PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB The Central Government Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
Mention the tenure of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The term of the Lok Sabha is five years but the President, on the advice of the Prime Minister, can dissolve it before the expiry of its term. During the emergency, this period can be extended for one year by the Parliament.

Question 2.
What is the maximum number of the members of the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha has been fixed at 550 members. Out of this number, 530 members represent the people of the States of India and 20 members are elected by the voters of the Union Territories. The President can nominate two Anglo- Indians, if he feels that this community has not got adequate representation.

Question 3.
How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha appointed?
Answer:
The Speaker or Chairman of the Lok Sabha is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves.

Question 4.
What do you mean by a Vote of No-confidence?
Answer:
The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers can continue to be in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha. They can be thrown out of office by a vote of no-confidence passed by a majority of members present and voting in the house.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 5.
What is the minimum age required to become a member of the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The minimum age limit for a person to become a member of the Lok Sabha is 25 , years and that of the Rajya Sabha is thirty years.

Question 6.
When and how many Anglo-Indians can be nominated by the President in the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
If no Anglo-Indian is elected to the Lok Sabha, the President can nominate two members of this community to it.

Question 7.
Enumerate the stages through which an ordinary bill passes to become a law.
Answer:
A bill passes through three stages or readings through both the houses of the parliament separately. If the bill is passed, it is sent to the President for his assent.

Question 8.
How and who elects the members of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by the members of the State Legislative Assemblies. The maximum number of the members of Rajya Sabha can be 250.

Question 9.
Who are included in the electoral college for the election of the President? ,
Answer:
Elected representative of the people are included in the electoral college for the President.

Question 10.
How is the Vice-President of India elected?
Answer:
The Vice-President of India is elected by the members of both the houses of Parliament in a joint sitting by an absolute majority.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
How is the Prime Minister appointed?
Answer:
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. He appoints that person as the Prime Minister who enjoys a majority in the Lok Sabha.

Question 12.
Explain the organisation of the Union Council of Ministers,
Answer:
The Union Council of Ministers is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

Question 13.
Explain each of the following :
(a) Qualification of a Judge of the Supreme Court.
Answer:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have worked as a judge of High Court for a period of not less than five years or must have worked as an advocate in some high courts for a period of not less than ten years. Or he must be an eminent jurist in the view of the President.

(b) Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It is the obligation of the Supreme Court to advise on constitutional as well as other legal matters to any legislature, the Council of Ministers or the President. But it is not binding upon the President or the government to accept the advice given by the Supreme Court.

(c) Supreme Court Act as a Court of Record.
Answer:
Supreme Court Act as a Court of Record. The Supreme Court is a Court of Record. It means that its decisions and Judicial proceedings are recorded and printed. The Courts subordinate to it and the lawyers use them in their pleadings. The decisions given by the Supreme Court are recorded and then used by the Lower Courts to give further Judgements.

II. Answer the following questions in short :

Question 1.
Explain the powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the main powers of the Parliament :
1. Legislative Powers. The Parliament legislates on the subjects included in the Union List and the Concurrent List. It can also pass laws on the Residuary Subjects. During the emergency, it can also legislate on any and every subject mentioned in the State List.

2. Executive Powers. It can dissolve the cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence against it. It also exercises control over the executive by asking questions and supplementary ‘questions. The members can table certain other resolutions to suspend the normal proceedings of the Parliament.

3. Financial Powers. The Parliament is the custodian of the Union purse. It passes the budget and authorises all expenditure. No tax can be imposed without its sanction.

4. Constitutional Amendment. All proposals for the constitutional amendments can be initiated only by the Parliament.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 2.
Examine the role or functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The Speaker is elected by the House from amongst its members. Following are the main functions of the Speaker :

  • He presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha and conducts its business. He generally belongs to the majority party, but he acts in an impartial manner.
  • He maintains discipline in the House. He can suspend a member from the House for his misconduct and indiscipline in the house.
  • He decides whether a particular bill is a Money Bill or an Ordinary Bill.
  • If a joint session of both the Houses of the Parliament is summoned by the President to discuss a bill, it is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Question 3.
How a bill becomes an Act in the Indian Parliament?
Answer:
An ordinary bill may be introduced in the either House by any minister or a member of the Parliament. A bill, before becoming an Act, has to pass through the stages given below :

  • First Reading. Only the heading and main clauses of the bill are read out at this stage. No discussion takes place.
  • Second Reading or Stage. The bill is debated-clause by clause and amendments are moved. If the majority of the members vote in its favor, the bill is referred to the select committee.
  • Third Reading or Stage. The debate at this stage is confined only to the matter of the bill. The bill is rejected or accepted by the House.
  • Bill in the Second House. The Bill in the Second House also passes through the same stages as in the First House. If the Bill is also passed by the Second House, it is referred to the President for his assent.
  • Assent of the President. After getting the assent of the President, it becomes a law.

Question 4.
Explain the collective and individual responsibility of the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Principle of Collective Responsibility. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The ministers come into the office and go out of it as a team. The Prime Minister is the captain of this team. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet or the whole Council of Ministers. They take decisions collectively. After decisions are arrived at, all the members of the Cabinet are equally responsible for it, including those who might have argued against it. If a vote of no-confidence is passed against one Minister in the Lok Sabha, the whole Council of Ministers must resign. The ministers sink and sail together. When any minister is criticised in the Parliament, the other members of the Council of Ministers come to his rescue and support the action and policy of the minister. The ministers are thus responsible to the Parliament both collectively and individually.

Question 5.
How is the Union Cabinet appointed in India?
Answer:
The Cabinet which is a part of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the President of India. In fact, the President has not free hand in the appointment of the Prime Minister or Ministers. He appoints the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as a Prime Minister. The President has no choice in this matter.

The Prime Minister prepares the list of other ministers to be included in the Council of Ministers. He presents this list to the President. The President cannot refuse to approve this list. Sometimes a person who is not a member of the Parliament is appointed a minister. Such a minister must become the member of Parliament within six months of his appointment as a minister.

Question 6.
Examine the position of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
The Prime Minister enjoys vast powers in the constitutional setup of the country. He chooses the Ministers of his team and allots the portfolios to them. In the Cabinet, he is not only the first among the equals, but a moon among the stars. His resignation brings about the fall of the entire Cabinet. He is thus the key stone of the Cabinet arch. Although all the executive authority of the Union is vested in the President, it is invariably exercised by his Council of Ministers and the President is supposed to be a mere constitutional head. To sum up, the Prime Minister is the linchpin of the government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 7.
Examine the powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
‘There is no doubt that the Prime Minister is the pivot of the cabinet. He appoints the ministers. The President appoints the ministers only on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. He allots the portfolios to the ministers. He can reorganise the cabinet to make the administration efficient. He can change the portfolios of the ministers. If the Prime minister resigns, the whole council of ministers is dissolved. He can ask the erring ministers or a minister having a different opinion, to quit. If a minister refuses to resign, he can tender the resignation of his Council of Ministers and reconstitute the ministry. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and exercises control over its agenda.

Question 8.
Explain the emergency powers of the President.
Answer:
Following are the emergency powers of the President :
1. National Emergency. If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion, he may declare a state of emergency for the whole of India or a part of it. (Article 352)

2. Constitutional Emergency. If the President is satisfied either on the recommendation of the Governor or otherwise that the government cannot be carried on in the state in accordance with the constitution, he may declare emergency in that state. (Art.-356) .

3. Financial Emergency. The President may declare financial emergency if he is satisfied that there is a threat to financial stability or credit of the country as a whole or a part thereof. (Art. 360)

Question 9.
Describe the procedure of Impeachment of the President.
Answer:

  1. The process of impeachment of the President may be started in either house of the Parliament.
  2. A prior notice to this effect has to be given to the President duly signed by l/4th of the total number of that house;
  3. A prior notice of 14 days must be served before initiating the impeachment;
  4. Such resolution of charges must be supported by at least 2/3rd of the total membership of that house;
  5. The charges initiated in one house, if are proved after investigation in the other house by 2/3 majority of the total membership of the house, the President shall have to leave the office from the date such a resolution is approved. The President can defend himself personally or through a counsel before both the houses.

Question 10.
Do you think that the Indian President is nominal head of the union executive? If yes, then who is the real executive?
Answer:
From the study of powers of the President in various fields, it seems that he is a very powerful executive head. Besides, he has important legislative, financial and judicial powers. He can declare emergency. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha, can issue ordinances. No bill can become law without his signature.

In actual practice, however, he is the nominal head of the state. He does not exercise these powers himself but on the advice of the Council of Ministers. He declares emergency only on the advice of the Council of Ministers and uses these powers with its aid. He can never become a dictator. His powers closely resemble the powers of the Queen of Britain. He can advise, encourage and warn his ministers. But much depends upon the personality and character of the President. And in this sense, he is no figure head. He is, in fact, a guide who can shape and mould the policy of India both at home and abroad.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
Describe the role of the Vice-President of India.
Answer:
Following are the two important functions of the Vice-President of India :

  1. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. When he acts as the President of India or discharges his functions, he shall not preside over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha.
  2. He can officiate as the President for a maximum period of six months in case of death, resignation or removal of the latter till the new President is elected. He discharges the functions of the President when the latter is unable to do so owing to any reason.

Question 12.
Explain briefly the powers of the President of India.
Answer:
Following are the powers of the Indian President :
1. Executive Powers

  • All laws are enforced in the name of the President,
  • He appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers on the basis of the recommendations of the Prime Minister,
  • He can make a declaration of war and peace.
  • It is he who appoints ambassadors to foreign states and receives those coming from other countries.

2. Legislative Powers.

  • No bill becomes an act without his approval,
  • He can dissolve the Lok Sabha before its fixed term on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two to the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers. No money bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha without the prior approval of the President.

4. Judicial Powers

  • The President can remove the judges of the High Courts and Supreme Court on the basis of the resolution passed by the Parliament with 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting,
  • He can pardon or reprieve the punishment confirmed by the Supreme Court.

5. Emergency Powers: The President can proclaim emergency under certain circumstances,

  • War, external aggression and armed rebellion.
  • Breakdown of constitutional machinery in a State,
  • Financial crisis.

Question 13.
Explain the following :
(a) How an ordinary bill differs from a money bill?
Answer:
Money bill. A money bill relates to the imposing, reducing or repealing of taxes, borrowing of money or authorizing expenditure by the government. It is called a money bill. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister.

Ordinary bill. All the bills other than money bills are called ordinary bills. They are of two types, Public bill and Private bill. Public bill is of universal nature and affects all the residents of the state. Private bill relates to a particular section of the society or some private companies.

(b) Unified concept of Judiciary in India.
Answer:
India has single unified judicial system. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of Justice in India, immediately below which are the state High Courts, below the High Courts, there are District Courts. All these courts apply the same law code in the decisions of all civil, criminal and constitutional cases. The appeals can be taken to the High Court, against the decision of the District Court. The Supreme Court hears appeals against the decisions of High Court.

(c) The power of Judicial Review in India.
Answer:
The power of Judicial Review in India (2014 III). The Supreme Court can exercise the power of judicial review. It can declare any law passed by the Union Parliament or by a State Legislature as unconstitutional if it violates the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide The Central Government Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
What is meant by the Indian Parliament?
Answer:
In India, the Union Legislature is called the Parliament or Sansad.

Question 2.
Mention any one essential qualification for the members of Lok Sahha.
Answer:
He must, be a citizen of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 3.
Write any one important function of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
He presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha.

Question 4.
What is the difference between a money bill and an ordinary bill?
Answer:
A money bill can originate in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha.

Question 5.
Write down one power of the President relating to a bill.
Answer:
No bill can become a law without his assent.

Question 6.
Mention any one method by which the Parliament keeps the executive under control.
Answer:
It can dissolve the cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence against it.

Question 7.
What is meant by the Parliamentary system?
Answer:
It means a system of government in which all the powers of the state are exercised by the Prime Minister and his ministers.

Question 8.
When can the President declare Financial Emergency?
Answer:
If he is satisfied that there is a threat to financial stability or credit of the country as a whole or a part thereof.

Question 9.
What is the composition of Electoral College which elects the Vice¬President of India?
Answer:
The electoral college which elects the Vice-President includes only the elected members of the Parliament. .

Question 10.
Explain any one function of the Vice-President.
Answer:
He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

Question 11.
How many types of ministers are included in the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, Deputy Ministers.

Question 12.
What is meant by the Reading of the Bill?
Answer:
The procedure of discusssion of a bill is called the Reading of the Bill.

Question 13.
What is an adjournment motion?
Answer:
To discuss a grave matter of public importance out of turn in the Parliament is called adjournment motion.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 14.
Explain the meaning of Question Hour.
Answer:
The first hour of every sitting in both the houses of the parliament is devoted to asking arid answering questions.

Question 15.
In connection with the Parliament what is a supplementry question?
Answer:
The right of the members to ask some more questions relating to the same matter. Question 16. Mention any two qualifications for the membership of the Rajya Sabha. Answer:He must be a citizen of India and must have completed 30 years of age.

Question 17.
Write any one important function of the Speaker of Lok Sahha.
Answer:
To preside over the meetings of the Lok Sabha.

Question 18.
What is the main function of the Parliament?
Answer:
The main function of the Parliament is to make laws.

Question 19.
What is a Bill?
Answer:
The proposed law is called a Bill.

Question 20.
Who decides whether a bill is an ordinary or money bill?
Answer:
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha decides whether a Bill is ordinary or money bill.

Question 21.
For how many days can the Rajya Sabha delay a money hill duly passed by the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
A money bill duly passed by the Lok Sabha can be delayed by fourteen days by the Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 22.
What should be the minimum age required to become the President of India?
Answer:
35 years.

Question 23.
What is the tenure of the President of India?
Answer:
The tenure of the President is five years.

Question 24.
Write one executive power of the President.
Answer:
The President makes the appointment of the Prime Minister and other Ministers on his advice.

Question 25.
Who is the Supreme Commander of all the three armed forces?
Answer:
The President.

Question 26.
Who can issue an ordinance?
Answer:
The President can issue an ordinance.

Question 27.
Write one legislative power of the President.
Answer:
All bills passed by the Parliament must receive his assent before becoming laws.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 28.
Write any one financial power of the President.
Answer:
The President causes to be laid, before the Parliament the annual: budget.

Question 29.
Write one judicial power qf the president.
Answer:
The President appoints judges of the. Supreme Court and the High Courts.

Question 30.
Who is the real head of the Union Government’?
Answer:
The Prime Minister.

Question 31.
Write one power of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
He chooses the Ministers of his team and allocates portfolios to them.

Question 32.
Which is the highest court of justice in India?
Answer:
The Supreme Court.

Question 33.
How many judges are there in the Supreme Court?
Answer:
At present Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and 33 other Judges.

Question 34.
Mention any one qualification with regard to experience for appointment as a judge in the Supreme Court.
Answer:
He has been for at least 10 years an advocate of a High Court or two or more such courts in succession.

Question 35.
How many jurisdictions are there of the Supreme Court? Which are these?
Answer:

  1. Original
  2. Appellate and
  3. Advisory jurisdiction.

Question 36.
Who is the guardian of our fundamental rights?
Answer:
The Supreme Court is the guardian of our fundamental rights.

Question 37.
What does the term ‘appeal’ mean?
Answer:
When petition against the decision of a lower court is made to a high court, it is called appeal.

Question 38.
Describe one function and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
It decides the cases regarding the fundamental rights.

Question 39.
How can the President remove the judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts?
Answer:
On the basis of a resolution passed by the parliament by a special majority.

Question 40.
How is the Lok Sabha dissolved?
Answer:
Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

Question 41.
Who presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Vice-President of India presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 42.
How are the judges of Supreme Court-appointed?
Or
Who elects (appoints) the Judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
They are appointed by the President of India.

Question 43.
What is the tenure of the Judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
The Judges of the Supreme Court retire at the age of 65 years.

Question 44.
Who is Public Prosecutor?
Answer:
Public prosecutor is a person appointed by central / state govt, to represent cases on behalf of the state in criminal trials.

Question 45.
How many members can be nominated in the Lok Sabha and Ra\ya Sabha by the President?
Answer:
The President can nominate twelve members to the Rajya Sabha. The President can nominate two members of the Anglo-Indian Community in the Lok Sabha if no member of the community is elected to the Lok Sabha.

Question 46.
Mention the term of the members of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The tenure of the members of Rajya Sabha is six years. One third members of the Rajya Sabha retire after two years.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
The tenure of the Lok Sabha is ___________ years.
Answer:
five

Question 2.
Maximum number of the members of Lok Sabha can be ___________
Answer:
550

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 3.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the ___________
Answer:
President

Question 4.
The term of the members of Rajya Sabha is ___________ years.
Answer:
six

Question 5.
Upper House of the Parliament is known as ___________
Answer:
Rajya Sabha

Question 6.
Lower House of the Parliament is known as ___________
Answer:
Lok Sabha

Question 7.
Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the ___________
Answer:
Rajya Sabha

Question 8.
The Speaker of the Lok-Sabha is elected by the members of the ___________
Answer:
Lok Sabha

Question 9.
No money bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha without the prior approval of the ___________
Answer:
Speaker

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 10.
The highest court of justice is ___________
Answer:
Supreme Court

Question 11.
The tenure of the President is ___________years.
Answer:
five

Question 12.
Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the ___________
Answer:
President.

Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The Indian Parliament is:
(a) Unicameral
(b) Three Houses
(c) Bicameral
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(c) Bicameral

Question 2.
The tenure of the members of the Rajya Sabha is:
(a) 5 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 6 years
(d) 3 years.
Answer:
(c) 6 years

Question 3.
The term of office of the Indian President is:
(a) 4 years
(b) 5 years
(c) 6 years
(d) 3 years.
Answer:
(b) 5 years

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 4.
The Judges Qf the Supreme Court retire at the age of:
(a) 62
(b) 58
(c) 60
(d) 65.
Answer:
(d) 65.

Question 5.
The President of India is elected by:
(a) The Electoral College
(b) The Legislative Assemblies
(c) The Parliament
(d) The People.
Answer:
(a) The Electoral College

Question 6.
Who is the guardian of ouí’ fundamental rights?:
(a) President
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Parliament
(cl) Prime Minister.
Answer:
(b) Supreme Court

Question 7.
Who is the supreme commander of the defence forces?
(a) Defence Minister
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Home Minister
(d) President,
Answer:
(d) President,

Question 8.
The real head of the Union Government is:
(a) The President
(b) Home Minister
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Cabinet.
Answer:
(c) Prime Minister

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 9.
The President is:
(a) Head of Govt.
(b) Head of the State
(c) Head of the Union Territory
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Head of the State

Question 10.
Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and :
(a) 13 other Judges
(b) 25 other Judges
(c) 20 other Judges
(d) 33 other Judges.
Answer:
(d) 33 other Judges.

Question 11.
While appointing the Judges of the Supreme Court it is obligatory for the President to consult the :
(a) Chief Justice of the High Court
(b) Law Minister
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Chief Justice of India.
Answer:
(d) Chief Justice of India.

Question 12.
The tenure of the Prime Minister is :
(a) 5 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 6 years
(d) Not fixed.
Answer:
(d) Not fixed.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give arguments to prove that there is the Supremacy of the Parliament in the country.
Or
What do you mean by the ‘Supremacy of the Parliament’?
Answer:
By the ‘Supremacy of the Parliament’, we mean that the Parliament is the supreme law-making body. It can enact, amend and repeal any lav/ as and when it likes. It is both an ordinary law-making body as well as a constitutional law-making body.

The Indian Parliament is the creation of the Constitution of India which has specified its powers, etc. in relevant articles. It is the legislative organ of the Union and is comprised of the representatives of the people. It takes part in the election of the President and the Vice-President. It exercises control over the executive who is collectively responsible to it. It can dissolve the Cabinet by withdrawing confidence in it. It keeps complete control over the national finance. The foregoing points prove its supremacy but it is not a sovereign body uncontrolled or having unlimited powers. The Supreme Court can strike down the Acts passed by the Parliament, if they violate the Constitution.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 2.
Make a mention of the mutual relationship between the President and the Prime Minister.
Answer:
The essence of the Parliamentary form of Government is that the chief executive head of the State is a nominal head. All those powers vested in him are exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The President invariably appoints that person as the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is the chief advisor of the President and as the present constitutional position stands, it is binding on the President to act on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Question 3.
Write any four powers of the Prime Minister.
Or
Explain three powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
Main functions of the Prime Minister are given ahead :

  1. He chooses the ministers of his team and allocates portfolios to them.
  2. He can change the portfolios of the ministers.
  3. He advises the President on different matters of the government.
  4. He formulates all internal and external policies of the government.
  5. Inside the Parliament, he is the chief spokesman of the government.
  6. He supervises the work of administration of different departments.

Question 4.
When can emergency be declared in a state?
Answer:
A state of emergency may be declared in a state by the President. Generally, it is declared on the advice of the Governor of the state.

If the President is satisfied either on the recommendation of the Governor or otherwise that the government cannot be carried on in a State in accordance with the Constitution, he may declare emergency in the State. Initially, the President’s Rule is imposed for a period of six months but it can be extended upto a maximum period of three years. During this emergency, the President can suspend or dissolve the State Legislative Assembly. The President can himself assume all or any of the functions of the State. He may vest all or any of those functions in the Governor or any other executive authority.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 5.
Explain the relations between the Parliament and Judiciary in India.
Answer:
In India, there is a close relation between the Parliament and Judiciary. The Parliament determines the number of judges of the Supreme Court and can also pass a resolution for their removal. Moreover, it can increase or decrease the powers of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India is also competent to declare null and void the laws of the Parliament if they violate the Constitution by exercising its power of ‘Judicial Review’.

Question 6.
Mention the procedure of election of the members of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Lok Sabha is the lower chamber of the Parliament. It has 544 members. These members are directly elected by the people. Every Indian citizen (who is 18 years of age) whose name is on the voters’ list can participate in the election to the Lok Sabha. Some seats are reserved for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The President can nominate two Anglo-Indians if he feels that the community has not received proper representation.

The members of Lok Sabha are elected on the basis of population. Every member represents 10 lakh to 15 lakh of population. The whole country is divided into constituencies. Every state gets representation in proportion to its population.

Question 7.
Who can be elected the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and how?
Answer:
The office of the Presiding Officer of the Lok Sabha (called the Speaker) is of great dignity and authority. The Speaker is elected by the Lok Sabha from among its members. After the general elections, when the House assembles, it is presided over by the seniormost member of the House to elect its Presiding Officer. Any member can seek election to this office and one getting majority of votes is elected as the Speaker of the House.

Question 8.
What is meant by Parliament? Tell the names of the two Houses of the Parliament and also their term.
Answer:
The Union Legislature of India is called the Parliament. Constitutionally Parliament consists of the President and two houses-the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Parliament can make laws on all the subjects of national importance. It is the supreme law making body.

1. Term of the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is elected for 5 years. But it can be dissolved earlier by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. During the emergency due to external aggression or armed revolt its life can be extended.

2. Term of the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house. But every two years one-third (l/3rd) of its members retire and new ones are elected in their place. Thus every member is elected for a term of six years.

Question 9.
Mention six essential qualifications for the membership of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the six essential qualifications for the membership of the Parliament :

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed 30 years of age for the Rajya Sabha and 25 years for the Lok Sabha.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit under the state or union government.
  4. He must not be of unsound mind.
  5. He must not be bankrupt.
  6. He must not be an alien or non-citizen.

Question 10.
Mention the basis on which the President can nominate 12 members for the Rajya Sabha and 2 members for Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The President can nominate twelve members to the Rajya Sabha from amongst the persons of eminence having practical experience in literature, science, art and social services. He is also empowered to nominate to the Lok Sabha not more than two members from the Anglo-Indian Community if he feels that it has not got adequate representation.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 11.
Mention three types of legislative and non-legislative powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Legislative Powers :

  • It can legislate upon all ordinary bills.
  • It also passes the money bills.
  • It approves all the ordinances issued by the President. It can also reject them.

Non-legislative Powers :

  • It accords approval to all emergency proclamations promulgated by the President.
  • Any member of Parliament may ask the government any question to elicit information regarding its policies.
  • It also considers the no-confidence motion initiated against the Cabinet.

Question 12.
Who makes the appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and other judges and with whose consultation?
Answer:

  1. The appointment of the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court is made by the President.
  2. The appointment of the Chief Justice is made in consultation with the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  3. The appointment of other judges of the Supreme Court is made in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and others whom the President may deem necessary.

Question 13.
Mention the qualifications, tenure, and salary of the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
Qualifications for an appointment :

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He has been for at least five years a judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.
  • He has been for at least 10 years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.
  • He is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.

Tenure :

  • A Judge of a Supreme Court can serve up to the age of 65 years.
  • Salary. The salary of the Chief Justice is Rs. 2,80,000 per month and Rs. 2,50,000 of the other Judges of the Supreme Court.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government

Question 14.
Mention those five references from the Constitution which make the Supreme Court independent and impartial.
Answer:

  1. The Directive Principles of State Policy provide that the judiciary be made independent of the control of the executive.
  2. The appointment of Judges is made on the basis of their legal acumen.
  3. The judges are paid decent salaries befitting their position which cannot be altered to their disadvantage.
  4. The procedure for their removal has been made very difficult.
  5. The decisions of the Supreme Court cannot be subjected to criticism by an individual, institution or even Parliament.

Question 15.
Describe the effects of the emergency proclamation on the state administration.
Answer:
According to Article 356 of the Constitution, the President can proclaim emergency in a state if he is satisfied that the constitutional machinery in a state has broken down. The President declares constitutional emergency in*a state only after receiving a report from the Governor. During the emergency, the whole administration of the state comes under the control of central govt. Such emergency is declared when the constitutional machinery in a state does not work properly. The Governor of the state is generally asked to run the state administration on behalf of the central government. The Governor can suspend or dissolve the state legislative assembly. He becomes’ the real ruler of the state.

Question 16.
What do you mean by a Vote of No-confidence?
Answer:
The Constitution grants the Lok Sabha the power of passing a Vote of No-confidence against the Council of Ministers. It means that the Council, of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The members of the Council of Ministers remain in office so long as they enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha. If the Lok Sabha passes by a majority of votes, the motion of No-confidence against the Council of Ministers, it will resign.

The Central Government PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Indian Parliament. The Union Legislative of India is called the Parliament. Constitutionally Parliament consists of President and two Houses: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The Parliament can make laws on all the subjects of national importance. It is supreme law-making body.
  • Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The Head of Lok Sabha is called the Speaker. He is elected, by the members of Lok Sabha. He conducts the business of the Lok Sabha and maintains the discipline in the House. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
  • Election Process. A bill has to pass through different stages before it becomes a law.
    (i) Presentation of bill in the House
    (ii) First reading
    (iii) Second reading
    (iv) Third reading
    (v) Signing of the President. A money bill can only be presented in the Lok Sabha only by a minister.
  • Qualifications for the office of President and the method of his election.
    Only that person can contest the election of President who fulfils the qualification for the election of member of Lok Sabha. He must be of 35 years age. He must not hold any office of profit in the govt. The President is elected by an electoral college. The President can be removed from his office even before the completion of his term by impeachment.
  • Executive Powers of the President. The President appoints the Prime Minister and appoints other ministers on his advice. He appoints Governors of states, Chief Justice of India, Chief Election Commissioner, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, the Chairman of Public Service Commission and Ambassdors of India.
  • Judicial Powers of the President. The President appoints the Chief Justice of India and other judges on his recommendation. He also appoints the Chief Justice of High Courts. He can remit sentence.
  • Emergency Powers. President can declare external emergency (Art. 352), Emergency in the states (Art. 356), Financial Emergency (Art. 360). In the absence of President, his powers are exercised by the Vice-President.
  • Position of Prime Minister in India. Although the Constitution provides important powers to President but actually they are exercised by the Prime Minister. So the President is the Nominal Head of the state.
  • Vice-President. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. His term is five years.
  • Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The President appoints leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister of India. The Cabinet is resposible to the Lok Sabha.
  • Supreme Court. The Constitution provides for the appointment of Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Supreme Court has one Chief Justice and other judges. Besides the original jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdication and advisory functions.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 2 The Central Government Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.