Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers
The Government of every country establishes law and order and peace in the society. This work is done by the Government by making laws, establishing law and order in the society. But Government can not do whatever it wants by passing laws according to its will. The Government of country has to work according to constitutional fundamental laws. So the Constitution is the basic source of framing of country’s administration as well as state administration and it keeps check on misuse of power. It decides the relationship between the organs of the government and its citizens. It checks misuse of power by the Government.
(а) What do you mean by constitution?
Constitution is a document of basic laws according to which the government of a country functions.
(b) Write briefly any three objectives described in preamble.
The preamble to the constitution throws light on the nature of the Indian administrative system and goals to be achieved by the state. Its objectives are as under:
- India would be Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic state.
- Social, economic and political justice to all citizens.
- Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship to all citizens.
- Equality of status.
- Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.
Rights and duties are the two sides of the same coin. Both of these runs side by side. In other words, there is no place for rights without duties. So all countries of world have mentioned fundamental rights along with fundamental duties. In Indian culture, emphasis has been always given to duties instead of rights. In basic constitution, there was no mention of duties of citizens.
In 1976 by 42nd amendment of constitution in chapter IV A, ten duties were added for citizens. In the year 2002, by 86th amendment of constitution, a new duty was also added.
(a) Why and when the fundamental duties of Indian citizens were inserted in the constitution?
There was no mention of duties of citizens in the basic constitution.
These were included in the Indian constitution by the 42nd constitutional amendment in 1976.
(b) Write any three duties of Indian Citizens.
The following are the fundamental duties of Indian citizens :
- To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals, National Flag and National Anthem.
- To Cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
- To develop the feelings of interalion among citizens for religion, language and territory.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite nature. –
- To protect the nation’s environment and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and abjure violence.
Democracy is considered to be the best system. At present many countries of the world have adopted this form of government and it has become very popular. In spite of this, the democratic system is not successful in every country.
For the success of democracy, every citizen should have good character, vigilent and wise, educated, intelligent, responsible and having interest in public matter. There should be good and able leadership, social and economic equality and independent press and judiciary, good political parties and tolerance among the citizens for success of democracy. According to J.S. Mill, “In order to make democracy successful, there, should be intentions to regularise democratic rule in the people and ability to run it, always to be ready for protection of Democracy and there should be intention among the citizens and to protection of rights of the people and to perform the duties is necessary.
(а) What do you mean by Democracy?
According to Lincoln, “Democracy is the government of’the people, for the people and by the people”.
(b) Describe three conditions for the success of Democracy.
Following are the main conditions necessary for the success of Democracy:
- Spread of Education: Government should take the appropriate steps to spread education. Schools should be opened in every village. There should be adequate arrangement of women education and should encourage adult education.
- Change in Curriculum: There should be change in syllabus of school and colleges. Children should be aware of political science. There should be democratic meetings in educational institutions where children can get training of election and administration.
- Reform in Election Process: There should be such system that elections should be conducted in a single day and their results should also be declared on the same day.
- Reform in Judiciary: There should be increase in a number of judges in the country so that cases could be settled as early as possible. There should be an arrangement of advocates for poor people by the government.
- Freedom of Press. There should be complete freedom to newspapers and press in the country to express their views.
- Economic Development: Government should establish new industry in the country. Government should provide employment opportunities to the citizens. Appropriate steps should be taken in villages for the development of Agriculture.
In order to understand the deep connection between democracy and public opinion, it should be understood that public opinion is the basis of democracy. Today is the age of democracy and Democracy is always for welfare of the people. Besides this, in real sense public opinion is soul of Democratic government. Because, Democratic government gets its whole power from peoplg and holds on this base. This type of government always tries that public opinion should be in their favour and not reverse. So, we can say that public opinion is the soul of social well being government. Besides this, in democracy, in order to run the government, intelligent public opinion is necessary.
(a) What do you mean by public opinion?
Public opinion means the opinion of people on a particular matter of public interest.
(b) Describe the role of public opinion (in democracy).
Public opinion is the soul of Democracy. Because, democratic government gets its power from public opinion. This type of government always tries its best that the public opinion always remains in its favour. Besides this, democracy is the rule of people. This type of government implements its policies keeping in view the will and directions of the public. It is oftenly observed that the general elections are conducted after long period. As a result of it, public remains untouched with the government and there is possibility of government becoming dictorial which puts democracy in danger. In such a situation, public opinion becomes base of democratic government.
The Prime Minister is the link between the President and Cabinet. It is his constitutional duty to inform the President about decisions of Council of Ministers. President can get information about any department from Prime Minister. If any minister wants to meet or get advice from President, he can do so only through Prime Minister. In brief, he acts as a middle man between President and Council of Ministers.
Prime Minister is considered to be the leader of Lok S&bha. In every adverse situation, Lok Sabha wants its leadership. Lok Sabha cannot do anything against the will of Prime Minister because, he has support of majority in Lok Sabha. He announces the policies and decisions of government in Lok Sabha. Speaker, with the consent of Prime Minister, decides the programmes of Lok Sabha.
(a) How is the Prime Minister appointed?
President appoints the person as the Prime Minister who enjoys a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(b) Examine any three important powers of the Prime Minister.
- There is no doubt that the Prime Minister is the pivot of the Cabinet. He appoints the ministers and also he allots the portfolios to the ministers
- He can reorganise the Cabinet to make the administration efficient. This means he can replace old ministers with new ministers. He can change the portfolios of the ministers. If the Prime minister resigns, the whole Council of Ministers is dissolved,
- If any minister refuses to resign, he can dismiss the whole cabinet. While reorganising, he can keep that minister out of Cabinet. Besides this, he presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and decides its date, time and place.
According to the constitution, if Governor reports to the president or president gets this information through dependable source that state government is not running according to the constitution, he can announce President’s rule in that state. After this type of announcement, President can dismiss Cabinet of that state and can dissolve Legislative Assembly or suspend it. Under the President’s rule, Governor is the real head of the state, meaning thereby, he acts as an agent of central government. In the event of the failure of the constitutional machinery, all the executive powers of the state rests with the President and Legislative powers goes to Parliament.
(a) How the Governor of state is appointed?
The Governor of state is appointed by the President for the period of five years.
(b) How a declaration of breakdown of constitutional machinery affects the state government?
In case of breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state, the President with the consent of Governor can delcare constitutional emergency in the state. It results in dissolution or suspension of Legislative Assembly of that state. The Council of Ministers of the state is also dismissed. President takes the control of state administration in his own hands. It means that state’s administration is run by central government for short time.
Practically, the President transfers actual powers to Governor to run state administration. All powers of Legislature temporarily goes to central government.
India has made Non-Alignment a basic principle of our foreign policy. When India got freedom, the whole of the world was divided into two blocs, i.e. Russian and Anglo- American blocs. The main framer of India’s foreign policy, Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru felt that India should keep’dwayfrom these two power blocs for India’s development. That is why, Pandit Nehru adopted the policy of Non-Alignment. Non-Alignment means willingly to remain aloof from the competitive power blocs. Not to keep sense of enmity against
any country and decide the international problems according to their quality and to adopt the independent policy. As a result of India’s endeavors, Non-Alignment became powerful movement in the world.
(a) What is India’s Atomic Policy?
India is an atomic power country. But our foreign policy is based on peacefulness. That is why base of India’s atomic policy is to achieve peaceful objectives and to develop the nation. India is not in the favour of supressing any neighbouring country with nuclear power. We have made it clear that we would not use nuclear power first even in the situation of war.
(b) Describe the meaning of the policy of Non-Alignment and reasons for its adoption by India.
Non-Alignment means to remain aloof from power blocs. It does not mean that we would be mere spectators of International problems but will try to take decision on quality bases. We shall call noble as noble and bad as bad.
Causes to adopt Non-Alignment policy by India. At the time of independence, world was divided into two power blocs i.e. Anglo-American power block and Russian power bloc. The politics of the whole world was revolving around these blocs and there was cold war between them. Then newly independent India could progress by keeping away these power blocs struggle. So Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru based India’s foreign policy on the principle of Non-Alignment.