PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Mention four basic principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer:
The following are the four main principles of India’s foreign policy :

  1. Faith in the policy of non-alignment
  2. Faith in the principles of Panchsheel,
  3. Full faith in the U.N.
  4. Opposition to colonialism and imperialism.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Panchsheel?
Answer:
On April 29, 1954, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India and Chou-en-Lai, P.M. of China formulated five principles of peaceful co-existence for the nations of the world. These five principles are calledTanchsheel. The main objective of Panchsheel is to maintain world peace by promoting peaceful co-existence.

Question 3.
What do you understand by the policy of Non-alignment?
Answer:
Non-alignment implies not belonging to any power bloc but having friendly relations with all the countries. It also means making decisions independently on the basis of merit to solve international problems. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the founders of this policy.

Question 4.
Describe one basic reason which created bad blood between India and the United State of America.
Answer:
India has refused to join military pacts set up by America.

Question 5.
What is the Atomic Policy of India?
Answer:
To use the atomic energy for constructive and peaceful purposes.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 6.
Enumerate the number of permanent members and non-permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
The Security Council has 15 members. Out of them five are permanent members. The remaining ten are temporary members. Each temporary member is elected for a term of 2 years by the General Assembly. The five permanent members are: U.S.A., Russia, Great Britain, France and China.

Question 7.
When the UN came into existence and how many were its original members?
Answer:
The United Nations was founded on October 24, 1945. It had 51 original (founder) members.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Disarmament?
Answer:
Disarmament means destruction or reduction of arms. The term implies voluntary destruction of arms and the creation of world without arms.

Question 9.
Describe the basic cause of tension and stagnation of relations between India and China.
Answer:
The border dispute is the main cause of tension between India and China. This tension became intense when China attacked India in 1962.

Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Describe the main principles of Indian foreign policy.
Or
Write down three principles of India’s foreign policy.
Answer:
The following are the main principles of Indian Foreign Policy :

  1. Non-alignment. It is the basic principle of India’s foreign policy. India was the first country that initiated the policy of Noii-alignment.
  2. Opposition to Imperialism. India has always opposed imperialism and colonialism.
  3. Opposition to the policy of Caste, ColoSr and Discrimination etc. India has always raised voice against the policy of Caste, Colour and Discrimination.
  4. Faith in the United Nations. India is a founder member of the United Nations and has full faith in the aims and principles of the United Nations.
  5. Panchsheel. Panchsheel is an important principle of Indian foreign policy.
  6. Friendly Relations with other States. India is always ready to have friendly relations with other States of the world.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on Panchsheel.
Answer:
On April 29, 1954, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India and Chou-en-Lai, the Prime Minister of China held a meeting in Delhi. They formulated five principles of peaceful co-existence between the nations of the world. These principles are called Panchsheel.

Following are these principles:

  1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  2. Non-aggression. In other words, the disputes among the nations should be settled by negotiations.
  3. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.
  4. To endeavour to achieve mutual gains and co-operation.
  5. To adhere to the policy of peaceful co-existence among different nations Live and let live. If these principles are respected, there can be no danger of any deadly war in the world.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 3.
Describe the meaning of the’^bficy of Non-alignment and reasons for its adoption by India.
Answer:
Non-alignment implies not belonging to any power bloc and having friendly relations with all the countries. It also means taking decisions independently on the basis of merit while solving international problems. Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru was one of the founders of this policy.

Reasons. At the time of our independence, there were two power blocs in the world: the American bloc and the Russian bloc. ‘There existed tension between the two blocs. Thus there was a cold war between them. Newly^^.d countries could reduce this tension and make progress with the aid of both, tfiesel.two.blocs. So they did not join any bloc and formed their own group. Pandit Jawaharl, ejiru based India’s foreign policy on the principle of Non-alignment.

Question 4.
Describe the organisation and functions of the General Assembly, Security Council and International, Court of Justice.
Answer:
General Assembly. It is made up of all the member nations of the U.N.O. each of whom has one vote. However, each member state can send five representatives to attend its meetings. The Assembly takes decisions on ordinary matters by a simple majority. It passes the annual budget of U.N.O.

Security Council: It is made up of 15 members out of Ayhqm five are permanent members. The remaining ten members are elected for a term of two years by the General Assembly.

The Security Council is entrusted with the task of preserving world peace. It tries to settle disputes between the different nations in a just and fair manner.

International Court of Justice:
It is called “The World Court”. The Court hears and decides, disputes arising between states according to International Law. It also gives advice to the General Assembly on legal matters.

Question 5.
Describe the role of India in the United Nations.
Answer:
India is one of the 51 founder members of the United Nations. From the very beginning, the Indian leaders have been keeping a firm faith in this great institution. It has been playing an important role in the functioning of the United Nations.

  1. India stood for anti-colonialism. India along with other members got the resolution passed against imperialism and colonialism in 1950.
  2. Admission of New States. India tried her best for the admission of Communist China and Bangladesh. ,
  3. Cooperation in ending wars in other Countries. India supported the peace efforts of the United Nations to put an end to the wars in Egypt, Congo, Korea and Indo-China.
  4. Against Racial Discrimination. India, with the cooperation of the United Nations, raised a strong voice against the policy of racial discrimination followed by the imperialist government in South Africa.
  5. Human Rights. With the cooperation of the United Nations, India raised a strong voice of protest against the countries.which violated the human rights.
  6. Support of Disarmament. India have so supported disarmament for lessening the possibility of wars.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 6.
Describe the main reasons which Abated tension and hostility between India and Pakistan.
Or
Write a short note on the Indo-Pak relationship and their main dispute.
Answer:
India has made every effort to establish friendly relations with Pakistan but the tension and hatred between the two countries has never ended. The two countries had border disputes, river water distribution disputes and had to make settlement of evacuee property. The dispute about the sharing of river waters between the two countries was settled with the help of the World Bank^ through the Indus Water Treaty in 1960. The settlement of border disputes and the prql^em of evacuee property have been solved to a great extent. But the Kashmir problem is the bone of contention between the two countries.

Question 7.
Discuss briefly Indo-American relations.
Answer:
India and U.S.A. are the two largest democracies in the world. During 1947-2001 the relations between the two countries were marked by two opposite features. On one side, there was a spirit of co-operation and friendship between the two countries. But on the other, their relations were strained and conflicting. There has been, however, a marked improvement in the relations between the two countries since 2000 A.D. Both these countries are fighting against terrorism

The U.S.A. had begun to give massive military aid to Pakistan. This was strongly opposed by India. The lowest point in the Indo-US relations came in 1971 when India signed the Treaty of peace, friendship and co-operation with the USSR. India’s peaceful nuclear explosion on May 18, 1974, at Pokhran was strongly criticised by the US leaders and the people. There has been a marked improvement in the relations between America and India since 2001 A.D. The President of the U.S.A. Barack Obama visited India in January 2015.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Describe one cause of tension between India and Pakistan.
Answer:
Pakistan has been claiming Kashmir since independence whereas it is an integral part of India.

Question 2.
Describe one positive aspect of Indo-Pak relationship.
Answer:
On 17th Feb., 1999, India and Pakistan signed a formal agreement for launching the Delhi-Lahore Bus Service.

Question 3.
Give the names of the founder countries of the Non-alignment Movement.
Answer:
India, Yugoslavia and Egypt.

Question 4.
Mention any one object of the establishment of the United Nations.
Answer:
To maintain international peace and security.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 5.
Mention one important function of the Security Council.
Answer:
To help in maintaining international peace and security.

Question 6.
Throw light on any ope aspect of India’s policy of Non-alignment.
Answer:
Not to join any of the power blocs.

Question 7.
Mention any one cause for the establishment of the United Nations.
Answer:
The United Nations Organisation was established to maintain peace in the world.

Question 8.
Give one example of the work done by the U.N. for world peace.
Answer:
In 1949, it made the Dutch forces to vacate Indonesia.

Question 9.
What do you mean by Human Rights?
Answer:
Human Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can be his best self.

Question 10.
Why is disarmament necessary? Give one reason.
Answer:
To save humanity from total destrubtidh.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 11.
What was Marshall Plan of America?
Answer:
The Marshall Plan was a big programme of American aid-to the European nations to rebuild their war shattered economies.

Question 12.
Why were SEATO and Baghdad pacts prepared by the U.S.A.?
Answer:
To check spread of communism.

Question 13.
What is India’s Atomic or Nuclear Policy?
Answer:
India wants to make’ the use of atomic energy.for constructive and peaceful purposes.

Question 14.
What is meant by atomic weapons?
Answer:
The weapons which are exploded by the use of atomic or nuclear energy are called atomic weapons.

Question 15.
Which powers colonised Africa?
Answer:
The continent of Africa was colonised by Britain, France, Italy, Portugal and Belgium.

Question 16.
When was Bangla Desh created?
Answer:
In 1971.

Question 17.
Write down the names of two permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
England and U.S.A.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 18.
What is meant by policy of Non-alignment?
Answer:
Non-alignment implies not belonging to any power bloc but to have friendly relations with all countries.

Question 19.
Write down the names of two organs of the United Nations.
Answer:
1. General Assembly and
2. Security Council.

Question 20.
Enumerate the number of non-permanent members of Security Council of UNO.
Answer:10.

Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
There are ____________ organs of the United Nations.
Answer:
six

Question 2.
United Nations was established on ___________
Answer:
24th October, 1945

Question 3.
Originally United Nations consisted of ___________ members.
Answer:
51

Question 4.
Pt. ___________ is rightly acknowledged as the chief architect of India’s foreign policy.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 5.
The train characteristic of India’s foreign policy is ___________
Answer:
Non-alignment,

Question 6.
India has full faith in the ___________ of United Nations.
Answer:
principles

Question 7.
At present United Nations consists of ____________ members.
Answer:
193

Question 8.
The word ‘Panchsheel’ stands for principles.
Answer:
five

Question 9.
___________ is a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Answer:
Kashmir

Question 10.
There are ___________ permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
five.

Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
China made a sudden attack on India in:
(a) August 1962
(b) September 1962
(c) October 1962
(d) September 1965.
Answer:
(c) October 1962

Question 2.
The Principles of Panchsheel were signed between the Heads of the Govt. of:
(a) India and China
(b) India and Pakistan
(c) India and Japan
(d) Inia and Nepal.
Answer:
(a) India and China

Question 3.
The architect of Non-alignment is:
(a) Indira Gandhi
(b) Dr. Rajinder Praad
(c) Atal Behari Vajpaye
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer:
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 4.
India became a member of U.N. in:
(a) 1945
(b) 1947
(c) 1950
(d) 1960.
Answer:
(a) 1945

Question 5.
Which organ of United Nations has all the member states as Its members?
(a) Security Council
(b) General Assembly
(c) International Court of Justice
(d) Economic and Social Council.
Answer:
(b) General Assembly

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 6.
Bangladesh was established in:
(a) 1965
(b) 1972
(c) 1971
(d) 1970.
Answer:
(c) 1971

Question 7.
International Court of Justice has _________________ Judges.
(a) 15
(b) 10
(c) 22
(d) 20.
Answer:
(a) 15

Question 8.
Which of the following is not a basic principle of India’s foreign policy?
(a) Non-alignment
(b) Friendly relations with other states
(c) Faith in United Nations
(d) Faith in Imperialism and Colonialism.
Answer:
(d) Faith in Imperialism and Colonialism.

Question 9.
Who was the first woman president of the U.N. General Assembly?
(a) Sarojini Naidu
(b) Aruna Asaf Ali
(c) Vijya Luxmi Pandit
(d) Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur.
Answer:
(c) Vijya Luxmi Pandit

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 10.
Which of the following is not a permament member of U.N. Security Council?
(a) India
(b) U.S.A.
(c) Russia
(d) England.
Answer:
(a) India

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why are security and defence so important for India today?
Answer:
It was easier to defend the frontiers of India in ancient times. The Himalayas served as the sentinal in the north. The ocean protected us in the south. But now the high Himalayas and the deep oceans have lost their importance as the protectors of the country. Due to the progress of science and technology, the mountains ánd the seas are no longer barriers to check the enemy. So it has become very important for India to defend her borders. Secondly, our relations with some of our neighbours are not very friendly. We have to defend ourselves against them. So India’s need for defence and security is greater these days.

Question 2.
Write the names of any four organs of the United Nations. Explain one important function of each organ.
Answer:
Following are the four main organs of the United Nations.

  1. General Assembly,
  2. Security Council,
  3. Economic and Social Council and
  4. International Court of Justice.

Question 3.
Give some suggestions to Improve the relations between India and Pakistan.
Answer:
The relations between India and Pakistan can be improved by promoting common interests of both the countries.

The following steps should be taken in this direction:

  • Trade relations between both the countries should be strengthened.
  • Efforts should be made to improve cultural and educational relations between the two countries.
  • There should be friendly sports matches between the teams of the two countries.

Question 4.
When was the United Nations established? Mention its aims.
Answer:
The United Nations was established, on 24th October 1945. The number of its founder members was 51. But now about 209 countries of the world are its members. India is one of its founder members.

Following are its aims :

  • To settle the disputes between the states through peaceful means.
  • To promote friendly relations among the member states.
  • To find solutions to social and economic problems of the world.
  • To protect and uphold the freedom and rights of man.
  • To maintain world peace.
  • To strive hard to achieve these objects.

Question 5.
Write the full names of ILO, UNESCO, FAO and WHO. Write the functions of any two of these organisations.
Answer:
ILO, UNESCO, FAO and WHO are specialized agencies of the United Nations.
1. ILO: Its full name is International Labour Organisation.
Its functions are as under :

  • It tries to improve the living and. working conditions of the labourers.
  • To fix minimum wages and hours of work for the workers.

2. UNESCO: Its full name is United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation. Its main function is to promote educational, scientific and cultural co-operation among the member nations of the world.

3. FAO: Its full name is Food and Agricultural Organisation. Its main function is to
formulate schemes to increase agricultural production and consider the food situation of all the nations. . ,

4. WHO: Its full name is World Health Organisation. Its main function is to protect the health of people and to eradicate diseases.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 6.
Write a short note on the following :
(i) SAARC
(ii) Veto Power.
Answer:
(i) SAARC: Its full name is South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. It is an organisation of developing countries of South Asia. Its members are—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. Some similarities are found in the cultural and economic problems of these countries. The representatives of these countries sit together to solve their problems and promote mutual cooperation.

(ii) Veto Power: The permanent members of the Security Council possess Veto power. These members are United States, Britain, China, France and Russia. For all effective decisions of this body, the unanimity of these five big powers is compulsory. This implies that these big powers have a veto on all important decisions of the council and anyone of these five powers can prevent it from taking any action against any country.

Question 7.
Mention some positive aspects of Indo-China relationship.
Answer:

  1. Both the countries have agreed to solve their border dispute through a special committee consisting of officials from the both sides.
  2. Both the countries have agreed to extend economic co-operation to each other. There is a considerable increase in the trade between the two countries.
  3. In 1988, the then Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, visited China. The Chinese Prisident visited India in December 1991 and again in 2014. The way for the restoration of friendly relations between the two countries became clear. Since then many good-will missions have’been exchanged between the two countries.

Question 8.
Write down six features of India’s Foreign Policy.
Answer:

  • To make efforts for security and peace in the world.
  • To support the movements for self-determination in the colonies.
  • To oppose racialism.
  • Settlement of international disputes by peaceful methods.
  • To co-operate with U.N.O. and its Specialized Agencies.
  • To support the Non-Alignment movement and to remain away from the military blocs.

Question 9.
Write a short note on United N&tibns’ Security Council.
Answer:
The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. The UNSC was formed in 1945 following World War II to address the failings of the previoifs international organisation i.e. the League of Nations to maintain world peace. The Security Council consists of 15 members. Soviet Union (Russia), United Kingdom, France, China and United States of America are its five permanent members. These countries can veto any resolution. There are 10 non-permanent members elected on regional basis to serve for a term of two years. The Council held its first session on 17th January, 1946.

Question 10.
What is the contribution of India to promote world peace?
Answer:
Following the policy of Non-Alignment, Indi%has always condemned colonialism and imperialism.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Question 11.
Enumerate six main organs of the U. N. O.
Answer:
Following are the names of the chief organs of the U. N. 0.:

  • The General Assembly.
  • The Security Council.
  • Economic and Social Council.
  • The Trusteeship Council.
  • The Secretariat.
  • International Court of Justice.

Question 12.
Name five permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
Following are the names of five permanent members of the Security Council of the U.N.—United States of America, Great Britain, Russia, China and France.

Question 13.
Briefly explain the International Court of Justice.
Answer:
There are total of fifteen judges in the International Court of Justice. Its headquarter is the Hague in Holland. Its main task is to settle the disputes between the U.N.O.’s member countries.

Question 14.
Write down a note on Secretary-General of the U. N.O.
Answer:
The head of the Secretariate of U.N.O. is called Secretary-General. He is appointed by the U. N. Assembly on the recommendation of Security Council for five years. Now Antonio Guterres is Secretary-General of UNO.

Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Aims and objective of the Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy means that policy which a country adopts towards other countries to solve international problems. Its main aim is to maintain country’s security and world peace.
  • Basis of Foreign Policy of India. The main aim of the foreign policy of India is Non-alignment. This means that India remains aloof from military alliances or power blocs. The basic principle of our foreign policy is to cooperate with the U.N.O. and to have friendly relations with neighbouring countries.
  • Non-Alignment movement. It is the basic principle of India’s foreign policy. India was the first country which initiated the policy of Non-alignment. The founder members of this movement were India, Yugoslavia and Egypt. The membership of this movement has consideraly increased. Now this movement is called Third
    World.
  • India and its neighbours. Pakistan, China.Jdangla Desh and Sri Lanka, Bhutan Myainmare are our neighbouring countries. India aims at having good relations with these countries and our country has solved disputes with some countries.
  • India and Pakistan. Pakistan has been claiming Kashmir since independence whereas it is an integral part of India.
  • India and China. August 1962 invasion of India by China had created a rift between India and China. But now there is some improvement in relations between the two countries as a result of meetings between the prominent leaders of India and China.
  • Relations with Bangla Desh. The causes of disputes between two countries were the boundary disputes, Farakha barrage and migration of Bangladeshis to India. The boundary disputes between two countries have been solved by present governments.
  • Panchsheel. On April 29, 1954, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India and P.M. of China, Chou-en-Lai formulated five principles of Panchsheel of co-existence for the nations of world.
  • India’s relations with the U.S.A. India’s relations with the U.S.A. have been changing from time to time. The main cause of tension was India’s refusal to sign a Non-proliferation treaty because this treaty is biased. But now India has friendly relations with the U.S.A. Now both countries are fighting to eradicate Islamic terrorism.
  • India’s relations with Russia. India has very good relations with Russia. Russia – has supported India on every issue. Russia has contributed a lot for the improvement of India’s economy.
  • United Nations Organisation. U. N O. was established on 24 October 1945 to stop wars and establish world peace. It has six organs and many specialised agencies. They have contributed to the development and progress of backward countries.
  • India and UNO. India has full faith in the aims and principles of the UNO. So the aim of the foreign policy of India is to support UNO in establishment of world peace and solving international disputes through peaceful methods.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Indian Democracy at Work Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
What do you understand by democracy?
Answer:
According to Lincoln, “Democracy is the government of the people, for the people and by the people.” In other words, democracy means that form of government in which people rule themselves either directly or indirectly.

Question 2.
Explain Etymological meaning of democracy.
Answer:
The word ‘Democracy’ has been derived from two Greek words, ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratos’. Demo means “The people’ and Kratos means ‘The power’. Democracy, in this way, is a form of government in which the ruling power is vested in the hands of the people.

Question 3.
Describe the one main condition for the success of democracy.
Answer:
Main condition necessary for the success of democracy is :

  • Educated and good citizens.
  • Free and impartial press and judiciary.
  • Well-organised political parties.
  • Co-operation and toleration among the citizens. (Any. one)

Question 4.
How many types of election systems are there in the world?
Answer:
There are two types of methods of elections: (i) Direct election (ii) Indirect election. In the direct election, the citizens themselves elect the members of the Legislature. In the indirect election, the representatives of the citizens elect the members of the Legislature.

Question 5.
What do you mean by public opinion?
Answer:
Public opinion means the opinion of people on a’particular matter of public interest. People’s voice is the voice of God. A government that ignores the public opinion cannot be stable.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 6.
When and under whom the Indian National Congress was formed?
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It was founded by an English officer named Mr. AO. Hume. Its first session was presided over by Mr. Womesh Chandra Banerji (W.C. Banerji).

Question 7.
When and under whom the Shiromani Akali Dal was formed?
Answer:
The Shiromani Akali Dal was established in 1920 A.D. to bring about reforms in the Sikh Gurudwaras. It was formed under the twin leadership of Master Tara Singh and Sardar Kharak Singh.

Question 8.
Why is India a Secular State?
Answer:
India is a Secular State because India has no state religion.

Question 9.
Describe the ideological base of Shiromani Akali Dal.
Answer:

  • To bring about the reforms in the Gurudwaras and their management.
  • To maintain belief among the Sikhs that their Panth is independent.
  • To end poverty and hunger.
  • To make economic set-up more just.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on National Political Parties of India.
Answer:
There are seven National Political Parties—Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India, Marxist Communist Party of India, Bahujan Smaj Party, National Congress Party, Trinmool Congress Party.

Question 11.
Explain ideology of Indian National Congress.
Answer:

  • Promotion of Secularism and Socialism
  • Non-alignment
  • Reforms in industrial field
  • Modernisation of agriculture.

Question 12.
Describe the ideological base of the Bhartiya Janata Party.
Answer:

  1. The party has pledged itself to defend the unity and integrity of India.
  2. The party stands? for positive Secularism.

Question 13.
Explain the ideology of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
Answer:
This party believes in the ideology of Karl Marx and Lenin. Its aims is to uplift the working class and make it the ruling class.

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Describe the main features of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
Following are the main important features of the Indian democracy :

  1. The Indian Constitution provides for a democratic set-up in the country. Its preamble describes the importance of democracy.
  2. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Equality to all citizens. This right is similar to the principle of democratic equality.
  3. Freedom is the main principle of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Freedom to all the citizens of India.
  4. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution lays stress on promoting fraternity among all citizens.
  5. The Indian Constitution provides for adult franchise in India which is the soul of democracy.
  6. The Constitution also provides for joint electoral system which ensures equality to the people of all castes, religions and races.
  7. Political rights are the demands of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants political rights to all Indians without any kind of discrimination.
  8. Independence of Judiciary, Secularism and Republican system have strengthened the foundations of democracy.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
Explain briefly the electoral process in India.
Answer:
In India election procedure is as follows :

  1. Constituencies. The first important task in the process of election is the delimitation of the constituencies.
  2. Election Notification. The process of election begins with the notification of election. For the elections of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, notification is issued by the President.
  3. Filing of the Nomination Papers. The Election Commission fixes a last date for filing the nomination papers.
  4. Scrutiny of Nomination Papers. On the fixed date, nomination papers are scrutinised by the. Returning Officer and the names of the eligible candidates are announced.
  5. Election Campaign. With the announcement of election, political parties and independent candidates start election propaganda and try to influence the voters.
  6. Polling. On the day of the polling, holiday is declared so that each voter can cast his vote.
  7. Counting of votes and declaration of result. On the fixed date, EVMs are opened in the presence of the representatives of the candidates and votes are counted. A candidate getting the highest number of votes is declared elected. Every candidate is expected to submit the details of his expenses in the election, within 45 days after the election is over.

Question 3.
Name the main means of formation and expression of the Public Opinion.
Answer:
The main means of formation and expression of the public opinion are given below :

  1. Public Meetings. Public meetings stimulate and create public interest in great political, social and economic questions through speeches delivered by men in the domain of public life.
  2. Educational Institutions. It is in the schools, colleges and universities that the life of the would be citizens is moulded.
  3. Role of Newspapers. Newspaper is a very important source of formulating public opinion.
  4. Television. Television moulds public opinion by broadcasting news and comments. It makes the people politically conscious.
  5. Press. Public opinion is formed by newspapers, by presenting news and views on matters of public importance of national and international character.
  6. Political Parties. Political parties help to create public interest without which there can be no public opinion.

Question 4.
Describe the role and importance of Public Opinion.
Answer:
The role of the public opinion in democracy is very important. Public welfare is the basis of public opinion. It always reminds the government of its duties. The fact is that public opinion is the soul of democracy. The source of power of a democratic government is public opinion. The public opinion is the foundation which makes a government stable. The Government always tries its best to mould the public opinion in its favour. The Government implements its policies keeping in view the will and directions of the public opinion. The Government, which ignores the public opinion, becomes dictatorial and puts democracy into danger. Such a government loses the confidence of the people. As a result, it faces a defeat in the elections. That is why the Government tries not to go against the public opinion.

Write a short note on the following :

Question 1.
Main objectives of Shiromani Akali Dal.
Answer:
1. Main objectives of Shiromani Akali Dal. (Pb. 2016 I) The Shiromani Akali Dal was founded in 1920. A constitution of the party was approved in the meeting of its executive on September 2, 1974. According to it, the following are the objectives of the Akali Dal:

  • To bring about reforms in the Gurudwaras and look after them properly.
  • To maintain belief among the Sikhs that their Panth is independent.
  • To end poverty and hunger. To make economic set up more just and to reduce economic inequality between the rich and the poor.
  • To put an end to illiteracy, untouchability and discrimination.
  • To make arrangements for public health and security.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
Emergence/Formation of Bhartiya Janata Party.
Answer:
Emergence/Formation of Bhartiya Janata Party.
The Bhartiya Janata Party was organised on April 6, 1980. Today, this party is very active in Indian politics.

Following is the description of its policies and programmes :

  1. The B.J.P. believes that centre-state relations should be improved and it favours the implementation of the main recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
  2. For free and fair elections, the B.J.P. will update and adopt the Goswami Committee Report.
  3. The B. J.P. will appoint a Lok Pal to entertain complaints of corruption against anybody holding public office including the Prime Minister.
  4. For better Local self-government at the village level, the B. J.P. will make changes in the Constitution and further strengthen the Panchayati Raj system.
  5. The B.J.P. will set up regional councils for Kashmir, Jammu and Laddakh.
  6. The B.J.P. will set up a National Security Council.

Question 3.
Foreign Policy of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Foreign Policy of Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. Even today this party is very active in Indian politics.

Following is the description of the policies and programmes of this party :

  • Firm faith in secularism and democracy.
  • To promote socialism along with economic liberalism.
  • To give the status of industry to agriculture. To grant loans to the farmers at low rates of interest.
  • To exempt the industry from licence system and end “the inspector Raj”. To encourage foreign investment.
  • To provide jobs to the unemployed. To improve the economic condition of the working class, to give financial aid to the backward and weak classes to raise their standard of living.
  • To improve the condition of the minorities and the women.
  • To frame foreign policy based on Non-alignment.

Question 4.
Formation of Communist Party of India.
Answer:
Formation of Communist Party of India. In the beginning of the 20th century, a group of redical youth within Indian National Congress was not satisfied with its policies. Russian Revolution inspired under the leadership of inspired Indian Youth for attaining independence through revolution. These disgruntled youth formed many Marxist organisations and assembled at Kanpur 1924 under the leadership of Manvinder Nath Rai. this led to the formation of the Communist Party of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 5.
Role of the Opposition.
Answer:
Role of the Opposition. (Pb. 2003 D) In a democratic country like India opposition performs many functions and the most important ones are as follow:

  1. Criticism of the Government. One of the most important functions of the opposition is to criticise the Government. The opposition points out the drawbacks in the laws, policies, plans and programmes of the government.
  2. Suggestions to Government. The opposition not only criticises the policies of the Government but also gives suggestions and proposals to remove its drawbacks.
  3. Alternative Programmes. The opposition provides drafts of alternative laws, policies, plans and programmes to ensure the social, economic and cultural welfare of the people.
  4. The opposition plays an important role in the working of democratic set-up. It makes democracy real and effective. It exposes the lapses of the government before the people.
  5. The opposition parties safeguard the interests and liberties of the people by checking the despotism of the government.
  6. The opposition provides a ready alternative government.

Question 6.
Essential condition for the success of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
An essential condition for the success of Indian Democracy.

  1. A democratic society is necessary for the success of a democracy or democratic country in which there must be political equality.
  2. There has to be earth presence of equal and open thinking in society and it is very much necessary for the success of democracy.
  3. Economic equality must be provided. It means that everyone should be provided equal opportunities for development. It is a guarantee of the success of democracy.
  4. Educated citizens must be there. Democracy is a system that involves a continues and active movement of the people in the political process. That’s why it is essential that literary should be widespread.

Question 7.
Main Principles of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
Main Principles of Indian Democracy;
Following are the main important. features of the Indian democracy:

  1. The Indian Constitution provides for a democratic set-up in the country. Its preamble describes the importance of democracy.
  2. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Equality to all citizens. This right is similar t.o the principle of democratic equality.
  3. Freedom is the main principle of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Freedom to all the citizens of india.
  4. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution lays stress on promoting fraternity among all citizens.
  5. The Indian Constitution provides for adult franchise in India which is the soul of democracy.
  6. The Constitution also provides, for joint electoral system which ensures equality to the people of all castes, religions and races.
  7. Political rights are the demands of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants political rights to nil Indians without any kind of discrimination.
  8. Independence of Judiciary, Secularism and Republican system have strengthened the foundations of democracy.

Question 8.
Indian Democracy at work.
Answer:
Indian Democracy at work. Indian democracy is working quite successfully. India is having indirect democracy in which decisions are taken by the elected representatives of the people. Democracy is completely dependent upon elections and free and fair elections are held India by an independent Election Commission. All the political parties are free to work in society to create public opinion in their favour. Many political parties exist in India which give great contribution in making Indian democracy a great success. So, we can say that Indian democracy is successfully working.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Indian Democracy at Work Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Why are modern democracies indirect or representative?
Answer:
Because modern states are large in size, having a large area with huge population.

Question 2.
What is an election manifesto?
Answer:
It is a document which tells the programme, principles, objectives and promises of a party or a candidate.

Question 3.
Why are election symbols allotted to political parties in India?
Answer:
To facilitate uneducated voters to instantly recognise the party of their choice.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 4.
What is the meaning of Secret Ballot?
Answer:
The Secret Ballot system means the casting of vote by a voter remains a secret process.

Question 5.
How are the representatives of people kept under check in democracy?
Answer:
The representatives who do not work well can be removed through election.

Question 6.
What is meant by ‘Rule of Law’?
Answer:
By Rule of Law we mean that the government rules according to the law of the land.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of Communalism?
Answer:
Communalism is an ideology which emphasizes the separate identity of a religious group in relation to other groups.

Question 8.
What is the importance of democracy in the modern age?
Answer:
The people get all opportunities of making progress only in a democracy.

Question 9.
Describe any one obstacle in the way of public opinion.
Answer:
Illiteracy. An illiterate person cannot form a sound.public opinion.

Question 10.
How does cinema express the public opinion?
Answer:
Films throw light on the failures and achievements of the government.

Question 11.
Give any one point showing the importance of political parties.
Answer:
A political party, after winning the elections, comes to power and forms the government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 12.
How are the ideas of democracy and citizenship interlinked with each other?
Answer:
The success of democracy depends on enlightened, honest and vigilant citizens.

Question 13.
Write any one essential condition for the free expression of public opinion.
Answer:
Press and other means of communication should be free and impartial.

Question 14.
Name any one agency through which public opinion is usually expressed.
Answer:
Newspapers or the Press.

Question 15.
After coming to power, the government cannot ignore the public opinion. Why?
Answer:
It is pushed out of power in the next elections.

Question 16.
What is meant by Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The adult franchise means the right of voting is granted to all the adults.

Question 17.
What is the importance of free and impartial elections in democracy?
Answer:
The people elect the representatives of their own choice.

Question 18.
What is an election process?
Answer:
The process by which the citizens cast their votes and elect their representatives.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 19.
What do you mean by the Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The right of voting granted to ail the adults

Question 20.
Mention one feature of an election manifesto.
Answer:
It tells the voters about the policies, of the political parties.

Question 21.
Describe any one technique of an election campaign.
Answer:
Political parties arrange public meetings and processions to win over the voters in their favour.

Question 22.
Mention three functions of the Election Commission.
Answer:

  1. Conducting the elections
  2. Counting of votes
  3. Declaring the results of elections.

Question 23.
What is a political party?
Answer:
It is group of citizens having common views on public questions and is organised as a political unit to obtain control of the government.

Question 24.
What do you understand by single-party system?
Answer:
A single party system is that system where only one party functions in the whole of the state.

Question 25.
What do you understand by two party system?
Answer:
Where there are two major political parties in a country.

Question 26.
What do you understand by Multi-Party system?
Answer:
When there are more than two well-organised political parties in a country.

Question 27.
What is a regional party?
Answer:
A party that is organised in a particular region or a state is called a regional party.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 28.
Mention any one difference between a regional party and a national party.
Answer:
A national party has influence all over the country whereas the influence of a regional party is limited to a particular region or a state.

Question 29.
Describe any one function of the opposition party in a democracy.
Answer:
It points out the faults of the government.

Question 30.
What do you mean by proportional representation?
Answer:
It is an electoral device designed to ensure representation of all sections of public opinion in proportion to their voting strength.

Question 31.
What is meant by election symbol?
Answer:
In elections, a special symbol is allotted to every candidate. It is called an election symbol.

Question 32.
What do you mean by simple majority system?
Answer:
A candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rivals is declared elected.

Question 33.
What kind of Democratic Government is in India? (Pb. 2002A)
Answer:
Parliamentary form of government.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Democracy is of two types direct and _________
Answer:
indirect

Question 2.
_________ is a key for the success of democracy.
Answer:
Enlightened citizens

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 3.
India has a _________ government.
Answer:
democratic

Question 4.
Equality and liberty are the basic principles of _________
Answer:
democracy

Question 5.
In India all adult citizens who have attained the age of _________ have been given right to vote.
Answer:
18

Question 6.
An important pillar of Indian democracy is an independent _________
Answer:
judiciary

Question 7.
Political fights are heart and soul of _________
Answer:
democracy

Question 8.
Public meetings are important means for formation of _________
Answer:
public opinion

Question 9.
Indian National Congress was established in _________
Answer:
1885

Question 10.
Bhartiya Janata Party was established in _________
Answer:
1980.

Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful.
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
(d) In India the losing parties accept the verdict.
Answer:
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
The Communist Party of India was formally founded in the year :
(a) 1924
(b) 1885
(c) 1925
(d) 1906.
Answer:
(a) 1924

Question 3.
Bharatiya Janata Party was founded in :
(a) 1952
(b) 1977
(c) 1980
(d) 1984.
Answer:
(c) 1980

Question 4.
Which of the following is a National Party?
(a) Akali Dal
(b) Janata Party
(c) National Conference
(d) Indian National Congress.
Answer:
(d) Indian National Congress.

Question 5.
The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by :
(a) Parliament
(b) President
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Governor.
Answer:
(b) President

Question 6.
Which of the following is a regional political party?
(а) Shiromani Akali Dal
(b) National Democratic Alliance
(c) Communist Party of India
(d) Indian National Congress.
Answer:
(а) Shiromani Akali Dal

Question 7.
Which of the following is responsible for conducting free and fair elections?
(a) Parliament
(b) Election Commission
(c) President
(d) Speaker.
Answer:
(b) Election Commission

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by democracy in modern times?
Answer:
Modem age is an age of democracy. By democracy we mean the government in which the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The people directly or indirectly take part in the administrative affairs of the state. The representatives of people make and implement laws keeping in view the welfare of the people. The public can unseat a representative in case he does not work upto their expectations. In fact, democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
What do you mean by the principle of Political Equality?
Answer:
By political equality, we mean that all the people should enjoy equal democratic rights. According to this principle, we must not classify the citizens under different categories. So it is clear that political equality means equality before law. All the citizens should hold their positions according to their capability and efficiency. There should be no discrimination on the-basis of caste, colour and creed.

Question 3.
Differentiate between direct and indirect democracy.
Answer:
Democracy can be classified into two categories :

  1. Direct Democracy.
  2. Indirect Democracy.

1. Direct Democracy. In direct democracy, all the citizens of the state directly participate in the administrative affairs of the state. Every citizen takes part in the making and implementation of laws and levying taxes, in deciding the policy of the government and all other important affairs of the state. Even the representatives could be asked to resign if they did not work to their satisfaction.

2. Indirect Democracy. Under indirect democracy, the citizens do not take direct part in the state affairs. They, on the other hand, elect their representatives who run the government on their behalf.

Question 4.
How is the public opinion formed? How can it be expressed?
Answer:
It is the age of democracy and public opinion is the backbone of democracy. A strong public opinion is not formed by itself. Political parties, rulers, leaders, press etc. contribute to its formation.

The following means are used in the formation and expression of public opinion :

  1. The political leaders put their views before the. people in public meetings and assemblies. They explain the policy of their party. Thus people come to know about the various problems and their solutions. This helps in the formation and expression of public opinion.
  2. The press is the main instrument of formation and expression of public opinion. Through the press, the people can express their opinions freely.
  3. The radio, television, literature, cinema, educational institutions and religious institutions all help in the formation and expression of public opinion.

Question 5.
Explain the hurdles in the way of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy for its successful working demands awakened citizens, high calibers, good character leaders with a sense of responsibility and keen interest in the success of democracy. Social conditions are political and economic equality; co-operative and tolerant citizens, well organised political parties, independent judiciary and free press. Absence of these essential conditions is the main hurdle in the way of democracy.

Question 6.
How can obstacles in the way of democracy be removed? Give any two remedies.
Answer:
The obstacles in the way of democracy can be removed in the following two ways :

  1. Spread of Education. Only educated and able citizens can make democracy successful. So education should be wide-spread. All citizens should be educated. Primary education should be made free and compulsory.
  2. Free and Honest Press. A sound public opinion is the backbone of democracy. Press (newspapers) is an effective instrument of public opinion. So it is very necessary to have an honest and free press for the success of democracy. The press should not be controlled either by the government or big industrialists.

Question 7.
Why are modern democracies indirect?
Answer:
Modern states are very large. The number of citizens runs into crores. It is not possible for them to run the government of a country directly. They cannot even assemble at one place. Moreover, we need an organised body, and not a crowd for running the government. The voters elect their representatives to the legislatures or other offices. The number of elected representatives is not very large. This can run the government smoothly and efficiently. That is why, modern democracies are indirect.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 8.
What is the importance of Representation in Democracy?
Answer:
In the modern age, democratic governments are representative governments. It means all depends upon the representation. Modern states have grown in size and population, making it impossible for the people to participate in the affairs of the state. Thus, the system of representation helps them in electing their representatives to run the government. Moreover, the government can know the views of the people and their difficulties and this helps the government in framing right policies to run the administration. Thus the government functions according to the will of the people through their representatives. Thus we see that representation in democracy has great importance.

Question 9.
What is meant, by the responsible government?
Answer:
By responsible government, we mean the governments which were established after the revolutions in England and France. These governments could not be despotic. They had to function according to the law of the land. They were quite different from the democratic governments of today. In modern democratic age, all adults have the right to vote. The government is directly responsible to the legislature and indirectly to the people. But at that time, all the people did not participate in the elections of responsible governments. Such governments were elected by a small number of people.

Question 10.
What is an election manifesto? What are its benefits?
Answer:
An election manifesto is a document which tells the voters about the programme, principles, objectives and promises for which the party stands. An election manifesto is an important document of a political party.

It has the following benefits :

  1. The people judge the political parties by their election manifestoes.
  2. The people are able to form opinion about the aims and objects of the political parties and exercise their franchise accordingly.
  3. The voters are able to know the differences between the different political parties through the election manifestoes.
  4. The political party which comesout successful at the polls tries to implement the programmes published in its election manifesto. If it does not do so, the people can put pressure on it to act according to its manifesto.

Question 11.
Explain simple majority system.
Answer:
In simple majority system, the candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rival/rivals is declared elected. In this system, the elected candidate may or may not get the majority of votes. According to democratic rules, a candidate must be a representative of majority (more than 50%) votes. But sometimes an elected candidate gets less than 50% votes but is still declared elected. Such a candidate cannot be called a real representative of the people. Sometimes a political party getting majority votes sits in opposition in the Legislature and the other party representing minority votes comes to power.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 12.
What is the importance of adult franchise?
Answer:
The universal adult franchise means the right of voting granted to every adult— male or female, without any discrimination. A person above a certain age is called an adult. In India a person of 18 years is an adult. In India every person above 18 years enjoys the right to vote. This right is given to every man and woman without distinction of caste, religion, property or education. In a democracy, people rule themselves or the government is run through their chosen representatives. So universal adult franchise becomes very important. It provides an opportunity to the largest number of people to take part in the functioning of the government.

Question 13.
What is the importance of election campaign?
Answer:
Election campaign has great importance in democracy. Through election campaign, people come to know; the different problems of the country. Political parties try to mould the public opinion in their favour. The opposition parties tell the people about their policies and programmes. They throw light on the wrong policies of the government. They promise that after coming to power, they will do everything for the welfare of the public. Similarly, the ruling party presents before the public its achievements and further plans. All these points make it clear that election campaign has great importance.

Question 14.
Does the electorate have real control over its representatives?
Answer:
In a democracy, people elect their representatives. The electorate has real control over their representatives. The representatives have fear in their minds that the electorate will turn against them and push them out of power if they do nothing for the welfare of the electorate. It is thus clear the electorate has control over their representatives. In some countries, the electorate is entitled to recall their representatives if they do not work upto its expectations.

Question 15.
Why have the political parties so much importance in democracy?
Answer:
Political parties have a special role in democracy. They perform the following functions :

  1. Political parties set their programmes. During elections they prepare their manifestoes and present them before the people. Through them, people come to know the national problems and then form their own opinions.
  2. Political parties help in the formulation of the public opinion.
  3. They contest elections.
  4. The party that secures a majority in the election, forms the government.
  5. The party with minority membership forms the opposition.
  6. The political parties give political education and training to the people.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 16.
What is the importance of elections in democracy? What role do political parties play in elections?
Answer:
Elections are very important in a democracy :

  1. Through the elections, the people choose their representatives to the legislature central or state.
  2. The elections give stability to the government.
  3. People control the government through elections and stop it from becoming despotic.
  4. People change their governments through the elections.

Political parties play a very important role in the elections :

  • They put political problems before the people.
  • They suggest to the people various ways of solving these problems.
  • They give political education to the people;
  • They make people aware of their rights.

Question 17.
Mention the defects of the ‘simple majority’ election system.
Answer:
The representative are generally elected by simple majority. In this system, the candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rivals is declared elected.

There are many defects in this system:

  • The elected representative is not always the choice of the majority. He is generally elected by a minority,
  • The majority party in the legislature represents only minority votes,
  • All parties do not get representation according to the number of their votes,
  • A large number of votes go waste. They do not elect any representative at all.

Question 18.
What is the importance of Secret Ballot System?
Answer:
The Secret Ballot System has great importance in the election process. The following points make it clear :

  • The system of Secret Ballot ensures just and impartial election.
  • The voters are free from outside pulls and pressures in casting their votes.
  • No outside force or fear can influence the voter to cast his vote under the system of Secret Ballot.
  • This system brings the desired result without creating any ill-feeling.

Question 19.
What is the importance of the opposition in democracy?
Or
What are the functions of an opposition party?
Answer:
In a democracy, an opposition party is a great blessing for the people. It has an important role to play :

  • A strong opposition does not allow the government to become despotic. It points out the faults of the government.
  • It brings the people’s grievances to the notice of the government.
  • It brings to the notice of the people the wrong deeds of the government.
  • It provides alternative government to the country.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 20.
What are the advantages of the two-party system (bi-party system)?
Answer:
The two-party system or the bi-party system is the best type of party system. It helps in the smooth functioning of a democratic government.

This system has the following advantages :

  1. Both the parties have clear manifestoes, programmes and policies. The electors are able to make up their mind in the exercise of their franchise much before the date of the election.
  2. It also provides stability to the government. The party which gets the absolute majority, forms the government. The other party acts as an opposition party.
  3. Under the two-party system, the government is able to implement long-term measures of reforms and development.
  4. The opposition party keeps the government alert. It exposes the acts of omission .and commission of the government.

Indian Democracy at Work PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Types of Democracy: Democracy can be either Direct or Indirect. In direct democracy, the people run the government directly but in indirect democracy, the government is run by the representatives of the people. For the success of democracy it is essential that public opinion plays an important role. Healthy public opinion is a check on the political parties. In the formation of public opinion many constituents such as newspapers, electronic media, political parties and many social service groups play very important role.
  • Expression of Public Opinion: In the formation of public opinion its means are also considered. The political parties, indicate the opinion of the people.
  • Modern Public Opinion: Modem age is the age of indirect public opinion, because the modem states have large areas and have big populations.
  • Right to Vote: The right to vote means that, the citizens have the right to elect their representatives. In India, the basis of voting is one person one vote.
  • Secret ballot: In most of the democratic countries, the method of secret ballot has been adopted. It means that in the elections, the citizens can vote for a candidate of their choice. Any voter cannot be compelled to vote for any particular candidate. He cannot be told for whom he has to cast his vote.
  • Election Process: The Election Commission conducts the elections by a particular process. This process has different stages :
    (i) To fix the date of election
    (ii) Nomination of candidates
    (iii) Scmtiny of nomination papers
    (iv) The date of withdrawal
    (v) Election campaign
    (vi) Voting
    (vii) Counting of votes
    (viii) Declaration of results.
  • The Election Symbols: Every political party has its own symbol. Independent candidates are given their different symbols. The allocation of symbols to the candidates makes it easy for the voters to vote for the candidate of their choice.
  • Election Propaganda: With the announcement of election, political parties and independent candidates start election propaganda and try to influence the voters.
  • Election Manifesto: Election manifesto is an important document of a political party in which each political party declares its aims, objectives and programmes.
  • Role of Political Parties: Political parties help to create public interest without which there can be no public opinion.
  • Party Systems: Single party system, bi-party system and multiple party system.
  • Names of National Political Parties: Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), CPI, National Congress and Trinamool Congress.
  • India’s important Regional Parties: AIDMK in Tamilnadu, Telgu Desham in Andhra Pradesh, Akali Dal in Punjab, National Conference in J&K etc.
  • Role of Opposition: The opposition not in power criticises the government. It serves as a check on the government.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Features of the Indian Constitution Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
What do you mean by a Constitution?
Answer:
A Constitution is a document of basic laws according to which the government of a country functions.

Question 2.
With what words the Preamble begins?
Answer:
The Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins with these words : “We, the people of India, solemnly declare India a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.”

Question 3.
Enumerate anyone feature of the Constitution.
Answer:
The two main features of the Indian Constitution are below:

  1. A Long and Detailed Constitution. The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and most detailed constitution in the world. It contains 395 articles and 12 schedules.
  2. Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights have been given in the third chapter of the constitution. These are Right to equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and the Right to constitutional remedies.

Question 4.
Enumerate any one feature of Indian Federation.
Answer:
Feature of a federal constitution :

  1. There is a division of powers between the Central Government and the State Governments in the federal constitution.
  2. The federal constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary. (Anyone)

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 5.
Mention any one fundamental rights of an Indian citizen.
Answer:
Following are the important fundamental rights of the Indian citizens :

  1. Right to equality.
  2. Right to freedom.
  3. Right to freedom of religion.
  4. Right against exploitation. (Anyone)

Question 6.
Enumerate any one constitutional duty of an Indian citizen.
Answer:

  1. To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  2. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India, (Anyone)

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Explain that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republican State.
Answer:
The Preamble to the Constitution of India declares India a Sovereign Secular Socialist Democratic Republic. Secular means all religions are equal in the eyes of law. A secular state has no religion of its own. No discrimination is made on the basis of religion. Every citizen is free to adopt any religion of his / her own choice. By a Democratic State, we mean that state in which all the citizens enjoy equal rights. They elect their representatives to run the government. By a Republican State, we mean that the head of the state is elected directly or indirectly for a fixed period. The President of India is an elected head, having no hereditary right.

Question 2.
Explain aims and objectives as shown in the Preamble.
Answer:
The Preamble to the Constitution throws light on the nature of the Indian administrative system and the goals to be achieved by the state. It lays emphasis on the following ideals :

  • India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.
  • Social, economic and political justice to all.
  • Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • Equality of status and of opportunity and to promote them among all.
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.

Question 3.
Describe each of the following fundamental rights :
(a) Right to equality.
(b) Right to freedom.
(c) Right against exploitation.
(d) Right to constitutional remedies.
Answer:
(a) Right to Equality. Indian society suffered from different types of inequalities for centuries. So the makers of the constitution gave top priority to the Right to Equality. Following equalities have been granted to the Indians :

  1. Equality before law. All are equal before law. No discrimination can be made on the grounds of religion, race, caste, colour and sex. Equal opportunities will be given to all while giving employment.
    (I) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of law.
    (II) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
    (Ill) Article 21 provides that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law.
  2. Checks on discrimination. The government shall not make any discriminate on the basis of caste, colour, creed, place of birth and sex. All shall be allowed to enter public places built with the aid of the government.
  3. Equal opportunity. Equal opportunities shall be granted to all while giving employment or any job in the state.
  4. Prohibition of untouchability. Untouchability which was a great slur on the
    Indian society has been declared an offence. Its practice in any form is punishable by law.
  5. Abolition of titles. The Constitution prohibits the state from conferring titles. But titles for military and academic distinctions can be awarded.

(b) Right to Freedom: This right is the essence of human existence. It is essential for the development of an individual as a good citizen. A good citizen means a good state. Articles 19 to 22 of the Constitution deal with various kinds of individual and collective freedoms guaranteed to the citizens of India.

Some of them are as given below:

  1. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression. The Constitution gives to every citizen the right to freedom of speech and expression. But this right cannot be used against social order or against safety and integrity of the state. It should not be used to defame others or for inciting public to commit offences.
  2. Right to Assemble Peacefully and Without Arms. This right is necessary for individuals to express their views and exchange ideas. But such an assembly should be peaceful and should not endanger the social order established by law.
  3. Right to Form Associations. The Constitution guarantees the right to form associations and unions to every citizen of India. But restrictions can be imposed bn such associations or unions which pose a danger to law and order or are against public good.
  4. Right to Freedom of Movement. Every citizen of India has been granted freedom to move throughout the Indian territory. The state, however, can impose restrictions on this freedom in public interest.
  5. Right to reside and settle. Every citizen has the right to reside and settle in any part of India.
  6. Right to practise any profession. Every citizen has a right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

(c) Right against Exploitation. In ancient Indian society, many poor persons, women and children suffered from many types of exploitation. The Constitution of India puts a ban on such exploitation.

  1. Our Constitution seeks to ban traffic in human beings. Workers must be paid adequate wages for their labour. The Constitution, therefore, declares forced labour or (Begar) as a crime punishable by law.
  2. Children under 14 years of age cannot be employed on any dangerous job like factories or in mines. This provision has been inserted to prevent the greedy employers from exploiting the children.

(d) Right to Constitutional Remedies. (2009 B (S)). The right to constitutional remedies is the most important fundamental right. This right protects other rights of the citizens. If the fundamental right of any citizen is encroached upon, he can seek justice from a High Court or the Supreme Court. The Court can nullify such act if it violates the Constitution. The High Courts and the Supreme Court can safeguard the rights of the citizens by issuing writs. The right to constitutional remedies can, however, be suspended by the Central Government in case of a national emergency.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 4.
Elaborate each of the following categories of directive principles :
(а) Socialist Principles
(b) Gandhian Principles
(c) Liberal or General Principles.
Answer:
(a) Socialist Principles:

  • The state aims at public welfare.
  • Adequate means of livelihood for all the citizens.
  • Proper distribution of wealth so as to serve the common good.
  • To establish such an economic set up that there is no concentration of wealth and resources in a few hands.
  • To give financial aid to the old, unemployed and the disabled.
  • Equal pay for equal work for all men and women.
  • To provide free and compulsory education to all the children below the age of fourteen years.
  • The state is to make efforts to decrease economic inequalities.
  • To provide adequate wages, good standard of living and leisure to all the workers.

(b) Gandhian Principles.

  • To organise village Panchayats.
  • To promote cottage industries on individual and cooperative basis in rural areas.
  • To promote with special care educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society, especially the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.
  • Prohibition of intoxicating drinks and other intoxicants which are injurious to health.
  • To raise the standard of living of the people and improvement of public health,

(c) The Liberal or General Principles: In this category, those principles are included which are of a general and liberal character. These include :

  • To frame a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.
  • To bring about the separation of the judiciary from the executive.
  • To organise agriculture on modern and scientific lines.
  • To promote animal husbandry on scientific lines.
  • To preserve and improve the breeds of the cattle and prohibit slaughter of cows, calves and other milch animals.
  • To provide for the protection of wild animals.
  • To protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historical interest.
  • The state should endeavour to promote international peace and security.

Question 5.
Explain the basic differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles.
Answer:
There are the following differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy :

  1. The Fundamental Rights have been granted by the Constitution to the people. The Directive Principles are instructions from the Constitution to the state.
  2. The Fundamental Rights are enshrined in the Constitution and have special sanctity. They are justiciable. The Directive Principles are in the form of directions to the state and are not justiciable. They cannot be enforced by courts of law.
  3. The Fundamental Rights can be suspended in case of national emergency but the Directive Principles cannot be suspended.
  4. The scope of Fundamental Rights is limited. They intend to establish political democracy. The scope of Directive Principles is wider. Their aim is to establish social and economic democracy and a just society.

Question 6.
Why and when were the fundamental duties of Indian citizens inserted in the Constitution?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution in its original form did not contain the fundamental duties of citizens. The fundamental duties were added in the Indian constitution in 1976 through the Forty-second constitution amendment act.
Why were Fundamental Duties inserted in the Constitution?

  1. Inclusion of Fundamental Duties in the Constitution is a progressive step.
  2. The Fundamental Duties are incorporated in the Constitution to develop a sense of nationalism and patriotic feelings among the citizens.
  3. The Fundamental Duties help the citizens to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation, protect its sovereignty and integrity.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 7.
Explain two basic reasons because of which our Constitution has become the bulkiest in the world.
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed Constitution in the world.

  • There are 395 articles and 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution.
  • It has a detailed description of the composition, powers and mutual relations of different organs of the government. It also explains the mutual relations of the state and the citizens.
  • It has a detailed description of the Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens. Ten Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been included in the Constitution by the 42nd constitutional amendment.
  • The distribution of powers between the centre and the states has clearly been stated by the Constitution as it is federal in form.

Question 8.
The right to freedom is actually a cluster of several rights. Comment.
Answer:
The right to freedom is given in Articles 19-22. This right is a cluster of six freedoms. These are as follows :

  • Freedom of speech and expression.
  • Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
  • Freedom to form associations or unions.
  • Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
  • Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  • Freedom to practise any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Features of the Indian Constitution Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
How does the Indian Constitution check the misuse of powers by the government?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution has clearly stated powers given to different organs of the government.

Question 2.
When was the Indian Constitution passed?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution was passed on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.

Question 3.
‘India is a Democratic State.’ Give one reason to clarify it.
Answer:
The administration of the country is run by the representatives elected by the people.

Question 4.
‘India is a Secular State.’ Clarify giving one example.
Answer:
The state does not favour any particular religion.

Question 5.
When did the Indian Constitution come into force?
Answer:
It came into force on 26 January 1950.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 6.
Can Preamble be regarded as a part of the Constitution?
Answer:
Preamble is a part of the Constitution but is neither justiciable nor can be enforced by the courts.

Question 7.
Who is the real head of the state?
Answer:
The Prime Minister is the real head of the country.

Question 8.
Explain one important feature of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Written and detailed Constitution.

Question 9.
The Indian Constitution has given some rights to the citizens. What are they called in legal language?
Answer:
These are called Fundamental Rights.

Question 10.
How many Fundamental Rights have been given to the citizens in the Constitution?
Answer:
Six Fundamental Rights.

Question 11.
Explain one point mentioned in the Right to Equality.
Answer:
No discrimination shall be made on the basis of caste, race, religion, colour and sex by the state.

Question 12.
What is meant by the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Answer:
The principles which the government keeps in view while framing its policies or making laws.

Question 13.
Describe one Directive Principle of State Policy given in the Constitution.
Answer:
To promote cottage industries in rural areas.

Question 14.
Why have the fundamental duties been added to the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
It is in the interest of the citizens to perform their duties.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 15.
Describe any one fundamental right granted to the Indian citizens.
Answer:
Right to Equality.

Question 16.
Write two constitutional duties of an Indian citizen.
Answer:
1. To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and National Anthem.
2. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

Question 17.
Write two rights of an Indian citizen.
Answer:

  1. Right to Equality is given to all citizens of India. All are equal before law. No discrimination can be made on the grounds of religion, race, caste etc.
  2. All citizens are guaranteed Rights to Freedom. Six freedoms are guaranteed to all citizens.

These freedoms are:

  • Right to Freedom of Speech,
  • Right to Form Association,
  • Right to Freedom of Movement etc.

Question 18.
What is illiteracy?
Answer:
Inability to read or write a language, having little or no knowledge of language.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 19.
Which articles of the Constitution give the Right to Freedom?
Answer:
Articles 19 to 22.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Indian Constitution was enforced on __________
Answer:
26 Jan, 1950

Question 2.
Indian Constitution is ________ in form but unitary in spirit.
Answer:
federal

Question 3.
Indian Constitution consists of ________ article.
Answer:
395

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 4.
Indian Constitution is the ________ Constitution in the world.
Answer:
lengthiest

Question 5.
India is a ________ state.
Answer:
Sovereign

Question 6.
India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular
Answer:
Democratic Republic

Question 7.
In India a form of government has been estabished.
Answer:
Parliamentary.

Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
Indian Constitution came into force on :
(a) 15th August, 1947
(b) 26th Jan. 1950
(c) 26th Nov. 1949
(d) 9th Dec. 1950.
Answer:
(b) 26th Jan. 1950

Question 2.
Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins with these words :
(a) People’s Sovereignty
(b) Republic of India.
(c) Democratic India
(d) We the people of India.
Answer:
(d) We the people of India.

Question 3.
At present there are :
(a) 8 Fundamental Rights
(b) 6 Fundamental Rights
(c) 5 Fundamental Rights
(d) 7 Fundamental Rights.
Answer:
(b) 6 Fundamental Rights

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 4.
Directive Principles of State Policy are included in Indian Constitution :
(a) In Part IV
(b) In Part III
(c) In Part VI
(d) In Part V.
Answer:
(a) In Part IV

Question 5.
Fundamental duties of the citizens were added in the Constitution by :
(a) 42nd Amendment
(b) 44th Amendment
(c) 45th Amendment
(d) 73rd Amendment.
Answer:
(a) 42nd Amendment

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Constitution? Why is it important for a democratic country?
Answer:
Constitution. Constitution is a set of laws which regulate the composition and functions of organs of government and relations between the government and the citizens. It states basic structure and powers of the state. It also states rights and duties of the citizens. It is therefore, most important document of every country. Every state must have a constitution.

We must respect our Constitution for the reasons noted below :

  • The Constitution determines the form of government in a country.
  • It states the powers of the government and its different organs. Thus it is the source of powers and authority of the government.
  • It states the relations between different organs of government and delimits the scope of their activities.
  • The Constitution of a country safeguards the rights granted to its citizens.

Question 2.
Preamble is not legally regarded as a part of the Constitution even then it is important. How?
Answer:
The introduction to the Constitution is called the Preamble of the Constitution. It is the introduction to the Constitution, but is not justiciable. If the government does not implement the objectives of the Preamble, we cannot go to the court against it. Even then it is an important document. It contains the basic principles on which the government is based. It is the key to open the minds of the makers of the Constitution. It is the soul of the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 3.
What are the salient features of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Following are the salient features of the Indian Constitution:

  • It is a written and detailed constitution having 395 Articles and 12 Schedules.
  • It is partly rigid and partly flexible.
  • It tends to establish a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic.
  • It is federal in form but unitary in spirit.
  • It establishes a bicameral legislature at the centre having Lok Sabha the Lower House, and Rajya Sabha (Upper House).
  • It establishes the parliamentary form of government, the President being a nominal executive head of the state.
  • It establishes an independent and impartial judiciary.
  • The Constitution states the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Question 4.
Write a short note on the following :
(i) Parliamentary form of Government in India
(ii) Adult Franchise
(iii) Independent and Impartial Judiciary.
Answer:
1. Parliamentary form of Government in India. The Indian Constitution has established a parliamentary form of Government in India. The Parliament is the supreme body and it represents the people. People elect their representatives who are members of the Parliament. The government at the centre functions in the name of the President and similarly the state governments function in the name of governors. But the real powers are enjoyed by the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament (at the Centre) and to the State Legislative Assembly (in case of State).

The Council of Ministers holds office till it enjoys the confidence of the Parliament or the State Legislative Assembly

2. Adult Franchise. In order to make India a real democracy, the Indian Constitution provides for universal adult franchise. It implies that every citizen of India, having attained the age of’18 years, will be entitled to take part in the elections and to vote for the candidate of his choice. This right is extended to all the citizens irrespective of their caste, colour, creed, sect, sex or status.

3. Independent arid Impartial Judiciary. The Indian Constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary in India. It means that judiciary is free from the influence and control of the executive. It remains impartial in settling the disputes between the centre and the states. This judicial system has great importance in a federal system. Besides, the judiciary protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 5.
Give a list of fundamental rights that are given in the Indian Constitution.
Or
Mention the rights of an Indian citizen.
Answer:
Our Constitution guarantees to Indian citizens the following six fundamental rights :

  1. Right to equality.
  2. Right to freedom.
  3. Right against exploitation.
  4. Right to freedom of religion.
  5. Cultural and educational rights; and
  6. Right to constitutional remedies.

Question 6.
Explain any three rights relating to the right to freedom of religion or right to religious freedom.
Answer:
The following points are included in the right to freedom of religion:

  1. Every citizen is free to adopt, leave or preach any religion of his own choice.
  2. People can form and organise religious institutions and run them.
  3. No citizen can be forced to pay a tax that is imposed on him in the interest of any religion. Besides, no citizen can be forced to get an education relating to any particular religion in a government institution or an institution getting financial aid from the government.

Question 7.
Describe the Cultural and Educational rights.
Answer:

  1. The Indian Constitution guarantees that every community has full freedom to preserve its own language, script and culture and run its own institutions.
  2. The children of all communities and religions shall be admitted in government institutions or non-government institutions aided by the government.
  3. No one can be denied admission to any educational institution run by the government simply on the ground of religion, caste or creed.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 8.
Describe any four fundamental rights granted to the Indian citizens.
Answer:

  1. Right to Freedom. The Indian citizens have been granted the freedom to move in any part of the country, express views and choose any profession.
  2. Right to Freedom of Religion. The Indian citizens are free to adopt or leave any religion. They can form religious institutions and run them.
  3. Cultural and Educational Rights. The Indians are given the right to study any language and to protect their culture and script.
  4. Right to Equality. Every citizen has been given the right to equality before law. Any person can get the highest post on the basis of his merit and ability.

Question 9.
What is meant by the Directive Principles of State Policy? Mention any four Directive Principles.
Answer:
The Constitution of India lays down certain principles which the state should keep in its view while framing its policies. These principles are called the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Main Directive Principles of State Policy. Following are the main Directive Principles of State Policy :

  • Adequate means of livelihood for all the citizens.
  • Equal pay for equal work for all.
  • To give financial aid to the old, the unemployed and the disabled.
  • State should endeavour for prohibition of all kinds of intoxicants which are harmful for health of citizens.

Question 10.
Mention any four facts showing the importance of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Answer:
The Directive Principles of State Policy have great importance :

  • Equal pay for equal work is given in our country. No discrimination i£ made on the basis of sex.
  • Provision for jobs for backward classes has been made. Free education is given to their children. Seats have been reserved for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the legislatures.
  • Free primary education is given to children in all parts of the country.
  • Laws have been passed to protect the interests of the children and the labourers. All this has been done to implement the Directive Principles of State Policy.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution

Question 11.
Enumerate any six Fundamental Duties that a citizen is required to obey.
Answer:
Ten fundamental duties were added in the Indian Constitution in 1976 through the 42nd amendment act. One duty was added by the 86th amendment act of the Constitution.

Thus there are 11 Fundamental Duties incorporated in the Constitution.

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and National Anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

Question 12.
What is the significance of the Directive Principles?
Answer:
The Directive Principles of State Policy aim at securing economic and social equality in the country. They embody the objectives which the state should endeavour to achieve for the welfare of the people and to establish a welfare state.

Question 13.
Explain each of the following features of the Indian Constitution :
(a) Sovereign State
Answer:
Sovereign State. By a sovereign state we mean a state which is completely independent, both in its internal and external affairs.

(b) Socialist State
Answer:
Socialist State. By socialist state we mean a state in which all the citizens enjoy equality in social and economic fields. In it, there is no concentration of wealth and resources in a few hands. The state makes efforts to decrease economic inequalities.

(c) Secular State
Answer:
Secular State. A secular state has no religion of its own. No discrimination is made on the basis of religion. Every citizen is free to adopt and worship religion of his / her own choice.

(d) Democratic State
Answer:
Democratic State. By a Democratic State we mean a state in which all the citizens enjoy equal rights. They elect their own representatives who form the government.

(e) Republican State.
Answer:
Republican State. By Republic we mean that the Head of the state is ‘elected directly or indirectly for a fixed period. The President of India is elected for a fixed period.

Features of the Indian Constitution PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Constitution (Meaning): A Constitution is a document of basic laws according to which the government of a country functions. The new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
  • Preamble of the Indian Constitution. India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic Republic.
  • Features of the Constitution,
    (a) Written
    (b) Long and detailed
    (c) Fundamental Rights
    (d) Fundamental Duties
    (e) Distribution of powers between the centre and states
    (f) Directive Principles
    (g) Parliamentary form of government.
  • Federal Features. According to it, powers’ are divided between Union and the States.
  • Important Fundamental Rights,
    (i) Right to Equality
    (ii) Right to Freedom
    (iii) Right against Exploitation
    (iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
  • Federal in form hut unitary in spirit.
    (i) Federal having two sets of government
    (a) Central and states governments.
    (b) Written Constitution
    (c) Unitary India is the Union of States
    (d) Single citizenship
    (e) Centre can proclaim emergency and can assume all powers of states.
  • National Unity and Integrity. It means feelings of oneness in all the people of the country. Integrity means one nation and all states are its integral parts.
  • Parliamentary form of government. The Prime Minister is the real head of the country. The President is the nominal head.
  • A Welfare State. It takes measures to improve the standard of living of the people. The directive principles aim to achieve this object.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB The State Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
How many Chambers a State Legislative Assembly has? Give their names.
Answer:
In many states of India, the State Legislatures have one House. Some State Legislatures have two Houses. Where the State Legislature has two Houses, these are Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. Where there is only one House, the name of the House is Vidhan Sabha pr Legislative Assembly.

Question 2.
Answer the following questions concerning State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha).
(a) The qualifications to become its member.
Answer:
Essential qualifications for a person to become the member of the Legislative Assembly or the Vidhan Sabha. Following are the essential qualifications for a person to become the member of the Vidhan Sabha :

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed 25 years of age.
  • He must not be either an insolvent or a bankrupt or of unsound fnind.
  • He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or the State Government.

(b) The maximum and minimum number of its members as per the Constitution.
Answer:
Number of Members. The number of members of the Vidhan Sabha is fixed by the Parliament on the basis of the population of the state concerned. It can have a maximum membership of 500 and a minimum of 60 persons.

(c) Mention the stages, an ordinary bill has to pass through.
Answer:
Stages of an ordinary bill. An ordinary bill, before becoming an act, has to pass through the following stages; At the first stage, the bill is introduced in the House and its first reading is done. At the second stage, a general discussion on each clause of the bill takes place. At the third stage, the debate is confined to the acceptance or rejection of the bill.

(d) The minimum age required to become the member of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
Minimum age limit for the member of the Vidhan Sabha.
The minimum age limit for contesting election to the Vidhan Sabha is 25 years.

(e) How is the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly elected?
Answer:
Election of the Speaker. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) and maintains discipline and decorum in the House. He is elected by the House from amongst its own members.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 3.
Answer the following questions concerning Legislative Council of a state :
(а) How many members can be there of the Legislative Council?
Answer:
The maximum strength of the Vidhan Parishad. The Vidhan Parishad is the upper House of the State Legislature. The maximum strength of this House is fixed at one-third of the membership of the Vidhan Sabha and a minimum of 40 members.

(b) Mention the term of the members of Legislative Council.
Answer:
Term of the members of Legislative Council.
The Legislative Council is a permanent house. The term of members is six years but one-third of its members retire after every two years.

(c) Mention the term of the members of Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The term of the members of Legislative Assembly is 5 years but the Assembly can be dismissed by the President by using Article 356 even before the completion of its term.

(d) Name four states where the Lagislative Council Exists.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Maharashtra, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have Legislative Councils. It means these states have bicameral legislature.

Question 4.
Enumerate the four powers of the State Legislature.
Answer:
Following are the main powers of the State Legislature :

  • To exercise control over the Council of Ministers.
  • To pass the budget, and to impose, reduce or repeal taxes.
  • To make laws on the subjects included in the State List and the Concurrent List.
  • To punish those who violate the discipline of the House.

Question 5.
Do your state has bicameral legislatuse?
Answer:
Punjab has a unicameral legislature called Vidhan Sabha. Punjab has no Second Chamber or Vidhan Parishad.

Question 6.
How is the Governor of a State appointed?
Answer:
The Governor is the constitutional head of a state. He is appointed by the President for a period of five years.

Question 7.
Who and how is a Chief Minister appointed?
Answer:
The Chief Minister of a State is appointed by the Governor. He appoints a person who is the leader of the majority party in the State Vidhan Sabha.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 8.
Examine the role of the Governor during President’s rule in a state.
Answer:
If the President is satisfied either on the recommendation of the Governor or otherwise that the government cannot be carried on in a State in accordance with the Constitution, he declares constitutional emergency in the state. The Governor can dismiss the Council of Ministers and dissolve the Vidhan Sabha. He becomes the real head of the State.

Question 9.
Mention the term of the office of the Governor.
Answer:
The term of the Governor is five years. But before the expiry of this term, he can be removed from his office by the President. The President can ask him to hold this office even after five years of his term.

Question 10.
Name the three lists under which powers between union and states are distributed.
Answer:
There are three lists under which powers are divided between union government and state governments :

  • Union List. It contains 97 subjects on which only union government can make laws.
  • State List. This list contains 66 subjects on which state government can make laws.
  • Concurrent List. This list contains 47 subjects on which both union government and state governments can make laws. But in case of clash of laws, central law prevails.

Question 11.
What do you understand by Lok Adalats?
Answer:
Lok Adalats haye been set up in the country with a view to providing speedy and cheap justice to the poor. The first Lok Adalat held its session at Delhi on Oct. 6, 1985. It decided 150 cases in a single day.

Question 12.
When and who appoints Finance Commission?
Answer:
The president of India appoints the Finance Commission at the end of every fifth year or earlier, as the deemed necessary by him/her.

II. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
Briefly describe the administrative powers of the Governor.
Or
Explain three powers of the Governor
Answer:
Following are the executive powers of the Governor of a state :

  • All executive actions of the State are taken in his name.
  • It is his responsibility to maintain law and order in the State. There is a provision for a Council of Ministers to assist hini in this work.
  • He appoints the Chief Minister, and on his advice, other ministers of his Council of Ministers.
  • He makes high appointments like those of the Advocate General, Chairman and Members of the State Public Service Commission, etc.
  • He is also consulted by the President in matters relating to the appointment of the judges for the High Court of his State.

Question 2.
Examine the process of appointment of the Council of Ministers in a state.
Answer:
The Constitution of India establishes Parliamentary form of government at the State level and at the Centre. The Governor, therefore, is a nominal head of the State. There is a provision for a Council of Ministers to assist him. The Council of Ministers is the real executive of the State. The Governor appoints a person as the Chief Minister who is the leader of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly. He also appoints other ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Governor can neither delete nor add any new name to the list, given to him by the Chief Minister.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 3.
Explain the discretionary powers of a Governor.
Answer:
The Governor has some powers which he can use on his own discretion. These are called his discretionary powers.

The Governor can exercise these powers in the following cases :

  • When no party holds a clear majority in the State Vidhan Sabha, he shall exercise his discretion in the appointment of the Chief Minister.
  • In the event of the failure of the constitutional machinery in the state, he may recommend the imposition of the President’s rule in his state.
  • To safeguard the interests of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in his state.
  • To reserve any bill passed by the state legislature for the approval of the President.
  • The Governor can dismiss the ministry if he is convinced that it has lost the majority support.

Question 4.
How a declaration of the breakdown of constitutional machinery affects the State Government?
Answer:

  • The President can use all the powers or any of the executive powers of the state.
  • The powers taken over by him shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him. These powers are generally exercised by the state Governor.
  • He can suspend or dissolve the legislative assembly of the state.
  • The Parliament can make laws on any subject on the State list for that State.
  • The Parliament passes the annual budget of the state.
  • The Council of Ministers of the state is dismissed.

Question 5.
Distinguish between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
There are the following differences between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers :

  • The Council of Ministers consists of about 60 ministers, whereas the Cabinet has only 15-20 members.
  • The Cabinet is the inner part of the Council of Minister. That is why, it is commonly termed as wheel within a wheel.
  • The Cabinet formulates all the policies of the state whereas the Council of Ministers does not take part in policy making.
  • The meetings of the Cabinet are held once or twice a week but the meetings of the Council of Ministers are very rarely held.

Question 6.
Examine the four main functions of the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
Following are the four main functions of the Council of Ministers :

  1. Formulation of Policies. The first important function of the Council of Ministers of a state is the formulation of the policies on the basis of which the administration of the state is to be conducted.
  2. Administration. The Council of Ministers is the real executive of the state. Each minister is made incharge of a department and it is his responsibility to run the administration of the department smoothly.
  3. Legislative functions. It is the Council of Ministers that decides the time of summoning and prorougation of the legislature. The Governor’s address is prepared by the council. Majority of the bills are introduced in the legislature by the Council of Ministers.
  4. Financial functions. It is the Council of Ministers which prepares the budget and decides the financial policy of the state. It decides which new taxes are to be imposed. It also decides which taxes are to be increased or decreased.

Question 7.
How a money bill becomes an Act in a State Legislature?
Answer:
A money bill can be introduced by a minister only in the Vidhan Sabha. In a State, which has bicameral legislature, the money bill, after being passed by the Vidhan Sabha, is sent to the Vidhan Parishad. The Vidhan Parishad can keep pending the money bill for 14 days. After this, it sends the bill to Vidhan Sabha with or without its suggestions. The Vidhan Sabha has power to reject or accept these suggestions. Then the bill passed by the Vidhan Sabha is sent to the Governor for approval. The bill, after getting the assent of the Governor, becomes an act.

Question 8.
Explain the original jurisdiction or administrative powers of a High Court.
Answer:
Some cases can be brought before the High Court directly. This is called the original jurisdiction of the High Court. The High Court has original jurisdictions in the following cases :

  1. Any case regarding the fundamental rights can be brought directly to the High Court. The High Court is empowered to issue five kinds of writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights.
  2. The State High Courts like the Supreme Court can strike down any law passed by the State Legislature or the Parliament or any order of the executive if it violates any provision of the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 9.
Describe the Appellate jurisdiction of a High Court.
Answer:

  • The High Court can hear appeals against the decision of the lower courts in most of the revenue and criminal cases.
  • The High Court can hear appeals in criminal cases in which the accused has been sentenced to four years imprisonment by the Sessions Judge. The Sessions Judge of a district court can award death sentence in criminal cases. But such a sentence is subject to the confirmation of the High Court.

Question 10.
‘A High Court is a Court of Record’. How?
Answer:
According to Article 251, every State High Court is a Court of Record, and as such its decisions are recorded and the courts subordinate to it accept these decisions as judicial precedents.

Question 11.
Examine the organization and main functions of the Lok Adalats.
Answer:
Lok Adalats. The Lok Adalats have been set up in the country with a view to providing speedy and cheap justice to the poor. Justice P.N. Bhagwati is regarded as its founder. The first Lok Adalat held its session at Delhi in October 6, 1985 and settled many cases in a single day. Our courts have heavy work-load. Lakhs of cases are pending. The system provides the simplest way to file a petition for a poor citizen in the Lok Adalat through a simple letter written on a postcard. In 1987, these Lok Adalats got legal recognition.

Question 12.
Describe briefly the relations between the Union and States on one of the following :
(a) Legislative Relations
(b) Administrative Relations
(c) Financial Relations.
Answer:
(а) Legislative Relations. The union legislature can make laws on the subjects given in the Union list and Concurrent list while the State Legislature can make laws on the State list and the Concurrent list. Only the Parliament can make laws on subjects in the State List as well as the Concurrent List during the declaration of emergency in the State (Art. 356).

(b) Administrative Relations. The administrative powers of the State shall be so exercised that they do not come into conflict with executive powers of the Centre. The Union government can issue instructions to the States for that purpose if it thinks it necessary. The executive powers of the union government shall also extend to the giving of directions to a state regarding the construction and maintenance .of the means of communication declared to be of national and military importance.

(c) Financial Relations. The sources of income are divided between the Centre and the States. The important sources of income of the Central Government are such as

  • Customs and export duties.
  • Income tax.
  • Estate duty.
  • Interstate trade tax.

Sources of Income of the States are such as :

  • Land revenue
  • House tax
  • Taxes on succession to agricultural land
  • V.A. tax.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The State Government Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Where is Punjab High Court located?
Answer:
Punjab High Court is located at Chandigarh.

Question 2.
How many States and Union Territories are there in the Indian Republic?
Answer:
There are twenty-eight States and eight Union Territories in India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 3.
On what basis have the states been classified?
Answer:
In India, the states have been organised on a linguistic basis.

Question 4.
What is called a Union Territory?
Answer:
An administrative unit the administration of which is under the Union Government.

Question 5.
On which lists of subjects can the State Government make laws?
Answer:
The State Legislature can make laws on the subjects in the State list and Concurrent list.

Question 6.
In which House can a money bill be introduced?
Answer:
A money bill can be introduced only in the Vidhan Sabha.

Question 7.
Who is the real head of a State Government?
Answer:
The Chief Minister is the real head of a State Government.

Question 8.
Mention two qualifications for the office of the Governor.
Answer:
He must be a citizen of India and must have completed 35 years of age.

Question 9.
Write any one executive power of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is the executive head of the State.

Question 10.
Mention any one legislative function of the Governor.
Answer:
He summons, adjourns and prorogues the State Legislature.

Question 11.
Mention any one financial power of the Governor.
Answer:
The Budget of the State is presented to the Legislative Assembly in his name.

Question 12.
Write any one judicial power of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is consulted by the President in the appointment of the judges of the High Court.

Question 13.
How many minimum sessions of the State Legislature must be held in a year?
Answer:
The State Legislature must hold at least two sessions in a year.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 14.
Who is the chipf adviser of the Governor?
Answer:
The Chief Minister is the chief adviser of the Governor.

Question 15.
Write any one power of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
The Chief Minister prepares a list of the ministers and sends it to the Governor for approval.

Question 18.
What is the number of members of the Punjab Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
The Punjab Legislative Assembly consists of 117 members.

Question 17.
Who can appoint the Governor?
Answer:
The Governor is appointed by the President of India.

Question 18.
Who appoints the Chief Minister?
Answer:
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor.

Question 19.
What is the tenure of the Governor?
Answer:
The tenure of the Governor is five years.

Question 20.
What is tenure of Legislative Council?
Answer:
Legislative Council is a permanent body. Its one-third members retire by rotation after every two years and these members can be re-elected. The tenure of each member is six years.

Question 21.
What is the name of the Governor of the Punjab?
Answer:
V.P. Singh Bednore.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
There are _________ States in India.
Answer:
28

Question 2.
There are _________ Union Territories in India.
Answer:
8

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 3.
In Punjab there is _________ Legislature.
Answer:
unicameral

Question 4.
The _________ is the Chief advisor of the Governor.
Answer:
Chief Minister

Question 5.
The Governor is appointed by the _________
Answer:
President

Question 6.
The tenure of the Governor is _________
Answer:
five

Question 7.
The Chief Minister is appointed by the _________
Answer:
Governor

Question 8.
The Judges of the High Court are appointed by the _________
Answer:
President

Question 9.
The strength of the Punjab Legislative Assembly is _________
Answer:
117

Question 10.
The Judges of the High Court retire at the age of _________ years.
Answer:
sixty-two

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 11.
The constitutional head of the state is _________
Answer:
Governor

Question 12.
The Legislative Council is a _________ House.
Answer:
Permanent

Question 13.
The tenure of the Legislative Assembly is _________ years.
Answer:
five.

Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
The Governor of a state is :
(a) Head of Govt.
(b) Head of the State
(c) Head of the Union Territory
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Head of the State

Question 2.
Two Houses of the State Legislature are :
(а) Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
(b) Legislative Council and Lok Sabha
(c) Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council
(d) Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
(c) Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council

Question 3.
Who is the constitutional head of the state?
(a) Governor
(b) Chief Minister
(c) President
(d) Speaker of Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
(a) Governor

Question 4.
The term of office of the Governor is :
(a) 4 years
(b) 5 years
(c) 3 years
(d) 6 years.
Answer:
(b) 5 years

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 5.
The tenure of the Legistative Assembly in normal time is :
(a) 4 years
(b) 6 years
(c) 3 years
(d) 5 years.
Answer:
(d) 5 years.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of the State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha).
Answer:
The Vidhan Sabha consists of the members directly elected by the people of the State on the basis of adult franchise. According to the Constitution, its maximum membership shall not exceed 500 and shall not be below 60. A citizen having attained the age of 25 years is eligible to be elected to this house. The tenure of the Vidhan Sabha is five years. This house has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker to conduct its meetings. The House elects them from among its members.

Question 2.
How is the Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) organised?
Answer:
The membership of the Vidhan Parishad cannot exceed one-third of the membership of the Vidhan Sabha with a minimum of 40 members. Its members are elected or nominated as under:

  • 1/3rd members are elected by the Vidhan Sabha from amongst persons who are not its members.
  • 1/3rd members are elected by the local bodies of the state.
  • 1/12th of members are elected by persons of at least three years’ standing as teachers in educational institutions not lower in standard than that of a secondary school.
  • 1/12th of members are elected by the university graduates of at least three years’ standing in the state.
  • 1/6th members are nominated by the Governor from amongst persons possessing special knowledge and experience in the fields of arts, literature, science, etc.

Question 3.
Describe the position of the Governor as a representative of the Central Government.
Answer:
The Governor of an Indian State is the head of the State but he is the representative of the Centre also. The following facts prove it :

  1. He acts as a link between Central Government and the State Government. He can reserve certain bills for the consideration of the President.
  2. If the Governor feels that administration of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, he can recommend to the President to declare emergency arising due to breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state. In that case, the President may impose President’s Rule in that state.
  3. The State Vidhan Sabha and the Council of Ministers may be suspended or dissolved. During the emergency the Governor acts as a representative of the Central Government. He runs the administration with the help of an Advisory Council.

Question 4.
Mention the grounds on the basis of which the Governor can recommend President’s rule in the state.
Answer:
The Governor can recommend to the President for the imposition of President’s rule in his state if he is satisfied that :

  1. the constitutional machinery has broken down in the state; and
  2. the ruling party has lost the support of the majority of legislators.

Question 5.
Write a short note on the ‘Union Territories’.
Answer:
There are, at present, eight Union Territories apart from the 2S States. Since the area and population covered by them is small, so these are not given the status of a full-fledged state. The administration of the Union Territories is under the control of the President acting through a Lt. Governor or a Chief Commissioner. The Parliament may constitute, for every such territory, a Council of Advisors to the Chief Commissioner which may partly be elected and partly nominated.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 6.
List out three similarities in the organisation of Central and the State Governments.
Answer:
The following are three similarities with regard to the organisation of Central and State Governments :

  1. The Constitution’ establishes the parliamentary form of government both at the Centre and in the units.
  2. Both at the Centre and in the States there exists’ independent impartial judicial system with a single hierarchy of coy^s to administer justice on, both the Union and the State laws.
  3. The legislature of the Centre is bicameral and so it is in many states such as Bihar, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh.

Question 7.
List out three dissimilarities in the organisation of the Centre and State Governments.
Answer:
The following are the three dissimilarities with regard to the organisation of Central and State Governments :

  1. The head of the state at the centre is an elected President; but the Governor, the head of the state, is nominated.
  2. The central legislature is bicameral but most of the states have unicameral legislatures.
  3. There is no office like that of the Vice-President in the States.

Question 8.
Give four non-legislative functions of the State Legislature.
Answer:
The following are the non-legislative functions of the State Legislature :

  1. The State Legislature exercises control over the finances of the State.
  2. The Legislature’deliberates on the no-confidence motion against the Government.
  3. The elected members of the State Legislature elect the members of Rajya Sabha.
  4. Each of the Houses of the Legislature elects its own Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

Question 9.
Mention three major legislative functions of the Governor.
Answer:
The following are the legislative functions of the Governor :

  1. He summons, adjourns and prorogues the State Legislature.
  2. All bills passed by the legislature are sent to him for his approval.
  3. He can issue ordinances during the recess of the State Legislature.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 10.
Mention three major executive functions of the Governor.
Answer:
The following are the executive functions of the Governor :

  1. He appoints the Chief Minister and on his advice the other ministers.
  2. He appoints the Advocate General of the State, the Chairman and the members of the Public Service Commission and other officials of the State.
  3. The Chief Minister informs the Governor about all decisions of the Council of Ministers and supplies him information relating to the administration of the State.

Question 11.
Mention the four major functions of the State Governments.
Answer:
The State Governments perform the following functions :

  1. The most important function of each State Government is to maintain law and order in its State.
  2. It is also the function of the State Government to provide the citizens with basic amenities of life.
  3. It provides educational facilities to its citizens.
  4. The Government is also expected to look after the economic welfare of the citizens by undertaking development programmes.

Question 12.
Explain three powers of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
Following are the powers of the Chief Minister :

  1. Appointment of the Minister*. The Chief Minister prepares a list of his Ministers and sends it to the Governor.
  2. Distribution of Portfolios. The Chief Minister distributes the portfolios among the ministers.
  3. Removal of Ministers. He can ask a minister to resign. If that minister refuses to resign, the Chief Minister can ask the Governor to remove him from the Cabinet.
  4. Head of the Council of Ministers. The Chief Minister calls the meetings of the Council of Ministers and presides over the meetings.

Question 13.
Describe the position of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
Position of the Chief Minister, In fact, the Chief Minister is the most important and powerful authority in the State. There is no field of the State administration which is not under the control of the Chief Minister. A minister remains in office so long as he continues to enjoy the confidence of the Chief Minister. He is the pivot around which the whole administration of the state revolves.

Question 14.
Discuss the administrative powers of the High Court.
Answer:
Following are the administrative powers of the High Court:

  • It exercises the power of superintendence and control over all the subordinate courts.
  • It makes rules and regulations for the transaction of business of the subordinate courts.
  • It frames rules for the promotion of the judges.

Question 15.
Write a note on the District Courts.
Answer:
For the convenience of judicial administration, a state is divided into districts. There are subordinate courts in every district which are under, the control of the District and Sessions Judge. The District and Sessions Judge is appointed by the State Governor in consultation with the High Court. A person to be eligible for appointment to the post of District and Sessions Judge should be an advocate of at least 7 years’ standing or should have served in the central or state government. The High Court exercises control over the district courts.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 16.
What are the unitary features of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution has created a very strong Centre. There are three Lists : Central List, State List and Concurrent List, distributing the powers between the Centre and the States. The Central Government has a large number of powers. It has co-equal powers with the States to legislate on the Concurrent List and in the event of any difference between the Centre and the State, on any law, the central law prevails. The residuary powers are also with the Centre.

During the emergency the Centre gets powers to legislate even on State List. Yet another implication of the declaration of emergency in the country is that the federal structure turns into unitary one, thus making the Centre all powerful.

Question 17.
How have the powers of government been divided between the Union and the States?
Answer:
Powers of the government have clearly been divided between the onion and the states. There are three different lists of the Subjects:

  1. The Union List. There are 97 subjects in the Union list. Only Union Government can make laws on these subjects. The main subjects, are Railways, Post and Telegraph, Coinage and Currency, Defence, and Foreign Affairs.
  2. The State List. There are 66 subjects in this list. The state governments make laws on them. The main subjects are law and order, police, agriculture, irrigation, and public works.
  3. The Concurrent List. There are 47 subjects on the concurrent list such as Family Planning, Marriage and Divorce, control over press, Education etc. In this list are those subjects on which both the Centre and the States can make laws. But if the two laws are contradictory, the law made by the Centre prevails.

Question 18.
Discuss the relationship between the Governor and the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The Governor is the executive head of the State. He is the nominal head of the State. He is to act on the advice of the State Council of Ministers. The Governor cannot act according to his discretion while appointing the Chief Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers. Only the leader of the majority party in the State Legislative Assembly is appointed the Chief Minister by him. However, if no party gets clear majority, he is at liberty to appoint the Chief Minister. Other ministers are appointed by him on the advice of the Chief Minister. He distributes portfolios among the ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. But under certain circumstances, he becomes the real head of the state. He acts as the agent of the centre in the state in times of Constitutional Emergency. He also enjoys certain discretionary powers.

Question 19.
What are the powers of the Governor?
Answer:
The Governor has many legislative, executive, financial and judicial powers.

  • He organises the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister,
  • He appoints members of the State Public Service Commission,
  • The bills passed by the State Legislature are sent to him for assent.
  • Before the start of every financial year, he causes to be laid through the Finance Minister annual Budget before the Legislature,
  • He advises the President about’ the appointment of the judges of the High Court,
  • He can reserve certain bills for the consideration of the President. He can send report to the President with regard to the breakdown of constitutional machinery in the State.

Question 20.
Describe the powers of State Legislature.
Answer:
1. Legislative Powers. It can legislate on all subjects included in the state list and concurrent list as well. If its legislation on some subjects of the concurrent list is contrary to the parliamentary law then it becomes null and void to the extent it is contrary to that.

2. Financial Powers. It has complete control over the financial affairs of the state. The finance minister presents the state budget before the legislative assembly every year. To impose or reduce or abolish all taxes is within its executive powers.

3. Executive Powers. The. council of ministers headed by Chief Minister is the real executive and it is directly and collectively responsible to the legislative assembly.

4. Miscellaneous functions,

  • Members of the legislative assembly participate in the election of the President and the Vice President of India.
  • The legislative assembly elects its own Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
  • It can create a contingency fund of the State which is controlled by the (Governor.
  • It can suspend its own members if they disrupt the proceedings of the House.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government

Question 21.
Explain the original jurisdiction and powers regarding*the fundamental rights of the High Court.
Answer:
Some cases can directly be brought to a High Court. They are cases relating to fundamental rights, wills, divorce, marriages, contempt of court etc. Election disputes can also be heard by the High Court. The High Courts of Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai can hear civil cases of a value exceeding Rs. 20,00Q or more.

In case regarding fundamental rights, the High Court can issue writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights.
The High Court can declare unconstitutional any law passed by the State Legislature or any executive order of a State Government which it finds violative of any of the provisions of the Constitution. Laws declared unconstitutional by a High Court cannot be enforced.

Question 22.
How is a money bill passed in a State Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
A money bill can be introduced in a State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). After a bill is passed by it, the bill is sent to Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) which can delay it for 14 days only.

The State Government PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • State Legislature: There are two Houses-State Legislatures of some states have two Houses while in others there is only one House. The Lower House is called Legislative Assembly and Upper House is called Legislative Council. In the states where there is one House, it is called Legislative Assembly.
  • Legislative Assembly: The maximum number of members of Legislative Assembly is 500^ and the minimum number is 60. Minimum qualification of membership for Legislative Assembly is 25 years or more. He should not be holding any office of profit. Its term is 5 years.
  • Legislative Council: Legislative Council is a permanent House. One third of its members retire every two years. The term of member is six years. One third of the members of this House are elected by Legislative Assembly, one more by Municipal Corporations and Councils, one twelfth by men of graduates and other one-twelfth by the teachers of schools, colleges and univesities. Rest of the members are nominated by Governors.
  • State Executives: Governors, Chief Miniters and Council of Ministers.
  • Governor: The Governor is appointed by the President for five years. All the executive actions of the state are taken in his name. But in actual practice these powers are exercised by the Chief Minister. All important decisions are taken in the name of the Governor. Any bill passed by State Legislature becomes law only after it has been sigined by the Governor. He can also issue ordinance in the absence of Legislature. He also enjoys some executive powers.
  • President Rule: On the recommendation of the Governor, the President can declare emergency in the state. In the time of Emergency in the state, the Governor can exercise all the executive powers on his discretion.
  • Chief Minister and Council of Ministers: The Governor appoints leader of the majority party as Chief Minister. He appoints others Ministers on his recommendation. The Council of Ministers is jointly responsible to the Legislature.
  • High Court: In every state there is one High Court. Some time two or more than two states can have jointly one High Court.
  • Jurisdiction of High Court: Original, appellate and administrative jurisdiction.
  • Original Jurisdiction: Any case regarding the fundamental rights can be brought directly to the High Court.
  • Appellate Jurisdiction: High Court hears appeals against the decision of lower court in most of the revenue and criminal cases.
  • Administrative Jurisdiction: The High Court has the power to supervise and control the Lower House in its jurisdiction.
  • Subordinate Courts: Subordinate courts are supervised by the High Court. These include District and Sessions Courts and Lower Courts.
  • Lok Adalat: The Lok Adalats have been set up in the states with a view’ to providing speedy and cheap justice to the poor.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 3 The State Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB The Central Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Mention the tenure of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The term of the Lok Sabha is five years but the President, on the advice of the Prime Minister, can dissolve it before the expiry of its term. During the emergency, this period can be extended for one year by the Parliament.

Question 2.
What is the maximum number of the members of the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha has been fixed at 550 members. Out of this number, 530 members represent the people of the States of India and 20 members are elected by the voters of the Union Territories. The President can nominate two Anglo- Indians, if he feels that this community has not got adequate representation.

Question 3.
How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha appointed?
Answer:
The Speaker or Chairman of the Lok Sabha is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves.

Question 4.
What do you mean by a Vote of No-confidence?
Answer:
The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers can continue to be in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha. They can be thrown out of office by a vote of no-confidence passed by a majority of members present and voting in the house.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 5.
What is the minimum age required to become a member of the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The minimum age limit for a person to become a member of the Lok Sabha is 25 , years and that of the Rajya Sabha is thirty years.

Question 6.
When and how many Anglo-Indians can be nominated by the President in the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
If no Anglo-Indian is elected to the Lok Sabha, the President can nominate two members of this community to it.

Question 7.
Enumerate the stages through which an ordinary bill passes to become a law.
Answer:
A bill passes through three stages or readings through both the houses of the parliament separately. If the bill is passed, it is sent to the President for his assent.

Question 8.
How and who elects the members of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by the members of the State Legislative Assemblies. The maximum number of the members of Rajya Sabha can be 250.

Question 9.
Who are included in the electoral college for the election of the President? ,
Answer:
Elected representative of the people are included in the electoral college for the President.

Question 10.
How is the Vice-President of India elected?
Answer:
The Vice-President of India is elected by the members of both the houses of Parliament in a joint sitting by an absolute majority.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
How is the Prime Minister appointed?
Answer:
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. He appoints that person as the Prime Minister who enjoys a majority in the Lok Sabha.

Question 12.
Explain the organisation of the Union Council of Ministers,
Answer:
The Union Council of Ministers is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

Question 13.
Explain each of the following :
(a) Qualification of a Judge of the Supreme Court.
Answer:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have worked as a judge of High Court for a period of not less than five years or must have worked as an advocate in some high courts for a period of not less than ten years. Or he must be an eminent jurist in the view of the President.

(b) Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It is the obligation of the Supreme Court to advise on constitutional as well as other legal matters to any legislature, the Council of Ministers or the President. But it is not binding upon the President or the government to accept the advice given by the Supreme Court.

(c) Supreme Court Act as a Court of Record.
Answer:
Supreme Court Act as a Court of Record. The Supreme Court is a Court of Record. It means that its decisions and Judicial proceedings are recorded and printed. The Courts subordinate to it and the lawyers use them in their pleadings. The decisions given by the Supreme Court are recorded and then used by the Lower Courts to give further Judgements.

II. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
Explain the powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the main powers of the Parliament :
1. Legislative Powers. The Parliament legislates on the subjects included in the Union List and the Concurrent List. It can also pass laws on the Residuary Subjects. During the emergency, it can also legislate on any and every subject mentioned in the State List.

2. Executive Powers. It can dissolve the cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence against it. It also exercises control over the executive by asking questions and supplementary ‘questions. The members can table certain other resolutions to suspend the normal proceedings of the Parliament.

3. Financial Powers. The Parliament is the custodian of the Union purse. It passes the budget and authorises all expenditure. No tax can be imposed without its sanction.

4. Constitutional Amendment. All proposals for the constitutional amendments can be initiated only by the Parliament.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 2.
Examine the role or functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The Speaker is elected by the House from amongst its members. Following are the main functions of the Speaker :

  • He presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha and conducts its business. He generally belongs to the majority party, but he acts in an impartial manner.
  • He maintains discipline in the House. He can suspend a member from the House for his misconduct and indiscipline in the house.
  • He decides whether a particular bill is a Money Bill or an Ordinary Bill.
  • If a joint session of both the Houses of the Parliament is summoned by the President to discuss a bill, it is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Question 3.
How a bill becomes an Act in the Indian Parliament?
Answer:
An ordinary bill may be introduced in the either House by any minister or a member of the Parliament. A bill, before becoming an Act, has to pass through the stages given below :

  • First Reading. Only the heading and main clauses of the bill are read out at this stage. No discussion takes place.
  • Second Reading or Stage. The bill is debated-clause by clause and amendments are moved. If the majority of the members vote in its favor, the bill is referred to the select committee.
  • Third Reading or Stage. The debate at this stage is confined only to the matter of the bill. The bill is rejected or accepted by the House.
  • Bill in the Second House. The Bill in the Second House also passes through the same stages as in the First House. If the Bill is also passed by the Second House, it is referred to the President for his assent.
  • Assent of the President. After getting the assent of the President, it becomes a law.

Question 4.
Explain the collective and individual responsibility of the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Principle of Collective Responsibility. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The ministers come into the office and go out of it as a team. The Prime Minister is the captain of this team. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet or the whole Council of Ministers. They take decisions collectively. After decisions are arrived at, all the members of the Cabinet are equally responsible for it, including those who might have argued against it. If a vote of no-confidence is passed against one Minister in the Lok Sabha, the whole Council of Ministers must resign. The ministers sink and sail together. When any minister is criticised in the Parliament, the other members of the Council of Ministers come to his rescue and support the action and policy of the minister. The ministers are thus responsible to the Parliament both collectively and individually.

Question 5.
How is the Union Cabinet appointed in India?
Answer:
The Cabinet which is a part of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the President of India. In fact, the President has not free hand in the appointment of the Prime Minister or Ministers. He appoints the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as a Prime Minister. The President has no choice in this matter.

The Prime Minister prepares the list of other ministers to be included in the Council of Ministers. He presents this list to the President. The President cannot refuse to approve this list. Sometimes a person who is not a member of the Parliament is appointed a minister. Such a minister must become the member of Parliament within six months of his appointment as a minister.

Question 6.
Examine the position of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
The Prime Minister enjoys vast powers in the constitutional setup of the country. He chooses the Ministers of his team and allots the portfolios to them. In the Cabinet, he is not only the first among the equals, but a moon among the stars. His resignation brings about the fall of the entire Cabinet. He is thus the key stone of the Cabinet arch. Although all the executive authority of the Union is vested in the President, it is invariably exercised by his Council of Ministers and the President is supposed to be a mere constitutional head. To sum up, the Prime Minister is the linchpin of the government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 7.
Examine the powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
‘There is no doubt that the Prime Minister is the pivot of the cabinet. He appoints the ministers. The President appoints the ministers only on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. He allots the portfolios to the ministers. He can reorganise the cabinet to make the administration efficient. He can change the portfolios of the ministers. If the Prime minister resigns, the whole council of ministers is dissolved. He can ask the erring ministers or a minister having a different opinion, to quit. If a minister refuses to resign, he can tender the resignation of his Council of Ministers and reconstitute the ministry. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and exercises control over its agenda.

Question 8.
Explain the emergency powers of the President.
Answer:
Following are the emergency powers of the President :
1. National Emergency. If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion, he may declare a state of emergency for the whole of India or a part of it. (Article 352)

2. Constitutional Emergency. If the President is satisfied either on the recommendation of the Governor or otherwise that the government cannot be carried on in the state in accordance with the constitution, he may declare emergency in that state. (Art.-356) .

3. Financial Emergency. The President may declare financial emergency if he is satisfied that there is a threat to financial stability or credit of the country as a whole or a part thereof. (Art. 360)

Question 9.
Describe the procedure of Impeachment of the President.
Answer:

  1. The process of impeachment of the President may be started in either house of the Parliament.
  2. A prior notice to this effect has to be given to the President duly signed by l/4th of the total number of that house;
  3. A prior notice of 14 days must be served before initiating the impeachment;
  4. Such resolution of charges must be supported by at least 2/3rd of the total membership of that house;
  5. The charges initiated in one house, if are proved after investigation in the other house by 2/3 majority of the total membership of the house, the President shall have to leave the office from the date such a resolution is approved. The President can defend himself personally or through a counsel before both the houses.

Question 10.
Do you think that the Indian President is nominal head of the union executive? If yes, then who is the real executive?
Answer:
From the study of powers of the President in various fields, it seems that he is a very powerful executive head. Besides, he has important legislative, financial and judicial powers. He can declare emergency. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha, can issue ordinances. No bill can become law without his signature.

In actual practice, however, he is the nominal head of the state. He does not exercise these powers himself but on the advice of the Council of Ministers. He declares emergency only on the advice of the Council of Ministers and uses these powers with its aid. He can never become a dictator. His powers closely resemble the powers of the Queen of Britain. He can advise, encourage and warn his ministers. But much depends upon the personality and character of the President. And in this sense, he is no figure head. He is, in fact, a guide who can shape and mould the policy of India both at home and abroad.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
Describe the role of the Vice-President of India.
Answer:
Following are the two important functions of the Vice-President of India :

  1. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. When he acts as the President of India or discharges his functions, he shall not preside over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha.
  2. He can officiate as the President for a maximum period of six months in case of death, resignation or removal of the latter till the new President is elected. He discharges the functions of the President when the latter is unable to do so owing to any reason.

Question 12.
Explain briefly the powers of the President of India.
Answer:
Following are the powers of the Indian President :
1. Executive Powers

  • All laws are enforced in the name of the President,
  • He appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers on the basis of the recommendations of the Prime Minister,
  • He can make a declaration of war and peace.
  • It is he who appoints ambassadors to foreign states and receives those coming from other countries.

2. Legislative Powers.

  • No bill becomes an act without his approval,
  • He can dissolve the Lok Sabha before its fixed term on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two to the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers. No money bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha without the prior approval of the President.

4. Judicial Powers

  • The President can remove the judges of the High Courts and Supreme Court on the basis of the resolution passed by the Parliament with 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting,
  • He can pardon or reprieve the punishment confirmed by the Supreme Court.

5. Emergency Powers: The President can proclaim emergency under certain circumstances,

  • War, external aggression and armed rebellion.
  • Breakdown of constitutional machinery in a State,
  • Financial crisis.

Question 13.
Explain the following :
(a) How an ordinary bill differs from a money bill?
Answer:
Money bill. A money bill relates to the imposing, reducing or repealing of taxes, borrowing of money or authorizing expenditure by the government. It is called a money bill. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister.

Ordinary bill. All the bills other than money bills are called ordinary bills. They are of two types, Public bill and Private bill. Public bill is of universal nature and affects all the residents of the state. Private bill relates to a particular section of the society or some private companies.

(b) Unified concept of Judiciary in India.
Answer:
India has single unified judicial system. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of Justice in India, immediately below which are the state High Courts, below the High Courts, there are District Courts. All these courts apply the same law code in the decisions of all civil, criminal and constitutional cases. The appeals can be taken to the High Court, against the decision of the District Court. The Supreme Court hears appeals against the decisions of High Court.

(c) The power of Judicial Review in India.
Answer:
The power of Judicial Review in India (2014 III). The Supreme Court can exercise the power of judicial review. It can declare any law passed by the Union Parliament or by a State Legislature as unconstitutional if it violates the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The Central Government Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
What is meant by the Indian Parliament?
Answer:
In India, the Union Legislature is called the Parliament or Sansad.

Question 2.
Mention any one essential qualification for the members of Lok Sahha.
Answer:
He must, be a citizen of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 3.
Write any one important function of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
He presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha.

Question 4.
What is the difference between a money bill and an ordinary bill?
Answer:
A money bill can originate in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha.

Question 5.
Write down one power of the President relating to a bill.
Answer:
No bill can become a law without his assent.

Question 6.
Mention any one method by which the Parliament keeps the executive under control.
Answer:
It can dissolve the cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence against it.

Question 7.
What is meant by the Parliamentary system?
Answer:
It means a system of government in which all the powers of the state are exercised by the Prime Minister and his ministers.

Question 8.
When can the President declare Financial Emergency?
Answer:
If he is satisfied that there is a threat to financial stability or credit of the country as a whole or a part thereof.

Question 9.
What is the composition of Electoral College which elects the Vice¬President of India?
Answer:
The electoral college which elects the Vice-President includes only the elected members of the Parliament. .

Question 10.
Explain any one function of the Vice-President.
Answer:
He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Question 11.
How many types of ministers are included in the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, Deputy Ministers.

Question 12.
What is meant by the Reading of the Bill?
Answer:
The procedure of discusssion of a bill is called the Reading of the Bill.

Question 13.
What is an adjournment motion?
Answer:
To discuss a grave matter of public importance out of turn in the Parliament is called adjournment motion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 14.
Explain the meaning of Question Hour.
Answer:
The first hour of every sitting in both the houses of the parliament is devoted to asking arid answering questions.

Question 15.
In connection with the Parliament what is a supplementry question?
Answer:
The right of the members to ask some more questions relating to the same matter. Question 16. Mention any two qualifications for the membership of the Rajya Sabha. Answer:He must be a citizen of India and must have completed 30 years of age.

Question 17.
Write any one important function of the Speaker of Lok Sahha.
Answer:
To preside over the meetings of the Lok Sabha.

Question 18.
What is the main function of the Parliament?
Answer:
The main function of the Parliament is to make laws.

Question 19.
What is a Bill?
Answer:
The proposed law is called a Bill.

Question 20.
Who decides whether a bill is an ordinary or money bill?
Answer:
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha decides whether a Bill is ordinary or money bill.

Question 21.
For how many days can the Rajya Sabha delay a money hill duly passed by the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
A money bill duly passed by the Lok Sabha can be delayed by fourteen days by the Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 22.
What should be the minimum age required to become the President of India?
Answer:
35 years.

Question 23.
What is the tenure of the President of India?
Answer:
The tenure of the President is five years.

Question 24.
Write one executive power of the President.
Answer:
The President makes the appointment of the Prime Minister and other Ministers on his advice.

Question 25.
Who is the Supreme Commander of all the three armed forces?
Answer:
The President.

Question 26.
Who can issue an ordinance?
Answer:
The President can issue an ordinance.

Question 27.
Write one legislative power of the President.
Answer:
All bills passed by the Parliament must receive his assent before becoming laws.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 28.
Write any one financial power of the President.
Answer:
The President causes to be laid, before the Parliament the annual: budget.

Question 29.
Write one judicial power qf the president.
Answer:
The President appoints judges of the. Supreme Court and the High Courts.

Question 30.
Who is the real head of the Union Government’?
Answer:
The Prime Minister.

Question 31.
Write one power of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
He chooses the Ministers of his team and allocates portfolios to them.

Question 32.
Which is the highest court of justice in India?
Answer:
The Supreme Court.

Question 33.
How many judges are there in the Supreme Court?
Answer:
At present Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and 33 other Judges.

Question 34.
Mention any one qualification with regard to experience for appointment as a judge in the Supreme Court.
Answer:
He has been for at least 10 years an advocate of a High Court or two or more such courts in succession.

Question 35.
How many jurisdictions are there of the Supreme Court? Which are these?
Answer:

  1. Original
  2. Appellate and
  3. Advisory jurisdiction.

Question 36.
Who is the guardian of our fundamental rights?
Answer:
The Supreme Court is the guardian of our fundamental rights.

Question 37.
What does the term ‘appeal’ mean?
Answer:
When petition against the decision of a lower court is made to a high court, it is called appeal.

Question 38.
Describe one function and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
It decides the cases regarding the fundamental rights.

Question 39.
How can the President remove the judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts?
Answer:
On the basis of a resolution passed by the parliament by a special majority.

Question 40.
How is the Lok Sabha dissolved?
Answer:
Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

Question 41.
Who presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Vice-President of India presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 42.
How are the judges of Supreme Court-appointed?
Or
Who elects (appoints) the Judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
They are appointed by the President of India.

Question 43.
What is the tenure of the Judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
The Judges of the Supreme Court retire at the age of 65 years.

Question 44.
Who is Public Prosecutor?
Answer:
Public prosecutor is a person appointed by central / state govt, to represent cases on behalf of the state in criminal trials.

Question 45.
How many members can be nominated in the Lok Sabha and Ra\ya Sabha by the President?
Answer:
The President can nominate twelve members to the Rajya Sabha. The President can nominate two members of the Anglo-Indian Community in the Lok Sabha if no member of the community is elected to the Lok Sabha.

Question 46.
Mention the term of the members of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The tenure of the members of Rajya Sabha is six years. One third members of the Rajya Sabha retire after two years.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The tenure of the Lok Sabha is ___________ years.
Answer:
five

Question 2.
Maximum number of the members of Lok Sabha can be ___________
Answer:
550

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 3.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the ___________
Answer:
President

Question 4.
The term of the members of Rajya Sabha is ___________ years.
Answer:
six

Question 5.
Upper House of the Parliament is known as ___________
Answer:
Rajya Sabha

Question 6.
Lower House of the Parliament is known as ___________
Answer:
Lok Sabha

Question 7.
Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the ___________
Answer:
Rajya Sabha

Question 8.
The Speaker of the Lok-Sabha is elected by the members of the ___________
Answer:
Lok Sabha

Question 9.
No money bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha without the prior approval of the ___________
Answer:
Speaker

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 10.
The highest court of justice is ___________
Answer:
Supreme Court

Question 11.
The tenure of the President is ___________years.
Answer:
five

Question 12.
Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the ___________
Answer:
President.

Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The Indian Parliament is:
(a) Unicameral
(b) Three Houses
(c) Bicameral
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(c) Bicameral

Question 2.
The tenure of the members of the Rajya Sabha is:
(a) 5 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 6 years
(d) 3 years.
Answer:
(c) 6 years

Question 3.
The term of office of the Indian President is:
(a) 4 years
(b) 5 years
(c) 6 years
(d) 3 years.
Answer:
(b) 5 years

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 4.
The Judges Qf the Supreme Court retire at the age of:
(a) 62
(b) 58
(c) 60
(d) 65.
Answer:
(d) 65.

Question 5.
The President of India is elected by:
(a) The Electoral College
(b) The Legislative Assemblies
(c) The Parliament
(d) The People.
Answer:
(a) The Electoral College

Question 6.
Who is the guardian of ouí’ fundamental rights?:
(a) President
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Parliament
(cl) Prime Minister.
Answer:
(b) Supreme Court

Question 7.
Who is the supreme commander of the defence forces?
(a) Defence Minister
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Home Minister
(d) President,
Answer:
(d) President,

Question 8.
The real head of the Union Government is:
(a) The President
(b) Home Minister
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Cabinet.
Answer:
(c) Prime Minister

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 9.
The President is:
(a) Head of Govt.
(b) Head of the State
(c) Head of the Union Territory
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Head of the State

Question 10.
Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and :
(a) 13 other Judges
(b) 25 other Judges
(c) 20 other Judges
(d) 33 other Judges.
Answer:
(d) 33 other Judges.

Question 11.
While appointing the Judges of the Supreme Court it is obligatory for the President to consult the :
(a) Chief Justice of the High Court
(b) Law Minister
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Chief Justice of India.
Answer:
(d) Chief Justice of India.

Question 12.
The tenure of the Prime Minister is :
(a) 5 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 6 years
(d) Not fixed.
Answer:
(d) Not fixed.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give arguments to prove that there is the Supremacy of the Parliament in the country.
Or
What do you mean by the ‘Supremacy of the Parliament’?
Answer:
By the ‘Supremacy of the Parliament’, we mean that the Parliament is the supreme law-making body. It can enact, amend and repeal any lav/ as and when it likes. It is both an ordinary law-making body as well as a constitutional law-making body.

The Indian Parliament is the creation of the Constitution of India which has specified its powers, etc. in relevant articles. It is the legislative organ of the Union and is comprised of the representatives of the people. It takes part in the election of the President and the Vice-President. It exercises control over the executive who is collectively responsible to it. It can dissolve the Cabinet by withdrawing confidence in it. It keeps complete control over the national finance. The foregoing points prove its supremacy but it is not a sovereign body uncontrolled or having unlimited powers. The Supreme Court can strike down the Acts passed by the Parliament, if they violate the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 2.
Make a mention of the mutual relationship between the President and the Prime Minister.
Answer:
The essence of the Parliamentary form of Government is that the chief executive head of the State is a nominal head. All those powers vested in him are exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The President invariably appoints that person as the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is the chief advisor of the President and as the present constitutional position stands, it is binding on the President to act on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Question 3.
Write any four powers of the Prime Minister.
Or
Explain three powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
Main functions of the Prime Minister are given ahead :

  1. He chooses the ministers of his team and allocates portfolios to them.
  2. He can change the portfolios of the ministers.
  3. He advises the President on different matters of the government.
  4. He formulates all internal and external policies of the government.
  5. Inside the Parliament, he is the chief spokesman of the government.
  6. He supervises the work of administration of different departments.

Question 4.
When can emergency be declared in a state?
Answer:
A state of emergency may be declared in a state by the President. Generally, it is declared on the advice of the Governor of the state.

If the President is satisfied either on the recommendation of the Governor or otherwise that the government cannot be carried on in a State in accordance with the Constitution, he may declare emergency in the State. Initially, the President’s Rule is imposed for a period of six months but it can be extended upto a maximum period of three years. During this emergency, the President can suspend or dissolve the State Legislative Assembly. The President can himself assume all or any of the functions of the State. He may vest all or any of those functions in the Governor or any other executive authority.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 5.
Explain the relations between the Parliament and Judiciary in India.
Answer:
In India, there is a close relation between the Parliament and Judiciary. The Parliament determines the number of judges of the Supreme Court and can also pass a resolution for their removal. Moreover, it can increase or decrease the powers of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India is also competent to declare null and void the laws of the Parliament if they violate the Constitution by exercising its power of ‘Judicial Review’.

Question 6.
Mention the procedure of election of the members of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Lok Sabha is the lower chamber of the Parliament. It has 544 members. These members are directly elected by the people. Every Indian citizen (who is 18 years of age) whose name is on the voters’ list can participate in the election to the Lok Sabha. Some seats are reserved for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The President can nominate two Anglo-Indians if he feels that the community has not received proper representation.

The members of Lok Sabha are elected on the basis of population. Every member represents 10 lakh to 15 lakh of population. The whole country is divided into constituencies. Every state gets representation in proportion to its population.

Question 7.
Who can be elected the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and how?
Answer:
The office of the Presiding Officer of the Lok Sabha (called the Speaker) is of great dignity and authority. The Speaker is elected by the Lok Sabha from among its members. After the general elections, when the House assembles, it is presided over by the seniormost member of the House to elect its Presiding Officer. Any member can seek election to this office and one getting majority of votes is elected as the Speaker of the House.

Question 8.
What is meant by Parliament? Tell the names of the two Houses of the Parliament and also their term.
Answer:
The Union Legislature of India is called the Parliament. Constitutionally Parliament consists of the President and two houses-the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Parliament can make laws on all the subjects of national importance. It is the supreme law making body.

1. Term of the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is elected for 5 years. But it can be dissolved earlier by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. During the emergency due to external aggression or armed revolt its life can be extended.

2. Term of the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house. But every two years one-third (l/3rd) of its members retire and new ones are elected in their place. Thus every member is elected for a term of six years.

Question 9.
Mention six essential qualifications for the membership of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the six essential qualifications for the membership of the Parliament :

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed 30 years of age for the Rajya Sabha and 25 years for the Lok Sabha.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit under the state or union government.
  4. He must not be of unsound mind.
  5. He must not be bankrupt.
  6. He must not be an alien or non-citizen.

Question 10.
Mention the basis on which the President can nominate 12 members for the Rajya Sabha and 2 members for Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The President can nominate twelve members to the Rajya Sabha from amongst the persons of eminence having practical experience in literature, science, art and social services. He is also empowered to nominate to the Lok Sabha not more than two members from the Anglo-Indian Community if he feels that it has not got adequate representation.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
Mention three types of legislative and non-legislative powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Legislative Powers :

  • It can legislate upon all ordinary bills.
  • It also passes the money bills.
  • It approves all the ordinances issued by the President. It can also reject them.

Non-legislative Powers :

  • It accords approval to all emergency proclamations promulgated by the President.
  • Any member of Parliament may ask the government any question to elicit information regarding its policies.
  • It also considers the no-confidence motion initiated against the Cabinet.

Question 12.
Who makes the appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and other judges and with whose consultation?
Answer:

  1. The appointment of the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court is made by the President.
  2. The appointment of the Chief Justice is made in consultation with the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  3. The appointment of other judges of the Supreme Court is made in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and others whom the President may deem necessary.

Question 13.
Mention the qualifications, tenure, and salary of the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
Qualifications for an appointment :

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He has been for at least five years a judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.
  • He has been for at least 10 years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.
  • He is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.

Tenure :

  • A Judge of a Supreme Court can serve up to the age of 65 years.
  • Salary. The salary of the Chief Justice is Rs. 2,80,000 per month and Rs. 2,50,000 of the other Judges of the Supreme Court.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 14.
Mention those five references from the Constitution which make the Supreme Court independent and impartial.
Answer:

  1. The Directive Principles of State Policy provide that the judiciary be made independent of the control of the executive.
  2. The appointment of Judges is made on the basis of their legal acumen.
  3. The judges are paid decent salaries befitting their position which cannot be altered to their disadvantage.
  4. The procedure for their removal has been made very difficult.
  5. The decisions of the Supreme Court cannot be subjected to criticism by an individual, institution or even Parliament.

Question 15.
Describe the effects of the emergency proclamation on the state administration.
Answer:
According to Article 356 of the Constitution, the President can proclaim emergency in a state if he is satisfied that the constitutional machinery in a state has broken down. The President declares constitutional emergency in*a state only after receiving a report from the Governor. During the emergency, the whole administration of the state comes under the control of central govt. Such emergency is declared when the constitutional machinery in a state does not work properly. The Governor of the state is generally asked to run the state administration on behalf of the central government. The Governor can suspend or dissolve the state legislative assembly. He becomes’ the real ruler of the state.

Question 16.
What do you mean by a Vote of No-confidence?
Answer:
The Constitution grants the Lok Sabha the power of passing a Vote of No-confidence against the Council of Ministers. It means that the Council, of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The members of the Council of Ministers remain in office so long as they enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha. If the Lok Sabha passes by a majority of votes, the motion of No-confidence against the Council of Ministers, it will resign.

The Central Government PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Indian Parliament. The Union Legislative of India is called the Parliament. Constitutionally Parliament consists of President and two Houses: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The Parliament can make laws on all the subjects of national importance. It is supreme law-making body.
  • Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The Head of Lok Sabha is called the Speaker. He is elected, by the members of Lok Sabha. He conducts the business of the Lok Sabha and maintains the discipline in the House. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Election Process. A bill has to pass through different stages before it becomes a law.
    (i) Presentation of bill in the House
    (ii) First reading
    (iii) Second reading
    (iv) Third reading
    (v) Signing of the President. A money bill can only be presented in the Lok Sabha only by a minister.
  • Qualifications for the office of President and the method of his election.
    Only that person can contest the election of President who fulfils the qualification for the election of member of Lok Sabha. He must be of 35 years age. He must not hold any office of profit in the govt. The President is elected by an electoral college. The President can be removed from his office even before the completion of his term by impeachment.
  • Executive Powers of the President. The President appoints the Prime Minister and appoints other ministers on his advice. He appoints Governors of states, Chief Justice of India, Chief Election Commissioner, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, the Chairman of Public Service Commission and Ambassdors of India.
  • Judicial Powers of the President. The President appoints the Chief Justice of India and other judges on his recommendation. He also appoints the Chief Justice of High Courts. He can remit sentence.
  • Emergency Powers. President can declare external emergency (Art. 352), Emergency in the states (Art. 356), Financial Emergency (Art. 360). In the absence of President, his powers are exercised by the Vice-President.
  • Position of Prime Minister in India. Although the Constitution provides important powers to President but actually they are exercised by the Prime Minister. So the President is the Nominal Head of the state.
  • Vice-President. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. His term is five years.
  • Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The President appoints leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister of India. The Cabinet is resposible to the Lok Sabha.
  • Supreme Court. The Constitution provides for the appointment of Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Supreme Court has one Chief Justice and other judges. Besides the original jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdication and advisory functions.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The Government of every country establishes law and order and peace in the society. This work is done by the Government by making laws, establishing law and order in the society. But Government can not do whatever it wants by passing laws according to its will. The Government of country has to work according to constitutional fundamental laws. So the Constitution is the basic source of framing of country’s administration as well as state administration and it keeps check on misuse of power. It decides the relationship between the organs of the government and its citizens. It checks misuse of power by the Government.
(а) What do you mean by constitution?
Answer:
Constitution is a document of basic laws according to which the government of a country functions.

(b) Write briefly any three objectives described in preamble.
Answer:
The preamble to the constitution throws light on the nature of the Indian administrative system and goals to be achieved by the state. Its objectives are as under:

  • India would be Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic state.
  • Social, economic and political justice to all citizens.
  • Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship to all citizens.
  • Equality of status.
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.

Question 2.
Rights and duties are the two sides of the same coin. Both of these runs side by side. In other words, there is no place for rights without duties. So all countries of world have mentioned fundamental rights along with fundamental duties. In Indian culture, emphasis has been always given to duties instead of rights. In basic constitution, there was no mention of duties of citizens.
In 1976 by 42nd amendment of constitution in chapter IV A, ten duties were added for citizens. In the year 2002, by 86th amendment of constitution, a new duty was also added.
(a) Why and when the fundamental duties of Indian citizens were inserted in the constitution?
Answer:
There was no mention of duties of citizens in the basic constitution.
These were included in the Indian constitution by the 42nd constitutional amendment in 1976.

(b) Write any three duties of Indian Citizens.
Answer:
The following are the fundamental duties of Indian citizens :

  • To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals, National Flag and National Anthem.
  • To Cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To develop the feelings of interalion among citizens for religion, language and territory.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite nature. –
  • To protect the nation’s environment and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and abjure violence.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Democracy is considered to be the best system. At present many countries of the world have adopted this form of government and it has become very popular. In spite of this, the democratic system is not successful in every country.
For the success of democracy, every citizen should have good character, vigilent and wise, educated, intelligent, responsible and having interest in public matter. There should be good and able leadership, social and economic equality and independent press and judiciary, good political parties and tolerance among the citizens for success of democracy. According to J.S. Mill, “In order to make democracy successful, there, should be intentions to regularise democratic rule in the people and ability to run it, always to be ready for protection of Democracy and there should be intention among the citizens and to protection of rights of the people and to perform the duties is necessary.
(а) What do you mean by Democracy?
Answer:
According to Lincoln, “Democracy is the government of’the people, for the people and by the people”.

(b) Describe three conditions for the success of Democracy.
Answer:
Following are the main conditions necessary for the success of Democracy:

  1. Spread of Education: Government should take the appropriate steps to spread education. Schools should be opened in every village. There should be adequate arrangement of women education and should encourage adult education.
  2. Change in Curriculum: There should be change in syllabus of school and colleges. Children should be aware of political science. There should be democratic meetings in educational institutions where children can get training of election and administration.
  3. Reform in Election Process: There should be such system that elections should be conducted in a single day and their results should also be declared on the same day.
  4. Reform in Judiciary: There should be increase in a number of judges in the country so that cases could be settled as early as possible. There should be an arrangement of advocates for poor people by the government.
  5. Freedom of Press. There should be complete freedom to newspapers and press in the country to express their views.
  6. Economic Development: Government should establish new industry in the country. Government should provide employment opportunities to the citizens. Appropriate steps should be taken in villages for the development of Agriculture.

Question 4.
In order to understand the deep connection between democracy and public opinion, it should be understood that public opinion is the basis of democracy. Today is the age of democracy and Democracy is always for welfare of the people. Besides this, in real sense public opinion is soul of Democratic government. Because, Democratic government gets its whole power from peoplg and holds on this base. This type of government always tries that public opinion should be in their favour and not reverse. So, we can say that public opinion is the soul of social well being government. Besides this, in democracy, in order to run the government, intelligent public opinion is necessary.
(a) What do you mean by public opinion?
Answer:
Public opinion means the opinion of people on a particular matter of public interest.

(b) Describe the role of public opinion (in democracy).
Answer:
Public opinion is the soul of Democracy. Because, democratic government gets its power from public opinion. This type of government always tries its best that the public opinion always remains in its favour. Besides this, democracy is the rule of people. This type of government implements its policies keeping in view the will and directions of the public. It is oftenly observed that the general elections are conducted after long period. As a result of it, public remains untouched with the government and there is possibility of government becoming dictorial which puts democracy in danger. In such a situation, public opinion becomes base of democratic government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 5.
The Prime Minister is the link between the President and Cabinet. It is his constitutional duty to inform the President about decisions of Council of Ministers. President can get information about any department from Prime Minister. If any minister wants to meet or get advice from President, he can do so only through Prime Minister. In brief, he acts as a middle man between President and Council of Ministers.
Prime Minister is considered to be the leader of Lok S&bha. In every adverse situation, Lok Sabha wants its leadership. Lok Sabha cannot do anything against the will of Prime Minister because, he has support of majority in Lok Sabha. He announces the policies and decisions of government in Lok Sabha. Speaker, with the consent of Prime Minister, decides the programmes of Lok Sabha.
(a) How is the Prime Minister appointed?
Answer:
President appoints the person as the Prime Minister who enjoys a majority in the Lok Sabha.

(b) Examine any three important powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:

  • There is no doubt that the Prime Minister is the pivot of the Cabinet. He appoints the ministers and also he allots the portfolios to the ministers
  • He can reorganise the Cabinet to make the administration efficient. This means he can replace old ministers with new ministers. He can change the portfolios of the ministers. If the Prime minister resigns, the whole Council of Ministers is dissolved,
  • If any minister refuses to resign, he can dismiss the whole cabinet. While reorganising, he can keep that minister out of Cabinet. Besides this, he presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and decides its date, time and place.

Question 6.
According to the constitution, if Governor reports to the president or president gets this information through dependable source that state government is not running according to the constitution, he can announce President’s rule in that state. After this type of announcement, President can dismiss Cabinet of that state and can dissolve Legislative Assembly or suspend it. Under the President’s rule, Governor is the real head of the state, meaning thereby, he acts as an agent of central government. In the event of the failure of the constitutional machinery, all the executive powers of the state rests with the President and Legislative powers goes to Parliament.
(a) How the Governor of state is appointed?
Answer:
The Governor of state is appointed by the President for the period of five years.

(b) How a declaration of breakdown of constitutional machinery affects the state government?
Answer:
In case of breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state, the President with the consent of Governor can delcare constitutional emergency in the state. It results in dissolution or suspension of Legislative Assembly of that state. The Council of Ministers of the state is also dismissed. President takes the control of state administration in his own hands. It means that state’s administration is run by central government for short time.

Practically, the President transfers actual powers to Governor to run state administration. All powers of Legislature temporarily goes to central government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 7.
India has made Non-Alignment a basic principle of our foreign policy. When India got freedom, the whole of the world was divided into two blocs, i.e. Russian and Anglo- American blocs. The main framer of India’s foreign policy, Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru felt that India should keep’dwayfrom these two power blocs for India’s development. That is why, Pandit Nehru adopted the policy of Non-Alignment. Non-Alignment means willingly to remain aloof from the competitive power blocs. Not to keep sense of enmity against
any country and decide the international problems according to their quality and to adopt the independent policy. As a result of India’s endeavors, Non-Alignment became powerful movement in the world.
(a) What is India’s Atomic Policy?
Answer:
India is an atomic power country. But our foreign policy is based on peacefulness. That is why base of India’s atomic policy is to achieve peaceful objectives and to develop the nation. India is not in the favour of supressing any neighbouring country with nuclear power. We have made it clear that we would not use nuclear power first even in the situation of war.

(b) Describe the meaning of the policy of Non-Alignment and reasons for its adoption by India.
Answer:
Non-Alignment means to remain aloof from power blocs. It does not mean that we would be mere spectators of International problems but will try to take decision on quality bases. We shall call noble as noble and bad as bad.

Causes to adopt Non-Alignment policy by India. At the time of independence, world was divided into two power blocs i.e. Anglo-American power block and Russian power bloc. The politics of the whole world was revolving around these blocs and there was cold war between them. Then newly independent India could progress by keeping away these power blocs struggle. So Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru based India’s foreign policy on the principle of Non-Alignment.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers.