheduled Castes from government and society. He did Satyagraha and demonstrated for equal rights of scheduled castes.
PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System 3
His contribution in this direction is given below :
1. In 1918 A.D., Dr. Ambedkar demanded from ‘Southberrow Reforms Committee’ that seats in all the state Legislative Councils and in Central Legislature Council should be kept reserved for the people of scheduled castes according to their population. Except this, he also demanded to fix definite constituencies for these people but his demands were not met.

2. Dr. Ambedkar recommended to give political rights to the people of scheduled castes in the ‘Round Table Conference’ of 1931 A.D. This recommendation was included to a great extent in the ‘Communal Award’ prepared by the British Prime Minister on 16th August, 1932 A.D.

3. Sammelans were held at Nagpur, Kolhapur etc. for the social and political rights of the people of scheduled castes. Dr. Ambedkar participated in these conferences.

4. He established ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarni Sabha’ and ‘Samaj Samat Sangh’ to propagate the welfare of people of these castes. He also started to publish newspaper like ‘Mook Nayak’, ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’, ‘Janata’ etc. for this objective.

5. He also started Satyagraha for the equal rights of people of scheduled castes like other castes about entry in temples and taking water from public wells.

6. As a member of Bombay (Mumbai) Legislative Assembly, he introduced many bills for the welfare of farmers, labourers and other poor people from 1926 A.D. upto 1934 A.D. but these bills were not passed due to opposition of conservative members.

7. He founded ‘Independent Labour Party of India’ on October, 1936 A.D. which won reserved seats of schedules castes in the elections of ‘Presidency Legislative Assembly’ in 1937 A.D.

8. Dr. Ambedkar also organized political parties called ‘Labour Party’ and ‘Scheduled Caste Federation’. Due to his deep requests, special provisions were kept in the Indian Constitution for the people of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

9. The Government of India declared untouchability illegal due to Dr. Ambedkar’s efforts.

PSEB 8th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System

Challenge to Caste System PSEB 8th Class SST Notes

  • Caste System. Society in ancient India was divided in four main castes- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and lower castes. Many other castes and sub-castes originated during Rajput age with which caste system became more complex.
  • Untouchability. Brahmins had the highest place in caste-based society. They were greatly respected by all. But the condition of lover castes was very pitiable. They were not allowed to touch the people of higher castes. It was known as untouchability.
  • The challenge to the Caste System. Caste-based differences were challenged by social reformers like Jyotiba Phule, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Pariyar Ramaswami and Mahatma Gandhi. They also demanded the rights of Scheduled Castes.
  • Legislations against Social Evils. The British government passed certain laws to restrict social evils like Sati system (1829 A.D.) and Child Marriage (1891 A.D.)
  • Eradication of Untouchability. Social reformers tried a lot and that’s why Untouchability has been declared as illegal by our Constitution.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 18 Challenge to Caste System Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

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