PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

SST Guide for Class 10 PSEB Indian Democracy at Work Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in brief:

Question 1.
What do you understand by democracy?
Answer:
According to Lincoln, “Democracy is the government of the people, for the people and by the people.” In other words, democracy means that form of government in which people rule themselves either directly or indirectly.

Question 2.
Explain Etymological meaning of democracy.
Answer:
The word ‘Democracy’ has been derived from two Greek words, ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratos’. Demo means “The people’ and Kratos means ‘The power’. Democracy, in this way, is a form of government in which the ruling power is vested in the hands of the people.

Question 3.
Describe the one main condition for the success of democracy.
Answer:
Main condition necessary for the success of democracy is :

  • Educated and good citizens.
  • Free and impartial press and judiciary.
  • Well-organised political parties.
  • Co-operation and toleration among the citizens. (Any. one)

Question 4.
How many types of election systems are there in the world?
Answer:
There are two types of methods of elections: (i) Direct election (ii) Indirect election. In the direct election, the citizens themselves elect the members of the Legislature. In the indirect election, the representatives of the citizens elect the members of the Legislature.

Question 5.
What do you mean by public opinion?
Answer:
Public opinion means the opinion of people on a’particular matter of public interest. People’s voice is the voice of God. A government that ignores the public opinion cannot be stable.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 6.
When and under whom the Indian National Congress was formed?
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It was founded by an English officer named Mr. AO. Hume. Its first session was presided over by Mr. Womesh Chandra Banerji (W.C. Banerji).

Question 7.
When and under whom the Shiromani Akali Dal was formed?
Answer:
The Shiromani Akali Dal was established in 1920 A.D. to bring about reforms in the Sikh Gurudwaras. It was formed under the twin leadership of Master Tara Singh and Sardar Kharak Singh.

Question 8.
Why is India a Secular State?
Answer:
India is a Secular State because India has no state religion.

Question 9.
Describe the ideological base of Shiromani Akali Dal.
Answer:

  • To bring about the reforms in the Gurudwaras and their management.
  • To maintain belief among the Sikhs that their Panth is independent.
  • To end poverty and hunger.
  • To make economic set-up more just.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on National Political Parties of India.
Answer:
There are seven National Political Parties—Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India, Marxist Communist Party of India, Bahujan Smaj Party, National Congress Party, Trinmool Congress Party.

Question 11.
Explain ideology of Indian National Congress.
Answer:

  • Promotion of Secularism and Socialism
  • Non-alignment
  • Reforms in industrial field
  • Modernisation of agriculture.

Question 12.
Describe the ideological base of the Bhartiya Janata Party.
Answer:

  1. The party has pledged itself to defend the unity and integrity of India.
  2. The party stands? for positive Secularism.

Question 13.
Explain the ideology of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
Answer:
This party believes in the ideology of Karl Marx and Lenin. Its aims is to uplift the working class and make it the ruling class.

II. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Describe the main features of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
Following are the main important features of the Indian democracy :

  1. The Indian Constitution provides for a democratic set-up in the country. Its preamble describes the importance of democracy.
  2. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Equality to all citizens. This right is similar to the principle of democratic equality.
  3. Freedom is the main principle of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Freedom to all the citizens of India.
  4. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution lays stress on promoting fraternity among all citizens.
  5. The Indian Constitution provides for adult franchise in India which is the soul of democracy.
  6. The Constitution also provides for joint electoral system which ensures equality to the people of all castes, religions and races.
  7. Political rights are the demands of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants political rights to all Indians without any kind of discrimination.
  8. Independence of Judiciary, Secularism and Republican system have strengthened the foundations of democracy.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
Explain briefly the electoral process in India.
Answer:
In India election procedure is as follows :

  1. Constituencies. The first important task in the process of election is the delimitation of the constituencies.
  2. Election Notification. The process of election begins with the notification of election. For the elections of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, notification is issued by the President.
  3. Filing of the Nomination Papers. The Election Commission fixes a last date for filing the nomination papers.
  4. Scrutiny of Nomination Papers. On the fixed date, nomination papers are scrutinised by the. Returning Officer and the names of the eligible candidates are announced.
  5. Election Campaign. With the announcement of election, political parties and independent candidates start election propaganda and try to influence the voters.
  6. Polling. On the day of the polling, holiday is declared so that each voter can cast his vote.
  7. Counting of votes and declaration of result. On the fixed date, EVMs are opened in the presence of the representatives of the candidates and votes are counted. A candidate getting the highest number of votes is declared elected. Every candidate is expected to submit the details of his expenses in the election, within 45 days after the election is over.

Question 3.
Name the main means of formation and expression of the Public Opinion.
Answer:
The main means of formation and expression of the public opinion are given below :

  1. Public Meetings. Public meetings stimulate and create public interest in great political, social and economic questions through speeches delivered by men in the domain of public life.
  2. Educational Institutions. It is in the schools, colleges and universities that the life of the would be citizens is moulded.
  3. Role of Newspapers. Newspaper is a very important source of formulating public opinion.
  4. Television. Television moulds public opinion by broadcasting news and comments. It makes the people politically conscious.
  5. Press. Public opinion is formed by newspapers, by presenting news and views on matters of public importance of national and international character.
  6. Political Parties. Political parties help to create public interest without which there can be no public opinion.

Question 4.
Describe the role and importance of Public Opinion.
Answer:
The role of the public opinion in democracy is very important. Public welfare is the basis of public opinion. It always reminds the government of its duties. The fact is that public opinion is the soul of democracy. The source of power of a democratic government is public opinion. The public opinion is the foundation which makes a government stable. The Government always tries its best to mould the public opinion in its favour. The Government implements its policies keeping in view the will and directions of the public opinion. The Government, which ignores the public opinion, becomes dictatorial and puts democracy into danger. Such a government loses the confidence of the people. As a result, it faces a defeat in the elections. That is why the Government tries not to go against the public opinion.

Write a short note on the following :

Question 1.
Main objectives of Shiromani Akali Dal.
Answer:
1. Main objectives of Shiromani Akali Dal. (Pb. 2016 I) The Shiromani Akali Dal was founded in 1920. A constitution of the party was approved in the meeting of its executive on September 2, 1974. According to it, the following are the objectives of the Akali Dal:

  • To bring about reforms in the Gurudwaras and look after them properly.
  • To maintain belief among the Sikhs that their Panth is independent.
  • To end poverty and hunger. To make economic set up more just and to reduce economic inequality between the rich and the poor.
  • To put an end to illiteracy, untouchability and discrimination.
  • To make arrangements for public health and security.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
Emergence/Formation of Bhartiya Janata Party.
Answer:
Emergence/Formation of Bhartiya Janata Party.
The Bhartiya Janata Party was organised on April 6, 1980. Today, this party is very active in Indian politics.

Following is the description of its policies and programmes :

  1. The B.J.P. believes that centre-state relations should be improved and it favours the implementation of the main recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
  2. For free and fair elections, the B.J.P. will update and adopt the Goswami Committee Report.
  3. The B. J.P. will appoint a Lok Pal to entertain complaints of corruption against anybody holding public office including the Prime Minister.
  4. For better Local self-government at the village level, the B. J.P. will make changes in the Constitution and further strengthen the Panchayati Raj system.
  5. The B.J.P. will set up regional councils for Kashmir, Jammu and Laddakh.
  6. The B.J.P. will set up a National Security Council.

Question 3.
Foreign Policy of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Foreign Policy of Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. Even today this party is very active in Indian politics.

Following is the description of the policies and programmes of this party :

  • Firm faith in secularism and democracy.
  • To promote socialism along with economic liberalism.
  • To give the status of industry to agriculture. To grant loans to the farmers at low rates of interest.
  • To exempt the industry from licence system and end “the inspector Raj”. To encourage foreign investment.
  • To provide jobs to the unemployed. To improve the economic condition of the working class, to give financial aid to the backward and weak classes to raise their standard of living.
  • To improve the condition of the minorities and the women.
  • To frame foreign policy based on Non-alignment.

Question 4.
Formation of Communist Party of India.
Answer:
Formation of Communist Party of India. In the beginning of the 20th century, a group of redical youth within Indian National Congress was not satisfied with its policies. Russian Revolution inspired under the leadership of inspired Indian Youth for attaining independence through revolution. These disgruntled youth formed many Marxist organisations and assembled at Kanpur 1924 under the leadership of Manvinder Nath Rai. this led to the formation of the Communist Party of India.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 5.
Role of the Opposition.
Answer:
Role of the Opposition. (Pb. 2003 D) In a democratic country like India opposition performs many functions and the most important ones are as follow:

  1. Criticism of the Government. One of the most important functions of the opposition is to criticise the Government. The opposition points out the drawbacks in the laws, policies, plans and programmes of the government.
  2. Suggestions to Government. The opposition not only criticises the policies of the Government but also gives suggestions and proposals to remove its drawbacks.
  3. Alternative Programmes. The opposition provides drafts of alternative laws, policies, plans and programmes to ensure the social, economic and cultural welfare of the people.
  4. The opposition plays an important role in the working of democratic set-up. It makes democracy real and effective. It exposes the lapses of the government before the people.
  5. The opposition parties safeguard the interests and liberties of the people by checking the despotism of the government.
  6. The opposition provides a ready alternative government.

Question 6.
Essential condition for the success of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
An essential condition for the success of Indian Democracy.

  1. A democratic society is necessary for the success of a democracy or democratic country in which there must be political equality.
  2. There has to be earth presence of equal and open thinking in society and it is very much necessary for the success of democracy.
  3. Economic equality must be provided. It means that everyone should be provided equal opportunities for development. It is a guarantee of the success of democracy.
  4. Educated citizens must be there. Democracy is a system that involves a continues and active movement of the people in the political process. That’s why it is essential that literary should be widespread.

Question 7.
Main Principles of Indian Democracy.
Answer:
Main Principles of Indian Democracy;
Following are the main important. features of the Indian democracy:

  1. The Indian Constitution provides for a democratic set-up in the country. Its preamble describes the importance of democracy.
  2. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Equality to all citizens. This right is similar t.o the principle of democratic equality.
  3. Freedom is the main principle of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants Right to Freedom to all the citizens of india.
  4. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution lays stress on promoting fraternity among all citizens.
  5. The Indian Constitution provides for adult franchise in India which is the soul of democracy.
  6. The Constitution also provides, for joint electoral system which ensures equality to the people of all castes, religions and races.
  7. Political rights are the demands of democracy. The Indian Constitution grants political rights to nil Indians without any kind of discrimination.
  8. Independence of Judiciary, Secularism and Republican system have strengthened the foundations of democracy.

Question 8.
Indian Democracy at work.
Answer:
Indian Democracy at work. Indian democracy is working quite successfully. India is having indirect democracy in which decisions are taken by the elected representatives of the people. Democracy is completely dependent upon elections and free and fair elections are held India by an independent Election Commission. All the political parties are free to work in society to create public opinion in their favour. Many political parties exist in India which give great contribution in making Indian democracy a great success. So, we can say that Indian democracy is successfully working.

PSEB 10th Class Social Science Guide Indian Democracy at Work Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in one line or one word :

Question 1.
Why are modern democracies indirect or representative?
Answer:
Because modern states are large in size, having a large area with huge population.

Question 2.
What is an election manifesto?
Answer:
It is a document which tells the programme, principles, objectives and promises of a party or a candidate.

Question 3.
Why are election symbols allotted to political parties in India?
Answer:
To facilitate uneducated voters to instantly recognise the party of their choice.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 4.
What is the meaning of Secret Ballot?
Answer:
The Secret Ballot system means the casting of vote by a voter remains a secret process.

Question 5.
How are the representatives of people kept under check in democracy?
Answer:
The representatives who do not work well can be removed through election.

Question 6.
What is meant by ‘Rule of Law’?
Answer:
By Rule of Law we mean that the government rules according to the law of the land.

Question 7.
What is the meaning of Communalism?
Answer:
Communalism is an ideology which emphasizes the separate identity of a religious group in relation to other groups.

Question 8.
What is the importance of democracy in the modern age?
Answer:
The people get all opportunities of making progress only in a democracy.

Question 9.
Describe any one obstacle in the way of public opinion.
Answer:
Illiteracy. An illiterate person cannot form a sound.public opinion.

Question 10.
How does cinema express the public opinion?
Answer:
Films throw light on the failures and achievements of the government.

Question 11.
Give any one point showing the importance of political parties.
Answer:
A political party, after winning the elections, comes to power and forms the government.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 12.
How are the ideas of democracy and citizenship interlinked with each other?
Answer:
The success of democracy depends on enlightened, honest and vigilant citizens.

Question 13.
Write any one essential condition for the free expression of public opinion.
Answer:
Press and other means of communication should be free and impartial.

Question 14.
Name any one agency through which public opinion is usually expressed.
Answer:
Newspapers or the Press.

Question 15.
After coming to power, the government cannot ignore the public opinion. Why?
Answer:
It is pushed out of power in the next elections.

Question 16.
What is meant by Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The adult franchise means the right of voting is granted to all the adults.

Question 17.
What is the importance of free and impartial elections in democracy?
Answer:
The people elect the representatives of their own choice.

Question 18.
What is an election process?
Answer:
The process by which the citizens cast their votes and elect their representatives.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 19.
What do you mean by the Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The right of voting granted to ail the adults

Question 20.
Mention one feature of an election manifesto.
Answer:
It tells the voters about the policies, of the political parties.

Question 21.
Describe any one technique of an election campaign.
Answer:
Political parties arrange public meetings and processions to win over the voters in their favour.

Question 22.
Mention three functions of the Election Commission.
Answer:

  1. Conducting the elections
  2. Counting of votes
  3. Declaring the results of elections.

Question 23.
What is a political party?
Answer:
It is group of citizens having common views on public questions and is organised as a political unit to obtain control of the government.

Question 24.
What do you understand by single-party system?
Answer:
A single party system is that system where only one party functions in the whole of the state.

Question 25.
What do you understand by two party system?
Answer:
Where there are two major political parties in a country.

Question 26.
What do you understand by Multi-Party system?
Answer:
When there are more than two well-organised political parties in a country.

Question 27.
What is a regional party?
Answer:
A party that is organised in a particular region or a state is called a regional party.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 28.
Mention any one difference between a regional party and a national party.
Answer:
A national party has influence all over the country whereas the influence of a regional party is limited to a particular region or a state.

Question 29.
Describe any one function of the opposition party in a democracy.
Answer:
It points out the faults of the government.

Question 30.
What do you mean by proportional representation?
Answer:
It is an electoral device designed to ensure representation of all sections of public opinion in proportion to their voting strength.

Question 31.
What is meant by election symbol?
Answer:
In elections, a special symbol is allotted to every candidate. It is called an election symbol.

Question 32.
What do you mean by simple majority system?
Answer:
A candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rivals is declared elected.

Question 33.
What kind of Democratic Government is in India? (Pb. 2002A)
Answer:
Parliamentary form of government.

Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
Democracy is of two types direct and _________
Answer:
indirect

Question 2.
_________ is a key for the success of democracy.
Answer:
Enlightened citizens

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 3.
India has a _________ government.
Answer:
democratic

Question 4.
Equality and liberty are the basic principles of _________
Answer:
democracy

Question 5.
In India all adult citizens who have attained the age of _________ have been given right to vote.
Answer:
18

Question 6.
An important pillar of Indian democracy is an independent _________
Answer:
judiciary

Question 7.
Political fights are heart and soul of _________
Answer:
democracy

Question 8.
Public meetings are important means for formation of _________
Answer:
public opinion

Question 9.
Indian National Congress was established in _________
Answer:
1885

Question 10.
Bhartiya Janata Party was established in _________
Answer:
1980.

Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic?
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.
(b) India’s Election Commission is very powerful.
(c) In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
(d) In India the losing parties accept the verdict.
Answer:
(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
The Communist Party of India was formally founded in the year :
(a) 1924
(b) 1885
(c) 1925
(d) 1906.
Answer:
(a) 1924

Question 3.
Bharatiya Janata Party was founded in :
(a) 1952
(b) 1977
(c) 1980
(d) 1984.
Answer:
(c) 1980

Question 4.
Which of the following is a National Party?
(a) Akali Dal
(b) Janata Party
(c) National Conference
(d) Indian National Congress.
Answer:
(d) Indian National Congress.

Question 5.
The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by :
(a) Parliament
(b) President
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Governor.
Answer:
(b) President

Question 6.
Which of the following is a regional political party?
(а) Shiromani Akali Dal
(b) National Democratic Alliance
(c) Communist Party of India
(d) Indian National Congress.
Answer:
(а) Shiromani Akali Dal

Question 7.
Which of the following is responsible for conducting free and fair elections?
(a) Parliament
(b) Election Commission
(c) President
(d) Speaker.
Answer:
(b) Election Commission

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by democracy in modern times?
Answer:
Modem age is an age of democracy. By democracy we mean the government in which the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The people directly or indirectly take part in the administrative affairs of the state. The representatives of people make and implement laws keeping in view the welfare of the people. The public can unseat a representative in case he does not work upto their expectations. In fact, democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 2.
What do you mean by the principle of Political Equality?
Answer:
By political equality, we mean that all the people should enjoy equal democratic rights. According to this principle, we must not classify the citizens under different categories. So it is clear that political equality means equality before law. All the citizens should hold their positions according to their capability and efficiency. There should be no discrimination on the-basis of caste, colour and creed.

Question 3.
Differentiate between direct and indirect democracy.
Answer:
Democracy can be classified into two categories :

  1. Direct Democracy.
  2. Indirect Democracy.

1. Direct Democracy. In direct democracy, all the citizens of the state directly participate in the administrative affairs of the state. Every citizen takes part in the making and implementation of laws and levying taxes, in deciding the policy of the government and all other important affairs of the state. Even the representatives could be asked to resign if they did not work to their satisfaction.

2. Indirect Democracy. Under indirect democracy, the citizens do not take direct part in the state affairs. They, on the other hand, elect their representatives who run the government on their behalf.

Question 4.
How is the public opinion formed? How can it be expressed?
Answer:
It is the age of democracy and public opinion is the backbone of democracy. A strong public opinion is not formed by itself. Political parties, rulers, leaders, press etc. contribute to its formation.

The following means are used in the formation and expression of public opinion :

  1. The political leaders put their views before the. people in public meetings and assemblies. They explain the policy of their party. Thus people come to know about the various problems and their solutions. This helps in the formation and expression of public opinion.
  2. The press is the main instrument of formation and expression of public opinion. Through the press, the people can express their opinions freely.
  3. The radio, television, literature, cinema, educational institutions and religious institutions all help in the formation and expression of public opinion.

Question 5.
Explain the hurdles in the way of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy for its successful working demands awakened citizens, high calibers, good character leaders with a sense of responsibility and keen interest in the success of democracy. Social conditions are political and economic equality; co-operative and tolerant citizens, well organised political parties, independent judiciary and free press. Absence of these essential conditions is the main hurdle in the way of democracy.

Question 6.
How can obstacles in the way of democracy be removed? Give any two remedies.
Answer:
The obstacles in the way of democracy can be removed in the following two ways :

  1. Spread of Education. Only educated and able citizens can make democracy successful. So education should be wide-spread. All citizens should be educated. Primary education should be made free and compulsory.
  2. Free and Honest Press. A sound public opinion is the backbone of democracy. Press (newspapers) is an effective instrument of public opinion. So it is very necessary to have an honest and free press for the success of democracy. The press should not be controlled either by the government or big industrialists.

Question 7.
Why are modern democracies indirect?
Answer:
Modern states are very large. The number of citizens runs into crores. It is not possible for them to run the government of a country directly. They cannot even assemble at one place. Moreover, we need an organised body, and not a crowd for running the government. The voters elect their representatives to the legislatures or other offices. The number of elected representatives is not very large. This can run the government smoothly and efficiently. That is why, modern democracies are indirect.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 8.
What is the importance of Representation in Democracy?
Answer:
In the modern age, democratic governments are representative governments. It means all depends upon the representation. Modern states have grown in size and population, making it impossible for the people to participate in the affairs of the state. Thus, the system of representation helps them in electing their representatives to run the government. Moreover, the government can know the views of the people and their difficulties and this helps the government in framing right policies to run the administration. Thus the government functions according to the will of the people through their representatives. Thus we see that representation in democracy has great importance.

Question 9.
What is meant, by the responsible government?
Answer:
By responsible government, we mean the governments which were established after the revolutions in England and France. These governments could not be despotic. They had to function according to the law of the land. They were quite different from the democratic governments of today. In modern democratic age, all adults have the right to vote. The government is directly responsible to the legislature and indirectly to the people. But at that time, all the people did not participate in the elections of responsible governments. Such governments were elected by a small number of people.

Question 10.
What is an election manifesto? What are its benefits?
Answer:
An election manifesto is a document which tells the voters about the programme, principles, objectives and promises for which the party stands. An election manifesto is an important document of a political party.

It has the following benefits :

  1. The people judge the political parties by their election manifestoes.
  2. The people are able to form opinion about the aims and objects of the political parties and exercise their franchise accordingly.
  3. The voters are able to know the differences between the different political parties through the election manifestoes.
  4. The political party which comesout successful at the polls tries to implement the programmes published in its election manifesto. If it does not do so, the people can put pressure on it to act according to its manifesto.

Question 11.
Explain simple majority system.
Answer:
In simple majority system, the candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rival/rivals is declared elected. In this system, the elected candidate may or may not get the majority of votes. According to democratic rules, a candidate must be a representative of majority (more than 50%) votes. But sometimes an elected candidate gets less than 50% votes but is still declared elected. Such a candidate cannot be called a real representative of the people. Sometimes a political party getting majority votes sits in opposition in the Legislature and the other party representing minority votes comes to power.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 12.
What is the importance of adult franchise?
Answer:
The universal adult franchise means the right of voting granted to every adult— male or female, without any discrimination. A person above a certain age is called an adult. In India a person of 18 years is an adult. In India every person above 18 years enjoys the right to vote. This right is given to every man and woman without distinction of caste, religion, property or education. In a democracy, people rule themselves or the government is run through their chosen representatives. So universal adult franchise becomes very important. It provides an opportunity to the largest number of people to take part in the functioning of the government.

Question 13.
What is the importance of election campaign?
Answer:
Election campaign has great importance in democracy. Through election campaign, people come to know; the different problems of the country. Political parties try to mould the public opinion in their favour. The opposition parties tell the people about their policies and programmes. They throw light on the wrong policies of the government. They promise that after coming to power, they will do everything for the welfare of the public. Similarly, the ruling party presents before the public its achievements and further plans. All these points make it clear that election campaign has great importance.

Question 14.
Does the electorate have real control over its representatives?
Answer:
In a democracy, people elect their representatives. The electorate has real control over their representatives. The representatives have fear in their minds that the electorate will turn against them and push them out of power if they do nothing for the welfare of the electorate. It is thus clear the electorate has control over their representatives. In some countries, the electorate is entitled to recall their representatives if they do not work upto its expectations.

Question 15.
Why have the political parties so much importance in democracy?
Answer:
Political parties have a special role in democracy. They perform the following functions :

  1. Political parties set their programmes. During elections they prepare their manifestoes and present them before the people. Through them, people come to know the national problems and then form their own opinions.
  2. Political parties help in the formulation of the public opinion.
  3. They contest elections.
  4. The party that secures a majority in the election, forms the government.
  5. The party with minority membership forms the opposition.
  6. The political parties give political education and training to the people.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 16.
What is the importance of elections in democracy? What role do political parties play in elections?
Answer:
Elections are very important in a democracy :

  1. Through the elections, the people choose their representatives to the legislature central or state.
  2. The elections give stability to the government.
  3. People control the government through elections and stop it from becoming despotic.
  4. People change their governments through the elections.

Political parties play a very important role in the elections :

  • They put political problems before the people.
  • They suggest to the people various ways of solving these problems.
  • They give political education to the people;
  • They make people aware of their rights.

Question 17.
Mention the defects of the ‘simple majority’ election system.
Answer:
The representative are generally elected by simple majority. In this system, the candidate who secures the highest number of votes against his rivals is declared elected.

There are many defects in this system:

  • The elected representative is not always the choice of the majority. He is generally elected by a minority,
  • The majority party in the legislature represents only minority votes,
  • All parties do not get representation according to the number of their votes,
  • A large number of votes go waste. They do not elect any representative at all.

Question 18.
What is the importance of Secret Ballot System?
Answer:
The Secret Ballot System has great importance in the election process. The following points make it clear :

  • The system of Secret Ballot ensures just and impartial election.
  • The voters are free from outside pulls and pressures in casting their votes.
  • No outside force or fear can influence the voter to cast his vote under the system of Secret Ballot.
  • This system brings the desired result without creating any ill-feeling.

Question 19.
What is the importance of the opposition in democracy?
Or
What are the functions of an opposition party?
Answer:
In a democracy, an opposition party is a great blessing for the people. It has an important role to play :

  • A strong opposition does not allow the government to become despotic. It points out the faults of the government.
  • It brings the people’s grievances to the notice of the government.
  • It brings to the notice of the people the wrong deeds of the government.
  • It provides alternative government to the country.

PSEB 10th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work

Question 20.
What are the advantages of the two-party system (bi-party system)?
Answer:
The two-party system or the bi-party system is the best type of party system. It helps in the smooth functioning of a democratic government.

This system has the following advantages :

  1. Both the parties have clear manifestoes, programmes and policies. The electors are able to make up their mind in the exercise of their franchise much before the date of the election.
  2. It also provides stability to the government. The party which gets the absolute majority, forms the government. The other party acts as an opposition party.
  3. Under the two-party system, the government is able to implement long-term measures of reforms and development.
  4. The opposition party keeps the government alert. It exposes the acts of omission .and commission of the government.

Indian Democracy at Work PSEB 10th Class SST Notes

  • Types of Democracy: Democracy can be either Direct or Indirect. In direct democracy, the people run the government directly but in indirect democracy, the government is run by the representatives of the people. For the success of democracy it is essential that public opinion plays an important role. Healthy public opinion is a check on the political parties. In the formation of public opinion many constituents such as newspapers, electronic media, political parties and many social service groups play very important role.
  • Expression of Public Opinion: In the formation of public opinion its means are also considered. The political parties, indicate the opinion of the people.
  • Modern Public Opinion: Modem age is the age of indirect public opinion, because the modem states have large areas and have big populations.
  • Right to Vote: The right to vote means that, the citizens have the right to elect their representatives. In India, the basis of voting is one person one vote.
  • Secret ballot: In most of the democratic countries, the method of secret ballot has been adopted. It means that in the elections, the citizens can vote for a candidate of their choice. Any voter cannot be compelled to vote for any particular candidate. He cannot be told for whom he has to cast his vote.
  • Election Process: The Election Commission conducts the elections by a particular process. This process has different stages :
    (i) To fix the date of election
    (ii) Nomination of candidates
    (iii) Scmtiny of nomination papers
    (iv) The date of withdrawal
    (v) Election campaign
    (vi) Voting
    (vii) Counting of votes
    (viii) Declaration of results.
  • The Election Symbols: Every political party has its own symbol. Independent candidates are given their different symbols. The allocation of symbols to the candidates makes it easy for the voters to vote for the candidate of their choice.
  • Election Propaganda: With the announcement of election, political parties and independent candidates start election propaganda and try to influence the voters.
  • Election Manifesto: Election manifesto is an important document of a political party in which each political party declares its aims, objectives and programmes.
  • Role of Political Parties: Political parties help to create public interest without which there can be no public opinion.
  • Party Systems: Single party system, bi-party system and multiple party system.
  • Names of National Political Parties: Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), CPI, National Congress and Trinamool Congress.
  • India’s important Regional Parties: AIDMK in Tamilnadu, Telgu Desham in Andhra Pradesh, Akali Dal in Punjab, National Conference in J&K etc.
  • Role of Opposition: The opposition not in power criticises the government. It serves as a check on the government.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Indian Democracy at Work Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.