PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB Public Property and its Protection Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Why do we love our personal property?
Answer:
We have to purchase the item of our personal property if it is lost or spoiled. It causes financial loss to us. Therefore, we love our personal property.

Question 2.
Why should National Property be protected? Give two reasons.
Answer:
National property is created by the government out of the money collected from the people of the country in the form of taxes. It is meant for the convenience of all the people. If this property is damaged, it causes social and economic loss to us, our family and the nation as a whole. Therefore, the national property should be protected.

Question 3.
Why people damage public property? Give two reasons.
Answer:

  1. Some people damage public property for the sake of fun.
  2. Some people damage public property because they feel that this is the best way to draw the government’s attention towards their demands.

Question 4.
Give the name of two kinds of public property.
Answer:
Two kinds of public property are :

  1. Public utility services,
  2. Historical buildings or monuments.

Question 5.
What do you mean by public utility services? Give two examples of it.
Answer:
Public utility services are those services which are provided to all in equal proportions by the government, for the fulfilment of minimum needs of citizens. Services like electricity and water are public utility services.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 6.
What is public property? How is it created?
Answer:
Property to which all of us have a common right to share is called public property. It belongs to all. It is jointly created by the people and the government. Taxes are imposed and funds created. These funds create public property. It is our duty to preserve it.

Question 7.
How people misuse the public property?
Answer:
People misuse public property in the following ways :

  • Some people express their resentment against the government or try to get their demands accepted by damaging and burning public property.
  • Some people damage bulbs and tubes of street lights by throwing stones on them.
  • Some people throw garbage and litter in gardens, parks, zoos, historical buildings and museums, etc.
  • Children tear-off seats of buses and railway trains.
  • Some people draw lines or write their names on historical buildings and thus damage them.
  • Some foolish people steal valuable goods or idols, etc. from temples or museums.

Question 8.
From whose money the school property is made?
Answer:
The school property is made from the money of our parents and our government. The government’s money is also our own money because the government collects it from us in the form of taxes.

Question 9.
Give one basic difference between personal property and public property.
Answer:
Personal property belongs to a person or family, whereas public property is the common property of all. This is one basic difference between the two.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 10.
What is our responsibility towards school property?
Answer:
Our responsibility towards school property is the following :

  • We should not damage the school furniture.
  • We should not scribble on the school walls.
  • We should not pluck flowers from flower beds and pots lying in the school premises.
  • We should not tear off pages from the library books.
  • We should turn off the water taps after use.
  • We should not spoil the sports goods like hockey, football, etc.

Question 11.
How can you help to preserve the historical monuments?
Answer:
We can help to preserve the historical monuments in the following ways :

  • We should not disfigure or scratch them.
  • We should not steal idols from them.
  • We should not throw garbage and rubbish in of around them.
  • If someone causes damage to historical monuments, we should report the matter to the police so that the gtiilty may be prosecuted and punished.
  • We should help the government in the protection and preservation of historical monuments.

II. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
Parks and hospitals are our personal property.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
We should not damage our national property as it is our own.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 3.
Historical monuments are protected by a government law passed in 1958.
Answer:
True

III. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
All objects that we possess as individual make _______ property.
Answer:
personal

Question 2.
Old historical buildings are called _______ monuments.
Answer:
historical

Question 3.
We must not _______ the public property.
Answer:
damage

Question 4.
Things owned collectively make _______ property.
Answer:
family.

IV. Select out of the following as private property and public property :

Question 1.
Book, Post office, Pen, Raliway station, Scooter, Bus stand, Monument, Almirah, Sewerage, Car, Roads, Canals, Bag, Bridge, Water-works, Bungalow, River, Museum, Television.
Answer:
Private Property. Book, Pen, Scooter, Almirah, Car, Bag, Bungalow, Television.
Public Property. Post office, Railway station, Bus stand, Monuments, Sewerage, Roads, Canals, Bridge, Water-works, River, Museum.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide Public Property and its Protection Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Property owned by an individual is called _______ property.
(A) Personal
(B) Public
(C) National .
(D) International.
Answer:
(A) Personal.

Question 2.
Property owned by whole community is called _______ property
(A) National
(B) Public
(C) International
(D) Personal.
Answer:
(B) Public.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 3.
Facilities provided by the government are called _______ facilities.
(A) National
(B) Social
(C) Public
(D) Personal.
Answer:
(C) Public.

Question 4.
When was the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological sites and Remains Act passed?
(A) 1950
(B) 1958
(C) 1954
(D) 1962.
Answer:
(B) 1958.

Question 5.
Who gives money for the maintance of public property?
(A) Public
(B) An individual
(C) Government
(D) U.N.O.
Answer:
(A) Public.

Question 6.
How do people misuse public property?
(A) They tear off seats of buses
(B) They write their names on historical buildings
(C) They damage street lights
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 7.
What is our responsibility towards school property?
(A) Not to damage School furniture
(B) Not to scribble on School Walls
(C) Not to tear off pages from liberary books
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(A) All of these.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 8.
Which of these is a public property?
(A) Trains
(B) Historical buildings
(C) Bus stand
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a democratic country?
Answer:
A democratic country is one where people elect their representatives to make the government.

Question 2.
Name the three organs of a government. What are their functions?
Answer:

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive,
  3. Judiciary.

Legislature makes laws, the Executive executes them and Judiciary punishes the persons who violate laws.

Question 3.
Name a few items of personal property.
Answer:
Clothes, school bag, books, notebooks, pen, pencil, etc.

Question 4.
Name some items of family property.
Answer:
House, scooter, car, television, furniture, etc.

Question 5.
What is included in public utility services?
Answer:
Public utility services include school, buses, hospitals, parks, post office, electricity, water, etc. These services are provided by the government.

Question 6.
Who suffers if you lose any of your own or family possessions?
Answer:
We and our family suffer.

Question 7.
Why do we owe joint responsibility towards the protection of public property?
Answer:
We owe joint responsibility towards the protection of public property because all the people have to suffer if it is damaged.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 8.
Give some examples of school property.
Answer:
Chairs, tables, desks, blackboards, library, playgrounds, etc.

Question 9.
What is a historical monument?
Answer:
A historical monument is a structure of the past which reminds us of our ancient glory.

Question 10.
Which government department takes care of historical monuments?
Answer:
The Archaeological Department.

Question 11.
What is our duty towards public property?
Answer:
We should keep it safe from any type of damage.

Question 12.
Should we cause damage to public property? Why, or why not?
Answer:
No, we should not cause any damage to public property. Its damage means our own loss.

Question 13.
Why is school called public property?
Answer:
Our parents’ and the government’s money is spent on the building of school. So it is public property.

Question 14.
Of what do our historical buildings and monuments remind us?
Answer:
Our historical buildings and monuments remind us of our rich cultural heritage and glorious past.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Question 15.
Why should parks be maintained?
Answer:
People go to parks to breathe in fresh air and to take exercise there. So parks should be maintained.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why should we not damage public property?
Answer:
Public property is the property of the nation to which we all belong. It is created out of the taxes paid by us. It serves our own purpose. If we do not protect it, we ourselves will be put to inconvenience. It will become difficult to have it again. Thus it is our own loss. We have a common right to the public property. So it is our duty to protect our common things.

Question 2.
What is the difference between private property and public property?
Answer:
The property to which the owner has a personal right is called private property. No one can use this property without the permission of its owner. Privately owned houses, shops, motor cycles, scooters, etc. are good examples of private property.

On the other hand, public property is the property to which all of us have a common right. Roads, buses, railways, hospitals, schools, post offices, etc. are some examples of public property.

Question 3.
What is the importance of historical monuments in our life?
Answer:
There is a great importance of historical monuments in our life. Historical monuments like forts, palaces, temples, mosques, churches and towers, etc. remind us of our ancient glory. They are the great centres of education. We learn our history through the statues, coins, pictures and maps found in these monuments. They inspire us to do great deeds.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What points should we keep in mind to make proper use of public places?
Answer:
To make proper use of public places we should keep the following points in mind :

  1. School is a very important institution. Here, we study and attain different types of social and moral qualities. So we should not spoil our classroom furniture by throwing it hither or thither, nor should we scribble^on the classroom walls. We should riot pluck flowers from flower beds and pots lying in the school premises. We should not tear off pages from the library books. We should turn off the water taps after use. We should not spoil the sports goods like hockey, football, etc.
  2. Our government provides us with public means of transport like buses and trains for our convenience. We should not harm these public modes of transport, otherwise, it will be difficult for us to reach our school, college or office.
  3. We should ensure that bulbs and tubes of street lights are not damaged by throwing stones on them. It will cause inconvenience to the public moving on roads at night time. Number of accidents can also increase.
  4. We should not throw garbage and litter in the parks.
  5. We should not tease the animals in the zoos.
  6. By preserving the parks, zoos, and sanctuaries we can help our community to fo&intain balance between the natural environment and man-finds environment.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection

Public Property and its Protection PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Personal Property: Personal property is the property owned by individuals or a group of individuals for private enjoyment and use.
  • Public Property: Public property is owned by public or whole community.
  • Public Services: Basic facilities provided by the government to the public are called public services.
  • Family Property: Family property is the property that belongs to the family.
  • Historical Monuments: Historical monuments are the evidence of historical past and ancient glory in the shape of forts, palaces, temples, mosques, gurdwaras and churches.
  • The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958: The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act was passed by the Government of India in 1958. Under this Act, the persons who damage historical monuments can be prosecuted and punished by law.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 22 Public Property and its Protection Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development – Local Self Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 21 Urban Development – Local Self Government

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB Rural Development and Local Self Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Write a short note on urban development after Independence.
Answer:
After India’s Independence in 1947, urban areas in the country were developed at a fast pace, due to increase in population. There was a shortage of agricultural land due to increase in population in rural areas. Consequently, the villagers began to move cities for seeking employment. Besides, lack of amenities like education and health also compelled the village people to go to urban areas. Modern means of transport and communication have also acted as a bridge between villages and cities. As a result, the village population in India has come down from 90% to 75%.

Due to fast increasing population in urban areas, cities require more houses, much electricity, much clean drinking water, more means of transport, much cleanliness and disposal of garbage. So a special attention is paid to urban development. This is the reason why there is an increase in the number of urban local institutions, viz., Nagar Panchayats, Municipal Committees and Municipal Corporations in India.

Question 2.
Name the urban Local Self-Institutions.
Answer:
There are three urban local self-institutions.

They are :

  • Nagar Panchayat,
  • Municipal Committee (Council)
  • Municipal Corporation.

Question 3.
Why is city divided into wards on the basis of population?
Answer:
Number of members of urban local institutions is fixed on the basis of population. Therefore, the whole city is divided, on the basis of almost equal population, into wards and one member is elected from each ward.

Question 4.
What age is required for the candidate to be a councillor?
Answer:
The age of 21 years is required for the candidate to be a councillor.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 5.
What is town’s Local Self-Institution known as?
Answer:
Local self-institution in a town is known as Nagar Panchayat or Nagar Council.

Question 6.
Name four officials of Municipal Corporation.
Answer:
Four officials of Municipal Corporation are Commissioner, Health Officer, Education Officer and Chief Engineer.

Question 5.
Name any two sources of income of (urban) Local Self-Government.
Answer:
Taxes, fees, government grants and loans are the four sources of income of (urban) local self-government.

Question 6.
What are your duties towards city Local Self-Government?
Answer:
Our duties towards city local self-government are as follows:

  • We should help the local self-government of our city in its functioning.
  • We should make a proper use of the facilities like electricity and drinking water, provided by it.
  • We should help it in keeping the city clean. We should not spread rubbish in the city.
  • We should keep the environment neat and clean and also protect it.

Question 7.
Give two functions of Municipal Cpuncil or Corporation.
Answer:
The following are two functions of Municipal Council or Corporation :
1. Compulsory Functions.

  • It sets up local hospitals and dispensaries.
  • It immunizes.children against smallpox, polio, tuberculosis, cholera, diptheria, etc.
  • It takes care of sanitation and cleanliness of the city. It maintains sewage system and removes rubbish and garbage.
  • It provides good roads and streets in its area and maintains them in good condition.
  • It provides primary schools and opens libraries, reading rooms, museums and adult education centres, etc.
  • It provides safety against fire.

2. Optional Functions:

  • It develops parks, gardens and playgrounds, etc.
  • It provides cheap and efficient bus service.
  • It maintains rest houses, children homes and senior citizen homes, etc.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 8.
Give two functions of District Administration.
Answer:
Two functions of District Administration are given below :

  1. It maintains law and order in the district with help of the police.
  2. It maintains all the land records in the district and collects land revenue from the farmers.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Nagar Panchayat is set in a _______
Answer:
town

Question 2.
Urban local self-government functions are looked after by _______
Answer:
the State Government

Question 3.
To be a councillor, the candidate should be of _______ years of age.
Answer:
21, 18

Question 4.
In each district, there are _______ types of courts.
Answer:
two

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 5.
An area changing from village to town is known as _______
Answer:
transitional area.

III. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
A foreigner can cast his vote in the election of Municipal Corporation of your city.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
There are 9 Municipal Corporations in Punjab.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The President of the Municipal Corporation is known as Mayor in Punjab.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The voter should be of 17 years for the election of local government.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Deputy Commissioner is the Chief Government official of the District Administration.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 6.
There ard district level officials of various departments to run the District Administration.
Answer:
True

IV. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which is the primary unit of local urban self¬government?
(a) Nagar Nigam
(b) Village Panchayat
(c) Nagar Panchayat.
Answer:
(c) Nagar Panchayat.

Question 2.
Which name is given to the head of a Municipal Corporation (Nagar Nigam)?
(a) Pradhan
(b) Mayor
(c) Sarpanch.
Answer:
(b) Mayor.

Question 3.
Who is the executive officer of Municipal Corporation?
(a) Superintendent
(b) Deputy Commissioner
(c) Commissioner.
Answer:
(c) Commissioner.

Question 4.
Which of the following cities does not have Municipal Corporation?
(a) Amritsar
(b) Patiala
(c) Ropar
(d) Ludhiana
(e) Bathinda
(f) Jalandhar
Answer:
(c) Ropar.

Question 5.
Which is the highest administrative officer of a district?
(a) D.E.O
(b) Police Commissioner
(c) D.P.R.O.
(d) Deputy Commissioner.
Answer:
(d) Deputy Commissioner.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 6.
In big cities where the road is overcrowded, to reduce its crowd a road is built up over it. Which name is given to this over built up road?
(a) cycle rickshaw track
(b) underground subway
(c) link road
(d) fly over.
Answer:
(d) fly over.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide Urban Development – Local Self Government Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which of these is a part of Local Self-government for urban areas?
(A) Nagar Panchayat
(B) Municipalities
(C) Municipal Corporation
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 2.
Municipal Councils are generally set up in those cities whose population is more than
(A) 5,000
(B) 20,000
(C) 50,000
(D) 1,00,000.
Answer:
(B) 20,000.

Question 3.
_______ are established in big cities.
(A) Municipal Councils
(B) Zila Parishads
(C) Nagar Panchayats
(D) Municipal Corporations.
Answer:
(D) Municipal Corporations.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 4.
Elected representative of award is known as
(A) M.L.A.
(B) M.P.
(C) Ward Councillor
(D) None of these.
Answer:
(C) Ward Councillor.

Question 5.
Which of these is the function of Municipal Corporation?
(A) Supply of water
(B) Scavenging and removal of waste
(C) Supply of electricity
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 6.
Which of these is the source of income for Municipal Corporation?
(A) Property tax
(B) Water and other services tax
(C) Entertainment tax
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 7.
Who listens to the problems of local level?
(A) M.L.A.
(B) Ward Councillor
(C) M.P.
(D) D.C.
Answer:
(B) Ward Councillor.

Question 8.
Which of these cities have Municipal Corporation?
(A) Delhi
(B) Mumbai
(C) Kolkata
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 9.
Which of these cities don’t have Municipal Corporation?
(A) Chandigarh
(B) Chennai
(C) Meerut
(D) Lucknow.
Answer:
(C) Meerut.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who presides over the meetings of the Municipal Corporation?
Answer:
Mayor.

Question 2.
Who is Municipal Commissioner?
Answer:
Municipal Commissioner is a senior government employee who looks after the works of Municipal Corporation.

Question 3.
Give one point of difference between a Municipal Committee and a Municipal Corporation.
Answer:
A Municipal Committee is formed in a small city, while a Municipal Corporation is formed in a big city.

Question 4.
How is the number of members in a Nagar Panchayat or Municipal Committee or Municipal Corporation determined?
Answer:
The number of members in a Nagar Panchayat or Municipal Committee or Municipal Corporation is determined on the basis of population of the city.

Question 5.
How is the Mayor elected?
Answer:
The Mayor is elected by the members of Municipal Corporation amongst themselves.

Question 6.
What is the major function of the District Administration?
Answer:
The major function of the District Administration is to maintain law and order in the district.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 7.
Under whose charge are the health services in the district?
Answer:
The health services in the district are under the charge of the District Civil Surgeon.

Question 8.
Which is the Highest court in the district?
Answer:
The highest court in the district is the Court of the Sessions Judge.

Question 9.
Who is the highest police officer in the district?
Answer:
The highest police officer in the district is the Police Commissoner.

Question 10.
What are the main types of litigations?
Answer:
There are two types of litigations. These are civil litigations and criminal litigations.

Question 11.
When and where was the first Municipal Corporation established in India?
Answer:
In India, the first Municipal Corporation was established in 1987 A.D. in Chennai.

Question 12.
What are two sources of income of Nagar Panchayats?
Answer:
Two sources of income of Nagar Panchayats are :

  1. Grants from the State Government.
  2. Income from taxes like house tax, building tax, sales tax and vehicle tax, etc.

Question 13.
Name the cities of Punjab where Municipal Corporations are working.
Answer:
Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala and Bathinda.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 14.
How many Municipal Corporations are there in India?
Answer:
There are nearly 125 Municipal Corporations in India.

Question 15.
Into how many districts has Punjab been divided?
Answer:
Punjab has been divided into 20 districts.

Question 16.
Name the three levels at which the District Administration works.
Answer:

  1. District level,
  2. Tehsil/Block level,
  3. City/Town/Village level.

Question 17.
What is meant by Nagar Panchayat?
Answer:
The local self-government which is formed in a town with a population of not more than 20,000 is known as Nagar Panchayat.

Question 18.
What is Municipal Corporation?
Answer:
It is the highest institution of urban local self-government and is established in a large city with population in lacs.

Question 19.
Who is a Councillor?
Answer:
Councillor a member of Municipal Council, Committee or a Corporation. He is elected at local level.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which are the local bodies working in urban areas?
Answer:
Nagar Panchayat, Municipal Committee (Council) and Municipal Corporation are the local bodies working in urban areas.

  • Nagar Panch&yat: It works in a town where the population is not more than 20,000.
  • Municipal Committee (Council): It works in a city where the population is between 20,000 and one lac.
  • Municipal Corporation: It works in a city with a population of over one lac.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 2.
How is a Nagar Panchayat constituted?
Answer:
The whole town is divided into wards and one member is elected from each ward. Every Nagar Panchayat has a President and a Vice-President. The President is elected directly by the people. The members nominate some experienced persons, called Aldermen. The Chief Administrative Officer of a Nagar Panchayat is the Chief Municipal Officer.

Question 3.
What are the main functions of a Nagar Panchayat?
Answer:
The main functions of a Nagar Panchayat are as follows :

  • To prepare plans for the changing face of a village into a town.
  • To beautify the town and to give approval to improve the old houses.
  • To provide civic amenities like safe drinking water and electricity.
  • To construct and maintain roads and to provide parks, playgrounds and dispensaries.
  • To plant new trees to maintain and improve the environment.

Question 4.
How is a Municipal Committee (Council) formed?
Answer:
The members of a Municipal Committee (Council) are elected by the people of the city. The number of these members depends upon the population of the city. This number usually varies from 9 to 29. For the purpose of election, the city is divided into wards and one member is elected from each ward. Some seats are reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women. Some other experienced members, known as Aldermen, are elected by the elected representatives of the Municipal Committee. Elected members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and State Legislative Assembly are also members of the Municipal Committee. A President and a Vice-President are elected by the elected members from amongst themselves.

Question 5.
Discuss the composition of a Municipal Corporation.
Answer:
Members of a Municipal Corporation are elected by the voters. The city is divided into wards and one member (councillor) is elected from each ward. Number of councillors is fixed on the basis of the population of the city. Members of State Legislative Assembly, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha of that area are also members of Municipal Corporation. The councillors elect a Mayor and a Deputy Mayor from amongst themselves. The term of Municipal Corporation is five years.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Question 6.
Give the sources of income of a Municipal Committee and a Municipal Corporation.
Answer:
The main sources of income of a Municipal Committee and a Municipal Corporation are as follows :

  • Taxes such as house tax, property tax, and entertainment tax.
  • Fees and fines from rickshaws and fees from approval of house plans, etc.
  • Loans and grants from government.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the difference between a Municipal Committee and a Municipal Corporation?
Answer:
The following are the main points of difference between a Municipal Committee and a Municipal Corporation :
1. A Municipal Committee is the local self-government of a small city. It is established in a city having population between twenty thousands and one lac.
A Municipal Corporation, on the other hand, is set up in a big city. It is formed in a city, the population of which is over one lac.

2. A Municipal Committee is less powerful as compared to a Municipal Corporation. A Municipal Corporation is the highest and most powerful institution of urban local self-government.

3. In Punjab, the number of elected members of a Municipal Committee is fixed at 9 to 29, whereas the number of elected members of a .Municipal Corporation varies between 40 and 50.

Question 2.
What are the various functions performed by District Administration?
Answer:
District Administration performs various types of functions at district level. Several officers have been appointed in different government departments at the district level. All the officers assist Deputy Commissioner in performing the district-level functions.

The various functions performed by District Administration are as follows :
1. To maintain Law and Order: District Administration maintains law and order in the district. There are Commissoner of Police, Deputy Commissoner of Police and Inspectors of Police to help the District Administration in this task.

2. Functions relating to Land Revenue: District Administration maintains all the land records and collects land revenue from the farmers.

3. Developmental Functions: All the developmental works in the district are carried out under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner. Civic amenities such as health facilities, means of transport, education, maintenance of government buildings and roads are looked after by various departments.

4. Judicial Administration: There is a separate judicial administration in every district. The two kinds of litigation are dealt with by the two kinds of courts. Civil courts deal with matters relating to property and money, whereas criminal courts deal with cases like theft, murder and criminal assault.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 21 Urban Development - Local Self Government

Urban Development – Local Self Government PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Institutions of local self-government in urban areas: Nagar Panchayat, Municipal Council or Municipal Committee and Municipal Corporation are the three institutions of local self-government in urban areas.
  • Nagar Panchayat: A Nagar Panchayat is formed in a town with a population of not more than 20,000.
    Municipal Council or Municipal Committee: A city with a population from 20,000 to one lac, has a Municipal Council or Municipal Committee.
  • Municipal Corporation: A Municipal Corporation is a local body for a big city. It is the highest institution of urban local self-government. It is established in a city with population in lacs.
  • Councillors: Members of a Municipal Council (Committee) and a Municipal Corporation are called councillors.
  • Mayor: Mayor is the head of a Municipal Corporation. He is elected by the members of the Municipal Corporation.
  • District Administration: The administration at the district level is called District Adminis-tration. It is headed by Deputy Commissioner.
  • Judicial Administration: There are two types of courts in a district. Civil courts deal with matters related to property and money, while criminal courts deal with cases like theft, murder and criminal assault.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 21 Urban Development – Local Self Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB Rural Development and Local Self Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Write a short note on the changing face of villages in modern times.
Answer:
Our villages suffered from poverty, illiteracy, disease and superstitions before Independence. But the face of our villages has been changing since Independence.

Today, in every village we see some progress and development.

  1. Zamindari System has been abolished and the land has been given to the landless farmers.
  2. Agricultural production has increased manifold. Farmers have now begun to use good quality seeds and fertilisers and agricultural machines. Agriculture universities have been set up to improve the condition of agriculture.
  3. Schools and colleges have been opened. Children up to the age of fourteen are being imparted free education. Adult education centres have been established to educate the elderly illiterate citizens. Special facilities have been given to educate the women at village level.
  4. Branches of banks have been opened. Villagers are provided loans at lower rate of interest.
  5. Primary Health Centres have been opened almost in all the villages to provide medical aid to the villagers.
  6. A large number of family planning centres have been opened to help reduce the growing population.
  7. Almost all the villages have been provided with safe drinking water, irrigation facilities and electricity.
  8. Efforts have been made to lay link roads for all villages to join them with the state highways.
  9. Unemployed youths have been provided loans at lower rate of interest to discourage them to migrate to cities in search of employment.
  10. Co-operative farming has been encouraged to improve the economic condition of villages.

Question 2.
What do you understand by Panchayati Raj?
Answer:
Rural local self-government in India is known as Panchayati Raj. It consists of Village Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad.

Question 3.
Which is the lowest and the highest institution of Panchayati Raj System?
Answer:
Village Panchayat is the lowest and Zila Parishad is the highest institution of Panchayati Raj System.

Question 4.
What is the minimum and maximum number of members of a Gram / Village Panchayat in Punjab?
Answer:
The minimum number of members of a Gram / Village Panchayat in Punjab is five and the maximum is eleven.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 5.
Write any two functions of Zila Parishad.
Answer:
The following are two functions of Zila Parishad :

  1. Zila Parishad advises, helps, and coordinates the functioning of Panchayats and Panohayat Samitis.
  2. It prepares plans for the rural development of the district.

Question 6.
What was the condition of villages during British rule?
Answer:
During British rule the condition of villages was very bad. Villages were backward. The life of villagers was hard. They had to face many problems. Zamindari system was prevalent. The farmers were exploited by the landlords. Condition of agriculture was very poor. The farmers were unknown to modern scientific and advanced methods of agriculture. Modern irrigational facilities were also not available to them. There was hardly any development of education. Villagers had no health facilities. They had to get treatment from quacks.

Question 7.
Write short note on the composition of Panchayat Samiti.
Answer:
A Panchayat Samiti is formed for a group of 100 village.’ . All the Panchs and Sarpanchs of the Village Panchayats elect their representatives to Panchayat Samiti. Besides such representatives, there are other members also. All the members of State Legislative Assembly, Legislative Council, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha who have been elected from that block are also members of Panchayat Samiti. Every Panchayat Samiti must have one-third women members out of its total members. All the members of Panchayat Samiti elect- among themselves a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Gram Sabha? What is the difference between Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat?
Answer:
Gram Sabha is an assembly of all men and women of a village whose age is 18 years and above and whose names are enlisted in the voters’ list.

Difference between Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat. Gram Sabha includes all the persons of the village whose age is 18 years and above, whereas Gram Panchayat consists of the persons elected by the voters of the village. This is the basic difference between the two institutions.

Question 9.
Which is the most important function of the Panchayat Samiti?
Answer:
The most important function of the Panchayat Samiti is to supervise the activities of Village Panchayats of its block.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 10.
What the Panchayat Samiti of your area does to improve the local environment?
Answer:
The Panchayat Samiti of our area performs the following functions to improv6 the local environment :

  • Panchayat Samiti arranges for good seeds and fertilisers to increase agricultural production.
  • It helps Panchayats to set up small scale industries like pottery.
  • It encourages fishery and cattle rearing.
  • It constructs link roads and bridges to join villages of its area,
  • It arranges for safe drinking water and provides health facilities in its area.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
There are ________ States and ________ Union Territories in India.
Answer:
28, 8

Question 2.
Panchayat Samiti is the ________ institution of the Panchayati Raj.
Answer:
middle

Question 3.
The term of Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samiti is ________ years.
Answer:
5

Question 4.
There are ________ Zila Parishads in Punjab.
Answer:
20

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 5.
The highest institution of the Panchayati Raj is
Answer:
Zila Parishad.

III. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
The economic condition of the villages was very bad during British Rule.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Seats are not reserved for women in the Gram Panchayat.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
There are District Level Officials of various departments to run district administration properly.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Zila Parishad is also known as Zila Panchayat.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 5.
Panchayat Samiti is created for 100 villages.
Answer:
True

IV. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is the minimum age required to contest the elections of rural local self-governments institutions?
(a) 20 years
(b) 22 years
(c) 21 years.
Answer:
(c) 21 years.

Question 2.
How many minimum and maximum members are directly elected by voters of Panchayat Samiti?
(a) 9 to 25
(b) 15 to.25
(c) 6 to 29
Answer:
(b) 15 to 25.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide Rural Development and Local Self Government Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
________ is a body of all adults who live in the area covered by a Panchayat.
(A) Gram Sabha
(B) Gram Panchayat
(C) Panchayat Samiti
(D) Zila Parishad.
Answer:
(A) Gram Sabha.

Question 2.
Tenure of the Gram Panchayat is
(A) 4 years
(B) 5 years
(C) 6 years
(D) Indefinite time.
Answer:
(B) 5 years.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 3.
Panchayati Raj system was enforced with ________ constitutional amendment.
(A) 70th
(B) 72nd
(C) 73rd
(D) 74th.
Answer:
(C) 73rd.

Question 4.
________ seats of all the local bodies are reserved for women.
(A) One tenth
(B) One fourth
(C) One fifth
(D) One third.
Answer:
(D) One third.

Question 5.
Secretary of the Gram Sabha is appointed by _________
(A) State Government
(B) Central Government
(C) Panchayat
(D) Zila Parishad.
Answer:
(A) State Government.

Question 6.
Lowest level of Panchyati Raj system is _______________
(A) Panchayat
(B) Gram Sabha
(C) Panchayat Samiti
(D) Zila Parishad.
Answer:
(A) Panchayat.

Question 7.
Middle level of Panchayati Raj system is __________
(A) Panchayat
(B) Panchayat Samiti
(C) Gram Sabha
(D) Zila Parishad.
Answer:
(B) Panchayat Samiti.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 8.
Highest level of Panchayati Raj Institution is ______________
(A) Panchayat
(B) Block Samiti
(C) Zila Parishad
(D) Gram Sabha.
Answer:
(C) Zila’Parishad.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What percentage of the people of India live in villages?
Answer:
75 per cent.

Question 2.
What is the main occupation of the people in India?
Answer:
Agriculture.

Question 3.
What are the main problems of our villages today?
Answer:
Poverty, illiteracy, diseases and superstitions.

Question 4.
What is the literal meaning of Panchayat?
Answer:
literally, Panchayat means a committee of five elders to solve the local problems of villages.

Question 5.
Who is a Sarpanch?
Answer:
A Sarpanch is the President of the Village Panchayat.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 6.
Which is the smallest unit of human population?
Answer:
Village.

Question 7.
Name the institution that acts as a link between Village Panchayat and Zila Parishad.
Answer:
Panchayat Samiti.

Question 8.
Give the other name for Zila Parishad.
Answer:
Zila Panchayat.

Question 9.
Where is a Village Panchayat established?
Answer:
A Village Panchayat is established in a village with a population of 500 or more.

Question 10.
How many seats are reserved for women in a Village Panchayat?
Answer:
One-third of the total seats of a Village Panchayat.

Question 11.
How is Sarpanch of a Village Panchayat elected?
Answer:
Sarpanch of a Village Panchayat is elected directly by voters.

Question 12.
Who presides over the meetings of a Village Panchayat?
Answer:
Sarpanch.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 13.
Name the government servant who helps a Village Panchayat.
Answer:
Panchayat Secretary.

Question 14.
What are the main sources of income of a Panchayat Samiti?
Answer:
Income from property tax, house tax, water tax and grants and loans from government.

Question 15.
How many Zila Parishads are there in Punjab?
Answer:
20.

Question 16.
How many States and Union Territories are there in India?
Answer:
28 States and 8 Union territories.

Question 17.
Why is Federal form of government established in India?
Answer:
Because administration of such a large country cannot be run only by the central government. That’s why federal form of government is established in our country.

Question 18.
Why is local government necessary?
Answer:
It is necessary at the villages or cities to provide basic amenities of life to the local people at the local level.

Question 19.
What is the term of all the levels of local self¬government?
Answer:
Term of five years is fixed for all the levels of local self-government.

Question 20.
What is meant by the Local Self-Government?
Answer:
A form of Government at local level is known as the Local Self-Government. It is basically formed to solve local problems of e people.

Question 21.
What do you mean by Panchayati Raj System?
Answer:
Panchayati Raj System is the structure of rural local self-government in India.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 22.
Name the three institutions of Panchayati Raj.
Answer:
Village Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti or Block Samiti and Zila Parishad are the three institutions of Panchayati Raj.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about Panchayat Secretary?
Answer:
Panchayat Secretary is a government servant. He helps the Village Panchayat in its working. He keeps an account of income and expenditure of the Panchayat. He also prepares a report of works of the Panchayat and presents it before the Block Panchayat Officer.

Question 2.
What are the functions performed by a Village Panchayat?
Answer:
A Village Panchayat performs several functions in its area. These functions are discussed below :

  1. A Village Panchayat performs several kinds of public works like sanitation, maintenance of roads, supply of drinking water, maintenance of birth and death records, street lighting and health centre, maintenance of burial and cremation grounds.
  2. It maintains law and order, supervises the functions of government servants and safeguards and maintains public property.
  3. It deals with matters relating to disputes over property and small thefts. It tries to settle the disputes then and there.

Question 3.
Give the sources of income of a Village Panchayat.
Answer:
A Village Panchayat collects money from different sources for the development of its area. It gets money from taxes such as house tax and taxes on shops and fairs. Besides, it collects revenue from its property. It also gets some money in the forms of grants and loans (in case of need) from the State Government.

Question 4.
How is the Sarpanch of a Village Panchayat elected? Discuss any two of his functions.
Answer:
The Sarpanch of a Village Panchayat is elected directly by the voters of the village. In some states, he is elected by the Village Panchayat.

Functions:

  • The Sarpanch calls the meetings of the Village Panchayat.
  • He presides over the meetings of the Panchayat.

Question 5.
What is the importance of Village Panchayats?
Answer:
Village Panchayats perform an important role in their areas. They help the villagers in solving their basic problems and fulfill their needs. They also secure the villagers’ participation in the community development.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 6.
Discuss the main functions of the Gram Sabha.
Answer:
The main functions of the Gram Sabha are as follows :

  • The Gram Sabha elects the President (Sarpanch) and the Vice-President (Up-Sarpanch).
  • It elects members of Nyaya Panchayat.
  • It approves the annual budget of the Village Panchayat.
  • It decides policies for the development of its area.
  • It checks the accounts of Village Panchayat.

Question 7.
What is Federal form of government?
Answer:
In Federal form of government, Central government is there to run the administration of the country and State governments are there to run the administration of the states. Each state is further divided into different districts to run the administration at local level.

Question 8.
Describe three types of institutions of rural local self-government.
Answer:
There are three types of institutions of rural local self-government. At village level, Gram Panchayat is there. Panchayat Samiti is there at block level to check the development activities and other functions of gram panchayats of the block. At district level, Zila Parishad is there to check the activities of block samiti and village panchayats of the district.

Question 9.
Give in brief about reserved seats in rural local self-government.
Answer:
In 1992, 73rd constitutional amendment took place-in which some seats were kept reserved in rural local self- bodies. One third of the total seats (including S.C.’s and S.T.’s) are kept reserved for women. Seats are also kept reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes on the basis of their population in total population of the area.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a Panchayat Samiti? Discuss its functions and sources of income.
Answer:
A Panchayat Samiti is a link between Village Panchayat and Zila Parishad. It is elected for a group of 100 villages. It removes common problems of villages and works for the development of its block.

Functions: The main functions of a Panchayat Samiti are as ws:

  • It looks after the development of its area.
  • It provides quality seeds and manure to the farmers.
  • It encourages small scale industries in villages.
  • It builds bridges and link roads to join villages.
  • It provides Primary Health Centres in villages.
  • It supervises the developmental activities of Panchayats of its block.
  • It provides required information about Panchayats to Zila Parishad.
  • The activities which do not fall under the jurisdiction of Village Panchayats are also looked after by the Panchayat Samiti.

Sources of Income: Property tax, house tax, water tax and grants and loans from government are the main sources of income of a Panchayat Samiti.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Question 2.
Discuss the composition, functions and sources of income of a Zila Parishad.
Answer:
Zila Parishad’is also called Zila Panchayat. It is the third and highest institution of the Panchayati Raj System. It controls all Panchayat Samitis and Village Panchayats of the district. It acts as a link between rural local self-government and the State Government.

Composition: All the chairmen of Panchayat Samitis are members of Zila Parishad. Besides, the members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, State Legislative Assembly and State Legislative Council of the area are also its members. Seats are also reserved for women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the Zila Parishad.

Members of Zila Parishad elect one Chairman and one Vice-Chairman among themselves.
Term: The normal term of a Zila Parishad is 5 years, but it can be dissolved earlier also.

Functions: Functions of a Zila Parishad are given below :

  • It advises, helps and co-ordinates the functioning of Panchayats and Panchayat Samitis.
  • It prepares plans for rural development of the district.
  • It advises and guides the State Government for the development of the district.
  • It settles disputes between Panchayats and Panchayat Samitis.

Sources of Income: The main sources of income of a Zila Parishad are grants from the Centre and State governments, a pa of land revenue, income from its property and taxes imposed bT

Question 3.
Write a short note on the changing face of villages in modern times.
Answer:
Our villages suffered from poverty, illiteracy, disease and superstitions before Independence. But the face of our villages has been changing since Independence. Today, in every village we see some progress and development.

  1. Zamindari System has been abolished and the land has been given to the landless farmers.
  2. Agricultural production has increased manifold. Farmers have now begun to use good quality seeds and fertilisers and agricultural machines. Agriculture universities have been set up to improve the condition of agriculture.
  3. Schools and colleges have been opened. Children up to the age of fourteen are being imparted free education. Adult education centres have been established to educate the elderly illiterate citizens. Special facilities have been given to educate the women at village level.
  4. Branches of banks have been opened. Villagers are provided loans at lower rate of interest.
  5. Primary Health Centres have been opened almost in all the villages to provide medical aid to the villagers.
  6. A large number of family planning centres have been opened to help reduce the growing population.
  7. Almost all the villages have been provided with safe drinking water, irrigation facilities and electricity.
  8. Efforts have been made to lay link roads for all villages to join them with the state highways.
  9. Unemployed youths have been provided loans at lower rate of interest to discourage them to migrate to cities in search of employment.
  10. Co-operative farming has been encouraged to improve the economic condition of villages.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government

Rural Development and Local Self Government PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Local Self-Government: Local Self-Government is a form of government at local level. It is formed to solve local problems.
  • India-A Land of Villages: India is a land of villages. There are about six lac villages. Nearly 75% population of India lives in villages.
  • Panchayati Raj: The structure of rural local self-government in India is known as Panchayati Raj.
  • Institutions of Panchayati Raj: Village Panchayat, Panchayat (Block) Samiti and Zila Parishad are the three institutions of Panchayati Raj.
  • Village Panchayat: Village Panchayat is the lowest unit of Panchayati Raj. It is established in a village with a population of 500 or more.
  • Panchayat(Block) Samiti: Panchayat (Blpgk) Samiti is a committee formed of members from Village Panchayats and others. It works at the block level. A block is a group of villages in a part of district.
  • Zila Parishad: Zila Parishad is the highest unit of Panchayati Raj. It is a council of members drawn from Panchayat Samiti, the State Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council and also the members of Parliament.
  • Tenure of the Institutions of Panchayati Raj: Tenure of all the three institutions of Panchayati Raj (Village Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad) is five years.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 20 Rural Development and Local Self Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB Community Meet Human Needs Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Why is human being called a social animal.?
Answer:
Man is a social being by nature. He cannot live alone. He needs someone to fulfil his needs. It is so because Man is the only living being in the world who can think. It is so because of the intellectual power of man. He needs someone to live with. That is why a human being is called a social animal.

Question 2.
Which is the basic unit of society?
Answer:
Family is the basic unit of society.

Question 3.
How was human life in ancient times?
Answer:
Human life in ancient time was very hard but simple. The man wandered in forests. He used to make both ends meet by hunting wild animals and birds. Gradually, he learnt agriculture and began to live at one place. His needs were minimum. He took water from nearby wells, rivers or ponds. He ate whatever was grown in his fields. He collected grass, twigs, leaves, mud and wood and built his house.

Question 4.
What is the difference between tribal and city life?
Answer:
Tribal life is not stable. Tribal people do not live permanently in one place and move from place to place. Their life is simple and their needs are minimal.

City life, on the other hand, is stable. Life of people is very complex and their needs go on increasing day by day. These people enjoy all amenities of life.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 5.
How are human beings different from other living things?
Answer:
Human beings are like other living things but they are also different from them. Human beings are the only creatures on earth who possess a developed brain and who can think. All other living beings on earth do not have this power. It is only this intellectual power that differentiates human beings from other living things.

Question 6.
Why is society essential for man?
Answer:
Society is an essential institution. No man can live without it. His needs and nature compel him to live in society. Man lives in society due to the following reasons :

  • It provides protection and shelter to man.
  • It fulfils his needs of food, clothing, housing, education, etc.
  • It enables him to exchange his ideas and knowledge with others and thus further develops culture and civilization.
  • It provides him an opportunity to develop values and virtues by his personal experiences.

Question 7.
Why we are proud of our Indian community?
Answer:
India is a land of diversities. A large number of diversities such as geographical diversities, social diversities, economic diversities, religious diversities, regional diversities and political diversities, exist in India. There are a lot of differences in climate, weather, people’s residences, food, dress, traditions, habits, folk lores and folk dances and many other things. But unity appears, out of these diversities. This is the unity of emotions, feelings and sentiments. All the people of India consider themselves as one and they give an important contribution to the progress of the country. This is the reason why we are proud of our Indian community.

Question 8.
Why and how has urbanisation developed in society?
Answer:
The interdependence of various social gropus led to the urbanisation of society. With the passage of time, village population increased. For administrative purposes, towns came into existence. With industrialisation, the towns developed into cities. With the increase in village population, demand for goods raised. In order to fiilfil the deand, manual labour was replaced by machines. Big factories were established, around which large cities were set up. A large number of villagers moved to cities in search of employment. Consequently, urbanisation developed.

Question 9.
Write a short note on the change of community from natural to man-made.
Answer:
In the beginning, man lived in the jungle and he was dependent upon nature. He started his life as a hunter. Agriculture made his life stable. It also minimised his dependence upon nature. He began to exchange his goods with other people. It started trade. Human thinking gave birth to various occupations. These included carpentry, smithy and shoe-making. Expansion of occupations made essential the things like organisation, law and order and administration etc. Thus man left the natural environment and entered the man-made environment.

Question 10.
Write a note on the development of Indian civilization.
Answer:
It took hundreds of years for Indian civilization to develop. People of diverse origins came to India from time to time and stayed here. All those people ultimately made it their home. Their way of life and ideas were accepted and adopted by the people living here. So many diverse cultures got assimilated into one another. As a result, Indian civilization became a mixture of many colours and shades.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
In ancient time people were living in _________
Answer:
villages

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 2.
Urban population is _________ day by day.
Answer:
increasing

Question 3.
Community is called _________ of families.
Answer:
group

Question 4.
The main occupation of early man was _________
Answer:
hunting

Question 5.
Man is the only living creature with a power of
Answer:
thinking.

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
India is known as ‘Country with Unity in Diversity’.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Gidha is folk dance of Rajasthan.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Every human being is an important part of his commumity.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Man can live in isolation.
Answer:
False

IV. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which is the primary social unit of a society? ‘
(a) Family
(b) City
Answer:
(a) Family.

Question 2.
Why is man a social animal?
(a) Because a man can live alone.
(b) Because a man cannot live alone.
Answer:
(b) Because a man cannot live alone.

Question 3.
Which spirit is created by the cultural brotherhood?
(a) Spirit of Patriotism
(b) Spirit of Communalism.
Answer:
(a) Spirit of Patriotism.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 4.
First of all which material was used by a man to make weapons in the ancient period?
(а) Stone
(b) Copper.
Answer:
(a) Stone.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide Community Meet Human Needs Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
_________ is a system where people live together and interest with each other.
(A) Society
(B) Community
(C) Association
(D) Organisation.
Answer:
(A) Society.

Question 2.
Who said that, “Society is the web of social relationship”?
(A) Weber
(B) Maclver
(C) Kare Marx
(D) Durkheim
Answer:
(B) Maclver.

Question 3.
_________ is a group of people who have definite features and who live at a particular place or district or country.
(A) Society
(B) Association
(C) Community
(D) Organisation.
Answer:
(C) Community.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 4.
Who said that ‘Man is a social animal’?
(A) Weber
(B) Aristotle
(C) Karl Marx
(D) Durkheim.
Answer:
(B) Aristotle.

Question 5.
_________ is a country with great unity in diversity.
(A) India
(B) USA
(C) Australia
(D) Canada.
Answer:
(A) India.

Question 6.
Man in Primitive times was a
(A) Hunter
(B) Food gathers
(C) Nomad
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 7.
Why do humans need society?
(A) For Protection
(B) To fulfill his needs
(C) To exchange ideas
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 8.
Which metal greatly helped in the development of mankind?
(A) Iron
(B) Gold
(C) Silver
(D) Tin.
Answer:
(A) Iron.

Question 9.
An organised society is called a _________
(A) Society
(B) State
(C) Institution
(D) Community.
Answer:
(B) State.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 10.
Which of these is our duty towards society?
(A) Loyalty
(B) Honesty
(C) To give sacrifice
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why does man live in society?
Answer:
Man lives in society because of his nature and needs.

Question 2.
What is the first basic society for the child?
Answer:
Family is the first basic society for the child.

Question 3.
What type of qualities does a child acquire from family?
Answer:
A child acquires various types of qualities like affection, sympathy, sacrifice, respect and brotherhood, etc. from family.

Question 4.
What is the world community?
Answer:
Many nations of the world together make a human society. This human society is known as a world community.

Question 5.
Name the metal which played a very important role in the development of mankind
Answer:
Iron.

Question 6.
When did an organised and stable community life come into existence?
Answer:
An organised and stable community life came into existence when man began to grow crops.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 7.
Why were family and society created? ‘
Answer:
Family and society were created to fulfil the common goals of the people.

Question 8.
What are the basic qualities of social life?
Answer:
Discipline, co-operation, respect, tolerance and vigilance, etc. are the basic qualities of social life.

Question 9.
What led to the urbanisation of society?
Answer:
The interdependence of various social groups led to the urbanisation of society.

Question 10.
When was society needed to be organised?
Answer:
Society was needed to be organised when groups of families became larger due to increase in population.

Question 11.
What is an organised society called?
Answer:
An organised society is called a state.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 12.
What is the main basis of social organisation?
Answer:
Co-operation among people is the main basis of social organisation.

Question 13.
What is meant by Society?
Answer:
A system where people live together in organised way and interact with each other is known as society.

Question 14.
What is Community?
Answer:
A group of people who have definite features and who live in a place, district or country is called community.

Question 15.
How can you say that India is a country with unity in diversity? ‘
Answer:
India is a country with unity in diversity because large scale social,physical, religious, economic, political and regional diversities are found here. Even then there is emotional unity among people.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is family called the first basic unit of social life?
Answer:
Family is the only first basic unit of social life.-It is only in the family that a child learns affection, co-operation, sense of service, tolerance, sacrifice, obedience, respect and discipline. By taking interest in the family decisions taken by parents, the child learns how to take part in the decisions taken by the country’s government. All these qualities contribute to the formation of a good nation.

Question 2.
How are various institutions helping the modern man?
Answer:
Various institutions help a lot in making the modem man civilised. Family which is the primary school for civic qualities, teaches us mutual co-operation, sense of service, tolerance, sacrifice, renunciation and discipline. Similarly, school and society also teach us the same qualities, which result in making us good citizens.

Question 3.
What are our duties towards society?
Answer:
Our duties towards society are as follows :

  • We must be loyal towards society and obey the rules formed by it.
  • We must pay honestly the taxes levied by our government so that our country can make progress.
  • We must be prepared to make every sacrifice for the defence of our country.
  • We must live in mutual love, peace and brotherhood with our fellow beings.
  • We must protect our social and natural environment from being polluted.

Question 4.
Why is man called a social being?
Answer:
Man is called a social being because he cannot live alone. His nature and needs compel him to live in society. Isolation bores him, and he loves to live with his fellow beings. Besides, he has to depend upon society for the fulfilment of his needs. Therefore, man is a social being.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 5.
Why is India called a sub-continent?
Answer:
India stands as a sub-continent in South Asia. The natural frontiers of India provide an isolated character to the vast Indian landmass. The Himalayas in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, dense forests in the east and Thar desert in the west separate it from the main continent. That is why India is called a sub-continent.

Question 6.
What type of qualities do you acquire from your school community?
Answer:
We acquire several qualities from our school community. We acquire discipline, obedience and sportsmanship, besides reading and learning.

Question 7.
Why and how has urbanisation developed in the society?
Answer:
The interdependence of various social gropus led to the urbanisation of society. With the passage of time, village population increased. For administrative purpose, towns came into existence. With industrialisation, the towns developed into cities. With increase in village population, demand for goods raised. In order to fiilfil the deand, manual labour was replaced by machines. Big factories were established, around which large cities were set up. A large number of villagers moved to cities in search of employment. Consequently, urbanisation developed.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the institutions which teach a man how to lead a civilised civic life.
Answer:
A man comes in contact with various institutions in his life, which teach him how to lead a civilised civic life.

Following is the description of a few such institutions :

  • Family: Family is the primary unit of social life. Social life begins at home. Family is the first and foremost institution where a man learns the first lesson of citizenship and civic virtues. It is only in the family that he adopts the virtues of love, co-operation, service, sacrifice, obedience, respect and discipline.
  • School: After family, school plays an important role in the formation of civic life. School acts as a centre of primary education. A sense of discipline, as well as a sense of obedience, is learnt by a man in school.
  • Village or City: People of a village or city make collective efforts to solve their problems. These collective efforts are called a local government. The local government plays an important role in civic life.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs

Question 2.
Write a note on Unity in Diversity in India.
Answer:
Our country India is known for its unity in diversity. This unity is of feelings and emotions. We cannot find any other country with such diverse physical and cultural conditions. Every citizen of India is proud of its unity. People of different origins, cultures and religions came over here and settled here. All these people ultimately became a part of Indian society. Their culture was mixed in Indian culture. As a result, Indian culture is a mixture of many colours and shades just like a rainbow. Geographical conditions are also very much different frdm one region to the other. We can find deserts, mountains, fertile plains, rocky plains, freezed zones over here. In this way, we can say that Unity in Diversity exists in India.

Community Meet Human Needs PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Society: Society is a system where people live together in organised communities and interact with each other.
  • Community: A community is a group of people who have definite characteristics and who live in a place, district or country.
  • Family: Family is a system in which parents, children or grandchildren live together. It is the first unit of society.
  • Man as a social animal: Man is a social animal. He cannot live alone. He always lives with his fellow beings.
    Our basic needs: Food, clothes and home are our basic needs. We need food to eat, clothes to wear and home to live in.
  • Civic life: Civic life is the sharing of joys and sorrows with one another and cooperating each other in family, neighbourhood, school or society.
  • Duty: Doing work according to rule and dictates of one’s organisation, society or country is called duty.
  • Man in primitive times: Man in primitive times was a nomad. He had to wander from place to place in search of food and shelter. But the invention of agriculture made him to live at one place permanently.
  • India as a country with unity in diversity: India is known as a country with unity in diversity. Here, large scale physical, social, economic, religious, regional and political diversities are found. Still there is emotional unity among people.
  • Life and co-operation: Life depends upon co-operation. Every man has to depend upon others for the fulfilment of his needs.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 19 Community Meet Human Needs Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 18 India and the World

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB India and the World Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
What is Silk Route?
Answer:
The route connecting China with Europe is known as the Silk Route. In ancient times, silk was the major item of trade on this route.

Question 2.
Name some important seaports of the Satavahana period.
Answer:
The ports of the Satavahana period can be divided into two parts :

  • Ports of Southern Coast: Ports of the southern coast included Kaveripattnam, Mahabalipuram, Puhar and Korkai.
  • Ports of the Western Coast: Suraparaka and Bhrigukachehha were ports of the western coast.

Question 3.
How did India come in contact with Iran?
Answer:
India’s contacts with Iran started in 600 B.C. Rulers of Iran occupied north-western parts of India. Consequently, contacts between the two countries were established.

Question 4.
What was exported from India to Rome?
Answer:
The items exported from India to Rome were :

  1. Spices,
  2. Precious stones,
  3. Fine cloth,
  4. Perfumes,
  5. Ivory,
  6. Iron,
  7. Dyes,
  8. Rice,
  9. Birds like parrots and peacocks,
  10. Animals like monkeys.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 5.
What articles were imported from Europe?
Answer:
Glassware and lead were imported from Europe.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
______ A.D. rulers of ______ of Iran occupied parts of North-western India.
Answer:
600, Atchiminid

Question 2.
During the reigns of Ashoka and Kanishka, Buddhist missionaries were sent to ______, ______, ______ and ______ for preaching Buddhism.
Answer:
Sri Lanka, Burma, China, Central Asia

Question 3.
The______, ______ and ______ rulers encouraged ship building and overseas exploration.
Answer:
Chera, Cholas, Pandyas

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 4.
The Arabs occupied Sind in ______ A.D.
Answer:
712

Question 5.
The ______ temple in Kampuchea has sculptures depicting scenes from the Indian epics ______ and ______
Answer:
Angkarvat, Ramayana, Mahabharata.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(i) Gold coins (a) Suraparaka
(ii) Seaport (b) Silk
(iii) China (c) Land Route
(iv) Silk Road (d) Rome

Answer:
Correct columns :

A B
(i) Gold coins (d) Rome
(ii) Seaport (a) Suraparaka
(iii) China (b) Silk
(iv) Silk Road (c) Land Route

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
India’s culture became the identity of Indians.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 2.
India had no contacts with Egypt.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Huge rock-cut statues of the Buddha were found at Bamiyan in Afghanistan.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Indian products fetched high prices in Roman markets.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
The Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers encouraged ship-building and overseas exploration.
Answer:
True.

V. Activitiy (Something To Do) :

Question 1.
Collect pictures and Buddhist temples built in South¬East Asian Countries and paste them in your notebook.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide India and the World Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Silk Road is the route connecting with Europe.
(A) China
(B) India
(C) Russia
(D) Japan.
Answer:
(A) China.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 2.
The Angkorvat Temple is situated in
(A) Combodia
(B) Kumpuchea
(C) Malasia
(D) Java.
Answer:
(B) Kumpuchea.

Question 3.
What was exported to Europe through Silk Routes?
(A) Jewellery
(B) Spices
(C) Ivory goods
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 4.
The gave a great contribution to the spread of Indian Culture.
(A) Arabs
(B) Chinese
(C) Japanese
(D) Sri Lankans.
Answer:
(A) Arabs.

Question 5.
The Arabs occupied in 712 A.D.
(A) Baluchistan
(B) Sind
(C) Punjab
(D) Kashmir
Answer:
(B) Sind.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 6.
Where does Bamiyan lie?
(A) India
(B) Pakistan
(C) Afghanistan
(D) Russia.
Answer:
(C) Afghanistan.

Question 7.
What was exported from India to Rome?
(A) Spices
(B) Precious stones
(C) Fine Cloth
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the countries with which the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation had trade relations.
Answer:
The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation had trade relations with Mesopotamia, Egypt and other countries.

Question 2.
When did India’s contacts with Europe develop further?
Answer:
India’s contacts with Europe developed further after the invasion of Alexander on India in 326 B.C.

Question 3.
In which countries were Indian luxury goods in great demand?
Answer:
Indian luxury goods were in great demand in Western countries, especially in Greece and Roman Empire.

Question 4.
Through which countries did the land routes pass?
Answer:
The land routes passed through Afghanistan, Central Asia and Western Asia.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 5.
What led to the decline of trade with the West?
Answer:
The Roman Empire imposed restrictions on trade with India after the 3rd century A.D. It led to the decline of trade with the West.

Question 6.
What features did India’s contact with Iran introduce?
Answer:
India’s contact with Iran introduced features like pillars topped by capitals, inscriptions on pillars, the Kharoshti script and a new style of coinage in India.

Question 7.
Name the Indian items which became very popular in Egypt.
Answer:
Precious stones, spices, cows and hunting dogs were the Indian items which became very popular in Egypt.

Question 8.
To which countries were the Buddhist missionaries sent during the reigns of Ashoka and Kanishka?
Answer:
The Buddhist missionaries were sent to *feri Lanka, Myanmar, China and Central Asia, etc. for preaching Buddhism.

Question 9.
In which books is India’s overseas trade with Rome mentioned?
Answer:
India’s overseas trade with Rome is mentioned in Ptolemy’s Geography and in the Sangam literature.

Question 10.
What did India receive in return for her trade with Rome?
Answer:
India received gold and silver coins, metals, wine and glass in return for her trade with Rome.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 11.
Name the dynasties which encouraged ship-building and overseas exploration.
Answer:
The Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasties encouraged ship-building and overseas exploration.

Question 12.
What marked the beginning of Indo-Islamic tiulture?
Answer:
The Arab invasion of India marked the beginning of Indo- Islamic culture.

Question 13.
Name the countries influenced by Indian culture.
Answer:
There are several countries which have been influenced by Indian culture. Prominent among them are Myanmar, Malaya, Kampuchea, Java, Indonesia and Vietnam.

Question 14.
Where is the Borobudur Temple located?
Answer:
The Borobudur Temple is located in Java (Indonesia).

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 15.
What are the ancient names of Burma, Malaya, Kampuchea and Java?
Answer:
The ancient names of Burma, Malaya, Kampuchea and Java are Suvarnabhumi, Suvarnadvipa, Cambodia and Yavadvipa, respectively.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the first contacts between the Arabs and India.
Answer:
In 712 A.D., the Arabs conquered Sind and set up trade settlements in India. But they were held by the local rulers of what is now called Rajasthan. However, they kept their political control over Sind.

Question 2.
How did the people of South-East Asia accept Indian religions?
Answer:
Indian merchants went to South-East Asia from various parts of India from Saurashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Bengal. They took with them their own religious customs ^nd ideals. They were mostly Jainas, Vaishnavas, Shaivas and Buddhist. The people of South-East Asia were influenced by their culture and they accepted Indian religions.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 3.
Give an information about India’s relations with Kampuchea.
Answer:
Kampuchea was founded by a Hindu king. The region south¬east of Kampuchea, namely Kubuja was also ruled by the Hindu king. The Hindu gods and goddesses were worshipped in Kampuchea. The Hindu scriptures in Sanskrit were studied there. Hymns from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas were recited in temples of Kampuchea.

Question 4.
What were India’s relations with Java in ancient times?
Answer:
The kingdom of Java was established in 56 A.D. by a Hindu ruler. In 78 A.D. Ajisaka started the Java Samvata. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Java in 418 A.D. and saw that the Brahmanism was a prominent religion in Java. Several temples were built in Java. Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma were worshipped in temples. Indians cast a deep influence on the people of Java. Caste system in Java started with the advent of Indians there.

Question 5.
Write about the spread of Indian culture in Myanmar.
Answer:
Myanmar lies to the east of India. There, Indian culture spread to a great extent. India had relations with Myanmar since the time of the Buddha. Indian culture was prevalent in Myanmar. Several inscriptions found there are in Sanskrit and Pali languages. There the Hinayana branch of Buddhism was preached. Historians believe that the Ananda Temple of Myanmar had been constructed by Indian artisans.

Question 6.
What Indian influence can be seen at the Angkorvat Temple?
Answer:
The Angkorvat Temple lies in Kampuchea. It is a Hindu temple. The stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are written on the walls of the-temple. It has sculptures depicting scenes from the two epics. It shows the influence of Indian culture on the people of Kampuchea.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the reasons for the growth of India’s contacts with South-East countries?
Answer:
India had close contacts with South-East Asian countries in ancient times. The following were the reasons for the growth of these contacts :

  • The Indian merchants made voyages to these countries to exchange their goods for spices. These spices brought much wealth to Indian merchants because they were sold to traders from Western Asia.
  • There was peace and prosperity during the 6th and 7th centuries. Kings encouraged trade and it was secure.
  • Religious missionaries were sent to South-East Asian countries.
  • Indian traders settled down in these countries for the purpose of trade. Some of them married local women. Slowly and slowly, some aspects of Indian culture were accepted by people of South-East Asia.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 India and the World

Question 2.
Give an account of the spread of Indian culture abroad.
Answer:
Indian culture was spread mainly in South-East Asian countries. It was carried there by the merchants who settled there to carry out their trade.

  • Kampuchea: A Hindu merchant Kaundinya set up the Kampuchean kingdom. He built many ‘ emples. The most famous is the Vishnu Temple of Angkorvat. It contains beautiful sculptures and scenes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
  • Java: The kingdom of Java was set up by a Hindu prince. Fahien also makes a mention of this kingdom in his accounts. Java was ruled by a Hindu king. Both the ruler and the people worshipped the Hindu gods. But later on they adopted Buddhism. The Buddhist Stupa at Borobudur is the biggest stupa in the world.
  • Sumatra: The state of Sumatra was establihsed by a Hindu prince Sri Vijaya. It was a great centre of learning.
  • Bali and Borneo: These were Hindu colonies. Even today some people are Hindus there.
  • Champa: It was also a Hindu colony. Its capital city was Amaravati. It was the centre of Sanskrit learning.
  • China and Tibet: Indian culture also spread in China and Tibet. The Chinese* and the Tibetan people adopted Buddhism.

India and the World PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • India’s contact with the outside world: By the 7th century A.D., India’s contact with South-East Asia had grown considerably. It had begun with the Indian merchants making voyages to these islands to exchange their goods for spices.
  • Indian luxury goods exported to Western countries: Fine clothes, jewellery, inlaid work, precious stones, perfumes, muslin, ivory goods and spices were regularly exported to Western countries, especially to Greece and Rome.
  • Silk Road: Silk Road is the route connecting China with Europe.
  • Champa and Cambodia: During ancient times, Vietnam and Kampuchea were known as Champa and Cambodia, respectively.
  • The Angkorvat Temple: The Angkorvat Temple is situated in Kampuchea. The temple has sculptures depicting scenes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
  • The Arabs’ contribution to the Indian culture: The Arabs gave a great contribution to the spread of Indian culture. They translated Indian works in mathematics, medicine, astronomy and literature into Arabic.
  • Occupation of Sind: The Arabs occupied Sind in 712 by the Arabs A.D. and set up trade settlements in India.
  • Bamiyan: Bamiyan lies in Afghanistan. There were the huge rock-cut statues of the Buddha that were destroyed during the Taliban rule in 2001 A.D.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 18 India and the World Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB The Chalukyas and the Pallavas Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you know about the Chalukyas of South India?
Answer:
The Chalukyas established their rule in South India in the early 6th century A.D. Pulakeshin-I and his son Kirtivarman were early notable kings of this dynasty. Vatapi (modern Badami) in District Bijapur of Karnataka was their capital city. The most famous and strong king’of this dynasty was Pulakeshin-II. He wanted to establish his rule over the whole of the Deccan. He achieved some success in the beginning. He conquered several areas in South India and defeated the Pallavas of Tamil Nadu. He defeated great king Harshavardhana near the river Narmada. But he was defeated by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman-I. This was a big defeat for the Chalukyas. Pulakeshin-II died in 642 A.D. His successors were inefficient and they failed to control the empire. In the middle of the eighth century, the Rashtrakutas defeated them, and ended their rule.

Question 2.
Write a note about the temples of the Chalukyas.
Answer:
The Chalukyas were great lovers of art. They constructed several famous temples at.Aihole, Vatapi and Pattadkal. The Virupaksha and the Pampanatha temples were the most famous. These temples were dedicated to Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. They had beautiful panels of scenes from the Ramayana. The Chalukyas also got beautiful cave temples built at Vatapi (Badami). These temples are known for their artistic carvings. Most of the sculptures found at Ellora were due to the patronage of the Chalukyas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 3.
What do you know about the Pallavas?
Answer:
The Pallavas were officers of the Satavahanas. When the Satavahana kings became weak, they strengthened their position and captured power. They gradually expanded their state towards the region of Kanchipuram near Chennai in Tamil Nadu. They had to fight many wars against the Pandyas and the Chalukyas. They conquered regions south of Kanchipuram, Tanjore and Puddukottai.

Mahendravarman-I was a famous king of the Pallava dynasty. He was involved in a long struggle with the Chalukya ruler Pulakeshin-II. He was not just a warrior but also a poet and a musician. His son Narasimhavarman-I was also a great warrior. He defeated the Chalukyas and thus avenged the defeat of his father. He also sent two expeditions against Sri Lanka and came out victorious.

The Pallavas were locked in a long struggle with the Cholas. Ultimately, they were defeated and ousted in the 9th century A.D.

Question 4.
Write about the art and architecture of the Pallavas.
Answer:
The Pallavas were great patrons of art and architecture. They were deeply interested in temple building. They got several temples constructed. Some of them were cut out of large rocks such as the Ratha Temples at Mahabalipuram. The Ratha Temples are named after the’ Pandavas of the Mahabharata. Another Pallava temple at Mahabalipuram is known as the Shore Temple. At their capital city Kanchipuram the Pallavas constructed the famous Kailashanath Temple. Besides the sculptures of gods and goddesses, statues of the Pallava kings and queens were»also built in these temples.

The Pallavas also patronised music, dance and painting.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
_______ and _______ were the famous kings of the Chalukyas.
Answer:
Pulakeshin I

Question 2.
Chalukya rulers were the famous patrons of _______
Answer:
Kirtivarman art

Question 3.
_______ founded the Pallava dynasty.
Answer:
Simhavishnu

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 4.
Pallavas had their capital at _______ near Chennai in Tamil
Answer:
Kanchi,

Question 5.
Pallavas were great patrons and lovers of _______ and _______
Answer:
art, architecture

Question 6.
Pallava rulers were mainly followers of _______ and _______
Answer:
Jainism, Saivism.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(1) Persian ambassador (a) Chalukya temple
(2) Virupaksha (b) Pulakeshin II
(3) Mahabalipuram (c) Pallava king
(4) Mahendravarman (d) The Ratha temple.

Answer:
Correct columns :

A B
(1) Persian ambassador (b) Pulakeshin II
(2) Virupaksha (a) Chalukya temple
(3) Mahabalipuram (d) The Ratha temple.
(4) Mahendravarman (c) Pallava king

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
Pulakeshin-II fought with Harshavardhana.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 2.
Aihole and Pattadkal are known for the seashore.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Kanchipuram was the capital of the Chalukyas.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Kailashanath temple was built by the Pallavas.
Answer:
True.

V. Activity (Something To Do) :

Question 1.
Collect pictures of the famous rock-cut temples of South India.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide The Chalukyas and the Pallavas Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which was the capital Chalukyas?
(A) Madwari
(B) Varanasi
(C) Aithole
(D) Kanaj.
Answer:
(C) Aithole.

Question 2.
Who was the best chalukya ruler?
(A) Vijayaraja I
(B) Vijayraja II
(C) Samudragupta
(D) Pulakeshin II.
Answer:
(D) Pulakeshin II.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 3.
_______ was the court poet of Pulakeshin II?
(A) Ravikirti
(B) Xuan Zang
(C) Banabhatta
(D) Harishana.
Answer:
(A) Ravikirti.

Question 4.
After the decline of kingdom, the Chalukyas and Pallavas emerged in south India.
(A) Rashtrakuta
(B) Satavahana
(C) Pala
(D) Chera
Answer:
(B) Satavahana.

Question 5.
Mahendravarman-I was a powerful king of _______ dynasty
(A) Satavahana
(B) Chera
(C) Pallava
(D) Chola.
Answer:
(C) Pallava.

Question 6.
Ratha Temple at Mahabalipuram was made under _______dynasty.
(A) Pallava
(B) Chera
(C) Satavahana
(D) Chola.
Answer:
(A) Pallava.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 7.
Pallavas were ousted by the __________
(A) Cheras
(B) Cholas
(C) Rashtrakutas
(D) Palas.
Answer:
(B) Cholas.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the capital city of the Chalukyas.
Answer:
Vatapi (Badami).

Question 2.
Who was the most powerful ruler of the Chalukya dynasty?
Answer:
Pulakeshin-II.

Question 3.
Name the ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty who was defeated by Pulakeshin-II.
Answer:
Harshavardhana.

Question 4.
Name the Chinese traveller who visited the kingdom of Pulakeshin-II.
Answer:
Hiuen Tsang.

Question 5.
When did Pulakeshin-II die?
Answer:
Pulakeshin-II died in 642 A.D.

Question 6.
Name the most famous temples constructed by the Chalukyas.
Answer:
The Virupaksha and the Pampanatha.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 7.
Where did the Pallavas rule?
Answer:
The Pallavas ruled in Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 8.
Who defeated the Pallava king Vishnugopavarman?
Answer:
The Gupta ruler Samudragupta defeated Vishnugopavarman.

Question 9.
When and by whom was a new Pallava dynasty established?
Answer:
A new Pallava dynasty was established in the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. by Simhavishnu.

Question 10.
Who ousted the Pallavas and when?
Answer:
The Cholas ousted the Pallavas in the 9th century A.D.

Question 11.
Who were Alwars and Nayannars?
Answer:
The Alwars were the devotees of Vishnu and Nayannars were the devotees of Shiva.

Question 12.
Who built the Ratha Temple at Mahabalipuram?
Answer:
The Pallavas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 13.
Name the two important enemies of the Chalukyas.
Answer:
The Rashtrakutas in the north and the Pallavas in the south were the two important enemies of the Chalukyas.

Question 14.
Besides religious centres, what other functions were performed in the Pallava temples?
Answer:
Besides religious centres, the Pallava temples were also centres of social activities and education.

Question 15.
Name two important books written during the Pallava period.
Answer:
Manimekhalai and Shilpadikaram.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was Hiuen Tsang? About which state did he write his account?
Answer:
Hiuen Tsang was a Chinese traveller who visited India during the reign of Pulakeshin-II of the Chalukya dynasty. Then the Chalukya kingdom was at its height. Hiuen Tsang wrote an account about the life, administration and economic and religious conditions of the Chalukya state.

Question 2.
What do you know about the Pallava king Narasimhavarman-I?
Answer:
The Pallava king Narasimhavarman-I was a powerful ruler. He defeated Pulakeshin-II of the Chalukya dynasty. He also made several other victories and expanded his empire. He fought battles against the Pandya, Chera and Chola kings. He sent two expeditions against Sri Lanka and was successful. He made Kanchipuram his capital city.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Question 3.
Write a brief note on the religion of the Pallava age.
Answer:
The Pallava kings were mainly followers of Jainism and Shaivism. But they adopted the policy of religious tolerance. They respected all religions. Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallavas’ capital city Kanchipuram in 642 A.D. He writes that Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism flourished side by side in the Pallava kingdom.

Question 4.
How is the age of the Pallavas of Kanchi memorable?
Answer:
The age of the Pallavas of Kanchi is memorable in the political and cultural history of India. The Pallavas established a great empire. Kanchi became a great centre of Brahminical as well as Buddhist learning. Many of the Vaishnav Alwars and Shaiva Nayannars flourished during the rule of the Pallavas of Kanchi.

The Chalukyas and the Pallavas PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • The Chalukyas and the Pallavas The Chalukyas and the Pallavas were two major dynasties of South India. Both of them came to power after the decline of the Satavahana Kingdom.
  • Vatapi and Kanchipurani Vatapi and Kanchipuram were the capital cities of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas, respectively.
  • Pulakeshin-II Pulakeshin-II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. His ambition was to control the whole of the Deccan plateau.
  • The Chalukyas and Art The Chalukyas were great patrons of art. They gave large sums of money for the building of temples and cave shrines in the Deccan hills.
  • Mahendravarman-I and Narasimha- varman-I Mahendravarman-I and Narasimhavarman-I were the two powerful kings of the Pallava dynasty.
  • The Pallavas and Art The Pallavas built several temples. Some of them were cut out of large rocks, such as the Ratha Temples at Mahabalipuram. Others were built of stone blocks, such as those at Kanchipuram.
  • Manimekhalai and Shilpadikaram Manimekhlai and Shilpadikaram were two important books written during the Pallavas’ period.
  • Decline of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas The Chalukyas were ousted by the Rashtrakutas and the Pallavas by the Cholas.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 17 The Chalukyas and the Pallavas Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.)

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.)

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.) Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you know about Hiuen Tsang?
Answer:
Hiuen Tsang: Hiuen Tsang was a famous Chinese traveller who visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana. He was the royal guest in Harsha’s court. He spent nearly 15 years in India. He wrote about India and her people in detail.

Question 2.
Write a note about Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Harshavardhana was the most important ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty. His brother Rajyavardhana and his sister’s husband Grahavarman who was the ruler of Maukhari, were assassinated by Shashanka, the king of Bengal, with the help of the king of Malwa. Therefore, Harshavardhana ascended the throne in 606 A.D., after the death of his brother.

After ascending the throne Harshavardhana moved his capital from Sthaneshwar to Kannauj and became the joint ruler of both (Pushyabhuti and Maukhari) the states. He vowed to take revenge of the death of his brother and sister’s husband. After a few years he killed Shashanka and thus conquered Bengal. He conquered several other territories also and became the most powerful ruler of North India. He also led a military campaign against Pulakeshin- II of Chalukya dynasty of South India but failed.

Harshavardhana was a great scholar. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit, namely Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda.

Harshavardhana was a follower of Shaivism but he respected other faiths also. He had special respect for Buddhism. He convened an assembly of Buddhists at Kannauj under the chairmanship of Hiuen Tsang. He also held assemblies at Allahabad after every five years. In one such assembly he is said to have given away all his wealth in charity.
Harshavardhana passed away in about 647 A.D. and with his death the rule of the Pushyabhuti dynasty also ended.

Question 3.
What do you know about the society of this period?
Answer:
The caste system was in existence in India during Harshavardhana’s period. The untouchables were treated badly. They had to live outside the towns. The houses of rich people were beautifully built. On the other hand, the poor lived in small houses having mud floors. The dress of the people varied from region to region. The people were honest and lovers of freedom. They loved and respected each other. Most of the people were vegetarians. There were not many criminals. The Hinduism was much popular among the people, whereas the Buddhism was less popular among them.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 4.
Write about the administration of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Harshavardhana was supreme in his empire. He himself made a visit of empire in order to know about the problems and difficulties of his people.There was a council of ministers to help him in administration. He himself appointed the ministers. The entire empire was divided into provinces, districts and villages. Villages were administered by Panchayats. Justice was imparted to all. Judicial system was efficient. Punishments were rigorous. Land revenue was the main source of income of the state. It was 1/ 6th of the produce and paid both in cash and kind.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Harshavardhana made ________ his capital.
Answer:
Kanauj

Question 2.
________ a faftious Chinese visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Hsuan Tsang

Question 3.
An account of Hashavardhana tells us that he donated the income of about ________ villages for Nalanda University.
Answer:
200

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(1) Pushyabhutis (a) Writer
(2) Hiuen Tsang (b) Khurtkshetra
(3) Banabhatta (c) Chinese traveller
(4) Dutaka (d) Messenger

Answer:
Correct columns:

A B
(1) Pushyabhutis (b) Khurtkshetra
(2) Hiuen Tsang (c) Chinese traveller
(3) Banabhatta (a) Writer
(4) Dutaka (d) Messenger

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
Harshavardhana ascended the throne in, 606 A.D.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 2.
Pulakeshin-II was the king of Bihar.
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
People did not pay any taxes to the king.
Answer:
False.

Question 4.
Most of the people were vegetarians.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Rajyavardhana was the father of Harsha.
Answer:
False.

V. Activities (Something To Do):

Question 1.
Draw a sketch map of India and indicate Thanesar, Kanauj, Nalanda, Vatapi, Ellora on it.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.) Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
The rule of Harshavardhana was around ________ years ago.
(A) 1400
(B) 1500
(C) 1600
(D) 1700.
Answer:
(A) 1400.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 2.
Who among the following wrote a about Hershavardhana?
(A) Banabhatta
(B) Xuna Zang
(C) Ravi Kirti’
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 3.
Harshacharitta was written by ________
(A) Harishana
(B) Banabhatta
(C) Arya Bhatta
(D) Xuan Zangt
Answer:
(B) Banabhatta.

Question 4.
________ dynasty rose in northern India after the decline of the Gupta empire.
(A) Pushyabhuti
(B) Mauryan
(C) Kushana
(D) Slave.
Answer:
(A) Pushyabhuti.

Question 5.
________ was the most important ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty.
(A) dynasty
(B) Harshavardhana
(C) Ashoka
(D) Bindusara.
Answer:
(B) Harshavardhana.

Question 6.
Shashanka was the king of ________
(A) Bengal
(B) Bihar
(C) Bengal
(D) Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
(A) Bengal.

Question 7.
Hiuen Tsang visited India during the times of.
(A) Ashoka
(B) Harshavarardhaka
(C) Sheshanka
(D) Chandragupta II.
Answer:
(B) Harshavardhana.

Question 8.
Nalanda is situated in
(A) Bengal
(B) Odisha
(C) Bihar
(D) Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
(C) Bihar

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 9.
Which of these play was written by Harshavardhana?
(A) Priyadarshika
(B) Rathavali
(C) Nagananda
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name some of the states that rose in Northern India after the decline of the Gupta Empire.
Answer:
The Maukharis of Kannauj, the later Guptas of Magadha, the Maitrakas in Gujarat and Shashanka in Bengal.

Question 2.
Where did the Pushyabhutis start their rule?
Answer:
The Pushyabhutis started their rule in the region of Kurukshetra in the present day Haryana.

Question 3.
Name the capital city of the Pushyabhuti dynasty.
Answer:
Sthaneshwar (Thanesar).

Question 4.
Who was the most important ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty?
Answer:
Harshavardhana.

Question 5.
Where and why did Harshavardhana change his capital?
Answer:
Harshavardhana changed his capital from Sthaneshwar to Kannauj. He believed that Kannauj was a central place to rule whole of India.

Question 6.
Who wrote biography of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Banabhatta.

Question 7.
Name the South Indian ruler who defeated Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Pulakeshin-II.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 8.
What was Harshavardhana’s religion?
Answer:
Shaivism.

Question 9.
Name the plays written by Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Na

Question 10.
When did Harshavardhana die?
Answer:
In about 647 A.D.

Question 11.
What was the effect of Harshavardhana’s death on his kingdom?
Answer:
His kingdom was divided into several smaller units which kept fighting with one another.

Question 12.
From where do we come to know about Harsha-vardhana’s period?
Answer:
From Hiuen Tsang’s accounts and Banabhatta’s Harshachrita.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the kings defeated by Harshavardhana. Did he conquer the kings of the Deccan?
Answer:
Harshavardhana defeated the kings of Punjab, Eastern Rajasthan and Assam. He ruled over almost the whole of North India.

After he had taken over Northern India under his control, he launched several campaigns against the Deccan rulers. But he did not conquer the Deccan. He was stopped by the army of Pulakeshin- II of the Chalukya dynasty.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

Question 2.
What was Harshavardhana’s religion? How did he behave towards other religions?
Answer:
Harshavardhana was a follower of Shaivism but he bestowed his patronage on other religions as well. At Prayag he held a great assembly. He followed a tolerant religious policy. He r generously gave gifts to the Brahamanas as well as to Jains.

Question 3.
How did Hiuen Tsang describe the people of Indip?
Answer:
Hiuen Tsang described the people of India as hot tempered and quick to anger but honest. Indians were also particular about cleanliness. Except for some robberies, there were not many crimes, There was no death sentence.

Question 4.
What do you know about the economy of Harshavardhana’s period?
Answer:
In Harshavardhana’s time, agriculture was the main occupation of people. Cattle rearing was also done. Trade and carftsmanship were other occupations. People paid taxes regularly to the king both in cash and kind.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Harshavardhana as a ruler.
Answer:
Harshavardhana became the king of Sthaneshwar at the age of sixteen. He soon gathered the courage and ability to establish one of the largest kingdoms of his time.

His achievements can be described as under :
1. A Great Conquerer: Harshavardhana conquered the five kingdoms of North, namely Punjab, Kannauj, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. However, he was defeated by Pulakeshin-II of the Chalukya dynasty.

2. A Great Ruler: Harshavardhana administered his empire efficiently. Taxes were reasonable. Punishments were severe. He also kept a strong army. He acted on the advice of his ministers.

3. A Patron of Literature: Harshavardhana was a great patron of literature. Banabhatta was one of his court poets. He wrote Harsha’s biography, Harshachrita. Harshavardhana himself was a great scholar. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit, namely Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadarshika.

4. Religious Tolerance: Harshavardhana was a follower of Shaivism but he respected all other religions also. He had special respect for Buddhism. He convened an assembly of Buddhists at Kannauj. In the Prayag Assembly, he worshipped the Buddha, the Sun and Shiva.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 - 650 A.D.)

The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.) PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Pushyabhuti Dynasty: The Pushyabhuti dynasty was an important dynasty that rose in Northern India after the decline of the Gupta Empire.
  • Harshavardhana: Harshavardhana was the most important ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty.
  • Shashanka: Shashanka was king of Bengal. He killed Harshavardhana’s elder brother Rajyavardhana and brother-in-law Grahavarman. Harshavardhana killed Shashanka after a few years.
  • Banabhatta: Banabhatta was one of the court poets of Harshavardhana. He wrote Harsha’s biography, ‘Harshachrita’.
  • Hiuen Tsang: Hiuen Tsang was a Chinese scholar who visited India during the time of Harshavardhana.
  • Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali ’ and Nagananda are the three plays written by Harshavardhana.
  • Kumaramatyas: Kumaramatyas were important officers in Harsha’s administration.
  • Nalanda: Nalanda is situated in Bihar, it was a famous university and very big centre of learning during Harshavardhana’s period.
  • End of the Pushyabhuti Dynasty: The Pushyabhuti dynasty came to an end with the death of Harshavardhana in around 647 A.D.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 16 The Period of Harshavardhana (600 – 650 A.D.) Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB The Gupta: Empire Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
Write about the conquests of Samudragupta.
Answer:
Samudragupta was a great conqueror. His conquests can be described as under :

  1. Samudragupta first of all defeated three North Indian kings of Aryavarta, namely Nagsen, Achyut and king of the Kot dynasty.
  2. While Samudragupta was busy in the South, Nagsen, Achyut and other kings of North raised a joint front against him. Samudragupta defeated all the kings of this front.
  3. He defeated twelve kings of the South. But he did not annex their territories to his kingdom. He returned their kingdoms to them after their acceptance of his subordination.
  4. Some jungle tribes of Orissa created a disturbance in his area. He defeated these tribes and established peace.
  5. He annexed the areas captured by him in the North but returned the areas in the South to their rulers. He collected taxes from these rulers.

Question 2.
What do you know about Chandragupta Vikrama- ditya?
Answer:
Chandragupta, Vikramaditya was the son of Samudragupta. He is also known as Chandragupta-II. He conducted a victorious campaign in Western India against the Shakas who had been troubling the Guptas. He also maintained friendly relations with the kings of the Deccan and the South by marital alliances. The most important of such marital alliances was with the Vakataka kingdom of the Deccan.

Chandragupta Vikramaditya is best remembered for his patronage of learning and art. He had in his court some of the wisest and most learned men of the country, known as the ‘Nine Gems’. He was a devotee of Vishnu but respected all other religions. He issued a large number of coins in gold, silver and copper. A Chinese traveller Fa-hein came to India in his time. He adopted the title of Vikramaditya that means ‘Sun of Valour’.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 3.
Write a note on Kalidasa.
Answer:
Kalidasa was the most famous among ‘Nine Gems’ in Chandragupta Vikramaditya’s court. He was a famous Sanskrit poet. He wrote books on various subjects in Sanskrit. He had written the world famous books Kumar Sambhava, Raghuvamsa, Meghaduta and Abhigyan Shakuntalam. Abhigyan Shakuntalam is famous all over the world.

Question 4.
What do you know about economic life during the Gupta period?
Answer:
The economic life during the Gupta period was very prosperous.

  1. Taxes were light and the articles of daily need were cheap. The common people used only cowries or copper coins to buy these articles. The largest number of gold coins were issued during this period. Such coins were called Dinaras.
  2. Agriculture was the main profession of the people. Besides food crops of various types, fruits and oil seeds were also grown.
  3. Both internal and external trade were developed. India had trade relations with South-East Asia, China, Central Asia and the European countries.
  4. There were unions of bankers, merchants and manufacturers, known as guilds.
  5. Cattle rearing and artisanship were other famous professions.

Question 5.
Why is the Gupta period called the Golden Age of India?
Answer:
The Gupta period was very advanced in every sphere of life. That is why it is called the Golden Age of India.

  1. The people enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity. They enjoyed a high standard of living.
  2. Both inland and international trade was carried on. Trade with other countries brought a lot of wealth and the people became rich and prosperous.
  3. There was. great advancement in the field of education.
  4. The people were honest and devoted to religion.
  5. Caste system prevailed. But the different sections of the people lived in harmony.
  6.  Though the Gupta rulers were patrons of Hinduism, yet they showed tolerance towards other religions. Buddhism was allowed to flourish.
  7. There was a great development in literature. Nine learned men known as ‘Nine Gems’ adorned the Gupta court.
  8. Art and architecture were encouraged. Several pillars of artistic beauty and a number of temples were built.
  9. Science and technology made tremendous progress. Two of the famous scientists of this age were Aryabhatta and Varahamihira. Both of them were astronomers and mathematicians.
  10. Indian culture and civilisation spread in foreign lands in the Gupta period.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Samudragupta was a great ________ and ________
Answer:
great warrior, ruler

Question 2.
Chandragupta II issued a very large number of coins in ________ and ________
Answer:
gold, silver, copper

Question 3.
Gupta empire was divided into many provinces which were called ________
Answer:
Bhakti

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 4.
The districts were called ________
Answer:
Vishayas

Question 5.
________and ________ poem written by Kalidasa are very famous.
Answer:
Sakuntala, Meghaduta.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(1) Aryavarta (a) Punjab
(2) Madrakas (b) Northern India
(3) Iron Pillar (c) Officers
(4) Kumaramatyas (d) Delhi

Answer:
Correct columns :

A B
(1) Aryavarta (b) Northern India
(2) Madrakas (a) Punjab
(3) Iron Pillar (d) Delhi
(4) Kumaramatyas (c) Officers

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each

Question 1.
Maharaja Gupta was the first Gupta king.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Vikramaditya was the title of Samudragupta.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Yaudheyas were ruling in South India.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Fa-hein was a Greek writer.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 5.
Guptas issued gold coins.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Aryabhatta was a famous scientist.
Answer:
True

V. Activities (Something To Do) :

Question 1.
Show the extent of the Gupta empire on the map of India.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Collect pictures of the works of the art of Gupta age and paste them in your scrapbook.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide The Gupta: Empire Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who founded the Gupta empire?
(A) Maharaja Gupta
(B) Samundragupta
(C) Chandragupta
(D) Chandragupta II.
Answer:
(A) Maharaja Gupta.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 2.
Who is known as the greatest conqueror of the Gupta Dynasty?
(A) Sri Gupta
(B) Samudragupta
(C) Maharaja Gupta
(D) Chandragupta.
Answer:
(B) Samudragupta.

Question 3.
Horse sacrifice means
(A) Ashvashodha
(B) Ashvashloka
(C) Ashvamedha
(D) None of those.
Answer:
(C) Ashvamedha.

Question 4.
Chandragupta Vikramaditya was the son of
(A) Samudragupta
(B) Sri Gupta
(C) Chandragupta II
(D) Maharaja Gupta.
Answer:
(A) Samundragupta.

Question 5.
Fa-hein was a Chinese traveller who visited India during empire.
(A) Mughal
(B) Mavryan
(C) Gupta
(D) Kushana.
Answer:
(C) Gupta.

Question 6.
Shakuntala and Meghaduta were written by
(A) Chanakya
(B) Kalidasa
(C) Charaka
(D) Arujabhatta.
Answer:
(B) Kalidasa.

Question 7.
Aryabhata was a famous of the Gupta period.
(A) Scientist
(B) Mathematician
(C) Astronomer
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 8.
Chandragupta issued many coins of ________
(A) Gold
(B) Silver
(C) Copper
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 9.
Abhigyan Shakuntalam was written by
(A) Tulsidas
(B) Kalidas
(C) Aryabhatta
(D) Varahamihira.
Answer:
(B) Kalidas.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was the first great king of the Gupta dynasty?
Answer:
Chandragupta-I.

Question 2.
For how long did Samudragupta rule?
Answer:
Samudragupta ruled for about thirty-five years.

Question 3.
Who was Harishena?
Answer:
Harishena was a court poet of Samudragupta. He recorded a detailed account of Samudragupta’s achievements on a stone pillar at Allahabad.

Question 4.
Which was the biggest conquest of Chandragupta-II, and why?
Answer:
The biggest conquest of Chandragupta-II was over the Sakas of Western India. It brought an end to the foreign rule in India.

Question 5.
Who was Skandagupta?
Answer:
Skandagupta was the grandson of Chandragupta-II. He ruled from 454 A.D. to 467 A.D.

Question 6.
Who were Uparikas?
Answer:
The Governors of provinces in the Gupta administration were called Uparikas or Maharajas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 7.
Name the capital of the Guptas.
Answer:
Patliputra.

Question 8.
What were Dinaras?
Answer:
Dinaras were the gold coins issued by the Gupta kings.

Question 9.
Name some famous writers of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Kalidasa, Amarasimha, Sudraka, Dandin, etc.

Question 10.
Where are the world famous Ajanta Caves situated?
Answer:
The world famous Ajanta Caves are situated near Aurangabad in Maharashtra.

Question 11.
What is meant by Ashvamedha?
Answer:
The meaning of Ashvamedha is a horse sacrifice. Ashvamedha was a symbol of universal rule.

Question 12.
What, were Bhuktis and Vishayas?
Answer:
Provinces within Gupta administration were called Buktis and districts within Gupta administration were known as Vishayas.

Question 13.
Who was Fa-hein?
Answer:
Fa-hein was a Chinese traveller who came to India in the Gupta period and wrote an account of his stay in India.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the main source of our information about Samudragupta’s conquests?
Answer:
The main source of our information about Samudragupta’s conquests is an inscription engraved on a pillar at Allahabad. This inscription has been written by Harishena and it describes Samudragupta’s achievements and conquests.

Question 2.
Who were Hunas? How did they affect the Gupta’s kingdom?
Answer:
The Hunas was a savage tribe that lived in Central Asia. Stories about India’s wealth attracted them, and they attacked the northern border of India in the fifth cenutury A.D. Their first invasion was repulsed by Skandagupta. But soon after they conquered Punjab and Kashmir. Their invasions shook the Gupta Empire which soon fell into pieces.

Question 3.
What does Fa-hein write about the society in the Gupta period?
Answer:
Fa-hein was a Chinese traveller, who visited India during the rule of Chandragupta-II. He writes that in the Gupta period, people were happy and honest. There was no crime or theft. People did not even lock their houses when going out. Taxes were light. Most of the people were vegetarians. The caste system had become rigid and one could not change one’s caste.

Question 4.
Name the countries with which India had trade and cultural relations in the Gupta period.
Answer:
In the Gupta period, India had trade and cultural relations with the countries of South-East Asia, such as Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, etc. India had trade relations even with China and Central Asian and the European countries.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

Question 5.
Describe the achievements of the Gupta period in science and technology.
Answer:
There was an advance in science and technology in the Gupta period.

  • Aryabhatta and Varahamihira made new discoveries. Aryabhatta wrote Aryabhattiyam. He explained that the earth moves around the sun. He also told how solar and lunar eclipses occur.
  • Indian mathematicians used the decimal system and knew about zero.
  • Books on medicines and other sciences were also written during this period.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the administration of the Guptas.
Answer:
The administration of the Guptas can be described in the following ways :

  • The king was the highest authority. He administered the country with the help of ministers and several high officials.
  • The empire was divided into provinces. The provinces were called Bhuktis and were governed by officials called Uparikas or Maharajas.
  • The provinces were divided into districts, known as Vishayas.
  • The districts were further divided into cities and towns.
  • The punishments were not severe.
  • The officials were allotted jagirs instead of cash salaries during the later period of the Guptas.

Question 2.
Describe the achievements of India in the field of art and literature during the Gupta period.
Answer:
The Guptas were great patrons of art and literature. They paid great attention to the development of art and literature in India.
1. Art. Mathura became the famous centre of art during the Gupta period. It produced the most beautiful statues of the Buddha, Jain and Hindu gods and goddesses. Sarnath near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh was also famous for good sculptures. Many beautiful temples were also made. The temples of Deogarh in Madhya Pradesh and Bhitari near Kanpur are very famous. The world-famous Ajanta Caves near Aurangabad in Maharashtra, with beautiful paintings in them, were also made. The kings made these caves for the residence and worship of the Buddhist monks. The famous Stupa of Sanchi was also rebuilt.

2. Literature. Best pieces of literature were produced during the Gupta period. The famous Sanskrit poet Kalidasa wrote several dramas and poems. His play Shakuntala and his poem Meghaduta are very famous, Other writers of the Gupta period were Amarasimha, Sudraka, Dandin, etc.

Question 3.
Give brief description of progress of science and technology under the patronage of the Guptas.
Answer:
Science and technology made huge progress under the patronage of Gupta rulers. “Aryabhata was the famous scientist of this age and he wrote a book called Aryabhattiyam”. In this book he wrote that the earth moves round the sun and how solar and lunar eclipses occur. In the field of mathematics, the use of decimal system was also given by this period. Arabs borrowed it from India and then Europeans borrowed it from Arabs. A number of books on astronomy, mathematics and other sciences were written in this age.

This age also made huge progress in field of technology. The iron pillar standing near Qutab Minar in Delhi is one of the finest examples of technological advances of this age.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire

The Gupta: Empire PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Foundation of the Gupta Kingdom: The Gupta kingdom was founded by Maharaja Gupta in the fourth century A.D. in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Greatest Conqueror of the Gupta dynasty: Samudragupta was the greatest conqueror of the Gupta dynasty. He conquered a very large number of kings and made others to submit to his authority.
  • Ashvamedha: Ashvamedha means a horse- sacrifice. It was a symbol of universal rule.
  • Chandragupta-II: Chandragupta-II is also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya. He was son of Samudragupta. He was a very popular hero among the kings of ancient times.
  • Bhuktis and Vishayas: In the Gupta’s administration, provinces were called ‘Bhuktis’ and districts were known as ‘Vishayas’.
  • Fa-hein: Fa-hein was a Chinese traveller who came to India in the Gupta period and wrote an account of his stay in India.
  • Kalidasa: Kalidasa was a famous poet of the Gupta period, who wrote Shakuntala and Meghaduta.
  • Aryabhatta and Varahamihira: Aryabhatta and Varahamihira were famous scientists, astronomers and mathematicians of the Gupta period.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 15 The Gupta: Empire Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D.

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D.

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D. Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Write about the administration of Satavahanas.
Answer:
The Satavahana kingdom was well administered. The king was supreme in the state. He was regarded as the protector of religion. He was believed to possess divine powers. The empire was divided into provinces ruled by civil and military governors. The provinces were divided into districts, called Aharas. These were administered by certain officials, namely Amatyas and Mahamatyas, The rural areas were headed by Goulmikas. The Goulmikas were responsible for collecting the revenue or land tax.

Question 2.
Who was the first great Chola ruler and what were his achievements?
Answer:
Karikala was the first great Chola ruler. He bagged several achievements. He defeated badly his neighbouring Chera and Pandya kingdoms. He invaded Sri Lanka. He cleared forests and made the land cultivable. He arranged for canals and tanks for irrigation. He constructed a dam on the river Kaveri to check floods.

Question 3.
Write about the life of people in South India during the period 200 B.C. to 300 A.D.
Answer:
The life of people in South India during the period 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. was very simple. Most of the people lived in villages and their main occupation was agriculture. But the royalty and rich people lived in the interior parts of the towns. Many of merchants and craftsmen lived along the coasts, from where trade was easy. The people lived in their families cordially. After day’s work, amusements consisted of music, dancing, poetry recitations and gambling, etc. Musical instruments like pipes, flutes, string instruments and drums were in use. Music was advanced. There was special music for the different hours of day and night. Farmers, merchants, herdsmen and craftsmen paid taxes to the government.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 4.
What do you know about Megalithic Culture?
Answer:
The Megalithic Culture existed in South India around 1000 B.C. This region was inhabited by the people known as the Megalith Builders. These people encircled the graves of the dead with large stones to give them shape of enclosures. That is why their culture is called the Megalithic Culture.

We come to know about the Megalithic Culture from the remains discovered at Inamgaon, Takalghat and Mahurjhari in Maharashtra and Maski, Kopbal and Brahmagiri in South India. These remains show that the people of the Megalithic Culture used black and red pottery. This pottery consisted of a variety of pots and vessels. Many of them were made on wheel.

The people practised both agriculture and hunting as their profession. Agriculture was developed but most of the people liked hunting.

Question 5.
Write about the burial system of the Megalithic Culture. .
Answer:
The people of the Megalithic Culture adopted a peculiar custom to bury their dead. They buried their dead and encircled their graves with large stones. Moreover, they also buried the articles like pottery, weapons and implements of the dead along with him. Probably, they believed that the dead went to another world and would need their belongings in the next world.

Question 6.
Who were Demetrius and Menander?
Answer:
1. Demetrius: Demetrius was the first Indo-Greek invader who invaded India after the decline of the Mauryan Empire and occupied a large part of Afghanistan, Punjab and Sind. But Demetrius had to lose the Bacteria province of Central Asia because Uketice had made a successful revolt there.

2. Menander: Menander was a great Indo-Greek ruler. He is popular as Milinda in the Buddha literature. He was a very able and brave ruler. He invaded India in the time of Pushyamitra Sunga and occupied Punjab (including modern Pakistan) and some parts of Kashmir. He became a Buddhist.

Question 7.
What do you know about the Scythians?
Answer:
The Scythians are also known as the Shakas. They were the original inhabitants of Central Asia. They came to India as invaders in the middle of 200 B.C. and settled down here. In the beginning, they had their establishments in North-West Punjab, Mathura in Uttar Pradesh and Central India. But afterwards, Gujarat in Western India and Ujjain region of Madhya Pradesh became their stronghold. Rudradaman-I was a very famous ruler of the Scythian dynasty, who ruled in 200 A.D. In the end of the fourth century A.D. Chandragupta Vikramaditya (Chandragupta-II) of the Gupta dynasty defeated the Scythians and brought their rule to an end.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 8.
Write a note about Kanishka.
Answer:
Kanishka was the most famous ruler of the Kushana dynasty. He ruled from 78 to 102 A.D. As far as his bravery is concerned, he can be compared with Samudragupta. The Kushana Empire was expanded the most during his reign. His empire was extended upto Bihar and included areas of Central India, Gujarat, Sind, Punjab, Afghanistan and Bacteria. He also fought a war with a Chinese General Pan Chao.

As a follower of Buddhism, Kanishka can be compared with Ashoka. He got repaired Buddhist Stupas and monasteries and constructed several new ones. He called a conference of Buddhist scholars in Kashmir, known as the Fourth Buddhist Council. He patronised Buddhist scholars like Ashvaghosha, Nagarjuna and Vasumitra.

Kanishka was also a great lover of art. Many beautiful statues of Buddha were made in his time. Besides Gandhara Art, Mathura Art also developed. He also issued a large number of gold and silver coins.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Gautmiputra Satakarni ruled from _________ to A.D.
Answer:
106, 130

Question 2.
The Satavahanas laid _________ to connect the towns and villages.
Answer:
roads

Question 3.
The Satavahana rulers were the followers of _________
Answer:
Hinduism

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 4.
_________ was the capital of the Pandya Kingdom
Answer:
Madurai

Question 5.
Pallavas were called _________ in English.
Answer:
Parthians

Question 6.
_________ was the famous king of the Kushana dynasty.
Answer:
Kanishka.

III. Match the columns :

Question 1.

A B
(1) Gautmiputra Satakarni’s successor (a) Yajnasri Satakarni
(2) Satavahanas’s last great ruler (b) Vasishthiputra Pulamayi
(3) Black and redware (c) Pottery
(4) Sickle and spade (d) Kushana king
(5) Menander (e) Chinese General
(6) Kujula Kadphises (f) Indo Greek invader
(7) Pan Chao (g) Buddhist scholar
(8) Asvaghosha (h) Implements

Answer:
Correct columns :

A B
(1) Gautmiputra Satakarni’s successor (b) Vasishthiputra Pulamayi
(2) Satavahanas’s last great ruler (a) Yajnasri Satakarni
(3) Black and redware (c) Pottery
(4) Sickle and spade (h) Implements
(5) Menander (f) Indo Greek invader
(6) Kujula Kadphises (d) Kushana king
(7) Pan Chao (e) Chinese General
(8) Asvaghosha (g) Buddhist scholar

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement:

Question 1.
The most important successors of the Mauryas in the Deccan were the Satavahanas.
Answer:
True

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 2.
Gautmiputra Satakarni ruled from 106 A.D.to 131 A.D.
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
Music, dancing, poetry recitations and gambling were popular forms of amusement.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Sakas were not defeated by the Chandragupta Vikramaditya.
Answer:
False.

Question 5.
Gondopharns was a Scythian king.
Answer:
False.

Question 6.
Kanishka called the Fourth Buddhist Council.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Huvishka was a Parthian king.
Answer:
False.

V. Activity (Something To Do) :

Question 1.
Show the extent of Madurai, Arikmedu, Kaveripattinam, Amravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Broach on the map of India. Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D. Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which of these was the main feature of Bhakti?
(A) It emphasised the worship of god or goddess by an individual.
(B) It discarded the performance of Yajna and Sacrifices.
(C) It emphasised at the purity of heart.
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 2.
For which of these was South India famous?
(A) Gold
(B) Spices.
(C) Precious stones
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 3.
Which river valley was the most fertile?
(A) Godavari
(B) Kaveri
(C) Krishna
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(B) Kaveri.

Question 4.
Which of these was the capital of Pandyas?
(A) Madurai
(B) Decca
(C) Magadha
(D) Kashi.
Answer:
(A) Madurai.

Question 5.
Kaveripattinam belonged to family.
(A) Chera
(B) Chola
(C) Satavahana
(D) Pandya.
Answer:
(B) Chola.

Question 6.
Name the most important ruler of the Satavahanas.
(A) Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni
(B) Vijayraja I
(C) Vijayraja II
(D) Pulkeshin I.
Answer:
(A) Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who were the most important successors of the Mauryas in the Deccan?
Answer:
The Satavahanas.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 2.
Which Satavahana king was described as the Lord of the West?
Answer:
Gautmiputra Satakarni.

Question 3.
Where did Vasishthiputra Pulamayi set up his capital?
Answer:
Vasishthiputra Pulamayi set up his capital at Pratishthana in Aurangabad District of Maharashtra.

Question 4.
When did the Satavahana dynasty come to an end?
Answer:
The Satavahana dynasty came to an end in 220 A.D.

Question 5.
What were Aharas?
Answer:
Districts in the Satavahana administration were called Aharas.

Question 6.
Name the items of import during the Satavahanas’ reign.
Answer:
Wine, copper, tin, glass and precious stones.

Question 7.
Name the capital city of the Cholas.
Answer:
Tanjore.

Question 8.
Name the capital city of the Pandya kingdom.
Answer:
Madurai.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 9.
Name the capital city of the Cheras.
Answer:
Vanji.

Question 10.
Name the most important religion which arose in West Asia during the first century A.D.
Answer:
The Christianity.

Question 11.
Who were the Sakas?
Answer:
The Sakas were foreigners who came from Central Asia as invaders and settled down in India.

Question 12.
Name the rribst important ruler of the Parthians.
Answer:
Gondopharns.

Question 13.
During whose reign was the Fourth Buddhist Council held?
Answer:
Kanishka.

Question 14.
Name the areas in which Gandhara Art was popular.
Answer:
Gandhara Art was popular in modern Punjab, Kashmir and modern Afghanistan.

Question 15.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Answer:
Mahayana and Hinayana.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 16.
Who were the successors of Kanishka?
Answer:
Vasishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva.

Question 17.
Who was the greatest Satavahana ruler and when did he rule?
Answer:
Gautmiputra Satakarni was the greatest Satavahana ruler. He ruled from A.D. 106 till A.D. 130.

Question 18.
Who was the last great ruler of Satavahanas?
Answer:
Yajnasri Satakarni was the last great ruler of Satavahanas.

Question 19.
With which countries Satavahanas had trade relations?
Answer:
Satavahanas had trade relations with many countries like Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Burma and Malaya.

Question 20.
From where the remains of the Megalithic period have been discovered?
Answer:
Inamgaon, Takalghat, Mahurjhari in Maharashtra and Maski, Kopbal and Brahmagiri in South India.

Question 21.
What was Fourth Buddhist Council?
Answer:
Kanishka called a conference of Buddhist scholars at a place Kundalvana in Kashmir. This conference was known as Fourth Buddhist Council.

Question 22.
What were the popular forms of amusement of Cheras?
Answer:
Music, dancing, gambling and poetry recitations were popular forms of amusement.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 23.
Name the things exported from Satavahana kingdom.
Answer:
Wine, Copper, tin, glass and precious stones were imported. The exported goods brought gold and silver coins in return.

Question 24.
Who were the Satavahanas?
Answer:
The Satavahanas were also known the Andhras. After the fall of the Mauryas, they arose in the Deccan.

Question 25.
What were the Jatakas?
Answer:
Collection of stories about the Bodhisattvas were the Jatakas. The Bodhisattvas were holy persons who had lived on earth before the Buddha.

Question 26.
What were the Chaityas?
Answer:
Prayer or meeting halls where the Buddhists worshipped were known as the Chaityas.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was the most famous Saka ruler, and why?
Answer:
Rudradaman-I was the most famous Saka ruler. He ruled in the second century A.D. He did a lot of work that made him the most famous among other Saka rulers. He promoted agriculture by constructing canals and dams. He exempted his subjects from taxes. He drove the Satavahanas out of Central Asia and forced them to settle in Andhra Pradesh.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

Question 2.
What do you know about the Indo-Greeks? Name their famous rulers.
Answer:
The Indo-Greeks were the rulers whose forefathers had come from Greece to India. They ruled in Punjab and Kabul Valley Demetrius and Menander were famous Indo-Greek rulers.

Question 3.
Name the countries with which trade was carried on by the merchants of the Satavahana kingdom.
Answer:
The Satavahana kings took great pains to increase trade and make their kingdom prosperous. At that time trade was carried on by the merchants with Persia, Egypt, Iraq, Arabia, Myanmar and Malaya.

Question 4.
What is Gandhara School of Art?
Answer:
With the advent of the Greeks in India, Indian artists and sculptors learnt the Greek art of making the images of Greek and Roman gods. Indian artists working in Gandhara were interested in this new style of sculpture and were influenced by it. The statues of Lord Buddha and scenes from Buddha’s life resembled the Greek style. This type of art came to be known as Gandhara School of Art.

Question 5.
What are the teachings of Christianity?
Answer:
Christianity believes in one God, who is the Almighty. Jesus Christ is the messenger and son of God. Christianity emphasises on love and humanity. It also emphasises on purity of life. Men, according to Christianity, are sons of God and hence they should live a noble life. The souls of the pure-hearted persons will go to heaven and will be united with God.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What is meant by Chaityas, Stupas and Viharas? Mention the names of the places where these have been found.
Answer:
1. Chaityas. Chaityas were the halls where the Buddhists worshipped or met. These have been mainly found at Karle and Bedsa in the Western Ghats near Pune.

2. Stupas. Stupas were large semi-circle mounds in which were placed the relics of either Lord Buddha or the Buddhist monks. They were sacred to the Buddhists. These have been mainly found at Sanchi (near Bhopal) and Amravati (in Andhra Pradesh).

3. Viharas. Viharas or monasteries were the places where the Buddhist monks lived. Many of the Viharas were built close to big cities, so that the monks could go to the cities every morning and beg for alms. The Viharas have been mainly found at Taxila (near Peshawar in Pakistan) and Sarnath (near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh).

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. - 300 A.D.

India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D. PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • Dakshinapatha: The area south of the Vindhya mountain and the river Narmada was known in ancient times as Dakshinapatha. Now it is called the Deccan.
  • Satavahanas: The Satavahanas were also known as the Andhras. They arose in the Deccan after the fall of the Mauryas.
  • Chaityas: Chaityas were prayer or meeting halls where the Buddhists worshipped.
  • Stupas: Stupas were large semi-circle mounds in which were placed the relics of either the Buddha or the Buddhist monks.
  • Viharas: Viharas means monasteries where the Buddhist monks lived. They consisted of a hall with a doorway opening onto a verandah.
  • Megalith: Megalith means a huge stone.
  • Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras: The Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were three kingdoms that arose south of the Deccan Plateau and south of the Satavahana kingdom.
  • Christianity: Christianity arose in Western Asia and was preached by Jesus Christ. It was based on the earlier Jewish religion which taught the worship of a single God. It was brought to India in the 1st century A.D.
  • Scythians, Parthians and Kushanas: The Scythians, Parthians and Kushanas were the invaders who came to India from Central Asia and settled down here. Among these, the Kushanas were the most important.
  • The Jataka: The Jataka is a collection of stories about the Bodhisattvas. The Bodhisattvas were holy persons who had lived on earth before the Buddha.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 14 India: From 200 B.C. – 300 A.D. Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB The Mauryas and The Sungas Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you know about Alexander?
Answer:
Alexander was the son of Emperor Philip of Macedonia. He became the ruler of Macedonia after his father’s death. He desired to conquer the whole world. Therefore, as soon as he was enthroned, he began to conquer the world. For the first two years, he conquered the territories surrounding Macedorfla. Then he started with a large army to conquer Persia. He also conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Afghanistan. In 326 B.C., he invaded India and defeated several kings of the northwest in Punjab up to the river Beas. He first defeated Ambhi, the king of Taxila and then the ruler of the territory between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab, namely Porus. Porus faced Alexander bravely. Soldiers of Alexander got scared of the resistance they received in Punjab. They were also tired of long journey and warfare. Therefore, Alexander had to go back from the Beas. But he was not able to reach his country. On the way he suffered from fever and died.

Question 2.
Write a note about Kautilya.
Answer:
Kautilya is also known as Chanakya. He was a great scholar and teacher at the Taxila University. Chandragupta Maurya considered him as his teacher. It was only with the help of Kautilya that Chandragupta Maurya was able to overthrow the Nanda /nasty and establish the Mauryan Empire. When Chandragupta became the emperor, Kautilya became the Prime Minister of the Mauryan Empire. Kautilya was also a great writer. His book ‘Arthasastra’ tells us about the Mauryan administration.

Question 3.
Why is Ashoka called ‘the great’?
Answer:
Ashoka was the only king in the history of the world who stopped war after victory. Throughout his life he worked for the good of the people. He treated all religions alike. He looked after his subjects as a father cares for his children. Every individual was the most important person of the state. He treated everybody alike and gave money and help to all religions regardless of their beliefs. He discarded caste system. His faith in universal brotherhood of mankind uplifted him and he became a god on earth. Boundaries of any country were not his limit. He adopted Buddhism and sent preachers to preach it to many countries of the world like Sri Lanka, China, Afghanistan and Nepal. He held a vast empire in those ancient times above everything. There was no rebellion against him inspite of his policy of peace and non-violence. He was the first ruler who gave the world the concept of a welfare state and religious tolerance. That is why Ashoka holds an important position in the history of the world and is called ‘the great’.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
What do you know about Mauryan art?
Answer:
The Mauryan rulers were lovers of art and they gave an important contribution to the field of art. This contribution of theirs is described as under:

  1. Chandragupta constructed a big palace. This palace was very beautiful and stood erected on several pillars. Ashoka’s palace was also magnificent.
  2. Chandragupta Maurya constructed a big lake, named Sudarshana, in Gujarat.
  3. Ashoka constructed a large number of Stupas. The Stupa of Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh is very famous.
  4. Ashoka built two cities, namely Srinagar and Lalit Patan.
  5. Ashoka got some beautiful caves built in the hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni in Bihar for the monks and Nirgranthas.
  6. Ashoka got constructed huge pillars of sand stone from Chunar. These pillars were 34 feet high. They have a fine polish on them which shines like a mirror. Ashoka got his inscriptions engraved on these pillars.
  7. Ashoka’s pillars had sculptures of animals like bull, elephant, lion, etc. One such sculpture of four lions seated back to back was on the top of the pillar at Samath (Uttar Pradesh). It is our National Emblem now.
  8. Some beautiful sculptures of Yakshas and Yakshis were also made in the Mauryan Age. One such sculpture has been found as Didarganj near Patna. This sculpture is of a Yakshi who w carrying a Chauri (fly-whisk) on her shoulder.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Alexander’s soldiers got scared of the _________ they received in Punjab.
Answer:
resistance

Question 2.
Chandragupta ruled till _________ B.C.
Answer:
297

Question 3.
Megasthenes was a Greek ambassador of _________
Answer:
Seleucus

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
Kautilya’s _________ and Megasthenes’s _________ tell us about Mauryan administration.
Answer:
Arthasastra, Indica

Question 5.
In Madhya Pradesh the stupa of _________ is very famous.
Answer:
Sanchi.

III. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
Seleucus defeated Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Ashoka built great pillars of iron.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Mahamatra was officer of Alexander.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
Ashoka adopted Buddhism after Kalinga War. Chandragupta constructed Sudarshana Lake.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
In Madhya Pradesh the stupa of . is very famous.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns:

Question 1.

A B
(1) Megasthenes (a) Arthasastra
(2) Kautilya (b) Stupa
(3) Sanchi (c) Minister
(4) Amatya (d) Indica

Answer:

A B
(1) Megasthenes (d) Indica
(2) Kautilya (a) Arthasastra
(3) Sanchi (b) Stupa
(4) Amatya (c) Minister

V. Activity (Something To Do):

Question 1.
Collect pictures of monuments built by Ashoka and paste them in your scrap book.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide The Mauryas and The Sungas Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Dhamma is a word of _________ language.
(A) Prakrit
(B) Hindi
(C) Devnagri
(D) Sanskrit.
Answer:
(A) Prakrit.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 2.
Dhamma means _________
(A) Wealth
(B) Dharma
(C) Kingdom
(D) State.
Answer:
(B) Dharma.

Question 3.
People lived in Mauryan Empire were engaged in _________ occupation.
(A) Merchants
(B) Crafts persons
(C) Officials
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 4.
Officials collected _________ from the area under the direct control of the ruler.
(A) Gold
(B) Silver
(C) Taxes
(D) Food grains.
Answer:
(C) Taxes.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 5.
Royal princes often went to the provinces as
(A) Governors
(B) Rulers
(C) Generals
(D) Tax collectors.
Answer:
(A) Governors.

Question 6.
The Mauryans rulers tried to control this which was important for transport.
(A) Roads
(B) Rivers
(C) Both a+b
(D) None of these.
Answer:
(C) Both a+b.

Question 7.
People in forested regions provided” the Mauryan officials.
(A) Timber
(B) Wax
(C) Honey
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 8.
Most of the Ashoka inscriptions are in the script.
(A) Brahmi
(B) Devnagri
(C) Gurumukhi
(D) Persian
Answer:
(A) Brahmi.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 9.
Which problem Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing dhamma?
(A) Different people followed different religions.
(B) In some religions, animal sacrifice was a ritual.
(C) Most of the masters ill treated their servants and slaves
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 10.
Which of these means was adopted by Ashoka to spread the message of dhamma?
(A) He appointed dhamma mahamatta to spread teachings.
(B) He got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars.
(C) He sent his messengers to other lands.
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 11.
Who was the Prime Minister of Chandra Gupta Maurya?
(A) Chanakya
(B) Ashoka
(C) Bimbisara
(D) Ajatasatru.
Answer:
(A) Chanakya.

Question 12.
Chanakya wrote
(A) Kamasutra
(B) Arthashastra
(C) Upnishada
(D) Manu Smriti.
Answer:
(B) Arthashastra.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 13.
_________ was an ambassador of Selecus Nicator who was sent to the court of Chandragupta Maurya?
(A) Megasthenes
(B) Ashoka
(C) Bimbisara
(D) Chanakya.
Answer:
(A) Megasthenes.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did Alexander invade India?
Answer:
Alexander invaded India in 326 B.C.

Question 2.
Who was ruling over the Punjab when Chandragupta Maurya became the king?
Answer:
The Greek General Seleucus Nikator was ruling over the Punjab when Chandragupta Maurya became the king.

Question 3.
What was the extent of the Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya’s empire extended from Afghanistan in the north-west to Karnataka in the south and from Assam in the east to Gujarat in the west.

Question 4.
Name the areas added to the Mauryan Empire by Bindusara.
Answer:
Bindusara added some of the southern parts of India to the Mauryan Empire.

Question 5.
Why were the Nanda kings unpopular?
Answer:
The Nanda kings had collected huge wealth and led a luxurious life. They were not efficient rulers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 6.
Who was Ashoka?
Answer:
Ashoka was the most famous of the Mauryan kings and one of the greatest rulers India has ever had.

Question 7.
Where were Ashoka’s edicts inscribed?
Answer:
Ashoka’s edicts were inscribed on rocks and on tall pillars made of sandstone.

Question 8.
What was the capital city of Ashoka?
Answer:
Patliputra (Patna) was the capital city of Ashoka.

Question 9.
Whom did Ashoka send to Sri Lanka and why?
Answer:
Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to preach the message of Buddhism.

Question 10.
According to Ashoka, how should a king treat his subjects?
Answer:
According to Ashoka, a king should treat his subjects as a father treats his children.

Question 11.
Name some of the officers of the Mauryan administration.
Answer:
Some of the officers of the Mauryan administration were Rajuka, Mahamatra, Yukta, etc.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 12.
Name the great centres of learning during the Mauryan rule.
Answer:
Taxila, Patliputra and Varanasi were the great centres of learning during the Mauryan rule.

Question 13.
How much was land revenue on agriculture levied during the Mauryan rule?
Answer:
The land revenue on agriculture was generally 1/6th of the produce.

Question 14.
Who constructed Sudarshana Lake,’and where?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya constructed Sudarshana Lake in Gujarat.

Question 15.
When did the Mauryan Empire start breaking up?
Answer:
The Mauryan Empire started breaking up after the death of Ashoka.

Question 16.
Who was Alexandar?
Answer:
Alexander was a great Greek conqueror from Macedonia. He invaded India in 326 B.C. and defeated Porus. On his way back to Greece, he died midway.

Question 17.
Who was Chanakya?
Answer:
Chanakya was the Prime Minister and advisor of Chandragupta Maurya. He was a great teacher and scholar who wrote a book called Arthasastra.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 18.
What is meant by Dhamma?
Answer:
Dhamma was a code of morality given by Ashoka for his people to lead virtuous and peaceful life.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What role did Chanakya play in the formation of the Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
Chanakya played the most significant role in the formation of the Mauryan Empire. Without his help and guidance it would not have been possible to establish the mighty Mauryan Empire by Chandragupta Maurya. Once the Nanda king insulted Chanakya. Chanakya left his empire and took a vow to take revenge from him. Due to this reason he helped Chandragupta in establishing the Mauryan Empire.

Question 2.
What do you know about Arthasastra?
Answer:
Arthasastra is a famous book written by Kautilya. In this book, Kautilya explains how a good government should be organised. It gives vital elements of good administration. It gives detailed instructions on the control of the state, the organisation of national economy and the conduct of war. It is a very precious source of information about many aspects of ancient Indian life.

Question 3.
What is Indica?
Answer:
Indica is a book written by Megasthenes, the Greek Ambassador of Seleucus Nikator who lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya for five years. In this book, Megasthenes describes the social, economic and political conditions of India during Chandragupta Maurya’s reign.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
What was Ashoka’s Dhamma?
Answer:
Dhamma is the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word Dharma, meaning religion. It included the best in every religion. It was a set of moral principles, such as :

  • One should respect one’s elders.
  • Proper treatment should be given to youngsters.
  • One should not slaughter animals and should observe ahimsa (non-violence).
  • One should practise tolerance and respect other religions.
  • One should observe truthfulness.
  • One should lead a pure life, etc.

Question 5.
What did Ashoka do to spread his ideas about Dhamma?
Answer:
Ashoka took the following steps to spread his ideas about Dhamma :

  • He himself lived an ideal life and set an example before his people.
  • He inscribed his ideas on rocks and pillars in all corners of his empire.
  • He used Prakrit, the common language of the people, in his edicts.
  • He appointed Dharmamahamatras to persuade the people to live according to his ideals of the Dhamma.
  • He sent monks to preach Buddhism in other countries. Even his own son Mahendra and his daughter Sanghamitra went to Sri Lanka.

Question 6.
From where have we got the design of our National Emblem?
Answer:
We have got the design of our National Emblem from the pillar at Sarnath. It was made by Ashoka and had four lions carved on the top. When India became independent in 1947, it was decided to use this design of four lions as the National Emblem of India.

Question 7.
Write a note about the Sungas.
Answer:
The Sunga dynasty was founded by Pushyamitra Sunga in 184 B.C. Pushyamitra Sunga was the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan army. He murdered the last Mauryan king Brihadratha and himself became the king. He was a powerful ruler and made several conquests. He s6nt his grandson Vasumitra to fight with the Greek invader Menander. Vasumitra defeated the invader on the banks of the river Indus. Pushyamitra performed two horse- sacrifices. He built -the Stupa of Bharhut in Madhya Pradesh. After Pushyamitra his son Agnimitra became the king. The Sunga dynasty collapsed soon after the Scythians, Parthians and Kushanas began to invade India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the Mauryan administration.
Answer:
The Mauryan administration was a very well organised and vast system.
1. The King: The king was the head of the state and very powerful. He led his army in war, imparted justice, looked after the welfare of his people and levied taxes.

2. Council of Ministers: The king had council of ministers to help him. The ministers were known as mantris or Amatyas.

3. Officers: There were high officers like the crown prince, treasurer, collector-general of taxes, accountant-general and several directors of separate departments like forests, mines, foreign travellers, etc.

4. Provinces: The empire was divided into provinces and generally royal princes were appointed their governors. There were several officers like Rajuka, Mahamatra, Yukta, etc. in provinces.

5. Army: The Mauryan army was very strong and comprised of infantry, horses, elephants and chariots. It had naval force also.

6. Spy System: The spy system of the Mauryas was also very strong. Spies were sent to get the news of enemies and to keep an eye on people’s activities.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 2.
What were the causes of the decline of the Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
The Mauryan Empire lasted a little over a hundred years and after the death of Ashoka, it began to break up. Several causes were responsible for the decline of this great empire.

These causes were as follows :

  • The successors of Ashoka were weak and incapable. They became careless and could not control such a big empire like that of the Mauryan mighty rulers like Chandragupta, Bindusara and Ashoka.
  • Due to weak administration, the officers became corrupt and autocratic. The income of the state was badly affected. It became difficult to maintain a strong and large army.
  • Due to unstable Government, the Mauryan Empire broke into pieces.
  • The network of roads was neglected. This disrupted trade and contact between regions. The large army could not be maintained without the regular flow of the revenue.
  • The Greek rulers invaded the Punjab and further weakened the decaying administration of the Mauryas.
  • Pushyamitra Sunga murdered the last .Mauryan king Brihadratha and became the ruler of Patliputra.

The Mauryas and The Sungas PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • The Maury an Empire: The Mauryan Empire came into being in the last quarter of 600 B.C. It was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha.
  • Alexander: Alexander was a great Greek conqueror from Macedonia. He invaded India in 326 B.C.
  • Chanakya: Chanakya is popularly known as Kautilya. He was the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya. He was a great teacher, scholar and the author of the famous book ‘Arthasastra’.
  • Megasthenes: Megasthenes was the Greek Ambassador of – Seleucus Nikator. He wrote the book ‘Indica’.
  • Bindusara: Bindusara was the son of Chandragupta Maurya. He ruled India for about 25 years.
  • Ashoka, the Great: Ashoka, the Great was a son of Bindusara. He is known as one of the greatest rulers in the world.
  • Edicts: Edicts are orders proclaimed by an authority.
  • Dhamma: Dhamma was a code of morality enacted by Ashoka for his people to lead a peaceful and virtuous life.
  • Sarnath: Sarnath is a place near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The capital of Ashoka’s pillar at Sarnath has been adopted as India’s National Emblem.
  • The Sunga Empire: The Sunga Empire was founded by Pushyamitra Sunga. He was the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan army. He killed the last Mauryan king Brihadratha and himself became the king in 184 B.C

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.