PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

SST Guide for Class 6 PSEB The Mauryas and The Sungas Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What do you know about Alexander?
Answer:
Alexander was the son of Emperor Philip of Macedonia. He became the ruler of Macedonia after his father’s death. He desired to conquer the whole world. Therefore, as soon as he was enthroned, he began to conquer the world. For the first two years, he conquered the territories surrounding Macedorfla. Then he started with a large army to conquer Persia. He also conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Afghanistan. In 326 B.C., he invaded India and defeated several kings of the northwest in Punjab up to the river Beas. He first defeated Ambhi, the king of Taxila and then the ruler of the territory between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab, namely Porus. Porus faced Alexander bravely. Soldiers of Alexander got scared of the resistance they received in Punjab. They were also tired of long journey and warfare. Therefore, Alexander had to go back from the Beas. But he was not able to reach his country. On the way he suffered from fever and died.

Question 2.
Write a note about Kautilya.
Answer:
Kautilya is also known as Chanakya. He was a great scholar and teacher at the Taxila University. Chandragupta Maurya considered him as his teacher. It was only with the help of Kautilya that Chandragupta Maurya was able to overthrow the Nanda /nasty and establish the Mauryan Empire. When Chandragupta became the emperor, Kautilya became the Prime Minister of the Mauryan Empire. Kautilya was also a great writer. His book ‘Arthasastra’ tells us about the Mauryan administration.

Question 3.
Why is Ashoka called ‘the great’?
Answer:
Ashoka was the only king in the history of the world who stopped war after victory. Throughout his life he worked for the good of the people. He treated all religions alike. He looked after his subjects as a father cares for his children. Every individual was the most important person of the state. He treated everybody alike and gave money and help to all religions regardless of their beliefs. He discarded caste system. His faith in universal brotherhood of mankind uplifted him and he became a god on earth. Boundaries of any country were not his limit. He adopted Buddhism and sent preachers to preach it to many countries of the world like Sri Lanka, China, Afghanistan and Nepal. He held a vast empire in those ancient times above everything. There was no rebellion against him inspite of his policy of peace and non-violence. He was the first ruler who gave the world the concept of a welfare state and religious tolerance. That is why Ashoka holds an important position in the history of the world and is called ‘the great’.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
What do you know about Mauryan art?
Answer:
The Mauryan rulers were lovers of art and they gave an important contribution to the field of art. This contribution of theirs is described as under:

  1. Chandragupta constructed a big palace. This palace was very beautiful and stood erected on several pillars. Ashoka’s palace was also magnificent.
  2. Chandragupta Maurya constructed a big lake, named Sudarshana, in Gujarat.
  3. Ashoka constructed a large number of Stupas. The Stupa of Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh is very famous.
  4. Ashoka built two cities, namely Srinagar and Lalit Patan.
  5. Ashoka got some beautiful caves built in the hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni in Bihar for the monks and Nirgranthas.
  6. Ashoka got constructed huge pillars of sand stone from Chunar. These pillars were 34 feet high. They have a fine polish on them which shines like a mirror. Ashoka got his inscriptions engraved on these pillars.
  7. Ashoka’s pillars had sculptures of animals like bull, elephant, lion, etc. One such sculpture of four lions seated back to back was on the top of the pillar at Samath (Uttar Pradesh). It is our National Emblem now.
  8. Some beautiful sculptures of Yakshas and Yakshis were also made in the Mauryan Age. One such sculpture has been found as Didarganj near Patna. This sculpture is of a Yakshi who w carrying a Chauri (fly-whisk) on her shoulder.

II. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Alexander’s soldiers got scared of the _________ they received in Punjab.
Answer:
resistance

Question 2.
Chandragupta ruled till _________ B.C.
Answer:
297

Question 3.
Megasthenes was a Greek ambassador of _________
Answer:
Seleucus

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
Kautilya’s _________ and Megasthenes’s _________ tell us about Mauryan administration.
Answer:
Arthasastra, Indica

Question 5.
In Madhya Pradesh the stupa of _________ is very famous.
Answer:
Sanchi.

III. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ in the brackets given after each statement :

Question 1.
Seleucus defeated Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Ashoka built great pillars of iron.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Mahamatra was officer of Alexander.
Answer:
False

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
Ashoka adopted Buddhism after Kalinga War. Chandragupta constructed Sudarshana Lake.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
In Madhya Pradesh the stupa of . is very famous.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the columns:

Question 1.

A B
(1) Megasthenes (a) Arthasastra
(2) Kautilya (b) Stupa
(3) Sanchi (c) Minister
(4) Amatya (d) Indica

Answer:

A B
(1) Megasthenes (d) Indica
(2) Kautilya (a) Arthasastra
(3) Sanchi (b) Stupa
(4) Amatya (c) Minister

V. Activity (Something To Do):

Question 1.
Collect pictures of monuments built by Ashoka and paste them in your scrap book.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Guide The Mauryas and The Sungas Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Dhamma is a word of _________ language.
(A) Prakrit
(B) Hindi
(C) Devnagri
(D) Sanskrit.
Answer:
(A) Prakrit.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 2.
Dhamma means _________
(A) Wealth
(B) Dharma
(C) Kingdom
(D) State.
Answer:
(B) Dharma.

Question 3.
People lived in Mauryan Empire were engaged in _________ occupation.
(A) Merchants
(B) Crafts persons
(C) Officials
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 4.
Officials collected _________ from the area under the direct control of the ruler.
(A) Gold
(B) Silver
(C) Taxes
(D) Food grains.
Answer:
(C) Taxes.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 5.
Royal princes often went to the provinces as
(A) Governors
(B) Rulers
(C) Generals
(D) Tax collectors.
Answer:
(A) Governors.

Question 6.
The Mauryans rulers tried to control this which was important for transport.
(A) Roads
(B) Rivers
(C) Both a+b
(D) None of these.
Answer:
(C) Both a+b.

Question 7.
People in forested regions provided” the Mauryan officials.
(A) Timber
(B) Wax
(C) Honey
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 8.
Most of the Ashoka inscriptions are in the script.
(A) Brahmi
(B) Devnagri
(C) Gurumukhi
(D) Persian
Answer:
(A) Brahmi.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 9.
Which problem Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing dhamma?
(A) Different people followed different religions.
(B) In some religions, animal sacrifice was a ritual.
(C) Most of the masters ill treated their servants and slaves
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 10.
Which of these means was adopted by Ashoka to spread the message of dhamma?
(A) He appointed dhamma mahamatta to spread teachings.
(B) He got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars.
(C) He sent his messengers to other lands.
(D) All of these.
Answer:
(D) All of these.

Question 11.
Who was the Prime Minister of Chandra Gupta Maurya?
(A) Chanakya
(B) Ashoka
(C) Bimbisara
(D) Ajatasatru.
Answer:
(A) Chanakya.

Question 12.
Chanakya wrote
(A) Kamasutra
(B) Arthashastra
(C) Upnishada
(D) Manu Smriti.
Answer:
(B) Arthashastra.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 13.
_________ was an ambassador of Selecus Nicator who was sent to the court of Chandragupta Maurya?
(A) Megasthenes
(B) Ashoka
(C) Bimbisara
(D) Chanakya.
Answer:
(A) Megasthenes.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did Alexander invade India?
Answer:
Alexander invaded India in 326 B.C.

Question 2.
Who was ruling over the Punjab when Chandragupta Maurya became the king?
Answer:
The Greek General Seleucus Nikator was ruling over the Punjab when Chandragupta Maurya became the king.

Question 3.
What was the extent of the Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya’s empire extended from Afghanistan in the north-west to Karnataka in the south and from Assam in the east to Gujarat in the west.

Question 4.
Name the areas added to the Mauryan Empire by Bindusara.
Answer:
Bindusara added some of the southern parts of India to the Mauryan Empire.

Question 5.
Why were the Nanda kings unpopular?
Answer:
The Nanda kings had collected huge wealth and led a luxurious life. They were not efficient rulers.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 6.
Who was Ashoka?
Answer:
Ashoka was the most famous of the Mauryan kings and one of the greatest rulers India has ever had.

Question 7.
Where were Ashoka’s edicts inscribed?
Answer:
Ashoka’s edicts were inscribed on rocks and on tall pillars made of sandstone.

Question 8.
What was the capital city of Ashoka?
Answer:
Patliputra (Patna) was the capital city of Ashoka.

Question 9.
Whom did Ashoka send to Sri Lanka and why?
Answer:
Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to preach the message of Buddhism.

Question 10.
According to Ashoka, how should a king treat his subjects?
Answer:
According to Ashoka, a king should treat his subjects as a father treats his children.

Question 11.
Name some of the officers of the Mauryan administration.
Answer:
Some of the officers of the Mauryan administration were Rajuka, Mahamatra, Yukta, etc.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 12.
Name the great centres of learning during the Mauryan rule.
Answer:
Taxila, Patliputra and Varanasi were the great centres of learning during the Mauryan rule.

Question 13.
How much was land revenue on agriculture levied during the Mauryan rule?
Answer:
The land revenue on agriculture was generally 1/6th of the produce.

Question 14.
Who constructed Sudarshana Lake,’and where?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya constructed Sudarshana Lake in Gujarat.

Question 15.
When did the Mauryan Empire start breaking up?
Answer:
The Mauryan Empire started breaking up after the death of Ashoka.

Question 16.
Who was Alexandar?
Answer:
Alexander was a great Greek conqueror from Macedonia. He invaded India in 326 B.C. and defeated Porus. On his way back to Greece, he died midway.

Question 17.
Who was Chanakya?
Answer:
Chanakya was the Prime Minister and advisor of Chandragupta Maurya. He was a great teacher and scholar who wrote a book called Arthasastra.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 18.
What is meant by Dhamma?
Answer:
Dhamma was a code of morality given by Ashoka for his people to lead virtuous and peaceful life.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What role did Chanakya play in the formation of the Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
Chanakya played the most significant role in the formation of the Mauryan Empire. Without his help and guidance it would not have been possible to establish the mighty Mauryan Empire by Chandragupta Maurya. Once the Nanda king insulted Chanakya. Chanakya left his empire and took a vow to take revenge from him. Due to this reason he helped Chandragupta in establishing the Mauryan Empire.

Question 2.
What do you know about Arthasastra?
Answer:
Arthasastra is a famous book written by Kautilya. In this book, Kautilya explains how a good government should be organised. It gives vital elements of good administration. It gives detailed instructions on the control of the state, the organisation of national economy and the conduct of war. It is a very precious source of information about many aspects of ancient Indian life.

Question 3.
What is Indica?
Answer:
Indica is a book written by Megasthenes, the Greek Ambassador of Seleucus Nikator who lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya for five years. In this book, Megasthenes describes the social, economic and political conditions of India during Chandragupta Maurya’s reign.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 4.
What was Ashoka’s Dhamma?
Answer:
Dhamma is the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word Dharma, meaning religion. It included the best in every religion. It was a set of moral principles, such as :

  • One should respect one’s elders.
  • Proper treatment should be given to youngsters.
  • One should not slaughter animals and should observe ahimsa (non-violence).
  • One should practise tolerance and respect other religions.
  • One should observe truthfulness.
  • One should lead a pure life, etc.

Question 5.
What did Ashoka do to spread his ideas about Dhamma?
Answer:
Ashoka took the following steps to spread his ideas about Dhamma :

  • He himself lived an ideal life and set an example before his people.
  • He inscribed his ideas on rocks and pillars in all corners of his empire.
  • He used Prakrit, the common language of the people, in his edicts.
  • He appointed Dharmamahamatras to persuade the people to live according to his ideals of the Dhamma.
  • He sent monks to preach Buddhism in other countries. Even his own son Mahendra and his daughter Sanghamitra went to Sri Lanka.

Question 6.
From where have we got the design of our National Emblem?
Answer:
We have got the design of our National Emblem from the pillar at Sarnath. It was made by Ashoka and had four lions carved on the top. When India became independent in 1947, it was decided to use this design of four lions as the National Emblem of India.

Question 7.
Write a note about the Sungas.
Answer:
The Sunga dynasty was founded by Pushyamitra Sunga in 184 B.C. Pushyamitra Sunga was the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan army. He murdered the last Mauryan king Brihadratha and himself became the king. He was a powerful ruler and made several conquests. He s6nt his grandson Vasumitra to fight with the Greek invader Menander. Vasumitra defeated the invader on the banks of the river Indus. Pushyamitra performed two horse- sacrifices. He built -the Stupa of Bharhut in Madhya Pradesh. After Pushyamitra his son Agnimitra became the king. The Sunga dynasty collapsed soon after the Scythians, Parthians and Kushanas began to invade India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the Mauryan administration.
Answer:
The Mauryan administration was a very well organised and vast system.
1. The King: The king was the head of the state and very powerful. He led his army in war, imparted justice, looked after the welfare of his people and levied taxes.

2. Council of Ministers: The king had council of ministers to help him. The ministers were known as mantris or Amatyas.

3. Officers: There were high officers like the crown prince, treasurer, collector-general of taxes, accountant-general and several directors of separate departments like forests, mines, foreign travellers, etc.

4. Provinces: The empire was divided into provinces and generally royal princes were appointed their governors. There were several officers like Rajuka, Mahamatra, Yukta, etc. in provinces.

5. Army: The Mauryan army was very strong and comprised of infantry, horses, elephants and chariots. It had naval force also.

6. Spy System: The spy system of the Mauryas was also very strong. Spies were sent to get the news of enemies and to keep an eye on people’s activities.

PSEB 6th Class Social Science Solutions Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas

Question 2.
What were the causes of the decline of the Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
The Mauryan Empire lasted a little over a hundred years and after the death of Ashoka, it began to break up. Several causes were responsible for the decline of this great empire.

These causes were as follows :

  • The successors of Ashoka were weak and incapable. They became careless and could not control such a big empire like that of the Mauryan mighty rulers like Chandragupta, Bindusara and Ashoka.
  • Due to weak administration, the officers became corrupt and autocratic. The income of the state was badly affected. It became difficult to maintain a strong and large army.
  • Due to unstable Government, the Mauryan Empire broke into pieces.
  • The network of roads was neglected. This disrupted trade and contact between regions. The large army could not be maintained without the regular flow of the revenue.
  • The Greek rulers invaded the Punjab and further weakened the decaying administration of the Mauryas.
  • Pushyamitra Sunga murdered the last .Mauryan king Brihadratha and became the ruler of Patliputra.

The Mauryas and The Sungas PSEB 6th Class SST Notes

  • The Maury an Empire: The Mauryan Empire came into being in the last quarter of 600 B.C. It was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha.
  • Alexander: Alexander was a great Greek conqueror from Macedonia. He invaded India in 326 B.C.
  • Chanakya: Chanakya is popularly known as Kautilya. He was the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya. He was a great teacher, scholar and the author of the famous book ‘Arthasastra’.
  • Megasthenes: Megasthenes was the Greek Ambassador of – Seleucus Nikator. He wrote the book ‘Indica’.
  • Bindusara: Bindusara was the son of Chandragupta Maurya. He ruled India for about 25 years.
  • Ashoka, the Great: Ashoka, the Great was a son of Bindusara. He is known as one of the greatest rulers in the world.
  • Edicts: Edicts are orders proclaimed by an authority.
  • Dhamma: Dhamma was a code of morality enacted by Ashoka for his people to lead a peaceful and virtuous life.
  • Sarnath: Sarnath is a place near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The capital of Ashoka’s pillar at Sarnath has been adopted as India’s National Emblem.
  • The Sunga Empire: The Sunga Empire was founded by Pushyamitra Sunga. He was the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan army. He killed the last Mauryan king Brihadratha and himself became the king in 184 B.C

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Social Science Book Solutions History Chapter 13 The Mauryas and The Sungas Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.