Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Features of the Indian Constitution
SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Features of the Indian Constitution Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in brief:
What do you mean by a Constitution?
A Constitution is a document of basic laws according to which the government of a country functions.
With what words the Preamble begins?
The Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins with these words : “We, the people of India, solemnly declare India a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.”
Enumerate anyone feature of the Constitution.
The two main features of the Indian Constitution are below:
- A Long and Detailed Constitution. The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and most detailed constitution in the world. It contains 395 articles and 12 schedules.
- Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights have been given in the third chapter of the constitution. These are Right to equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and the Right to constitutional remedies.
Enumerate any one feature of Indian Federation.
Feature of a federal constitution :
- There is a division of powers between the Central Government and the State Governments in the federal constitution.
- The federal constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary. (Anyone)
Mention any one fundamental rights of an Indian citizen.
Following are the important fundamental rights of the Indian citizens :
- Right to equality.
- Right to freedom.
- Right to freedom of religion.
- Right against exploitation. (Anyone)
Enumerate any one constitutional duty of an Indian citizen.
- To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India, (Anyone)
II. Answer the following questions in short:
Explain that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republican State.
The Preamble to the Constitution of India declares India a Sovereign Secular Socialist Democratic Republic. Secular means all religions are equal in the eyes of law. A secular state has no religion of its own. No discrimination is made on the basis of religion. Every citizen is free to adopt any religion of his / her own choice. By a Democratic State, we mean that state in which all the citizens enjoy equal rights. They elect their representatives to run the government. By a Republican State, we mean that the head of the state is elected directly or indirectly for a fixed period. The President of India is an elected head, having no hereditary right.
Explain aims and objectives as shown in the Preamble.
The Preamble to the Constitution throws light on the nature of the Indian administrative system and the goals to be achieved by the state. It lays emphasis on the following ideals :
- India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.
- Social, economic and political justice to all.
- Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
- Equality of status and of opportunity and to promote them among all.
- Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.
Describe each of the following fundamental rights :
(a) Right to equality.
(b) Right to freedom.
(c) Right against exploitation.
(d) Right to constitutional remedies.
(a) Right to Equality. Indian society suffered from different types of inequalities for centuries. So the makers of the constitution gave top priority to the Right to Equality. Following equalities have been granted to the Indians :
- Equality before law. All are equal before law. No discrimination can be made on the grounds of religion, race, caste, colour and sex. Equal opportunities will be given to all while giving employment.
(I) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of law.
(II) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
(Ill) Article 21 provides that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law.
- Checks on discrimination. The government shall not make any discriminate on the basis of caste, colour, creed, place of birth and sex. All shall be allowed to enter public places built with the aid of the government.
- Equal opportunity. Equal opportunities shall be granted to all while giving employment or any job in the state.
- Prohibition of untouchability. Untouchability which was a great slur on the
Indian society has been declared an offence. Its practice in any form is punishable by law.
- Abolition of titles. The Constitution prohibits the state from conferring titles. But titles for military and academic distinctions can be awarded.
(b) Right to Freedom: This right is the essence of human existence. It is essential for the development of an individual as a good citizen. A good citizen means a good state. Articles 19 to 22 of the Constitution deal with various kinds of individual and collective freedoms guaranteed to the citizens of India.
Some of them are as given below:
- Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression. The Constitution gives to every citizen the right to freedom of speech and expression. But this right cannot be used against social order or against safety and integrity of the state. It should not be used to defame others or for inciting public to commit offences.
- Right to Assemble Peacefully and Without Arms. This right is necessary for individuals to express their views and exchange ideas. But such an assembly should be peaceful and should not endanger the social order established by law.
- Right to Form Associations. The Constitution guarantees the right to form associations and unions to every citizen of India. But restrictions can be imposed bn such associations or unions which pose a danger to law and order or are against public good.
- Right to Freedom of Movement. Every citizen of India has been granted freedom to move throughout the Indian territory. The state, however, can impose restrictions on this freedom in public interest.
- Right to reside and settle. Every citizen has the right to reside and settle in any part of India.
- Right to practise any profession. Every citizen has a right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(c) Right against Exploitation. In ancient Indian society, many poor persons, women and children suffered from many types of exploitation. The Constitution of India puts a ban on such exploitation.
- Our Constitution seeks to ban traffic in human beings. Workers must be paid adequate wages for their labour. The Constitution, therefore, declares forced labour or (Begar) as a crime punishable by law.
- Children under 14 years of age cannot be employed on any dangerous job like factories or in mines. This provision has been inserted to prevent the greedy employers from exploiting the children.
(d) Right to Constitutional Remedies. (2009 B (S)). The right to constitutional remedies is the most important fundamental right. This right protects other rights of the citizens. If the fundamental right of any citizen is encroached upon, he can seek justice from a High Court or the Supreme Court. The Court can nullify such act if it violates the Constitution. The High Courts and the Supreme Court can safeguard the rights of the citizens by issuing writs. The right to constitutional remedies can, however, be suspended by the Central Government in case of a national emergency.
Elaborate each of the following categories of directive principles :
(а) Socialist Principles
(b) Gandhian Principles
(c) Liberal or General Principles.
(a) Socialist Principles:
- The state aims at public welfare.
- Adequate means of livelihood for all the citizens.
- Proper distribution of wealth so as to serve the common good.
- To establish such an economic set up that there is no concentration of wealth and resources in a few hands.
- To give financial aid to the old, unemployed and the disabled.
- Equal pay for equal work for all men and women.
- To provide free and compulsory education to all the children below the age of fourteen years.
- The state is to make efforts to decrease economic inequalities.
- To provide adequate wages, good standard of living and leisure to all the workers.
(b) Gandhian Principles.
- To organise village Panchayats.
- To promote cottage industries on individual and cooperative basis in rural areas.
- To promote with special care educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society, especially the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.
- Prohibition of intoxicating drinks and other intoxicants which are injurious to health.
- To raise the standard of living of the people and improvement of public health,
(c) The Liberal or General Principles: In this category, those principles are included which are of a general and liberal character. These include :
- To frame a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.
- To bring about the separation of the judiciary from the executive.
- To organise agriculture on modern and scientific lines.
- To promote animal husbandry on scientific lines.
- To preserve and improve the breeds of the cattle and prohibit slaughter of cows, calves and other milch animals.
- To provide for the protection of wild animals.
- To protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historical interest.
- The state should endeavour to promote international peace and security.
Explain the basic differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles.
There are the following differences between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy :
- The Fundamental Rights have been granted by the Constitution to the people. The Directive Principles are instructions from the Constitution to the state.
- The Fundamental Rights are enshrined in the Constitution and have special sanctity. They are justiciable. The Directive Principles are in the form of directions to the state and are not justiciable. They cannot be enforced by courts of law.
- The Fundamental Rights can be suspended in case of national emergency but the Directive Principles cannot be suspended.
- The scope of Fundamental Rights is limited. They intend to establish political democracy. The scope of Directive Principles is wider. Their aim is to establish social and economic democracy and a just society.
Why and when were the fundamental duties of Indian citizens inserted in the Constitution?
The Indian Constitution in its original form did not contain the fundamental duties of citizens. The fundamental duties were added in the Indian constitution in 1976 through the Forty-second constitution amendment act.
Why were Fundamental Duties inserted in the Constitution?
- Inclusion of Fundamental Duties in the Constitution is a progressive step.
- The Fundamental Duties are incorporated in the Constitution to develop a sense of nationalism and patriotic feelings among the citizens.
- The Fundamental Duties help the citizens to follow a code of conduct that would strengthen the nation, protect its sovereignty and integrity.
Explain two basic reasons because of which our Constitution has become the bulkiest in the world.
The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed Constitution in the world.
- There are 395 articles and 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution.
- It has a detailed description of the composition, powers and mutual relations of different organs of the government. It also explains the mutual relations of the state and the citizens.
- It has a detailed description of the Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens. Ten Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been included in the Constitution by the 42nd constitutional amendment.
- The distribution of powers between the centre and the states has clearly been stated by the Constitution as it is federal in form.
The right to freedom is actually a cluster of several rights. Comment.
The right to freedom is given in Articles 19-22. This right is a cluster of six freedoms. These are as follows :
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
- Freedom to form associations or unions.
- Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
- Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
- Freedom to practise any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business.
PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Features of the Indian Constitution Important Questions and Answers
Answer the following questions in one line or one word :
How does the Indian Constitution check the misuse of powers by the government?
The Indian Constitution has clearly stated powers given to different organs of the government.
When was the Indian Constitution passed?
The Indian Constitution was passed on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
‘India is a Democratic State.’ Give one reason to clarify it.
The administration of the country is run by the representatives elected by the people.
‘India is a Secular State.’ Clarify giving one example.
The state does not favour any particular religion.
When did the Indian Constitution come into force?
It came into force on 26 January 1950.
Can Preamble be regarded as a part of the Constitution?
Preamble is a part of the Constitution but is neither justiciable nor can be enforced by the courts.
Who is the real head of the state?
The Prime Minister is the real head of the country.
Explain one important feature of the Indian Constitution.
Written and detailed Constitution.
The Indian Constitution has given some rights to the citizens. What are they called in legal language?
These are called Fundamental Rights.
How many Fundamental Rights have been given to the citizens in the Constitution?
Six Fundamental Rights.
Explain one point mentioned in the Right to Equality.
No discrimination shall be made on the basis of caste, race, religion, colour and sex by the state.
What is meant by the Directive Principles of State Policy?
The principles which the government keeps in view while framing its policies or making laws.
Describe one Directive Principle of State Policy given in the Constitution.
To promote cottage industries in rural areas.
Why have the fundamental duties been added to the Indian Constitution?
It is in the interest of the citizens to perform their duties.
Describe any one fundamental right granted to the Indian citizens.
Right to Equality.
Write two constitutional duties of an Indian citizen.
1. To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and National Anthem.
2. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
Write two rights of an Indian citizen.
- Right to Equality is given to all citizens of India. All are equal before law. No discrimination can be made on the grounds of religion, race, caste etc.
- All citizens are guaranteed Rights to Freedom. Six freedoms are guaranteed to all citizens.
These freedoms are:
- Right to Freedom of Speech,
- Right to Form Association,
- Right to Freedom of Movement etc.
What is illiteracy?
Inability to read or write a language, having little or no knowledge of language.
Which articles of the Constitution give the Right to Freedom?
Articles 19 to 22.
Fill in the blanks :
Indian Constitution was enforced on __________
26 Jan, 1950
Indian Constitution is ________ in form but unitary in spirit.
Indian Constitution consists of ________ article.
Indian Constitution is the ________ Constitution in the world.
India is a ________ state.
India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular
In India a form of government has been estabished.
Choose the correct answer :
Indian Constitution came into force on :
(a) 15th August, 1947
(b) 26th Jan. 1950
(c) 26th Nov. 1949
(d) 9th Dec. 1950.
(b) 26th Jan. 1950
Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins with these words :
(a) People’s Sovereignty
(b) Republic of India.
(c) Democratic India
(d) We the people of India.
(d) We the people of India.
At present there are :
(a) 8 Fundamental Rights
(b) 6 Fundamental Rights
(c) 5 Fundamental Rights
(d) 7 Fundamental Rights.
(b) 6 Fundamental Rights
Directive Principles of State Policy are included in Indian Constitution :
(a) In Part IV
(b) In Part III
(c) In Part VI
(d) In Part V.
(a) In Part IV
Fundamental duties of the citizens were added in the Constitution by :
(a) 42nd Amendment
(b) 44th Amendment
(c) 45th Amendment
(d) 73rd Amendment.
(a) 42nd Amendment
Short Answer Type Questions
What is Constitution? Why is it important for a democratic country?
Constitution. Constitution is a set of laws which regulate the composition and functions of organs of government and relations between the government and the citizens. It states basic structure and powers of the state. It also states rights and duties of the citizens. It is therefore, most important document of every country. Every state must have a constitution.
We must respect our Constitution for the reasons noted below :
- The Constitution determines the form of government in a country.
- It states the powers of the government and its different organs. Thus it is the source of powers and authority of the government.
- It states the relations between different organs of government and delimits the scope of their activities.
- The Constitution of a country safeguards the rights granted to its citizens.
Preamble is not legally regarded as a part of the Constitution even then it is important. How?
The introduction to the Constitution is called the Preamble of the Constitution. It is the introduction to the Constitution, but is not justiciable. If the government does not implement the objectives of the Preamble, we cannot go to the court against it. Even then it is an important document. It contains the basic principles on which the government is based. It is the key to open the minds of the makers of the Constitution. It is the soul of the Constitution.
What are the salient features of the Indian Constitution?
Following are the salient features of the Indian Constitution:
- It is a written and detailed constitution having 395 Articles and 12 Schedules.
- It is partly rigid and partly flexible.
- It tends to establish a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic.
- It is federal in form but unitary in spirit.
- It establishes a bicameral legislature at the centre having Lok Sabha the Lower House, and Rajya Sabha (Upper House).
- It establishes the parliamentary form of government, the President being a nominal executive head of the state.
- It establishes an independent and impartial judiciary.
- The Constitution states the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Write a short note on the following :
(i) Parliamentary form of Government in India
(ii) Adult Franchise
(iii) Independent and Impartial Judiciary.
1. Parliamentary form of Government in India. The Indian Constitution has established a parliamentary form of Government in India. The Parliament is the supreme body and it represents the people. People elect their representatives who are members of the Parliament. The government at the centre functions in the name of the President and similarly the state governments function in the name of governors. But the real powers are enjoyed by the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament (at the Centre) and to the State Legislative Assembly (in case of State).
The Council of Ministers holds office till it enjoys the confidence of the Parliament or the State Legislative Assembly
2. Adult Franchise. In order to make India a real democracy, the Indian Constitution provides for universal adult franchise. It implies that every citizen of India, having attained the age of’18 years, will be entitled to take part in the elections and to vote for the candidate of his choice. This right is extended to all the citizens irrespective of their caste, colour, creed, sect, sex or status.
3. Independent arid Impartial Judiciary. The Indian Constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary in India. It means that judiciary is free from the influence and control of the executive. It remains impartial in settling the disputes between the centre and the states. This judicial system has great importance in a federal system. Besides, the judiciary protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
Give a list of fundamental rights that are given in the Indian Constitution.
Mention the rights of an Indian citizen.
Our Constitution guarantees to Indian citizens the following six fundamental rights :
- Right to equality.
- Right to freedom.
- Right against exploitation.
- Right to freedom of religion.
- Cultural and educational rights; and
- Right to constitutional remedies.
Explain any three rights relating to the right to freedom of religion or right to religious freedom.
The following points are included in the right to freedom of religion:
- Every citizen is free to adopt, leave or preach any religion of his own choice.
- People can form and organise religious institutions and run them.
- No citizen can be forced to pay a tax that is imposed on him in the interest of any religion. Besides, no citizen can be forced to get an education relating to any particular religion in a government institution or an institution getting financial aid from the government.
Describe the Cultural and Educational rights.
- The Indian Constitution guarantees that every community has full freedom to preserve its own language, script and culture and run its own institutions.
- The children of all communities and religions shall be admitted in government institutions or non-government institutions aided by the government.
- No one can be denied admission to any educational institution run by the government simply on the ground of religion, caste or creed.
Describe any four fundamental rights granted to the Indian citizens.
- Right to Freedom. The Indian citizens have been granted the freedom to move in any part of the country, express views and choose any profession.
- Right to Freedom of Religion. The Indian citizens are free to adopt or leave any religion. They can form religious institutions and run them.
- Cultural and Educational Rights. The Indians are given the right to study any language and to protect their culture and script.
- Right to Equality. Every citizen has been given the right to equality before law. Any person can get the highest post on the basis of his merit and ability.
What is meant by the Directive Principles of State Policy? Mention any four Directive Principles.
The Constitution of India lays down certain principles which the state should keep in its view while framing its policies. These principles are called the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Main Directive Principles of State Policy. Following are the main Directive Principles of State Policy :
- Adequate means of livelihood for all the citizens.
- Equal pay for equal work for all.
- To give financial aid to the old, the unemployed and the disabled.
- State should endeavour for prohibition of all kinds of intoxicants which are harmful for health of citizens.
Mention any four facts showing the importance of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
The Directive Principles of State Policy have great importance :
- Equal pay for equal work is given in our country. No discrimination i£ made on the basis of sex.
- Provision for jobs for backward classes has been made. Free education is given to their children. Seats have been reserved for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the legislatures.
- Free primary education is given to children in all parts of the country.
- Laws have been passed to protect the interests of the children and the labourers. All this has been done to implement the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Enumerate any six Fundamental Duties that a citizen is required to obey.
Ten fundamental duties were added in the Indian Constitution in 1976 through the 42nd amendment act. One duty was added by the 86th amendment act of the Constitution.
Thus there are 11 Fundamental Duties incorporated in the Constitution.
- To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
What is the significance of the Directive Principles?
The Directive Principles of State Policy aim at securing economic and social equality in the country. They embody the objectives which the state should endeavour to achieve for the welfare of the people and to establish a welfare state.
Explain each of the following features of the Indian Constitution :
(a) Sovereign State
Sovereign State. By a sovereign state we mean a state which is completely independent, both in its internal and external affairs.
(b) Socialist State
Socialist State. By socialist state we mean a state in which all the citizens enjoy equality in social and economic fields. In it, there is no concentration of wealth and resources in a few hands. The state makes efforts to decrease economic inequalities.
(c) Secular State
Secular State. A secular state has no religion of its own. No discrimination is made on the basis of religion. Every citizen is free to adopt and worship the religion of his / her own choice.
(d) Democratic State
Democratic State. By a Democratic State, we mean a state in which all the citizens enjoy equal rights. They elect their own representatives who form the government.
(e) Republican State.
Republican State. By Republic, we mean that the Head of the state is ‘elected directly or indirectly for a fixed period. The President of India is elected for a fixed period.