PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

PSEB 8th Class Science Guide Force and Pressure Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercises

Question 1.
Give two examples each of situations in which you push or pull to change the state of motion of objects.
Answer:

  1. In a cricket game, fielders stop the ball hit by a batsman.
  2. Brakes applied to stop a moving vehicle.

Question 2.
Give two examples of situations in which applied force causes a change in the shape of an object.
Answer:

    1. Pressing a rubber ball placed on a table.
    2. Spring fixed in the seat of bicycle pressed down due to weight of the rider.

Question 3.
Fill in the blanks in the following statements:
[а] To draw water from a well we have to ………………. at the rope.
[b] A charged body …………….. an uncharged body towards it.
[c] To move a loaded trolley we have to …………………. it.
[d] The north pole of a magnet …………… the north pole of another magnet.
Answer:
(a) pull
(b) attracts
(c) push
(d) repels.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 4.
An archer stretches her bow while taking aim at the target. She then releases the arrow, which begins to move towards the target. Based on this information fill up the gaps in the following statements using the following terms.
Muscular, contact, non-contact, gravity, friction, shape, attraction.
[а] To stretch the bow, the archer applies a force that causes change in its …………………. .
[b] The force applied by the archer to stretch the bow is an example of ………………… force.
[c] The type of force responsible for a change in the state of motion of the arrow is an example of a ………………. force.
[d] While the arrow moves towards the target, the forces acting on it are due to ………………….. and that due to ………………….. of air.
Answer:
(a) shape,
(b) muscular,
(c) muscular,
(d) gravity, friction.

Question 5.
In the following situations identify the agent exerting the force and the object on which it acts. State the effect of force in each case.
[a] Squeezing a piece of lemon between the fingers to extract its juice.
[b] Taking out paste from a toothpaste tube.
[c] A load suspended from a spring while its other end is on a hook fixed to a wall.
[d] An athlete making a high jump to clear the bar at a certain height.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure 1

Question 6.
A blacksmith hammers a hot piece of iron while making a tool. How does the force due to hammering affect the piece of iron ?
Answer:
The force applied by the hammer flattens the piece of iron i.e. changes its shape and size.

Question 7.
An inflated balloon was pressed against a wall after it has been rubbed with a piece of synthetic cloth. It was found that the balloon sticks to the wall. What force might be responsible for attraction between the balloon and the wall.
Answer:
Electrostatic force.

Question 8.
Name the forces acting on a plastic bucket containing water held above ground level in your hand. Discuss why the forces acting on the bucket do not bring a change in its state of motion.
Answer:
Forces acting on plastic bucket

  1. Force of gravity acting downwards.
  2. Muscular force of arms acting upwards.

The two forces do not bring about any change in state of motion of bucket because both forces are equal and act in the opposite direction and thus cancel each other’s effect.

Question 9.
A rocket has been fired upwards to launch a satellite in its orbit. Name the two forces acting on the rocket immediately after leaving the launching pad.
Answer:
When a rocket leaves launching pad, the following forces act on it:

  1. Gravitational force of earth (downwards).
  2. Propelling force of gases emitted by combustion of fuels (upwards).

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 10.
When we press the bulb of a dropper with its nozzle kept in water, air in the dropper is seen to escape in the form of bubbles. Once we release the pressure on the bulb, water gets filled in the dropper. The rise of water in the dropper is due to
(a) pressure of Water
(b) gravity of the earth
(c) shape of rubber bulb
(d) atmospheric pressure.
Answer:
(d) atmospheric pressure.

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Science Force and Pressure Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Raman was surprised to see a camel walking easily barefooted on sand but he himself was unable to walk barefoot on sand. What is the reason behind this ?
(a) The surface area of the foot of the camel is more
(b) The surface area of the foot of Raman is more.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) The surface area of the foot of the camel is more.

Question 2.
By exerting force on anything:
(a) results in increasing the speed of the object
(b) results in decreasing the speed of the object
(c) Results in change in the direction of the motion of the object
(d) All the effects are possible.
Answer:
(d) All the effects are possible.

Question 3.
Force is:
(a) a push on an object
(b) a pull on an object
(c) a push or pull on an object
(d) neither a push nor a pull.
Answer:
(c) a push or pull on an object.

Question 4.
The food in the foodpipe is pushed forward during digestive process :
(a) By friction force
(b) Muscular force
(c) Contact force
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Muscular force.

Question 5.
The force of friction on a moving object always acts:
(a) in the direction of motion
(b) opposite to the direction of motion
(c) in the direction of motion upwards
(d) opposite to the direction of motion downwards
Answer:
(b) opposite to the direction of motion.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 6.
While carrying luggage on the railway station a ‘coolie’ often rolls his cloth and places it on his head to :
(a) increase force
(b) increase pressure
(c) reduce weight
(d) reduce pressure
Answer:
(d) reduce pressure.

Question 7.
The pressure applied by liquids …………………. with the increase in depth.
(a) decreases
(b) remains same
(c) increases
(d) depends on the nature of liquids
(c) increases.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is common in following actions :
kicking, hitting, lifting, pulling, etc ?
Answer:
In all above actions, force is used to change the motion of the object.

Question 2.
What other terms are used for actions involving motion of objects ?
Answer:
Push or pull.

Question 3.
What is force ?
Answer:
Force. A push or pull that changes or tends to change the state, shape or direction of motion of the body is called force.

Question 4.
What is meant by pressure ?
Answer:
Pressure. Force acting per unit area is called a pressure.

Question 5.
Explain with an example that force can change the speed of an object.
Answer:
Suppose you are going on your bicycle with a speed of 10 m/s in north to south direction, and if your friend gives a strong push to your bicycle in the same direction then the speed of your bicycle will definitely increase.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 6.
Give an illustration to show that a force can change the shape of the object.
Answer:
If a rubber ball is pressed in between the two palms, we find that ball is no longer round but becomes oblong.

Question 7.
Give an illustration to show that a force can produce change in both the speed and direction of motion.
Answer:
When the batsman plays the ball thrown by bowler, the speed and direction of the ball changes.

Question 8.
Give an illustration to show that force can change the direction of mofion of an object.
Answer:
In game of football, we can change the direction of a moving football by kicking it.

Question 9.
What causes force to act ?
Answer:
Interaction between two objects.

Question 10.
What happens when force is applied in the direction of motion ?
Answer:
The speed of object increases.

Question 11.
What happens when forces acting on an object are in opposite direction and equal ?
Answer:
Net force will be zero i.e. object will not move in any direction.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 12.
What is contact force ?
Answer:
Contact force. The force which acts only, when objects are in contact, is called contact force.

Question 13.
Give examples of contact force.
Answer:
Muscular and frictional forces.

Question 14.
Which type of force is force of gravity ?
Answer:
Non-contact force.

Question 15.
Give an example of non-contact force.
Answer:
Magnetic force.

Question 16.
What is electrostatic force ?
Answer:
Electrostatic force. The force exerted by a charged body is called electrostatic force.

Question 17.
How can pressure be increased or decreased ?
Answer:
By changing the area on which force acts.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 18.
Why is the foundation of wall made wider ?
Answer:
To decrease the pressure of the walls on the base.

Question 19.
What is relation between force, area and pressure ?
Answer:
Pressure = Force/Area.

Question 20.
Which type of tool is needed for cutting or piercing ?
Answer:
A sharp edged tool.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is done to stop a moving ball ?
Answer:
To stop a moving ball, equal force is applied in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the ball.

Question 2.
Can a moving object on a smooth surface stop by itself ? If so, why ?
Answer:
A moving object can stop by itself due to friction between it and the surface on which it is moving. Friction acts in the opposite direction thus, stops the ball.

Question 3.
When is net force applied zero ? Give an example.
Answer:
When two forces are applied in opposite direction and are equal in magnitude then net force is zero. Example : A game of tug-of-war.

Question 4.
Force is a vector quantity. How ?
Answer:
A vector quantity is that quantity which can be represented completely by magnitude as well as direction. To represent the force magnitude as well as direction both are required. Hence force is a vector quantity.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 5.
Name various types of forces.
Answer:
The following are the various types of forces:

  1. Muscular force.
  2. Magnetic force.
  3. Electrostatic force.
  4. Gravitational force.
  5. Frictional force.

Question 6.
List two effects of force.
Answer:
Effects of Force.

  1. Force changes the state of motion.
  2. Force changes the shape of an object.

Question 7.
What is state of motion of an object ?
Answer:
State of motion of an object is its speed and direction of motion. The state of rest is when speed is zero. The change in speed or direction of motion or both means a change in state of motion of an object.

Question 8.
Can force change only the direction of motion without any change in speed of an object ? If yes, how ?
Answer:
Yes, force can change only direction of motion without any change in speed of an object. It can be shown as follows:
Experiment.
Take a small stone. Tie it to a string. Whirl string in circular path with your hand. It is noted that stone moves with a constant speed in circular path. But when the whirling is stopped, the stone tries to move in horizontal path. This shows that force applied is used to change the direction of motion of the stone.

Question 9.
Give few examples of muscular force.
Answer:
Muscular force. Walking, breathing, running, lifting, sking, fighting are few activities which require muscular force to accomplish.

Question 10.
Give an example of contact force.
Answer:
When a moving striker collides with a disc on a carrom board, the disc begins to move showing the effect of contact force.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 11.
Give two examples of non-contact forces.
Answer:
Examples of non-contact force.

  1. When two magnets lie side by side at a distance they either repel or attract each other.
  2. A charged body can attract or repel other uncharged or charged body even from a distance.

Question 12.
Why is force of gravity termed as non-contact force ? Explain.
Answer:
Force of gravity acts on objects lying on or near the surface of earth. It also acts on distant objects such as shown by leaves falling from trees, water in pipes flowing downwards, revolution of moon around the earth. In all cases, objects are not in contact with the earth. So it is termed as a non-contact force.

Question 13.
Define pressure and what are its units ?
Answer:
Pressure. The force acting per unit area of a surface, is called pressure. Force
Pressure = \(\frac{\text { Force }}{\text { Area }}\)
Unit of Pressure is Pascal or N m-2.

Question 14.
Why do you use sharp edged knife to cut a fruit ?
Answer:
In the sharp edged knife the effect of force increases the pressure on a fruit and thus cut it easily.

Question 15.
Where is pressure greater and the least inside a bottle filled with water ?
Answer:
In a bottle filled with water, the pressure is the greatest at the bottom of the bottle and it is the least at the top of the bottle.

Question 16.
What makes a balloon stretch as it is filled with air ?
Answer:
When we fill air in a balloon, the air exerts pressure on inner surface of the balloon. The pressure of the air inside the balloon stretches it.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 17.
Show experimentally that pressure increases with the depth.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure 2
The pressure of a liquid depends upon its depth. This can be proved by an experiment given below :
Experiment.
Take a deep vessel having atleast three holes at different heights on one side of the vessel as shown in Fig. Fill it with water. We shall find that the jet of water from the lowest hole reaches the farthest. This proves that at the lowest hole, the force or pressure is
maximum. Fig. Pressure increases with depth.

Question 18.
What is atmospheric pressure ?
Answer:
Atmospheric pressure. Our earth is surrounded by an air column. This air column like liquid columns exerts pressure on all the objects lying on earth. This pressure exerted by air of the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.

Question 19.
Atmospheric pressure is so great, why are we not crushed by it ?
Answer:
Our body and the bodies of other organisms are made up of cells which have fluids that exert pressure from within. This pressure exerted from the inside of the cell is equal to the atmospheric pressure and prevents us from being crushed.

Question 20.
The following picture shows the sheet of rubber tied to one side of the pipe filled with water. If the level of water is raised then what will be the effect on balloon of rubber. Give reason.
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure 3
Answer:
When the level of water is raised in pipe, the rubber sheet tied to the pipe blows. This happens because with the raise of level of water, the pressure exerted on rubber increases.
That is way, rubber sheet blows.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the different types of forces ? Give an example of each.
Answer:
Types of forces:
The following are the different types of forces:
1. Muscular force
2. Magnetic force
3. Electrostatic force
4. Gravitational force
5. Frictional force.

1. Muscular force:
The force applied by a living being with its muscles is known as muscular force e.g., bullocks apply muscular force to draw a cart.

2. Magnetic force:
A magnet has the property of attracting things made of cobalt, nickel, iron or steel. The force produced by a magnetic substance is called the magnetic force e.g., a magnet can move small iron pins.

3. Electrostatic force:
When substances like plastic and terylene are rubbed against each other, charge is excited on them. The force produced due to this electricity is called the electrostatic force e.g., when a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the rod moves bits of paper due to electrostatic force.

4. Gravitational force:
The earth exerts a force of attraction on all things on its surface and beyond. The force of attraction exerted by the earth is called the gravitational force or force due to gravity. An object dropped from a certain height falls on the earth due to the gravitational force.

5. Frictional force:
When an object moves along some other object, the force which acts between the surfaces of a contact of the two objects is called the frictional force. The frictional force opposes the motion of the object e.g., a marble rolled on the ground stops after sometime due to the frictional force.

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Question 2.
When a force is applied to a body, state its effect.
Answer:
The following conclusion can be drawn about the effect of force applied to an object:

  1. Change in speed : The applied force can produce a change in the speed of an object.
  2. Change in direction of motion : The applied force can change the direction of motion of object.
  3. Change in both speed and direction of motion : The applied force can produce a change in both the speed and direction of motion.
  4. Change in shape and size of the body : The applied force can change the shape and size of an object.

Question 3.
Mention advantages and disadvantages of force.
Answer:
Advantages of force:

  1. Force can move a stationary object. For example, a toy can be moved by applying force.
  2. It can slow down a moving object. For example, a bicycle slows down on applying force due to brakes.
  3. It can change the direction of motion of an object. For example* a batsman hits the ball and changes its direction.
  4. It can change the shape of an object. For example, squeezing a sponge changes its shape.

Disadvantages of a force:

  1. Frictional force is responsible for wear and tear of tyres of vehicles and of our shoes.
  2. Frictional force also generates heat. This can be harmful. The heat produced in moving machines reduces their efficiency.

Question 4.
Describe an experiment to show that pressure is the same at all points at the same depth.
Answer:
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure 4
Experiment.
Take an empty tin can and pierce several holes of equal size at the same height and cover them with cellotape to be opened at will. Now fill the can up to its brim and remove the cellotape in order to open the holes (Fig.). It will be found that water from all the holes traverses equal horizontal distance. This is because of the fact that the pressure at all points is the same at the same depth.

Question 5.
How can you demonstrate the presence of atmospheric pressure experimentally ?
Answer:
Experiment.
Take a metallic can. Add little water into it. Remove its cap and heat the can, as shown in Fig. (a). The water boils and steam starts coming out from the mouth of the can. The steam forces out most of the air from the can. Now close the can with an air tight lid. Pour cold water on the can. Due to the cold water the steam inside the can condenses to liquid state. A partial vacuum is created. The external pressure (atmospheric) becomes greater than the inside pressure of steam. Hence high external pressure crushes the container [See Fig. (b)].
PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure 5

PSEB 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure

Force and Pressure PSEB 8th Class Science Notes

  • Force is a push or a pull which produces or tends to produce change in the state of a body.
  • Effect of force depends not only on the magnitude of force but also depends on the area on which it is applied.
  • Force can change the speed, the direction of motion and the shape of an object,
  • There are various types of forces such as muscular, magnetic, electrostatic, gravitational and frictional.
  • Force acting per unit area is called pressure.
  • Liquids and gases apply pressure on the surfaces of the container.
  • Atmosphere also exerts pressure, called atmospheric pressure. ‘
  • The pressure exerted by liquids at a given depth is equal in all directions.
  • Pressure of column of liquid depends on its depth. The more the depth of liquid column, the more is the pressure.
  • Gases exert pressure in all directions.
  • Force: It is defined as an external cause which changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of an object. It is a vector quantity.
  • Resultant Force: When two or more forces act on a body simultaneously, then a single force which produces the same effect as the combined effect of all the forces together, is called resultant force.
  • Force of Friction: The force which opposes the motion of one body over another body in contact with it, is called the force of friction or simply friction.
  • Gravitation: Gravitation is the attraction between any two bodies (particles) in the universe.
  • Weight: Weight of a body is the force with which the body is attracted towards the centre of the earth.
  • Pressure: Force acting per unit area is called pressure.
  • Atmospheric Pressure: Pressure exerted by atmosphere on all the objects lying on the earth is called atmospheric pressure.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 11 Force and Pressure Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Science Guide for Class 7 PSEB Reproduction in Plants Intext Questions and Answers

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 147)

Question 1.
What happens in regeneration method of reproduction ?
Answer:
In the regeneration method, the living organisms (plants and animals) repair themselves or grow their lost parts. In this way they replace their old or dead cells with new ones. Plants have a higher capacity of regeneration than animals.

Question 2.
Give two examples of organisms reproducing through binary fission.
Answer:
Asexual reproducing organisms by binary fission method are:

  1. Moss,
  2. Mould.

PSEB 7th Class Science Guide Reproduction in Plants Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks:

(i) Anther and filament form the ………………. of a flower.
Answer:
Stamens

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

(ii) In …………………….. reproduction seeds are formed.
Answer:
Sexual

(iii) Flowers having, both stamens and pistil are called …………………. .
Answer:
Bisexual

(iv) …………………… is an asexual mode of reproduction.
Answer:
Vegetative propagation

2. State True or False:

(i) Yeast reproduces by sexual and asexual means.
Answer:
False

(ii) Pollen grains are the male gametes of a flower.
Answer:
True

(iii) Ginger is a stem which bears nodes and internodes.
Answer:
True

(iv) Cutting and grafting are natural means of reproduction.
Answer:
False

3. Match the Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(i) Sweet potato (a) Micropropagation
(ii) Potato (b) Bryophyllum
(iii) Leaf buds (c) Artificial propagation
(iv) Grafting (d) Yeast
(v) Tissue culture (e) Spirogyra
(vi) Bud (f) Adventitious root
(vii) Fragmentation (g) Stem tuber

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(i) Sweet potato (f) Adventitious root
(ii) Potato (g) Stem tuber
(iii) Leaf buds (b) Bryophyllum
(iv) Grafting (c) Artificial propagation
(v) Tissue culture (a) Micropropagation
(vi) Bud (d) Yeast
(vii) Fragmentation (e) Spirogyra

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

4. Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
In which mode of reproduction new plants are formed from only one parent ?
Answer:
By Asexual reproduction method new plants are formed from one parent. The different examples are:

  1. Grafting,
  2. Layering,
  3. Tissue culture.

Question (ii)
Which part of the flower develops into fruit ?
Answer:
After fertilization, the ovaries become fruit.

Question (iii)
How does yeast multiply ?
Answer:
The most common method of reproduction in yeast is asexual reproduction by budding in which a tiny bud forms on the outer surface of parent cell.

Question (iv)
Give one example where air helps in pollination.
Answer:
When the pollen cells ripe, they burst and the pollen grains come out of them. Pollen grains are very light. So when the wind blows, they are blown away by the wind. These pollinators reach the stigma of the flowers of the same plant or of another flower of the same species where the pollination takes place.

Question (v)
Name the reproductive parts of a flower.
Answer:
The reproductive parts of the flower are:

  1. Stamen (male reproductive part)
  2. Pistil (female reproductive part.)

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Name different methods of asexual reproduction in plants.
Answer:
Asexual reproduction method is one in which no seed is required for growing new plants. A single plant produces a new plant. Asexual reproduction occurs in the following ways:

  1. Binary fission,
  2. Budding,
  3. Fragmentation,
  4. Spore formation,
  5. Regeneration.

Question (ii)
What is artificial propagation in plants ?
Answer:
Artificial Propagation. Artificial methods of reproduction are adopted to increase the number of useful plants. In these methods neither the reproductive organ takes part nor the seed is produced. In this artificial reproduction new plants grow through roots, stems, branches or leaves.

Below are some of the artificial methods:

  1. Grafting (stems and roots),
  2. Burying,
  3. Pruning,
  4. Tissue culture.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question (iii)
What is tissue culture technique or micro propagation ?
Answer:
Tissue culture or micro-reproduction: This method involves taking some percent of the tissue from the tip of a plant branch because it contains rapidly developing, underdeveloped and undifferentiated cells. This mass has essential nutrients and hormones stored in it. Small parts of the tissue are kept in a medium until they begin to regenerate as plantlets. These buds (small plants) are transplanted in moist soil. This process is of reproduction is called tissue culture.

Question (iv)
Describe advantages of seed dispersal.
Answer:
Advantages of Seed dispersal:

  1. Seed dispersal spreads the plant over a large area.
  2. The probability of dense vegetation in one place decreases.
  3. Plants have the right growth.
  4. Plants get proper sunlight, water and minerals as competition for nutrients get reduced.

Question (v)
What is germination ? What are the conditions needed for germination ?
Answer:
After reaching the fertile soil, the seeds absorb water and swell up. Now the embryo
begins to germinate and its radical (root sprout) grows down into the soil and forms a root. The plumule grows upward in the air and develops leaves and shoot. It is a form of young small plant.

Essential conditions for germination:
All seeds need (i) water, (ii) oxygen (air) and (iii) proper temperature for germination. Some seeds also need the right amount of light. When the seed finds the right conditions, it activates and germinates the enzyme by moving water and oxygen inward from the outer layer and forms the seed root which receives water from the ground and forms a stem which moves towards the wind and leaves come out on the trunk from which the sun makes food in the light.

6. Long Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Describe different kinds of asexual reproduction with examples.
Answer:
Different kinds of post-asexual reproduction :
1. Fission.
This is the most common method of asexual reproduction in which an organism is divided into new organisms. It is common in plants and some single-celled organisms such as fungi, some mosses. In this method of reproduction the organism is divided into equal parts. The nucleus is divided into two parts and both parts evolve as individual adult.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 1

2. Budding.
The word bud means small outgrowth. In the process of budding, a small bud grows on the body of the parent organism and when it grows to full size individual, it detaches itself to form a new organism.
Budding is commonly seen in hydra and yeast.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 2

3. Fragmentation.
This type of reproduction occurs commonly in Algae. It appears as green spots in ponds, lakes or other standing water bodies. When abundant water and nutrients are available, they are multiplied by fragmentation. In this method an algae is divided into two or more pieces. Each piece develops into new organisms. This process is repeated many times.
Other examples are Star fish, some Worms, Lichens etc.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 3

4. Spore formation.
Spores are very small, round-shaped structures for asexual reproduction. Spores have a hard outer layer and can stay in the air for a long time. Under favourable conditions, each spore germinates to develop into a new organism. Spore formation occurs in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Rhizopus, a fungus that grows on bread, is produced by asexual reproduction by spores. Plants such as moss and fern also reproduced by spores.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 4

5. Regeneration.
The organism repairs and enhances its broken limbs in one form or another. New cells replace old or dead cells. The ability of living beings to repair themselves and grow their lost parts is called regeneration. Plants have a higher capacity of regeneration than animals.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question (ii)
Explain different ways with examples in which plants can be reproduced vegetatively by artificial means.
Answer:
Artificial methods of vegetative reproduction.
Humans have adopted artificial methods of vegetative reproduction to increase the number of useful plants. Here are some of the methods:

1. Cutting, (i) (Cutting of stem). Cuttings are small nodules of stems or twigs, when they are pressed in moist soil then under favourable conditions roots germinates to grow as individual plant. As Bougainvillea, sugarcane, cactus and rose can grow by grafting of stem.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 5

(ii) Root Cuttings. When the roots of plants like lemon, tamarind are buried in moist soil new shoots get developed.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 6

2. Layering.
A twig of a plant is twisted so that it touches the ground. The portion of plant in contact of ground is then covered with soil. This buried part develops roots under suitable conditions and upper end of this branch is already in the air. The plant thus developed is cut from the original plant and grown in a new place. Jasmine, Strawberry, Yoganvelia plants are grown by layering.

3. Grafting.
The desired plant is derived from two different individuals. Portion of one plant is called stock while stem portion from the other is called seion. Seion is from the plant that wants to propagate and is, therefore, grafted on the stock. Their ends are obliquely cut and the two are placed face to face. Then the two ends are tied tightly and wrapped with polythene.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 7

4. Tissue culture.
This method involves taking a tissue from the tip of a plant branch as it contains rapidly dividing, underdeveloped and undifferen-tiated cells. This tissue, is cultured and nurtured in a sterilized medium. The mass of tissue develops as an individual plant let. This technique is useful in growing a number of rare and endangered plants which cannot grow under natural conditions.
With this method many plants can be grown in a very short time. This technique is used in disease free orchids, carnations, gladiolus, chrysanthemums, potatoes.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 8

Question (iii)
What is pollination ? What are the two types of pollination ? Discuss the different agents of pollination with examples.
Answer:
Pollination.
It is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. The goal of every living organism, including plants, is to create offspring for the next generation. One of the ways that plants can produce offspring is by making seeds. Seeds contain the genetic information to produce a new plant
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 9

Types of pollination. There are two types of pollination action:

1. Self-pollination.
This type of pollination occur in asexual flowers, when the pollens of the same flower from the pollen cell (Anther) go to the pollen stem (Stigma) of saffron, this action is called self-pollination, because their genes are similar. This type of pollination is seen in Tomato, mustard etc.

2. Cross-pollination.
In this type of pollination the pollen grains move from the pollen cells (Anther) of one flower to the pollen stalk (Stigma) of another flower. This pollination takes place between the flowers of the same plant or between the flowers of two different plants of same species. In plants cross-pollination is done by air, insects, water and animals.

Various factors of pollination:
1. Air pollination. Many plants are pollinated by wind. With strong winds, pollens of one flower reach the stigma of the other plant. Examples – wheat, cotton, sunflower, millet,

2. Insect pollination. Insects (butterflies and bees) are attracted to flowers because of the color and fragrance of the flowers. Insects help in transferring pollen grains from one flower to another through their feet. Examples are figs, flies, bees etc.

3. Pollination by water. The pollen of the flowers of the plants growing in the water flows with the water and the pollens of the one flower reach the stigma of other flower. Examples are lotus flower, water lily etc.

4. Pollination by animals. Some plants are pollinated with the help of birds and animals like- bats, humming bird and squirrels.

Question (iv)
Explain the process of fertilization.
Answer:
Fertilization action after pollination.
After pollination pollen grains enter a small tube, called the pollen tube. The female pollen reaches the-ovaries through the stigma or vertebrae and then enters the ovule. There is a combination of male and female gametes. The combination of male gamete and female gamete (to form a zygote) is called fertilization.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 10

Question (v)
List the different steps in the formation of seeds and fruits.
Answer:
Fruit and seed formation. The following changes occur in the flower after fertilization:
(1) After fertilization the ovaries get transformed into fruits and ovules get transformed into seeds. The rest of the flowers wither and fall off.

(2) A seed is a developed egg that contains embryos and nutrients. This is covered with a secure layer. This is called seed peel.

(3) Fruits can be fleshy and juicy or dry and hard. Mangoes, apples, oranges are fleshy and juicy fruits while almonds and walnuts are dry and hard fruits.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question (vi)
What is dispersal ? Explain with examples the different ways in which seeds get dispersed.
Answer:
Seed dispersal. The movement of seeds from one place to another by any means / factor like air, water, insects, birds, human beings and animals so that the seed survives is called seed dispersal.
Different methods of seed dispoersal:
(1) By wind
(2) By water
(3) By animals
(4) By humans
(5) By explosive process.

1. By wind. The seeds to be scattered by wind are small and light. Maple and Drumsticks seeds have wings. So they fly in the air and go far away. Seedlings with light grass seeds, acacia, cactus, cotton seeds and sunflower also fly with wind.

2. By water. Water lilies, lotuses and coconut fruits keep floating on the water so as their pollens. Water waves cany them far.

PSEB Solutions for Class 7 Science Reproduction in Plants Important Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks:

(i) Production of new individuals from the vegetative part of parent is called ……………. .
Answer:
vegetative propagation

(ii) A flower may have either male or female reproductive part. Such a flower is called ……………………
Answer:
unisexual

(iii) The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same or of different flower of the same kind is known as ………………. .
Answer:
self- pollination

(iv) The fusion of male and female gametes is termed as ………………. .
Answer:
fertilization

(v) Seed dispersal takes place by means of ……………….. , ………………. , and ……………… .
Answer:
water, wind, animals

2. Match the Column ‘I’ with Column ‘II’:

Column ‘I’ Column ‘II’
(a) Bud (i) Maple
(b) Eyes (ii) Spirogyra
(c) Fragmentation (iii) Yeast
(d) Wings (iv) Bread mould
(e) Spores (v) Potato
(vi) Rose.

 Answer:

Column ‘I’ Column ‘II’
(a) Bud (iii) Yeast
(b) Eyes (v) Potato
(c) Fragmentation (ii) Spirogyra
(d) Wings (i) Maple
(e) Spores (iv) Bread mould

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

3. Choose the Correct Answer:

Question (i)
The production of new individuals from their parents is called:
(a) Transportation
(b) Excretion
(c) Reproduction
(d) Respiration.
Answer:
(c) Reproduction.

Question (ii)
Out of the followings which is the vegetative part of a plant ?
(a) Stem
(b) Leaves
(c) Root
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

Question(iii)
Out of the following which is reproductive organ of a plant ?
(a) Root
(b) Flower
(c) Leaf
(d) Stem.
Answer:
(b) Flower.

Question (iv)
Union of male and female garnets is called:
(a) Fertilization
(b) Pollination
(c) Zygote
(d) Reproduction.
Answer:
(a) Fertilization.

Question (v)
Which method is used for reproduction in a unicellular yeast ?
(a) Fragmentation
(b) Budding.
(c) Spore formation
(d) Binary fission.
Answer:
(b) Budding.

Question (vi)
Bryophyllum reproduces by its:
(a) Leaves
(b) Roots
(c) Stem
(d) Flowers
Answer:
(a) Leaves.

Question (vii)
Name the commonest method of vegetative reproduction in rose and sugarcane
(a) Fragmentation
(b) Budding
(c) Binary Fission
(d) Cutting.
Answer:
(d) Cutting.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question (viii)
Name the factors, which are helpful in cross-pollination ?
(a) Air
(b) Water
(c) Insects
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

4. State True or False

(i) Asexual reproduction is more common than sexual reproduction.
Answer:
False

(ii) Bacteria and yeast reproduce by asexual reproduction.
Answer:
True

(iii) The ability to regenerate in many organisms is through some method,
Answer:
False

(iv) A fertilized organ becomes a seed.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is reproduction ?
Answer:
Reproduction. It is the ability of an organism to produce young ones of its own kind.

Question 2.
What is the role of reproduction ?
Answer:

  1. Propagation of species
  2. Evolution of species.

Question 3.
Name the two major kinds of reproduction.
Answer:

  1. Asexual reproduction and
  2. Sexual reproduction.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question 4.
Name the various methods of vegetative propagation in plants.
Answer:

  1. Cutting
  2. Layering
  3. Grafting.

Question 5.
Name common method for vegetative propagation of Rose and Sugarcane.
Answer:
Cutting.

Question 6.
How do Spirogyra and Mucor reproduce asexually ?
Answer:
Spirogyra – Fragmentation and Regeneration,
Mucor – Spore formation.

Question 7.
Name the mode of vegetative propagation in (i) Begonia (ii) Mint.
Answer:
(i) Begonia – Leaf buds,
(ii) Mint – Runners.

Question 8.
How do yeast, sponges and hydra reproduce asexually ?
Answer:
All the three reproduce by budding.

Question 9.
Which part of bryophyllum can be used for vegetative propagation ?
Answer:
Leaf of Bryophyllum.

Question 10.
Give one example of each : Vegetative propagation by (i) root (ii) stem.
Answer:
(i) Vegetative propagation by root : Sweet potato.
(ii) Vegetative propagation by stem : Potato.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question 11.
What is pollination ?
Answer:
Pollination. It is the transference of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower.

Question 12.
What term is used if the pollen is transferred to the stigma of same flower ?
Answer:
Self-pollination.

Question 13.
Where are pollens and ovules presents in flower ?
Answer:

  1. Pollens – Anther lobes
  2. Ovules – Ovary.

Question 14.
Which floral part is very attractive and coloured ?
Answer:
Petal.

Question 15.
What is fruit ?
Answer:
A ripened ovary.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is reproduction ? What are it basic types ?
Answer:
Reproduction.
All organisms show characteristic life cycle, involving birth, growth, maturation, reproduction and death. Rerproduction is one of the most important processes by which continuation of the species from one generation to another generation takes place. Older and aged organisms are replaced by new and younger organisms by reproduction.

There are two types of reproduction.

  1. Asexual reproduction
  2. Sexual reproduction.

Question 2.
Define asexual and sexual reproduction.
Answer:
Asexual Reproduction. It is a type of multiplication in which a young one is formed from a specialised or unspecialised part of a parent without the formation and fusion of sex cells, gametes.

Sexual Reproduction. It is a type of reproduction which takes place by the formation and fusion of gametes. It involves two major processes :
(a) Meiosis (reductional division) by which diploid sporophytic cells give rise to haploid gametes, and
(b) Fertilization, which reconstitutes the sporophytic diploid generation through gametic fusion.

Question 3.
Where do the moulds on bread come from ?
Answer:
The spores of the moulds are present in the air. The spores of the moulds under suitable conditions settle on the bread and grow.

Question 4.
Define the term unisexual and bisexual giving one example of each.
Answer:
Unisexual Organism. Male and female sex organs are present in different individuals such organisms are called unisexual. Example : Human.

Bisexual organism. Single individual having both male and female sex organs.
Examples : Most of the plants, Tapeworm, Earthworm.

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Question 5.
Mention the reproductive parts of a flower.
Answer:
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 11
Reproductive parts of a flower:
Stamens. It consists of stalk and a flattened top called anther. Anthers produce pollen grains. The pollen grains produce two male gametes.

Carpels. It has a swollen ovary at the base and an elongated middle style and terminal stigma.
The ovary contains ovules. Each ovule has an egg or female gamete.

Question 6.
Differentiate between ovule and ovary.
Answer:
Ovule. A structure in the ovary of a plant that develops into a seed after fertilization.
Ovary. The enlarged basal portion of a pistil that bears the ovules in angiosperms.

Question 7.
Describe the different methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples.
Answer:
Type of asexual reproduction
(1) Budding
(2) Fragmentation
(3) Spore formation
(4) Vegetative propagation.

(1) Budding. It is a common method of reproduction in Sponges and Hydra. In this process, the new individual develops from a small outgrowth on the surface of parent called bud.

(2) Regeneration. It is a form of fission in which a parent individual divides into a number of parts, each of which regenerates the missing structures to form a complete organism. It occurs in flatworm, ribbon worm and annelids.

(3) Spore formation. An individual produces spores which during favourable conditions give rise to new individuals e.g. Mucor.

(4) Vegetative propagation. A part of plant body other than reproductive organ gives rise to new individual plant e.g. Rose stem cutting gives to new rose plant.

Question 8.
Explain the process of sexual reproduction in plants.
Answer:
Sexual Reproduction in plants. Plants have male and female reproductive organs respectively called stamens and pistil. Stamens produce male gametes. The eggs are produced by ovules of pistil. These two genitals can be in the same or different flowers. Male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote. Sexual reproduction in plants takes place by seeds.

Question 9.
State the main difference between Asexual and Sexual reproduction.
Answer:
Differences between Asexual and Sexual forms of Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
1. The process involves only one cell or one parent. 1. This process involves two cells or gametes belonging to either the same or different parents.
2. The whole body of the parents may act as reproductive unit or it can be a single cell or a bud. 2. The reproductive unit is called gamete which is unicellular and haploid.
3. Only mitotic division takes place. 3. Meiosis and fertilization are essential events.
4. No formation of sex organ. 4. Formation of sex organs are essential.

Question 10.
Explain the differences between Self-pollination and Cross-pollination.
Answer:
Difference between Self-pollination and Cross-pollination.

Self-pollination Cross-pollination
1. It occurs within a flower or between two flowers of the same plant. 1. It occurs between two flowers borne on different plants of the same species.
2. Flowers do not depend on the other factors for pollination. 2. Agents such as insects, water and wind are required for ensuring pollination.

Question 11.
How does the process of fertilization take place in flowers ?
Answer:
Process of fertilization in flowers:

  • Pollination is transfer and deposition of pollen grains on stigma.
  • Pollen grain germinates on the stigma. It gives rise to pollen tube which carries male gametes.
  • A hypodermal cell of the nucleus in ovule enlarges and forms megaspore mother cell,
  • The diploid mega-spore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form four mega-spores.
  • The functional mega-spore enlarges into embryo sac.
  • The process of nuclear fusion (syngamy) of the male nucleus and one egg nucleus is termed as fertilization. It forms diploid zygote. Second male gamete fuses with secondary nucleus to form primary endosperm nucleus.
  • Angiosperms exhibit double fertilization.
  • Fall of the petals, stamens, style and stigma.
  • The ovules develop into seeds.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Write the various steps involved in the formation of a plant seed, starting from pollination.
Answer:
The transference of pollen grains from anther to stigma is called pollination. The stamens in flower have anthers which produce pollen grains. Gynaecium or pistil bears three parts ovary, style and stigma. After pollination pollen grains from pollen tubes. Inside the pollen tube the nucleus divides into vegetative nucleus and generative nucleus. This generative nucleus gives rise to two male gametes inside the pollen tube. Pollen tube after piercing through the style reaches the ovary. One of which fuses with egg to form zygote. The second male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to form triploid endosperm nucleus which finally gives rise to endosperm. So, the highef plant (angiosperms) show the process of double fertilization.

Soon after fertilization the petals, stamens, stigma and style fall off. The sepals wither and hold on to the ovule. The zygote, divides in a fixed fashion to form embryo. It may bear one or two cotyledons, an embryo axis made up of plumule and radicle. Radicle gives rise to root and plumule to shoot after germination of seed. Cotyledons contain food reserve.
PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants 12

PSEB 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants

Reproduction in Plants PSEB 7th Class Science Notes

  • Plants reproduce in two ways (i) Sexual reproduction and (ii) Asexual reproduction.
  • Asexual reproduction is a method of reproduction by which new plants are bom from a single parent.
  • There are different methods of asexual reproduction like reproduction by sprouting, reproduction by seeds, fragmentation.
  • In the fragmentation reproductive process, the organism is divided into equal parts which grow into two individuals.
  • During sexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive organs of plants produce male gametes and female gametes which fuse together to form zygote. The zygote develops into a new plant.
  • Sexual reproduction occurs only in flowering plants.
  • Vegetative propagation is a method of reproduction in which new plants grow through organs like roots, stems or leaves. In this method of reproduction neither the genitals nor the seed participates.
  • There are also many artificial methods of reproduction in plants. These are grafting, cutting and burring under the ground.
  • The transfer of mature pollen grains from the anther to the stigma is called pollination. They reach the stigma of the same flower or another flower.
  • Flowerless plants like moss breed through fragmentation, through yeast breed through buds, while fungi and moss breed through spores.
  • The fusion of the male gamete and the female gamete in the ovum is called the fertilization.
  • After fertilization of the ovaries, the ovaries develop into fruit and the ovum develops into seeds.
  • In order to move the seeds away from the germinating plants, it is necessary to scatter the seeds so that the seeds can grow into new plants.
  • Reproduction: The ability of living beings to produce new creatures like themselves is called reproduction.
  • Asexual reproduction: A method that does not require seeds to grow new plants. A single parent is required for reproduction.
  • Sexual Reproduction: Sexual reproduction is a method to produce a new organism through the combination of male and female gametes.
  • Vegetative propagation: When a new plant is obtained from any part of the plant except seed, it is called vegetative propagation.
  • Fragmentation: The formation of a new organism by dividing the body of an animal into Two or more parts is called fragmentation.
  • Unisexual Flower: A flower that has only stamens or only pistil is called as unisexual flower.
  • Bisexual flower: A flower in which both stamens and pistil are present is called bisexual flower.
  • Fertilization: The combination of male and female gametes is called the action of fertilization.
  • Pollination: The transfer of mature pollen from the pollen cell to the stigma is called pollination.
  • Self-pollination: Pollination in flowers, when the pollen grains land on the same flower this action is called self-pollination.
  • Cross-pollination: Pollination action in which the pollen goes from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. This type of pollination is done by two flowers of the same plant or the flowers of the same species.
  • Germination of seeds: Reaching the moist soil, the seeds absorb water and swell. As the embryo begins to germinate, the root sprouts sink into the soil and the stem sprouts up into the air. The leaves come out. This process is called seed germination.

Punjab State Board PSEB 7th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 12 Reproduction in Plants Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Welcome Life Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Welcome Life Guide for Class 10 PSEB Inter-Personal Relationship Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What did you feel after reading this play?
Answer:
After reading this play, we felt that we must not misbehave with the elders but should behave with them in a good way. When we were children, they raised us with great love and when they are old enough to do nothing, we should not turn away from them but serve them with the same love. It gives us their blessings and also inspires our children how to behave with the elders.

Question 2.
How do you care for your elders?
Answer:

  • We never misbehave with our elders. Instead, we talk with them with great affection. This makes them happy no matter how much difficulty they are facing.
  • We lovingly feed them so that they do not feel isolated.
  • We sit lovingly with our elders and listen to their life experiences so that we must not make the mistakes in life that they may have made.
  • Occasionally, we should sit and talk with them so that they should not feel isolated.

Question 3.
Which character of the play, you find the most tolerating person?
Answer:
I find Romi, the grandson, as the most tolerating character in the play. The reason is he loves his grandmother a lot but he can’t do anything for her. He observes how his father Karanbir and mother Simran misbehave with his grandmother. Many times, he opposes it but is helpless. His grandmother is sent to an old age home but he is unable to do anything. He is having no option left except to show patience.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Question 4.
Give your opinion about the characters of the play.

  1. Grandmother
  2. Romi
  3. Mom
  4. Papa

Answer:
1. Grandmother. She is the finest character of this short play because she knew that Karanbir is her adopted son and instead of saying anything else, she asks him to send her to an old age home. It will stop daily’s infighting that is going on in the house. She lives in hot conditions in the old age home but calls her son to donate two fans and a fridge so that others can have relief from the scorching heat. In this way, she endures every sorrow as a matter of fate.

2. Romi. Romi is the most tolerating character of the short play because he loves his grandmother a lot, but he can’t do anything for his grandmother. He even fights with his parents for his grandmother but they never care for his emotions. That’s why he seems quite tolerating.

3. Mom (Simran). Simran has played the character of a daughter-in-law in this play and she is of double character. On one side she persecutes her mother-in-law and forces her husband to send her to the old age home and on the other side, she threatens her brother to take care of their mother. In this way, she is portrayed as a cruel daughter-in-law and a loving daughter.

4. Papa (Karanbir). Karanbir is a character of the play who sends his mother to the old age home. He never cares about his son and hardly shows any love for his mother. Finally, when he comes to know that he is the adopted son, he decides to take his mother back to their home.

Situation 1. You are going on a road. In front of you, a boy is eating a banana and he throws the banana peel on the road, then what will be your reaction?

  1. You will try to persuade the boy.
  2. You will call someone else to pick up the banana peel.
  3. You will yourself pick up the banana peel and throw it in the dustbin.
  4. You will call the police and complain to the boy.

Answer:

  1. You will try to persuade the boy.

Situation 2. Your friends were gifted an empty chalk box on your birthday. The box is totally empty. What will be your reaction?

  1. You will stop talking to them.
  2. You will look at them and smile.
  3. You will ignore them.
  4. You will see in anger towards them.

Answer:
2. You will look at them and smile.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Guide Inter-Personal Relationship Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. What is the age of Romi?
(a) 7-8 years
(b) 8-9 years
(c) 9-10 years
(d) 11-12 years
Answer:
(a) 7-8 years

2. Who told Karanbir that he is the adopted son?
(a) Mother
(b) Simran
(c) Manager
(d) Romi
Answer:
(c) Manager

3. Where was grandmother sent by her son Karanbir?
(a) At Simran’s home
(b) Old age home
(c) Pilgrimage
(d) To move around.
Answer:
(b) Old age home

4. There are social limitations of ……………
(a) Country
(b) Relations
(c) State
(d) All of these
Answer:
(b) Relations

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

5. What is the need to maintain relations?
(a) to break relations
(b) to make relations
(c) to save relations
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) to save relations

6. Whenever we get farewell from someone :
(a) Say thanks
(b) By sharing sweet memories
(c) By sharing phone numbers
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

7. Which of these is a feature of good behaviour?
(a) Remain happy
(b) Be positive
(c) Speak happily
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

8. Who among all the characters was clever?
(a) Grandmother
(b) Romi
(c) Simran
(d) Manager
Answer:
(c) Simran

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Fill in the Blanks:

1. Spending time with the …………… is true worship.
Answer:
elders

2. Simran asked her to take care of her mother.
Answer:
brother

3. Karanbir left his mother at …………….
Answer:
old age home

4. After …………… months, Karanbir went to meet his mother.
Answer:
six

5. ……………. told Karanbir that his father adopted him from Ashram.
Answer:
Manager

6. There is always a limitation of every ……………….
Answer:
relationship

7. ……………… shines our personality.
Answer:
Good behaviour

True/False:

1. Karanbir was the father of Romi.
Answer:
True

2. We must forget bad memories.
Answer:
True

3. We must leave relations on a good note.
Answer:
True

4. Individuals maintain relations for their whole life.
Answer:
False

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

5. Good behaviour shines on our personality.
Answer:
True

6. We must not test social limitations.
Answer:
False

Match the Column:

Column A Column B
(a) Ominous (i) Prohibited
(b) T.B. (ii) Method
(c) Norms (iii) One who thinks wrong about someone
(d) Restriction (iv) Disease
(e) Etiquette (v) Rules

Answer:

Column A Column B
(a) Ominous (iii) One who thinks wrong about someone
(b) T.B. (iv) Disease
(c) Norms (v) Rules
(d) Restriction (i) Prohibited
(e) Etiquette (ii) Method

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
How can we truly worship our elders?
Answer:
Spending time and serving them is the true worship of our elders.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Question 2.
Who is an ‘Ominous’?
Answer:
According to Grandmother, “One who is bad, thinking bad about others and who fights for the whole of day at home is an Ominous”.

Question 3.
Why did Simran stop Romi from going to his grandmother?
Answer:
Because Simran thought grandmother had a cough, maybe T.B. and can make Romi sick.

Question 4.
Who asked Karanbir to leave his mother at an old age home?
Answer:
Simran asked Karanbir to leave his mother at an old age home.

Question 5.
To whom and what good news Simran gave?
Answer:
Simran gave the good news to her brother that Karanbir has left his mother at the old age home.

Question 6.
What threat did Simran give to her brother?
Answer:
Simran threatened her brother to take care of her mother or she will take her to Simran’s home.

Question 7.
What did Romi tell his father?
Answer:
Romy told his father that one day he will also send his father to any old age home.

Question 8.
Why did grandmother call her son to the old age home?
Answer:
Because she wanted Karanbir to donate two fans and a fridge to the old age home.

Question 9.
What secret did Manager tell Karanbir?
Answer:
The manager told Karanbir that thirty-five years ago, his father adopted him from the same old age home.

Question 10.
When did Karanbir realize his mistake?
Answer:
When he realized that he is the adopted son, he realized his mistake.

Question 11.
What did Karanbir do when he realize his mistake?
Answer:
He took back his mother to his home.

Question 12.
Which limit we should not cross?
Answer:
We must not cross limits of relations.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Question 13.
What should we check in society?
Answer:
We must check the limitations made and kept by society.

Question 14.
What etiquette we must understand?
Answer:
We must understand the etiquette of relationships.

Question 15.
What to look for while maintaining relationships?
Answer:
We must not cross the limits of relationships.

Question 16.
Do all relationships last a lifetime?
Answer:
No, not all relationships last for the whole life.

Question 17.
How can we get farewell from someone?
Answer:
We must get farewell from someone with proper etiquette.

Question 18.
What are the features of good behaviour?
Answer:
To remain happy, positive, hard work, speak softly etc. are the features of good behaviour.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
How does the short play begin?
Answer:
The play begins in the drawing-room of the house where grandmother and her grandson Romi are sitting and playing. Grandson asks grandmother to play with him but she refuses as she is tired. Then the grandson asks his grandmother that what is the meaning of ‘Ominous*. At first, the grandmother avoids him by calling him small to understand but in the end, she tells him that the person is Ominous who himself is bad and thinks bad for others and the one whose house is always in trouble.

Question 2.
Why doesn’t Simran (mother) want her son to play with his grandmother?
Answer:
Simran did not like her mother-in-law. When the mother-in-law coughs, she thinks that she is suffering from T.B. and by playing with his grandmom, Romi will also get suffered from the same. Along with this, she also says that her mother-in¬law never does any household work and coughs up all day. That’s why Simran doesn’t want her son to play with his grandmother.

Question 3.
What grandmother says after seeing her son and daughter-in-law have a fight?
Answer:
When Karanbir comes back home, Simran speaks very bad about his mother. Simran also says that the old woman does not know what disease she has contracted and coughs up all day. When the grandmother hears a fight between them, she tells her son that there is no need to fight. It’s better if he sends her to any old age home where she will spend the rest of her life. That’s why Karanbir left his mother at the old age home.

Question 4.
Why does grandmother call her son to the old age home?
Answer:
She spends the first six months at the old age home with great problems but after that, she calls her son. Simran and Karanbir think that she is on her death bed and that’s why she has called Karanbir. When they visit the old age home, she asks Karanbir to donate two fans over there as it’s quite hot out there. She also asks him to donate a fridge as well as the water is too hot during summers. She tells Karanbir that when his son Romi leaves him in the old age home, his last days will be spent comfortably.

Question 5.
When does Karanbir realize his mistake?
Answer:
When Karanbir went to meet his mother at the old age home, she asks him to donate two fans and a fridge over there. At the moment, when Karanbir was talking to his mother, the Manager of the old age home comes there, recognises him and tells him that the husband of the old lady, Hardev Singh Brar, adopted him from the same old age home. After listening to this, Karanbir realizes his mistake and take back his mother with him.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Question 6.
What is the etiquette of leaving a relationship?
Answer:
An individual makes many relationships during his lifetime. Some relationships last a lifetime but some relationships break down along the way and remain in a comer of the heart. Many times, we realize that this relationship will not last for long. It’s better to stop it here. That’s why we should end such a relationship in a proper way. We must talk to the other person and politely tell him/her that now it is not possible to carry on with the relationship. It’s better to move on. This is the best way to move on from the relationship.

Question 7.
“Good manners and attitude shine our personality ?” Clarify.
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that good manners and attitude shine on our personality. At a particular time, how do we react or behave, it all tells about our personality. That’s why we must learn to behave in a way that becomes a lesson for others. So, it is a must for us to remain happy, do hard work, be positive and speak politely with others. These are the qualities of good behaviour and it also tells about our personality.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
“All relationships have social boundaries.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
Our society has made some rules that our relationships are bound to remain within some limits. In addition to this, it is also told that how. much boundary is required in every relationship. That’s why we never cross our boundaries. Our parents, teachers, friends etc. continuously tell us about such boundaries. That’s why we must identify such boundaries and check the limits made by society. If we will not do the same and violate the limits, it will not be good for us as well as for society. Relationships inside the home have closeness but relationships outside the home are artificial and have less closeness. It depends upon our love and intensity about that particular relationship. Many times we make a very good relationship with a stranger and occasionally we have sour relationships with our blood relatives. Relationships are not easy to maintain. It is not like drawing a line on paper with a pencil. It is a relationship that cannot end quickly. That’s why it is a must to maintain the boundaries of relationships.

Question 2.
Which things should be kept in mind while breaking up or leaving a relationship?
Answer:
We all live in social life and while living a social life, we make many relationships. Some relationships last a lifetime but some relationships end up along the way. While ending a relationship, we must keep few things in mind so that if in future, a need arises to revive that relationship, we would easily do that. We must keep following things in mind while ending a relationship.

  • Remember the time spent with the person and thank him or her well.
  • Leave sour memories and only remember and share the good memories.
  • If you want to keep in contact with that person, share each other’s mobile numbers.
  • If you don’t trust the person, then don’t be emotional and don’t share personal information with that person.
  • Don’t get angry with that person or try to get revenge.

That’s why it is said that it would be nice to end a story at a nice turn that can’t be taken to the end.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship

Inter-Personal Relationship PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Notes

  • This chapter starts with a small play that tells us to respect our elders. The play starts with the conversation between grandmother and her grandson (Romi) which shows eternal love and sympathy between them both.
  • Then enters the daughter-in-law (Simran) who wants to keep her son (Romi) away from his grandmother.
  • Then grandmother’s Son (Karanbir Singh Brar) comes in front and his wife (Simran) tells him that her mother-in-law is provoking Romi against his mother (Simran). She asks. Karanbir either should send his mother to an old age home or she will move out of her house to go to her own mother’s house. Finally, grandmother comes and says to her son Karanbir to send her to old age home as she can’t live here.
  • On one side Karanbir send his mother to an old age home and on the other side Simran threatens her brother to take care of the mother or she will take the mother to her home.
  • The scene changes after six months when Karanbir receives her mother’s call to meet her.
  • Karanbir and Simran think that it is her last time and that’s why they both agree to meet her.
  • At the old age home, a grandmother tells her son Karanbir to donate two fans and a fridge to an old age home as people are facing a lot of problems over there. Karanbir agrees to donate the things.
  • At this moment, the manager of the old age home comes, recognises Karanbir and tells him that thirty-five years ago, his father Hardev Singh adopted him from here only. If he could not have adopted him, he could have been bigger somewhere.
  • After listening to the manager, Karanbir and Simran realised that they have done wrong with their mother. They say sorry to her and take her to their home.
  • This short play tells us that we must not misbehave with our elders. Instead, we should respect them and take blessings from them.
  • There is a social limitation of every relationship and we must care about such limitations.
  • All the relationships are important and while keeping their importance in mind, we must remain their limits. There should be love and intensity in close and far relationships. That’s why one should live within the limits of relationships.
  • One builds many kinds of relationships in life. Some relationships last a lifetime and some break down along the way. Some relationships just stay in the heart.
  • Imagine if we need to leave a relationship, we should keep few things in mind. We should say thanks to each other, share phone numbers etc.
  • We must behave well with the children and this good behaviour becomes an identity of our personality.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Book Solutions Chapter 3 Inter-Personal Relationship Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Science Guide for Class 6 PSEB Light Shadows and Reflections Intext Questions and Answers

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 109)

Question 1.
Classify different objects depending on whether an object allows light to pass through it completely, partially or not at all.
Answer:
Depending upon the amount of light passing through the object we can classify objects into the following three types.

  1. Transparent objects. Those objects which allow light to pass through them completely.
  2. Translucent objects. Those objects which allow only partial amount of light to pass through them.
  3. Opaque objects. Those objects which do not allow light to pass through them at all.

Question 2.
Classify the objects given in following table as transparent, opaque or translucent.

Object/material Transparent/opaque/translucent
Water
Tissue paper
Stone
Air
Book
Mirror
Thin cloth

Answer:

Object/material Transparent/opaque/translucent
Water Transparent
Tissue paper Translucent
Stone Opaque
Air Transparent
Book Opaque
Mirror Transparent
Thin cloth Translucent

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 109)

Question 1.
Light travels in ……………. line path.
Answer:
Light travels in straight line path.

Question 2.
Light cannot pass through …………….. material.
Answer:
Light cannot pass through opaque material.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 111)

Question 1.
For shadow formation, how many things are required ?
Answer:
For shadow formation, the following three things are required :

  1. Source of light.
  2. An opaque object and
  3. For getting shadow a surface or screen (which may be a wall or it can be earth surface)

Question 2.
A shadow is observed, on a screen, when an …………….. object comes in between
screen and a source of light.
Answer:
A shadow is observed on a screen, whenever an opaque object comes in between screen and a source of light.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No.112)

Question 1.
The size of shadow of a given opaque object depends on relative ………….. of source of light and the opaque object.
Answer:
The size of shadow of a given opaque object depends on relative position of source of light and the opaque object.

Question 2.
What may be the colour of opaque object, shadow will always be …………….. (black/white)
Answer:
What may be the colour of opaque object, shadow will always be black.

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 115)

Question 1.
Pin-hole camera is based on the fact that in ordinary conditions light travel in ………………… path.
Answer:
Pin-hole camera is based on the fact that in ordinary conditions light travel in straight line path.

Question 2.
The images formed by pin-hole camera is …………….. and ………………..
Answer:
The images formed by pin-hole camera is inverted and small.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Think and Answer (Textbook Page No. 116)

Question 1.
A mirror does not change the direction of light that falls on it. (True/False)
Answer:
False.

Question 2.
A polished or shining surface like plane miror produces reflection.
Answer:
A polished or shining surface like plane mirror produces regular reflection.

PSEB 6th Class Science Guide Light Shadows and Reflections Textbook Questions and Answers

Exercise – 1

1. Fill in the Blanks:

(a) An object that allow light to pass through them partially are known as …………….. object.
Answer:
Translucent

(b) Light source like the sun that emit light of their own are called …………… objects.
Answer:
Luminous

(c) Never ever look directly at the Sun because it could be extremely …………… for the eyes.
Answer:
harmful

(d) The change in direction of propagation of light when light allowed to fall on polished
surface is called ……………….. of light.
Answer:
Reflection

(e) Due to ……………… phenomenon rooms are lighted up in day time though no direct
sunlight enters the room.
Answer:
irregular reflection

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

2. Write True or False:

(a) Moon is a luminous object.
Answer:
False

(b) We can clearly see through transparent material.
Answer:
True

(c) Shadow of opaque object is always black.
Answer:
True

(d) Light doesn’t travel in straight line path.
Answer:
False

(e) Due to reflection of light, rooms are lighted up during day time though no direct sunlight enters the room.
Answer:
True

3. Match the Column A with Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Natural sources of light (a) Light moves along a straight path
2. CFL, LED and tube light (b) Opaque object
3. Rectilinear propagation of light (c) Shadow cast by a heavenly body
4. Eclipse (d) Man-made sources of light
5. Cardboard, wood and metal (e) Sun, stars and firefly.

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Natural sources of light (e) Sun, stars and firefly
2. CFL, LED and tube light (d) Man-made sources of light
3. Rectilinear propagation of light (a) Light moves along a straight path
4. Eclipse (c) Shadow cast by a heavenly body
5. Cardboard, wood and metal (b) Opaque object.

4. Choose the Correct Answer:

Question (i)
Objects, like moon, which do not emit light of their own, are called:
(a) Luminous objects
(b) Absorbers of light
(c) Non-luminous objects
(d) Reflectors of light.
Answer:
(c) Non-luminous object

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question (ii)
An object, through which we can see partially, but not very clearly, is:
(a) A rubber ball
(b) A sheet of plane glass
(c) A sheet of tracing paper
(d) A compact disk.
Answer:
(c) A sheet of tracing paper

Question (iii)
When sun (during evening) is behind an object, the size of its shadow in comparison to that of the object M ould be:
(a) Smaller
(b) Almost zero
(c) Larger
(d) Equal.
Answer:
(C) Larger

Question (iv)
The image, formed by a pinhole camera, is:
(a) Inverted and diminished
(b) Inverted and enlarged
(c) Erect and enlarged
(d) Erect and diminished.
Answer:
(a) Inverted and diminished

Question (v)
For shadow formation, we require :
(a) An opaque object
(b) A source of light
(c) The screen to obtain the shadow
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
All of the above

5. Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
State the type of path that light ordinarily follows while going from one point to another.
Answer:
Light follows straight line path.

Question (ii)
Fishes do not cast shadow in water. Why ?
Answer:
Fishes do not cast their shadows when the bed river or swimming pool which acts as a screen is far away from the fishes.

Question (iii)
State the relative position of sun, earth and the moon during solar eclipse.
Answer:
During solar eclipse, the position sun will be between earth and the moon and the
three are in a straight line.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question (iv)
In a completely dark room, if you hold a mirror in front of you, will you see a reflection of yourself in the mirror ?
Answer:
If you hold a mirror in front of you in a completely dark room you cannot see your image because light is required for formation of image.

Question (v)
Two identical bed sheets, of pink and grey colour are hanging on a rope under the sun. What would be the colour of shadow of these two bed sheets ?
Answer:
We know that the shadow of an opaque object is always black. The colour of shadow does not depend on the colour of an object. So the colour of shadows of these two bed sheets would be black.

6. Short Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
What is regular reflection ?
Answer:
Regular reflection. When light falls on a plane mirror or smooth and polished surface of some metal then it is reflected in a regular manner. This type of reflection is known as regular reflection.

Question (ii)
Why shadow in afternoon is smaller than shadow formed in the morning ?
Answer:
During noon the sun is vertically above our head and the sun rays directly fall on the
objects so that a small image is formed whereas in the morning the sun rays fall obliquely resulting in a large shadow. The size of the shadow depends upon the position of the source of light relative to the object.

7. Long Answer Type Questions:

Question (i)
Using suitable diagrams show that size of shadow formed, depends on relative position of the source of light and the opaque object.
Answer:
It is clear from the figure that by increasing the distance between the source of light and the opaque body the size of the shadow decreases. And if the distance between the source of light and the opaque object decreases the size of the shadow becomes light. Thus we can say that the size of shadow formed depends on the relative position of source of light and the opaque object.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 1

Question (ii)
Using diagram, show the formation of image by pinhole camera.
Answer:
Pinhole camera. It is a simple camera which can be made from wood or cardboard box. Take two boxes such that one can slide into the other tube easily.

Cut the small flaps of one side of each box. Make a hole in the centre of other side of big box. Similarly cut a rectangular flap in the centre of other side of small box. Put a piece of tracing paper on this cut. Slide the smaller box inside the bigger box. A pinhole camera is ready.

Working. Try to view from the open side of small box. Cover your head and box with a black cloth. View some trees or far off objects. Fix camera on object which is completely under sunlight. Slide small box inside bigger box so that a picture can be obtained on butter paper.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 2

Formation of sun’s shadow with pinhole camera.
To make shadow of sun, we need a big cardboard sheet with a pinhole in centre. Hold this sheet in front of sun to get a clear shadow. We will see round image of sun in the centre of the cardboard sheet.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 3

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

PSEB Solutions for Class 6 Science Light Shadows and Reflections Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
The substance through which light can pass is called:
(a) Translucent
(b) Opaque
(c) Transparent
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Transparent

Question 2.
For formation of shadow, the object in the path of light should be:
(a) Transparent
(b) Opaque
(c) Traslucent
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Opaque

Question 3.
Seeing across Translucent objects is possible:
(a) Completely
(b) Partially
(c) Not at all
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Partially

Question 4.
Luminous bodies:
(a) Emit light
(b) Do not emit light
(c) Take light from other body and then emit light
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Emit light

Question 5.
Moon is a body:
(a) Luminous
(b) Non-luminous
(c) Both luminous and non-luminous
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Non-luminous

Question 6.
During reflection, light after striking polished surface is:
(a) Sent back into the same medium
(b) Is passed on to the other medium
(c) Some part of light returns to the same medium
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Sent back into the same medium

Question 7.
Reflection of light occurs at :
(a) Regular surface
(b) Irregular surface
(v) Some part of the surface is regular and some part is irregular.
Answer:
(a) Regular surface

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question 8.
When an opaque object is brought near a source of light, then :
(a) The size should become equal to that of the object
(b) The size of the shadow becomes smaller
(c) The size of the shadow increases
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(d) None of these.

Question 9.
The image formed in a pinhole camera is of :
(a) Object situated near
(b) Distant object
(c) Distant object at rest
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) Distant object

Question 10.
The shadow of a transparent object is :
(a) Dark black
(b) Circular
(c) Large sized
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(d) None of these.

Fill in the Blanks:

(a) Those objects through which light can not pass completely are called ……………….. objects.
Answer:
Translucent

(b) An opaque object placed in the path of light rays coming from source of light forms a black region behind the object which is called ………………
Answer:
Shadows

(c) Reflection of light occurs from surface of a ……………..
Answer:
mirror

(d) Irregular reflection of light takes place from a …………….. surface.
Answer:
rough

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

(e) Images of sun and other luminous objects are formed by ………………….
Answer:
Pinhole camera

Write (T) against true and (F) against false statements:

(a) The size of the shadow of an object does not depend on the position of source of light.
Answer:
False

(b) During lunar eclipse the moon is in between sun and earth and three are in a straight line.
Answer:
False

(c) Light travels in a straight line and does not bend around large objects.
Answer:
True

(d) Moon is a non-luminous body.
Answer:
True

(e) Taking source of light away from an opaque object forms large shadow of the object.
Answer:
False

Match the following :

Match statement of column A with that of Column B.

Column A Column B
1. Light travels in straight line Earth lies in between moon and sun.
2. Lunar eclipse Formation of shadow
3. Solar eclipse Pinhole camera.
4. Inverted and small image Opaque objects, source of light and screen
5. Shadows Moon is between Earth and Sun.

Answer:
(1) Light travels in straight line – Formation of shadow.
(2) Lunar eclipse – Earth lies in between moon and sun.
(3) Solar eclipse – Moon is between Earth and Sun.
(4) Inverted and small image – Pinhole camera.
(5) Shadows – Opaque objects, source of light and screen.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is luminous body ?
Answer:
Luminous body. An object which gives out light of its own is called luminous body.

Question 2.
Name some luminous bodies.
Answer:
The sun, electric bulb, lighted candle, stars etc.

Question 3.
What are non-luminous bodies ?
Answer:
Non-luminous bodies. The bodies which donot give out light are called non-luminous bodies.

Question 4.
Name four non-luminous bodies.
Answer:
Card board, Table, Chair, Stone.

Question 5.
What is a transparent material ?
Answer:
Transparent. The matrial which comdpletely transmits light rays through it, is called transparent.

Question 6.
Name four transparent materials.
Answer:
Air, glass, water, alcohol.

Question 7.
What is an opaque material ?
Answer:
Opaque. The materials which do not allow the light to pass through them, are called opaque.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question 8.
Name four opaque materials.
Answer:
Card board, Stone, wood piece and brick wall.

Question 9.
What is traslucent material ?
Answer:
Translucent. The material which transmits only part of light through it, is called translucent.

Question 10.
Name four translucent materials.
Answer:
Smoke, Fog, Butter paper, Rubber glass.

Question 11.
What is to be done to see shadow ?
Answer:
To see a shadow, place an opaque object in the path of source of light.

Question 12.
What are shadows ?
Answer:
Shadows. It is the dark space formed on the other side of the opaque object, when it is placed in the path of light.

Question 13.
Why should not we see directly towards the Sun ?
Answer:
It can affect our eyes.

Question 14.
How is image in a pinhole camera, possible ?
Answer:
When light travels in a straight line, then an inverted image is formed in a pinhole camera.

Question 15.
What is reflection of light ?
Answer:
Reflection of light. When a ray of light falls on a mirror/polished surface, it is sent back in to the same medium. This change of path of light is known as reflection of light.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Is moon a Luminous or non-luminous body ?
Answer:
Moon is a non-luminous body as it does not give out light but reflects the sun light falling on its surface.

Question 2.
What are the conditions necessary for seeing objects ?
Answer:
Conditions necessary for seeing objects :

  1. The object to be seen
  2. Eye
  3. Presence of light

We cannot see objects in the dark. It is the light that helps us to see objects.

Question 3.
Differentiate between luminous and non-luminous bodies.
Answer:
Luminous bodies. Those bodies which give out light of their own are called Luminous bodies. For example, the Sun, the stars, jugnu, candle, an oil lamp etc.

Non-Luminous bodies. Some objects around us do not give out light themselves, but become visible only when light from a luminous body falls on them and some part of the reflected light enters our eyes.
Examples. Wood, Iron, cardboard and brick etc.

Question 4.
Why does an opaque body form shadow when light falls on it ?
Answer:
When light falls on an opaque body, it does not allow light to pass through it, so it forms its shadow.

Question 5.
What is a shadow ? What happens when an object is moved towards source of light ?
Answer:
Shadow. It is a dark space formed on the other side of the opaque object, when it is placed in the path of light. The opaque object does not allow the light to pass through it and light travels in a straight line only.

Question 6.
When we see some opaque object at height in the sun, black spots are seen on the earth. Why ?
Answer:
When we see some opaque objects at a height in the sun we notice some black spots on the earth which are shadows of the objects formed on the earth. Here earth acts as a screen.

Question 7.
Is a screen needed for shadow formation ? Which type of material, act as screen for shadows in daily life ?
Answer:
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 4
Yes, screen is needed for shadow formation as shadows can be seen on screens only.
Walls of a room, building and such surface etc. act as screen for shadows in daily life.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question 8.
Show with an experiment that light travels in a straight line.
Answer:
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 5
Take a small piece of long rubber pipe and place a candle on a table. Light the candle. Stand a little far away from the table and see the candle flame through the pipe. It is visible. Now bend the pipe or move it to the right or left and again look for the candle flame. The candle flame will disappear. This shows that light travels in a straight line.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 6
The reason is that light rays coming towards our eye through pipe is stopped due to bend. Since pipe is made up of opaque material, so light cannot pass through it. Hence light cannot reach our eye, due to which candle is not visible to us. This shows that light travels along a straight line.

Question 9.
What is reflection of light ? Which objects can cause reflection ?
Answer:
Reflection of light. The phenomenon of coming back of light into the same medium in a particular direction after falling on any surface, is called reflection of light. Ordinarily reflection takes place from polished surfaces but sometimes we see reflection of trees and buildings from water of tank or lake.

Question 10.
Classify the objects or materials given below as opaque, transparent or translucent luminous and non-luminous.

Air, water, a piece of rock, a sheet of aluminium, a miror, a wooden board, a sheet of polythene, a CD, smoke, a sheet of plane glass, fog, a piece of red hot iron, an umbrella, a lighted fluorescent tube, a wall, a sheet of carbon paper, the flame of a gas burner, a sheet of cardboard, a lighted torch, a sheet of cellophane, a wire mesh, kerosene stove, sun, firefly, moon.
Answer:
Opaque. A piece of rock, a sheet of aluminium, a wooden board, a CD, a sheet of carbon paper, a wall, a sheet of cardboard.
Transparent. Air, water, a sheet of plane glass.
Translucent. A sheet of cellophane, a sheet of polythene, smoke, fog, an umbrella, a wiremesh.
Luminous. A mirror, a lighted fluorescent tube, lighted torch, a flame of a gas burner, a piece of red hot iron, kerosene stove, sun, firefly.
Non-Luminous. A piece of rock, aluminium sheet, a wooden board, a sheet of cardboard moon.

Question 11.
Can you think of creating a shape that would give a circular shadow if held in one way and a rectangular shadow if held in another way ?
Answer:
A cylindrical box can give rectangular shadow when placed in vertical direction while a round/circular shadow when placed horizontally.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 7

Question 12.
What are the conditions necessary for formation of shadow of an opaque objects ?
Answer:
For formation of shadow of an opaque object, the following conditions are necessary :

  1. A source of light
  2. An opaque object
  3. The screen (may be a wall or ground

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Question 13.
What is Irregular Reflection ?
Answer:
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 8
Irregular Reflection. When light falls on some rough or uneven surface then after reflection light gets scattered. Such type of reflection is called irregular reflection. Due to this phenomenon we see various objects around us.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the reflection of light ? Show the phenomenon of reflection with the help of an activity.
Answer:
Reflection of light : The phenomenon coming back of light into the same medium after following on a smooth and polished surface is called reflection of light.

Activity 1.
Ask your friend to hold a plane mirror in his hand and stand in a corner of a dark room. Cover the glass of a torch with your palm and switch it on. To get a beam of light leave some space between your fingers. Throw this beam of light on the plane mirror held by your friend, you would notice the spots of light. Now change the direction of torch so that the image of some other friend standing in the room is formed in the mirror.
This activity shows that the mirror relflects the light falling on its surface.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 9

Activity 2.
Fix a comb on one side of a white thermocol sheet and fix a mirror on the other side as shown in fig. Fix a dark cloured sheet of paper between the comb and the mirror. Now project a beam of light from a torch through the comb on the mirror. You will see a pattern as shown in the figure.
This activity shows that mirror changes the direction of light that falls on it. which is due to reflection of light.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 10

Question 2.
Show an activity to study the factors which are responsible to affect the size and colour of shadows.
Answer:
Study of factors that affect the size and colour of shadows:
Activity.
Throw a beam of light from a torch over a cubical block as shown in figure to get its shadow on ground. First move the torch towards the cubical block and then away from it.
PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections 11

You will notice that when torch is closer to cubical block, shadow is small and when it is away, shadow is large in size.

Now use cubical blocks of different colours like chalk box, books, copies, tiffin box for getting shadow. You will see that in each case shadow is black.

In this way from the above activity we conclude :

  1. The size of shadow of a given opaque object depends on relative position of source of light and he opaque object.
  2. The shadow of opaque object is always black whatever may be the colour of opaque object.

PSEB 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections

Light Shadows and Reflections PSEB 6th Class Science Notes

  • Light is a form of energy that enables us to see the things around us.
  • A source of light can be either natural or artificial as for example Sun, Moon, Stars CFL, Candle and LED.
  • Light ordinarily travels along a straight path.
  • Opaque objects do not allow light to pass through them and the objects lying on the other side of it cannot be seen.
  • Transparent object allow light to pass through them and we can see through these objects clearly.
  • Translucent objects allow light to pass through them partially and the objects lying on other side of these objects are not seen clearly.
  • Shadows are formed when an opaque object comes in the path of light.
  • Pinhole camera can be made with simple materials and can be used to obtain the image of the Sun and other bright (luminous) objects. This image is inverted and small in size.
  • Reflection from mirror gives us clear images.
  • Luminous Object: Such objects which has light of their own and gives out light.
  • Non-Iuminous Object: Such object which has no light of its own and become luminous from light emitted by other luminous objects.
  • Light: It is a form of energy which enables us to see the surround objects but light itself is not seen.
  • Source of light: Such luminous bodies which have light of their own and which emit light as for example candle CFL etc. The source light may either be (i) Natural or (ii) Artificial source.
  • Transparent objects: Such objects through which light can pass and on the other side of which we can see clearly are called transparent objects. Examples are : Air, water, glass etc.
  • Opaque objects: Those objects which do not allow light to pass through them and the objects on the other side of which cannot be seen, are called opaque objects. Examples are. Cardboard sheet, wood, metal and rubber etc.
  • Translucent objects: Those objects through which light can pass but partially and the objects lying on the otherside of which are not seen clearly are called translucent objects. Examples are : Tissue paper, thin cloth, an oiled paper etc.
  • Shadow: When an opaque object is placed in the path of the light rays coming from a source of light then light cannot pass through and a black region is formed on the otherside of the opaque body. This black region where no light is received is called shadow. The size of shadow can be small or large.
  • Sun dial: It is an instrument which shows time with the help of shadow formed by sunlight.
  • Solar Eclipse: When moon while revolving around the earth comes in such a situation that the moon is in between the earth and the sun and all the three are in a straight line then the shadow of sun is formed on the earth, solar eclipse is said to occur.
  • Lunar Eclipse: When earth comes in between the sun and moon and all the three are in a straight line and the shadow of moon is formed on the earth; then lunar eclipse is said to be occur.
  • Pinhole camera: It is an instrument in which the inverted and small sized image of a stationary object such as building or tree is formed. It is constructed on the principle of propagation of light in a straight line.
  • Mirror: Any smooth and polished surface which changes the path of light rays falling on it, is called mirror.
  • Reflection of light: When light falls on a miror and light falling on it is sent back into the same medium in a particular direction, then this phenomenon of change of direction of path of light is called reflection of light. Reflection of light is of two types (i) Regular reflection and (ii) Irregular reflection.
    (i) Regular reflection. When light falls on a smooth plane mirror or a polished surface then reflection of light takes place in a regular manner. This reflection of light is called regular reflection.
    (ii) Irregular reflection. When light falls on any rough or uneven surface then light rays after reflection gets scattered. This reflection of light is called irregular reflection. We can see the various objects around us due to this reflection.

Punjab State Board PSEB 6th Class Science Book Solutions Chapter 11 Light Shadows and Reflections Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Welcome Life Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Welcome Life Guide for Class 10 PSEB Critical Thinking Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Where is the other part of Punjab located?
(a) Delhi
(b) Canada
(c) Pakistan
(d) Rajasthan
Answer:
(c) Pakistan

2. How many assembly constituencies are there in Punjab?
(a) 116
(b) 21
(c) 13
(d) 117
Answer:
(d) 117

3. How many parliamentary constituencies (Lok Sabha) are there in Punjab?
(a) 117
(b) 13
(c) 21
(d) 22
Answer:
(b) 13

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

4. By what parent did the Greeks know Punjab?
(a) Sapat-Sindhu
(b) Pentapotamia
(c) Panchanad
(d) Sindh
Answer:
(b) Pentapotamia.

5. Which is the oldest university in the world associated with Punjab?
(a) Punjabi University
(b) Punjab University
(c) Takshila University
(d) Nalanda University
Answer:
(c) Takshila University

(Questions for worksheet)

Question 1.
Which misconception was Sandeep holding in her mind?
Answer:
There was a misconception in Sandeep’s mind that products and tonics increase physical strength and athletes perform better in sports. He was preferring to take medicine and products instead of hard work which is wrong.

Question 2.
What advice did the teacher give to her girl students?
Answer:
The teacher advised her girl students not to keep misconceptions in their minds. Many people use drugs to show their strong body which is wrong. Kids get caught up in the web of social media ads. We need to think carefully before we fall into the trap of these advertisements. Instead of taking these medications, we should focus more on hard work and an indigenous diet. Madam told the girls that we have many examples where many players from ordinary families have gone through hard work and achieved great success.

Question 3.
Which things should be kept in mind while watching print media, electronic and social media?
Answer:
Companies advertise their products on print media and social media. This type of advertisement is not a part of any TV channel and the name states that it is a company advertisement. So, before we buy them and fall into their trap, we must find out the truth about them. We must rationally think about whether this is possible. If not, we must not buy that product.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Question 4.
How can we get rid of misconceptions?
Answer:
We must think rationally about anything whether this is right or wrong. We must talk to others and if our views match, we must remove misconceptions and consider the reason behind them.

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Welcome Life Critical Thinking Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Which students are unique and successful?
(a) One who values the time.
(b) One who plays games.
(c) One who is busy on social media
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) One who values the time.

2. What has removed gender discrimination in society?
(a) Religion
(b) Science and technology
(c) Society
(d) Government
Answer:
(b) Science and technology

3. Which example tells us about the courage and kindness of females 7
(a) Mai Bhago
(b) Mata Gujri
(c) Rani Laxmi Bai
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

4. Can we see gender discrimination in modern times 7
(a) Yes
(b) No
(c) Don’t know
(d) Can’t say
Answer:
(a) Yes

5. We should value ………………..
(a) Money
(b) Time
(b) Superstitions
(d) All of these
Answer:
(b) Time

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

6. In the present age, we can save time by properly using ……………..
(a) Religion
(b) Social Media
(c) Newspapers
(d) Magazines
Answer:
(b) Social Media

7. With ……………… we can spend our time well.
(a) Planning
(b) Mobile
(c) T.V.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Planning

8. In the present age of modem revolutionary changes, the role of …………… has increased.
(а) Religion
(b) Individual means
(c) Means of communication
(d) Government
Answer:
(c) Means of communication.

9. What do we get with means of communication?
(a) Information
(b) Knowledge
(c) Entertainment
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

10. What is the demerit of means of communication?
(a) An individual becomes habitual
(b) Children adopt bad habits
(c) Children deviate from their actual objective
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Fill in the Blanks:

1. With the right use of …………., we can achieve our goals.
Answer:
time

2. We get a lot of information with the help of ……………..
Answer:
means of communication

3 …………………. should not be misused.
Answer:
social media

4. Discrimination between …………… and …………….. has been going on in society since time immemorial.
Answer:
boys,
girls

5. We must not follow ………..
Answer:
assumptions

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

True / False:

1. We must avoid misconceptions.
Answer:
True

2. Gender-based discrimination is a perception of modem society.
Answer:
False

3. Discrimination between boys and girls has been going on since ancient times.
Answer:
True

4. Many people fall into the trap of media.
Answer:
True

5. Eating products is essential for sports.
Answer:
False

Match the Column:

Column A Column B
(a) Discrimination (i) Means of communication
(b) Unique (ii) Sapt Sindhu
(c) Schedule (iii) Difference
(d) Internet (iv) Special
(e) Punjab (v) Time Table

Answer:

Column A Column B
(a) Discrimination (iii) Difference
(b) Unique (iv) Special
(c) Schedule (v) Time Table
(d) Internet (i) Means of communication
(e) Punjab (ii) Sapt Sindhu

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Is there gen&er based discrimination in society?
Answer:
Yes, there is gender-based discrimination in society.

Question 2.
What has significantly reduced gender-based discrimination in society?
Answer:
Science and technology have significantly reduced gender-based discrimination in society.

Question 3.
From which aspects, we can’t see the difference between a boy and a girl?
Answer:
From the point of view of courage, mental level, hard work, etc.

Question 4.
Give examples of women’s bravery and kindness.
Answer:
Mai Bhago, Mata Gujri, Rani Laxmi Bai, etc. are examples of women’s bravery and kindness.

Question 5.
Is there any gender-based discrimination in modern times?
Answer:
Yes, there is gender-based discrimination in modem times.

Question 6.
Which students are unique and successful?
Answer:
Students who value time are unique and successful.

Question 7.
Why should we value time?
Answer:
Because once the time is gone, it never comes back.

Question 8.
What happens if time is wasted?
Answer:
Time will not appreciate us and we will not be able to succeed in life.

Question 9.
Which student is successful in life?
Answer:
The student who plans the time becomes successful in life.

Question 10.
What is meant by Time Planning?
Answer:
It means that time should be planned in a way that every minute could be used.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Question 11.
How can we save time?
Answer:
We can save time by using social media.

Question 12.
What is the advantage of using social media?
Ans.
We can get a lot of information from social media.

Question 13.
The role of what has increased significantly in modem times?
Answer:
The role of means of communication has increased significantly in modem times.

Question 14.
What is the main purpose of the companies that run the media?
Answer:
Their main aim is to earn money.

Question 15.
What do means of communication provide us?
Answer:
They provide us with different types of information.

Question 16.
What is the disadvantage of misusing means of communication?
Answer:
People adopt wrong habits and deviate from their actual motives.

Question 17.
What vow students must make before using the internet and mobile?
Answer:
They must take a vow that they will use them only to increase their knowledge.

Question 18.
What is the advantage of properly using the internet and mean? of communication?
Ans.
They increase one’s knowledge and shine an individual’s personality.

Question 19.
Is it necessary to use products and tonics to play games?
Answer:
No, there is no need to use such things.

Question 20.
How can we master a sport?
Answer:
By continuous practice, we can master a sport.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What is means by Gender Discrimination?
Answer:
There are two genders in society-male and female. If any discrimination takes place between them, it is called gender discrimination. In our society, females are greatly discriminated against in comparison to males. For example, there are certain works, about which it is said that they are only for males. Males are physically powerful and they discriminate against females. Females were not given any rights. It is called gender discrimination.

Question 2.
Does gender discrimination exist in present society?
Answer:
Yes, gender discrimination still exists in society. Its common example can be seen at any workplace where females are less paid in comparison to males. There are very few women in public life. Most of the crimes are associated with females. Although they are given equal rights by the constitution but are unable to get equality in society.

Question 3.
Should we eliminate discrimination between boys and girls?
Answer:
Yes, this discrimination must be eliminated from society. An ideal society is based on equality and there must be no discrimination in such a society. If we look at the functions given to males and females, we can easily observe that the more difficult works are given to females and great patience is required to complete them. Males are unable to complete such works in a proper way. That’s why discrimination must be eliminated and efforts must be made to bring social equality.

Question 4.
Why should we value time?
Answer:
It is said that the past does not come back. Once time runs out, no matter how hard you try, it won’t come back. If we value time, we will be able to do all our work on time and in the right way, time will be of the essence and our lives will be successful. So, first of all, it is important that we should save our time. If we take care of our time then surely we will be able to progress in life and achieve our goals. That’s why it is said that time is money and we should not waste it.

Question 5.
“The right use of time is the best use of time.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
It is rightly said the right use of time is the best use of time. Actually, it is in our hands that how can we use our time. If a person uses his time wisely, gets an education, and makes efforts to do progress, his knowledge and money definitely increase. But if he did not do so, neither knowledge nor money would have gone to him. A student is always asked to create his own timetable and pay equal attention to all the subjects. If he does not set his own timetable and spends time in vain, the time to come will not be right for him. That’s why everyone must use his time wisely to do progress in life.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Question 6.
How can we use social media in a better way?
Answer:
The importance of social media in our lives has increased a lot these days. Facebook, Instagram, Google, etc. are included in social media. Out of these, Google can be very helpful for us. Every type of information is available on google. No matter what the subject is, Google provides us with information within a second. In addition, when we get tired of working, we can entertain ourselves on Facebook, Instagram, etc. We can find our old friends and reconnect with them. In this way, we can make our life interesting in many ways by using them properly.

Question 7.
What are the benefits of creating a Whatsapp group of students by a school teacher?
Answer:

  • By creating a Whatsapp group, teachers can give homework to students.
  • If a student faces any problem while studying, he can ask questions to the teachers.
  • Students answer each other’s questions which allow all the students to repeat the lesson.
  • Students get close to each other and help, each other during exam times.
  • Proper use of group is beneficial for children as they know what to do or not to do at a particular moment.

Question 8.
Can we improve our game by consuming products and tonics?
Answer:
No, games cannot be improved by consuming products and tonics. It can only increase physical strength for a particular moment. If the body gets used to it, the body can get damaged. The game can only be improved only with hard work and can achieve great success. It is a misconception that games can be improved by consuming products and tonics. We must avoid such misconceptions.

Long Answer Type Question:

Question 1.
How can we properly use mobile, the internet, and other means of communication?
Answer:
The role of communication in our lives has immensely increased in present times and we are using it a lot. We should not become habitual of it. Instead, we should properly use it. With the following methods, we can properly use mobile, the internet, and other means of communication :

  • We must not play games on mobiles. Instead, we should use it to attain knowledge.
  • Every type of information is available on Google. By using means of communication, we must collect information and become efficient in our subject.
  • Presently, students are taking education with mobile and internet. It should be used wisely.
  • More usage of mobile or computer can have an adverse impact on our eyes. It must be used to a limited extent.
  • By using such means, we can develop our personality and can create a better future.
  • With their help, students can achieve their goal i.e. progress in life.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Notes

  • For centuries, there has been discrimination between boys and girls in our society. Boys are considered superior to girls and the major reason for this is the male-dominated society.
  • In modem times, science and technology have largely eliminated this gender discrimination.’ Although this discrimination is reduced still this discrimination still prevails in many areas.
  • We have many examples in history which show that when required, females have shown great courage. This also shows us certain qualities in females such as courage, helping others, etc.
  • While living in a society, we must oppose every type of discrimination and try to bring equality in society.
  • We must use time wisely and not misuse it. If we do not value time today, tomorrow will not value us.
  • It is a must for us to make a timetable and live life according to it. It will bring discipline into our lives and we will be able to do everything at the right time.
  • We must use social media in a better way. We must get good knowledge and only devote that much time to social media which is required. For entertainment, we can use other means as well except social media.
  • We must use mobile, the internet, and other means of communication in a constructive way. They provide us with very good material to study. By using them in a proper way, we can create a better personality. It is a must for every student to use them in a constructive way.
  • There is a lot of negativity spread around us. We must avoid any kind of negativity and must try to adapt and spread positivity.
  • At the same time, we must avoid the misconceptions that exist in society. We must use our discretion and mind to avoid misconceptions and try to remove them from society.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Book Solutions Chapter 2 Critical Thinking Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Class Physical Education  Chapter 2 Sports Training

Physical Education Guide for Class 12 PSEB Sports Training Textbook Questions and Answers

One Mark Question-Answers

Question 1.
How many types of warming-up are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are two types of warming up:

  • Physiological warming up
  • Psychological warming up.

Question 2.
Write any one benefit of Interval training Method.
Answer:
Since, hardly any training aids are required, more athletes can be trained at the same time.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 3.
How is the word Training used in sports?
Answer:
Sports training is the entire systematic process of preparation of athletes for highest level of performance.

Two Marks Question-Answers

Question 4.
Write the meaning of sports training.
Answer:
In general, the word sports training is commonly used by the sportsperson in the field of sports. But, in broad sense training may be defined as an organised and systematic instructional process which aims to improve the individual’s physical, psychological and intellectual performance or tactical capabilities.

Question 5.
Write one aim of sports training.
Answer:
Development of Overall Personality. Overall personality can be observed with habits, self esteem, social skills, behaviour, leadership, abilities, resilience, values, team building etc. towards the requirements of training of competition. These are the personality traits that can be achieved or improved through sports during training. Hence, sports training play an important role in the development of personality.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 6.
What do you know about physical structure?
Answer:
Physical structure means physique body structure or work efficiency. Shape of muscles and structure of bones can be identified through medical procedure. Inspite of these factors hereditary factors also play an important role in games and sports.

Three Marks Question-Answers

Question 7.
Write a note on the following:
(i) Physical fitness
(ii) Technical Expertise
(iii) Technical skills
(iv) Development of overall personality.
Answer:
(i) Physical Fitness:
It refers as one must possess physical fitness components e.g. strength, speed, endurance, agility, balance, power etc. these components can be achieved through regular physical training and are prerequisites of all sports. These physical fitness components vary from sports to sports e.g. some sports requires strength and endurance and other needs agility etc. With the help of physical training plan e.g. short term and long term plan, plan according to participation in general or specific competitions etc. can be achieved easily.

(ii) Technical Expertise:
Technical skill is a fundamental component of sports training. It refers to improve set of exercises and various skills used in various sports to achieve highly optimum performance or efficiency. Technical skill consists of various repeats (in order to become skill), initial training of athlete, abilities of athlete, motor abilities (fitness components), sensory abilities (understanding level of complex situation) etc. these above said fundaments can be achieved regular practice. For this, technical skill can divide in phases e.g. athlete must be prepared themselves for physical fitness, skill improvement training etc.

(iii) Technical skills:
Technical skill is a fundamental component of sports training. It refers to improve set of exercises and various skills used in various sports to achieve highly optimum performance or efficiency. Technical skill consists of various repeats (in order to become skill), initial training of athlete, abilities of athlete, motor abilities (fitness components), sensory abilities (understanding level of complex situation) etc. these above said fundaments can be achieved regular practice. For this, technical skill can divide in phases e.g. athlete must be prepared themselves for physical fitness, skill improvement training etc.

(iv) Development of overall personality:
Overall personality can be observed with habits, selfesteem, social skills, behaviour, leadership, abilities, resilience, values, team building etc. towards the requirements of training of competition. These are the personality traits that can be achieved or improved through sports during training. Hence, sports training play an important role in the development of personality.

All games and sports certainly benefit both mind and body and create discipline, team building, confidence and physical fitness. Sports training enhance strength, speed, skill, endurance, and flexibility but also increases self esteem, builds social skills and leadership, increases resilience and inculcates values. These specific personality traits which are more suitable to attain high level of sports performance in sports can be develop with the help of sports training.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 8.
What is warming up? What is the difference between psychological and Physical warm up? .
Answer:
“Warming up is a preliminary exercises of physical and mental preparation for a strenuous exertion”.
“Warming up is a process of heating the whole body by running and performing exercises prior to the activity”.
“Warming up is a process by which human machine is brought to a condition at which it safely responds to the nerves impulses of the persons for quick and efficient action”.

1. Physiological warming up:
It is mainly when the light exercises are performed in order to have benefits of muscular contraction due to increase in temperature of the muscles. It can furthur be classified into following two categories:

(i) Active warming up:
It involves bodily movement such as light exercises, jogging etc. to increase body temperature.
It is furthur of two types:
(a) General warming up
(b) Specific warming up

(a) General warming up:
In this type of warm-up athlete does not engage themselves in a specific activity. It generally last from eight to ten minutes. This warm-up might include very easy jogging or vigorous walking, strides and simple exercises which are helpful to increase the heart rate.

(b) Specific warming up:
In this type of warming up athlete must follow specific exercises related to game or activity. For example sprinter must do strides before actual competition. Lunge walk, buttock kicks and rotation torso from side to side are required for tennis players etc.

(i) Passive warming up:
In passive wanning up activities other than bodily movements are adapted to have physiological effects of warming up such as sauna bath, steam bath, massage, both with warm water etc.

2. Physical Wanning up:
In this, the psychological benefits of warming up are displayed with the effect of exercises. In this, mind is prepared for action within the duration of . warming up.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 9.
Write about the principle of uniformity and differentiation.
Answer:
1. Principle of differentiation:
As we all know ‘no two individuals are alike, they may have different physical structure, psychological make up, interest, capacities and abilities etc. So, while preparing physical training programme, a coach or trainer must take into consideration these factors.

2. Principle of Uniformity:
The second principle for the sports training lies in the use and disuse of the trained skills. It simply implies that regular training or practice is most important for any training programme. Without regular practice or use of trained skill the training or fitness level is not possible to maintain at same level.

Five Marks Question-Answers

Question 10.
What is circuit training method? Write its benefits.
Answer:
Circuit training was developed by R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson in 1953 at the University of Leads, England. This type of conditioning involves almost all of the training factors. Circuit training can be designed to develop strength, power, muscular endurance, speed, agility and neuromuscular coordination, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance.
Circuit training is formal type of training which is done in a circular pattern.

Circuit can be set up in gymnasium hall, room, or outside of the court and fields. There are usually six to ten stations are arranged in a circuit. A trainee perform one exercise and then move to the next station to do next exercise and keep moving from one point to the other to do the rest of exercises within the stipulated time.
Benefits of Circuit Training:
Circuit training has enormous advantages. These are mentioned below-

  • It is time saving.
  • More players can be trained at a time.
  • Swiftness in training.
  • Recreation in training.
  • Development of individual capabilities.
  • It is easy to make separate plans for men and women.
  • It combines a number of different components of training.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training 1

  • It provides an interesting training environment for the athlete and there are established times and levels to motivate the athlete to continue improving.
  • The circuit can be modified to fit the needs of any one group or individual.
  • It can be adapted within the time constraints of the individual.
  • It can accommodate large groups of individuals at a relatively low expense.
  • In circuit training progression in all activities is assured.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 11.
What is the meaning of cooling/limbering down?
Answer:
It is very important process to bring the body in normal state after competition or training. These are simple, easy and mild exercises done after intense training to allow body from transition to resting phase or we can say that limbering down means lowering the intensity of the work by performing stretching exercise followed by deep breath and relaxation exercises.

Cooling down is a process, which should be carried out at the end of stemuos activity. Our body after an exercise or training period takes some time for coming to its normal state, during this period many accommodative activities take place inside the body. Blood circulation in effected muscles and joints take place at a faster pace and cools down slowly. Continuing with slow exercises and deep breathing, cooling down should be carried out. Sudden coming to rest posture shall cause immense harm to the joints and muscles of our body.
Methods of Cooling Down:

  • Walking.
  • Jogging 5-10 min.
  • Static exercises 5-10 min.
  • Stretching exercises 10-30 min.
  • Yogic asana like shavasana.
  • To take hot water bath.
  • To carry out massage of the muscles to save them from hardening.
  • To carry out entertainment activities or mood stimulating games.
  • To carry out relaxation exercises.

The effects of cooling down are listed below:

  • Assists in the decrease of post exercise stiffness and muscle soreness.
  • Helpful in decreasing the risk of injury.
  • Body temperature becomes normal.
  • It reduces the chances of fainting.
  • Supply good amount of oxygen.
  • It decreases the level of underline in the blood.
  • It relaxes muscles.
  • Heart rate returns to initial stage.
  • Decrease in tension.
  • Save body from harmful effects.
  • Calm down mental state.
  • Reduces unwanted liquid from the muscle.
  • Prepares the body for ensuing events.
  • Reduces obstruction in the functioning of muscles.
  • Makes the system favourable for other exercises.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 12.
What do you know about Interval method?
Answer:
Interval training is very useful for increasing the endurance and capabilities of sprinters and other players. This pattern of training was developed by German coach Dr.Woldemar Gerschler and Dr. Herbert Reindel, Interval training method gives importance to distance, speed, time and rest and develops tolerance, strength and proper blood circulation towards heart.

In this, interval training- relatively fast runs over relatively short distances are repeated for a number of times. We can say, a player in this pattern runs half or a quarter of the fixed distance with maximum speeds and then followed by jogging to regain strength and repeats this pattern several times. As the player develops stamina, period of rest is reduced and running time with maximum speed is increased. This system of exercise is carried out on repeatedly till a player reaches the peak of his capacities.
1. Fast or Intensive Interval training
2. Slow or Extensive Interval training.

1. Fast or Intensive:
It is also called high intensity interval training (HUT) or sprint interval training (SIT) in which intense aerobic exercise with less period of recovery is given, until the athlete gets too exhausted to continue the workout. In this athlete performs 80 to 100% of his total capacity and the heart rate goes up to 170 to 200 beats/per minute. This method is primarily used to develop speed endurance.

2. Slow or Extensive:
It is primarily used to develop general endurance of an athlete. The minutes of repetition should be more with less intensity. In this athlete performs 60 to 80% of his total capacity and the heart rate increases upto 140-180 beats/per minute.
Advantage of Interval Training:

1. Interval training utilizes the body’s two energy- producing systems: The aerobic and the anaerobic.
(i) The aerobic system is the one that allows walking or running for several miles, that uses oxygen to convert carbohydrates from various sources throughout the body into energy.

(ii) The anaerobic system, on the other hand, draws energy from carbohydrates stored in muscles for short bursts of activity such as sprinting, jumping or lifting heavy objects. This system does not require oxygen, nor does it provide enough energy for more than the briefest activities.
2. It improves blood circulation.
3. Since, hardly any training aids are required; more athletes can be trained at the same time.
4. Economy of time.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Guide Sports Training Important Questions and Answers

One Mark Question-Answers

Question 1.
Enlist various types of warming up.
Answer:
(i) Physiological Warming up
(ii) Psychological Warming up.

Question 2.
What is the effect of cooling down?
Answer:
Helpful in decreasing post exercise stiffness and muscle soreness.

Question 3.
When we should warm-up?
Answer:
We should warm up prior to any activity or an event.

Question 4.
What is the another name for cooling down?
Answer:
Limbering down.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 5.
Who developed the circuit training method?
Answer:
R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson.

Question 6.
Name the person who developed interval training method.
Answer:
German Coach Dr. Woldemar Gerschler and Dr. Herbert Reindel.

Question 7.
Enlist various types of Interval training method.
Answer:

  • Fast and intensive-intental -training.
  • Slow and extensive interval training.

Question 8.
In which year the circuit training method was developed?
Answer:
In the year 1953.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 9.
Enlist various exercises for wanning up.
Answer:
Jogging, Strides, Stretching exercises, rotation movement exercises.

Question 10.
Enlist two principles of sports training.
Answer:

  • Principle of uniformity
  • Principle of continuity.

Question 11.
Elucidate the meaning of term ‘circuit’?
Answer:
Circuit means a circular pattern for the formal training.

Question 12.
Give the types of physiological warming up.
Answer:

  • Active warming up
  • Passive warming up.

Question 13.
How many types of active warming up are there?
Answer:
Two types.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 14.
Which type of warming up is general warming up?
Answer:
Active warming up.

Question 15.
Which component is important under interval training method?
Answer:
This method gives importance to distance, speed, duration and rest.

Question 16.
Which component of physical fitness is developed with interval training method?
Answer:
Endurance.

Question 17.
What is circuit training?
Answer:
Circuit training is formal type of training which is done in a circular pattern. Circuit can be set up in gymnasium hall, room, or outside of the court and fields. There are usually six to ten stations are arranged in a circuit. A trainee perform one exercise and then move to the next station to do next exercise and keep moving from, one point to the other to do the rest of exercises within the stipulated time.

Question 18.
Which component are included in circuit training?
Answer:
Circuit training can be designed to develop strength, power, muscular endurance, speed, agility and neuromuscular coordination, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance.

Question 19.
How many stations can be there in circuit training?
Answer:
6 to 10.

Question 20.
What percentage of efficiency in used under fast and intense interval training method?
Answer:
80% to 100%.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 21.
At what level heart rate increases in fast and intense interval training method?
Answer:
170 to 200 beats/per minute.

Question 22.
At what pace training is done under fast and intense interval training method?
Answer:
In this method, training is done with fast pace for short distance.

Question 23.
At what pace training is done under slow and extensive interval training method?
Answer:
In this method, speed is maintain at medium pac.

Question 24.
What percentage of efficiency is used under slow and extensive interval training method?
Answer:
60 to 80%.

Question 25.
At what level heart rate increases in slow and extensive interval training method?
Answer:
140 to 180 beats/per minute.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Two Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
Give the meaning of sports training.
Answer:
In general, the word sports training is commonly used by the sports person in the field of sports. But, in broad sense training may be defined as an organised and systematic instructional process which aims to improve the individuals’ physical, psychological and physiological performance or tactical capabilities.The scientific and systematic channel of preparation of players for highest level of sports performance is known as sports training.

Question 2.
What do you know about performance efficiency?
Answer:
Performance efficiency largely depends on the rate of practice and the amount of the competition and training. It also depends on training of loads during practice, training period, and quality of training and equipment. Efficiency is not achieved over a day, it needs constant training under the supervision of coach.

Question 3.
What is the need of warming up?
Answer:

  • Increases temperature of muscles.
  • Increases heart rate and blood flow.
  • Enhances coordination and motor ability.
  • Increases the sensitivity of nerve receptors.
  • Lowering of the energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 4.
Enlist methods of warming up.
Answer:
Physiological warming up:
It is mainly when the light exercises are performed in order to have benefits of muscular contraction due to increase in temperature of the muscles.

Psychological warming up:
In this the psychological benefits of warming up are displayed with the effect of exercises. In this mind is prepared for action within the duration of warming up.

Question 5.
Define cooling down?
Answer:
Cooling down is a process, which should be carried out at the end of stemuos activity. Our body after an exercise or training period takes some time for coming to its normal state, during this period many accommodative activities take place inside the body. Blood circulation in effected muscles and joints take place at a faster pace and cools down slowly. Continuing with slow exercises and deep breathing, cooling down should be carried out.

Question 6.
Highlight two advantages of cooling down.
Answer:

  • Assists in the decrease of post exercise stiffness and muscle soreness.
  • Helpful in decreasing the risk of injury.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 7.
What is principle of rest in sports training?
Answer:
This principle of training suggests that there should be sufficient rest and recovery period after the strenous work load. This is important so that one should feel fresh and recovered from fatigue to adopt further work load. In addition to rest and recover between the load it is also important that a person should take proper sleep, diet and rest before the training.

Question 8.
Highlight advantages of Interval training.
Answer:

  • Interval training utilizes the body’s two energy- producing systems: The aerobic and the anaerobic,
  • Economy of time,
  • Improves blood circulation.

Question 9.
Who developed the circuit training method?
Answer:
Circuit training was developed by R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson in 1953 at the University of Leeds, England.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 10.
What is the purpose of interval training method?
Answer:

  • It gives importance to time, distance, speed and rest.
  • It also develops endurance strength and improves blood circulation.

Question 11.
What is the aim of sports training?
Answer:

  • Improvement in work efficiency.
  • Development of overall personality.

Question 12.
Give the examples of specific warming up in football sport.
Answer:
Lunge walk, side steps, running backward, buttock kicks and chest hugs are required in football.

Question 13.
Stick rotation dribbing, tapping etc. specific warming up in related to which sport?
Answer:
Hockey.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Three Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
Write a note on the following:
(a) Physical training
(b) Technical skill.
Answer:
(a) Physical training:
Physical training refers as one must possess physical fitness components e.g. strength, speed, endurance, agility, balance, power etc. these components can be achieved through regular physical training and are prerequisites of all sports. These physical fitness components vary from sports to sports e.g. some sports requires strength and endurance and other needs agility etc. With the help of physical training plan e.g. short term and long term plan, plan according to participation in general or specific competitions etc. can be achieved easily.

(b) Technical skill:
Technical skill is a fundamental component of sports training. It refers to improve set of exercises and various skills used in various sports to achieve highly optimum performance or efficiency. Technical skill consists of various repeats (in order to become skill), initial training of athlete, abilities of athlete, motor abilities (fitness components), sensory abilities (understanding level of complex situation) etc. these above said fundaments can be achieved regular practice. For this, technical skill can divide in phases e.g. athlete must be prepared themselves for physical fitness, skill improvement training etc.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 2.
Write about principles of continuity and uniformity.
Answer:
1. Principle of continuity:
The second principle for the sports training lies in the use and disuse of the trained skills. It simply implies that regular training or practice is most important for any training programme. Without regular practice or use of trained skill the training or fitness level is not possible to maintain at same level.

2. Principle of uniformity:
As we all know ‘no two individuals are alike, they may have different physical structure, psychological make up, interest, capacities and abilities etc. So, while preparing physical training programme, a coach or trainer must take into consideration these factors.

Question 3.
Give an account of wanning up exercises.
Answer:

  • Jogging
  • Strides
  • Stretching exercises
  • Rotation movement exercises
  • Wind sprint
  • Walking lunge
  • Butt kicks

Question 4.
What do you mean by principle of active participation?
Answer:
Active participation means where an, athlete or sportsperson have a keen interest or willingness to take part in a particular activity. Any training programme proves to be of no use if the person is not willing or ready to take part in that very activity. So, this is the most valuable principle of training that a person should be ready in terms of interest, his physical or physiological abilities and capabilities to take any training programme.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 5.
Explain principles of rest and recovery.
Answer:
This principle of training suggests that there should be sufficient rest and recovery period after the strenous work load. This is important so that one should feel fresh and recovered from fatigue to adopt further work load. In addition to rest and recover between the load it is also important that a person should take proper sleep, diet and rest before the training.

Question 6.
Describe the principle of adaptation.
Answer:
This principle implies that after performing severe exercise or training programe for weeks our body becomes adjustable to increased or decreased physical demands. So, in order to have continued improvement the training programme should be such that new routine is introduced after adaptation to previous level of training or particular exercise.

Question 7.
Elucidate advantages of circuit training method.
Answer:

  • It is easy to make separate plans for men and women.
  • It combines a number of different components of training.
  • It provides an interesting training environment for the athlete and there are established times and levels to motivate the athlete to continue improving.
  • The circuit can be modified to fit the needs of any one group or individual.
  • It can be adapted within the time constraints of the individual.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Five Marks Question-Answers

Question 1.
What is the meaning of cooling down? Explain about the effects of cooling down on body.
Answer:
It is very important process to bring the body in normal state after competition or training. These are simple, easy and mild exercises done after intense training to allow body from transition to resting phase or we can say that limbering down means lowering the intensity of the work by performing stretching exercise followed by deep breath and relaxation exercises.

Cooling down is a process, which should be carried out at the end of stemuos activity. Our body after ah exercise or training period takes some time for coming to its normal state, during this period many accommodative activities take place inside the body. Blood circulation in effected muscles and joints take place at a faster pace and cools down slowly. Continuing with slow exercises and deep breathing, cooling down should be carried out. Sudden coming to rest posture shall cause immense harm to the joints and muscles of our body.

Following are the benefits of cooling down:

  • Assists in the decrease of post exercise stiffness and muscle soreness.
  • Helpful in decreasing the risk of injury.
  • Body temperature becomes normal.
  • It reduces the chances of fainting.
  • Supply good amount of oxygen.
  • It decreases the level of aderaline in the blood.
  • It relaxes muscles.
  • Heart rate returns to initial stage.
  • Decrease in tension.
  • Save body from harmful effects.
  • Calm down mental state.
  • Reduces unwanted liquid from the muscle.
  • Prepares the body for ensuing events.
  • Reduces obstruction in the functioning of muscles.
  • Makes the system favourable for other exercises.

PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training

Question 2.
What do you mean by warming up? How should body be wanned up? Explain various methods of warming up.
Answer:
Toning up of the muscles by performing warming up exercises, is most essential before starting with any physical workout. Warming up here means ‘preparing the physical body for the type of physical work it is going to do, by giving some kind of physical exercises. It is normally seen that stemuos physical exercises are started without doing any warming up exercises, which causes harmful effects on the related muscles and at times may result in to serious injury. Warming up exercises is required for preparing the body for proper demonstration of the skills. These exercises prepare a player physically and mentally for the event.

Definitions of Warming Up:
“Warming up is a preliminary exercises of physical and mental preparation for a strenuous exertion”.
“Warming up is a process of heating the whole body by running and performing exercises prior to the activity”.
“Warming up is a process by which human machine is brought to a condition at which it safely responds to the nerves impulses of the persons for quick and efficient action”.
“Warming up is done to tone up the body so as to meet the ensuing activity”.
Warming up is very essential before any competition or other activities though muscles can be damaged or tom which is lead to disability or inefficiency in sports.

Types of Warming Up:
Types of Warming up: The types of warming up can broadly be classified as follows:
PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training 2
1. Physiological warming up:
It is mainly when the light exercises are performed in order to have benefits of muscular contraction due to increase in temperature of the muscles. It can furthur be classified into following two categories:
(i) Active warming up. It involves bodily movement such as light exercises, jogging etc. to increase body temperature.
It is furthur of two types:
(a) General warming up
(b) Specific warming up

(a) General warming up:
In this type of warm-up athlete does not engage themselves in a specific activity. It generally last from eight to ten minutes. This warm-up might include very easy jogging or vigorous walking, strides and simple exercises which are helpful to increase the heart rate. It also improves coordination and flexibility of joints. In general warm up, there are no such specific criteria but there are few exercises which may be mandatory for increasing temperature of the muscles. These are as follows:

  • Jogging
  • Strides
  • Stretching exercises
  • Rotation movement exercises
  • Wind sprint
  • Walking lunge
  • Butt kicks High knee pulls
  • Backward step over
  • Jumping jacks
  • Run forward, backward and sideward
  • Exercises for hands, arms, shoulder, neck, knees and legs.

(b) Specific warming up:
In this type of warming up athlete must follow specific exercises related to game or activity. For example sprinter must do strides before actual competition. Lunge walk, buttock kicks and rotation torso from side to side are required for tennis players etc. It stimulates competition actions and intensity in order to start the competition at the highest level. We have few examples of specific exercises related to game as follows:

  • Lunge walk, side steps, running backward, buttock kicks and chest hugs are required in football.
  • Lunge walk, buttock kicks, controlled leg swings and fast feet for runners.
  • Jog on the spot, jumps from side to side; lunge forward and backward for cyclist.
  • Lunge walk, buttocks kicks, jumping high and from side to side and rotating torso are for tennis.
  • Dribbling, shooting and lay up shots for basket ball.
  • All types of bending exercises and body twisting for badminton.

(ii) Passive wanning up:
In passive warming up activities other than bodily movements are adapted to have physiological effects of warming up such as sauna
bath, steam bath, massage, both with warm water etc.

2. Psychological Wanning up:
In this, the psychological benefits of warming up are displayed with the effect of exercises. In this, mind is prepared for action within the duration of warming up. The following ways can be adopted for the psychological warming up:

  • With the help of pep talks.
  • Motivational techniques
  • Meditation and relaxation training.

Question 3.
Write the meaning of Interval training method. Briefly explain various purposes of interval training method.
Answer:
Interval training is very useful for increasing the endurance and capabilities of sprinters and other players. This pattern of training was developed by German coach Dr.Woldemar Gerschler and Dr. Herbert Reindel, Interval training method gives importance to distance, speed, time and rest and develops tolerance, strength and proper blood circulation towards heart.

In this, interval training- relatively fast runs over relatively short distances are repeated for a number of times. We can say, a player in this pattern runs half or a quarter of the fixed distance with maximum speeds and then followed by jogging to regain strength and repeats this pattern several times. As the player develops stamina, period of rest is reduced and running time with maximum speed is increased. This system of exercise is carried out on repeatedly till a player reaches the peak of his capacities.

Advantages of Interval Training:
1. Interval training utilizes the body’s two energy- producing systems: The aerobic and the anaerobic.

(i) The aerobic system is the one that allows walking or running for several miles, that uses oxygen to convert carbohydrates from various sources throughout the body into energy.

(ii) The anaerobic system, on the other hand, draws energy from carbohydrates stored in muscles for short bursts of activity such as sprinting, jumping or lifting heavy objects. This system does not require oxygen, nor does it provide enough energy for more than the briefest activities.

2. It improves blood circulation.
3. Since, hardly any training aids are required; more athletes can be trained at the same time.
4. Economy of time.
Purpose of the Interval training method

Improves anaerobic performance:
Adapt the body to running condition, including high pace and high levels of lactase in muscles. Accomplish more overall work with less physiological strain in comparison to continuous running.

Question 4.
What is the meaning of sports training? Briefly explain principles of sports training.
Answer:
Meaning and Definition of Sports Training:
In general, the word sports training is commonly used by the sportsperson in the field of sports. But, in broad sense training may be defined as an organised and systematic instructional process which aims is to improve the individual’s physical, psychological and intellectual performance or tactical capabilities. It can be said that, ‘the means with which a sports person is prepared physically, technically, tactically, intellectually, psychologically and morally is called sports training.

The scientific and systematic channel of preparation of players for highest level of sports performance is known as sports training. All the learning influences and processes that are aimed at enhancing sports performance.
are considered to be an important part of sports training. .

Definition of Sports Training:
Various experts have defined the concept of sports training in different ways. Some of the definitions are as follows:
According to Matveyev, “the fundamental form of an athlete’s training is called sports training. It is an organised process of controlling a player’s development with the help of systematically organised exercises”. There are several universally accepted scientific training principles that must be followed in order to improve conditions and sports performance. These training principles are as follows:

1. Principle of differentiation:
As we all know ‘no two individuals are alike’, they may have different physical structure, psychological make up, interest, capacities and abilities etc. So, while preparing physical training programme, a coach or trainer must take into consideration these factors.

2. Principle of Continuity:
The second principle for the sports training lies in the use and disuse of the trained skills. It simply implies that regular training or practice is most important for any training programme. Without regular practice or use of trained skill the training or fitness level is not possible to maintain at same level.

3. Principle of load (overload):
In order to improve the level of performance, the overload i.e. load greater than normal stress must be given properly. It should be done in a systematic way. The load should be increased gradually after adapting certain training level.

4. Principle of safety and prevention:
It is important to take care of every aspect related to safety such as size and specification of equipment, classification of students, warming up and protective equipment etc. to avoid chances of injuries during training. As we all know prevention is better than cure, so we should always consider these aspects while training.

5. Principle of variety:
In order to maintain the zeal and interest for the activity it is important to provide variety in the training method. The monotonous and same kind of training would bring boredom and lack of interest to continue training for the same activity. So, its necessary to change the training method to create interest for the activity.

6. Principle of periodization:
The term periodization can be described as the division of training session to attain peak performance at the time of competition. So, this is the scientific base of training, in which lots of expertise is required to design training programme to attain highest performance at the time of competition. Broadly, the periodization can be distinguished as preparatory phase, competition phase and transition or recovery phase.

7. Principle of progression:
This principle of training implies that training must proceed from simple to complex and general to specific e.g. firstly simple dribbling should be practiced in order to perform lay up shot in basketball. The basic skills should be trained first in order to create stronger base for the particular activity. It should be done slowly and gradually to attain highest performance.

8. Principle of rest/recovery:
This principle of training suggests that there should be sufficient rest and recovery period after the strenous work load. This is important so that one should feel fresh and recovered from fatigue to adopt further work load. In addition to rest and recover between the load it is also important that a person should take proper sleep, diet and rest before the training.

9. Principle of conditioning/adaptation:
This principle implies that after performing severe exercise or training programe for weeks our body becomes adjustable to increased or decreased physical demands. So, in order to have continued improvement the training programme should be such that new routine is introduced after adaptation to previous level of training or particular exercise.

10. Principle of active participation:
Active participation means where an athlete or sportsperson have a keen interest or willingness to take part in a particular activity. Any training programme proves to be of no use if the person is not willing or ready to take part in that very activity. So, this is the most valuable principle of training that a person should be ready in terms of interest* his physical or physiological abilities and capabilities to take any training programme.

Sports Training PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Notes

In today’s competitive world of sports, everyone aims at winning at all cost. Hence, the concept of sports training has a vital role to play in the field of sports. The concept sports training deals with the systematic preparation of athletes to obtain peak performance at the time of competition. The aim of sports training is to produce optimum performance during competition.

Hence, the training schedule is classified in such a way that a player gets complete recovery from the training load and feels fresh and energetic to take fresh load to continue performance. According to Martin, “Sports training is a planned and controlled process of achieving goals in which the changes of motor performance and behaviour are made through measures of content, method and organisation.

Hence, sports training implies systematic and controlled way of imparting training to an athlete to produce optimum performance at the time of competition. In order to have fruitful results from the sports training programme various principles such as individual differences, principle of use of disuse, load (overload), progression, safety, continuity and rest or recovery must be followed, otherwise the purpose of training will not be effective and useful for the trainees.

It is also important to perform warm up exercise to prepare an athelete physically, physiologically or psychologically for the sports training programme or prior to competition. It helps an athlete to perform with least chances of injuries. Similarly, limbering or cooling down plays a significant role to attain normal condition after performing stemuos exercises. Hence, sports training is the ways and means of systematic training to develop various components of physical fitness to attain optimal performance during competition.

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Physical Education Book Solutions Chapter 2 Sports Training Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Computer Science Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Computer Guide for Class 9 PSEB Introduction to DBMS Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………… is the full name of DBMS.
(a) Database manager system
(b) Database managing system
(c) Database management System
(d) Database Messenger Software.
Answer:
(c) Database management System

2. To control the Database ………………… is responsible.
(a) Data master
(b) Database administrator
(c) User
(d) Common man
Answer:
(b) Database administrator

3. After processing data is Convert into …………………..
(a) Database
(b) Information
(c) Entity
(d) Software
Answer:
(b) Information

4. Information associate with each other makes………………..
(a) Database
(b) DBMS
(c) DBA
(d) File Processing System
Answer:
(a) Database

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

5. To store the same data again and again in a database is called …………………
(a) Integrity
(b) Redundancy
(c) Object
(d) Foreign key
Answer:
(b) Redundancy

6. …………………. is a unique key.
(a) Primary key
(b) Foreign key
(c) Electronic key
(d) Database key
Answer:
(a) Primary key

2. Full Forms

1. DBA
Answer:
Database administrator.

2. DBMS
Answer:
Database management System.

3. SQL
Answer:
Structured query language.

3. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a database?
Answer:
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.

Question 2.
What are the different types of relationships?
Answer:
One-to-One Relationships
One-to-Many Relationships
Many-to-Many Relationships
Self-Referencing Relationships

Question 3.
Write the names of different DBA’s.
Answer:
Administrative DBA
Development DBA
Data Architect
Data Warehouse DBA

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 4.
What is SQL?
Answer:
SQL is a Structured Query Language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data stored in a relational database. SQL is the standard language for Relation Database Systems. All relational database management systems like MySQL, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres, and SQL Server use SQL as standard database language.

Question 5.
Name the different types of keys.
Answer:

  1. Primary key
  2. Foreign key
  3. Composite key
  4. Natural key
  5. Surrogate key
  6. Candidate key
  7. Compound key

4. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe Normalization. How many types of Normalization?
Answer:
Normalization is a process of organizing the data in the database to avoid data redundancy, insertion anomaly, update anomaly & deletion anomaly.
Here are the most commonly used normal forms :

  • First normal form(1NF)
  • Second normal form(2NF)
  • Third normal form(3NF)

First normal form (1NF)
As per the rule of the first normal form, an attribute (column) of a table cannot hold multiple values. It should hold only atomic values.

Second normal form (2NF)
A table is said to be in 2NF if both the following conditions hold :
The table is in INF (First normal form)
No non-prime attribute is dependent on the proper subset of any candidate key of the table. An attribute that is not part of any candidate key is known as a non-prime attribute.

Third Normal form (3NF)
A table design is said to be in 3NF if both the following conditions hold:
The table must be in 2NF
Transitive functional dependency of non-prime attribute on any super key should be removed. An attribute that is not part of any candidate key is known as a non-prime attribute.

In other words, 3NF can be explained like this: A table is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for each functional dependency X-> Y at least one of the following conditions hold :
X is a super key of the table
Y is a prime attribute of the table
An attribute that is a part of one of the candidate keys is known as a prime attribute.

Question 2.
What is a file processing system? What are the disadvantages of the file processing system?
Answer:
A file processing system is a collection of files and programs that access/ modify these files. Typically, new files and programs are added over time (by different programmers) as new information needs to be stored and new ways to access information are needed. A File can store records and we can extract these records using different applications programs.
Disadvantages of File Processing System.
The conventional file processing system suffers from the following shortcomings :

1. Data Redundancy – Data Redundancy means the same information is duplicated in several files. This makes data redundant.

2. Data Inconsistency – Data Inconsistency means different copies of the same data are not matching. That means different versions of the same basic data are existing. This occurs as the result of update operations that are not updating the same data stored at different places. Example: Address Information of a customer is recorded differently in different files.

3. Difficulty in Accessing Data – It is not easy to retrieve information using a conventional file processing system. Convenient and efficient information retrieval is almost impossible using a conventional file processing system.

4. Data Isolation – Data are scattered in various files, and the files may be in different formats, writing a new application program to retrieve data is difficult.

5. Integrity Problems – The data values may need to satisfy some integrity constraints. For example, the balance field Value must be greater than 5000. We have to handle this through program code in file processing systems. But in the database, we can declare the integrity constraints along with the definition itself.

6. Atomicity Problem – It is difficult to ensure atomicity in the file processing system. For example, transferring $100 from Account A to account B. If a failure occurs during execution there could be a situation like $100 is deducted from Account A and not credited in Account B.

7. Concurrent Access anomalies – If multiple users are updating the same data simultaneously it will result in an inconsistent data state. In a file processing system, it is very difficult to handle this using program code. This results in concurrent access anomalies.

8. Security Problems – Enforcing Security Constraints in the file processing system is very difficult as the application programs are added to the system in an ad-hoc manner.

9. Observations and Conclusions – Data Redundancy may lead to Data inconsistency if redundant data are not updated simultaneously. Data inconsistency leads the system into an inconsistent state since the operations based on inconsistent data results in more inconsistency.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 3.
What do you mean by DBMS? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS.
Answer:
A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.
The DBMS has a number of advantages as compared to the traditional computer file processing approach. The DBA must keep in mind these benefits or capabilities during designing databases, coordinating and monitoring the DBMS.

The major advantages of DBMS are described below :

  • Controlling Data Redundancy
  • Data Consistency
  • Data Sharing
  • Data Integration
  • Integrity Constraints

Disadvantages of Database Management System (DBMS):
Although there are many advantages the DBMS may also have some minor disadvantages. These are :

  • Cost of Hardware & Software
  • Cost of Data Conversion
  • Cost of Staff Training
  • Appointing Technical Staff

Question 4.
What is an entity? Write the types of entities in DBMS.
Answer:
An entity can be a real-world object, either animate or inanimate, that can be easily identifiable. For example, in a school database, students, teachers, classes, and courses offered can be considered entities. All these entities have some attributes or properties that give them their identity. An entity set is a collection of similar types of entities. An entity set may contain entities with attributes sharing similar values. For example, a Student set may contain all the students of a school; likewise, a Teachers’ set may contain all the teachers of a school from all faculties. Entity sets need not be disjoint.

The Entity-Relationship (ER) model consists of different types of entities. The existence of an entity may depend on the existence of one or more other entities, such an entity is said to be existence dependent. Entities whose existence not depending on any other entities are termed as not existence dependent. Entities based on their characteristics are classified as follows.

  • Strong Entities
  • Weak Entities
  • Recursive Entities
  • Composite Entities

Strong Entity Vs Weak Entity
An entity set that has a primary key is termed a strong entity set. An entity set that does not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key is termed a weak entity set. A weak entity is existence-dependent. That is the existence of a weak entity depends on the existence of an identifying entity set. The discriminator (or partial key) is used to identify other attributes of a weak entity set. The primary key of a weak entity set is formed by the primary key of identifying the entity set and the discriminator of the weak entity set. The existence of a weak entity is indicated by a double rectangle in the ER diagram. We underline the discriminator of a weak entity set with a dashed line in the ER diagram.

Recursive Entity
A recursive entity is one in which a relationship can exist between occurrences of the same entity set. This occurs in a unary relationship.

Composite Entities
If Many too Many relationships exist we must create* a bridge entity to convert it into 1 to Many. Bridge entity composed of the primary keys of each of the entities to be connected. The bridging entity is known as a composite entity.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 5.
What do you mean by data models? Write the parts of it.
Answer:
Data Models are fundamental entities to introduce abstraction in a DBMS. Data models define how data is connected to each other and how they are processed and stored inside the system. The very first data model could be a flat data model, where all the data used are to be kept in the same plane A data model organizes data elements and standardizes how the data elements relate to one another. Since data elements document real-life people, places, and things and the events between them, the data model represents reality, for example, a house has many windows or a cat has two eyes. Computers are used for the accounting of these real-life things and events and therefore the data model is a necessary standard to ensure exact communication between human beings.

A data model consists of two parts as shown in the figure:

DDL – Data definition language
DML – Data manipulation language
i.e. Data Model = DDL + DML
PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS Img 1

PSEB 9th Class Computer Guide Introduction to DBMS Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the Blanks

1. ……………….. is a set of one or more attributes taken collectively to uniquely identify a record.
Answer:
Super Key

2. ……………….. attribute can be taken as a primary key.
Answer:
Id

3. A ………………… is a property of the entire relation, rather than of the individual tuples in which each tuple is unique.
Answer:
Key

4. …………………… cannot be taken as a primary key?
Answer:
Street.

True or False

1. Processed data is called information.
Answer:
True

2. Database is secure and reliable.
Answer:
True

3. DBA has no responsibility to manage DBMS.
Answer:
False

4. Related data items are called records.
Answer:
True

5. Collection of related data items is called a file.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

6. Meaningful data is called information.
Answer:
False

7. Ordering meaningful data is called a database.
Answer:
True

8. Meaningful data items are called files.
Answer:
False

9. Collection of related records is called data.
Answer:
False

10. DBA controls database system
Answer:
True

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define Database.
Answer:
A prearranged collection of figures known as data is called a database.

Question 2.
What is DBMS?
Answer:
Database Management Systems (DBMS) are applications designed especially which enable user interaction with other applications.

Question 3.
What are the various kinds of interactions catered by DBMS?
Answer:
The various kind of interactions catered by DBMS are :

  • Data definition
  • Update
  • Retrieval
  • Administration

Question 4.
Segregate database technology’s development.
Answer:
The development of database technology is divided into :

  • Structure or data model
  • Navigational model
  • SQL/ relational model

Question 5.
Who proposed the relational model?
Answer:
Edgar F. Codd proposed the relational model in 1970.

Question 6.
What are the features of Database language?
Answer:
A database language may also incorporate features like DBMS-specific Configuration and management of storage engine Computations to modification of query results by computations, like summing, counting, averaging, grouping, sorting, and cross-referencing Constraint enforcement Application Programming Interface.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 7.
What do database languages do?
Answer:
As special-purpose languages, they have :

  • Data definition language
  • Data manipulation language
  • Query language

Question 8.
Define database model.
Answer:
A data model determining fundamentally how data can be stored, manipulated, and organized and the structure of the database logically is called a database model.

Question 9.
What is SQL?
Answer:
Structured Query Language (SQL) being ANSI standard language updates database and commands for accessing.

Question 10.
Enlist the various relationships of the database.
Answer:
Tire various relationships of the database are :

  • One-to-one: Single table having drawn relationship with another table having similar kind of columns.
  • One-to-many: Two tables having primary and foreign key relations.
  • Many-to-many: Junction table having many tables related to many tables.

Question 11.
Define Normalization.
Answer:
Organized data void of inconsistent dependency and redundancy within a database is called normalization.

Question 12.
Enlist the advantages of normalizing the database.
Answer:
Advantages of the normalizing database are :

  • No duplicate entries
  • Saves storage space
  • Boasts the query performances.

Question 13.
Define Denormalization.
Answer:
Boosting up database performance, adding redundant data which in turn helps rid of complex data is called denormalization.

Question 14.
Define DDL and DML.
Answer:
Managing properties and attributes of a database are called Data Definition Language (DD L). Manipulating data in a database such as inserting, updating, deleting is defined as Data Manipulation Language. (DML)

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 15.
Define Object-oriented model.
Answer:
Compilations of objects make up this model in which values are stored within instance variables that are inside the object. The object itself comprises bodies of objects for its operation which are called methods. Objects containing the same kind of variables and methods are called classes.

Question 16.
Define Entity.
Answer:
It can be defined as being a ‘thing’ with an independent existence in the real world. –

Question 17.
What do you mean by Entity type?
Answer:
A set of entries having similar attributes are entity types.

Question 18.
Define Entity Set.
Answer:
Compilation of all entries of any particular type of entry in the database is called Entity Set.

Question 19.
What do you mean by Entity type extension?
Answer:
Compilation of similar entity types into one particular type which is grouped together as an entity set.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Enlist the disadvantages of the query.
Answer:
The disadvantages of the query are :

  • No indexes
  • Stored procedures are excessively compiled.
  • Triggers and procedures are without SET NOCOUNT ON.
  • Complicated joins making up inadequately written queries.
  • Cursors and temporary tables showcase a bad presentation.

Question 2.
What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?
Answer:
The first normal form or INF is the first and the simplest type of normalization that can be implemented in a database. The main aims of INF are to :

  • 1. Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.
  • 2. Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column (the primary key).

Question 3.
What is Data?
Answer:
Data is a plural of datum, which is originally a Latin noun meaning “something given.” Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning “facts or pieces of information” and as a singular mass noun meaning “information”. In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. Relative to today’s computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 4.
Define Database.
Answer:
A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses.

Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Typically, a database manager provides users the capabilities of controlling read/ write access, specifying report generation, and analyzing usage.

Question 5.
What is DBMS (Database Management System)?
Answer:
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows organizations to place control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of an integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.

Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, users can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also provides the ability to logically present database information to users.

Question 6.
What is the need for DBMS?
Answer:
A database management system (DBMS) can help address the employee count scenario and a range of even more complex situations related to cost, order status, or inventory management by presenting the same data to everyone in the business at the same time. A DBMS also eliminates the frustrating hunt for the right version of the right spreadsheet on a vast and disorganized network drive.

  1. As businesses grow, the volume of data they accumulate grows exponentially. Managing this data deluge becomes increasingly difficult just at the moment when superior data management becomes more important to business success.
  2. As businesses expand, more sophisticated tools are needed to manage data. Tools that serve start-ups well are overwhelmed by the demands faced by larger businesses,
  3. A database management system (DBMS) is a powerful tool used to store data, secure it, protect it and make it quickly available to people who need it.
  4. A DBMS enables a business to squeeze more value from the data it collects for improved decision-making.

PSEB 9th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS

Question 7.
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of DBMS?
Answer:
The advantages and disadvantages of DBMS are as follows :

Advantages :

  • Reduced data redundancy
  • Reduced updating errors and increased consistency
  • Greater data integrity and independence from applications programs
  • Improved data access to users through the use of host and query languages
  • Improved data security
  • Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs
  • Facilitated development of new applications program

Disadvantages :

  • Database systems are complex, difficult, and time-consuming to design
  • Substantial hardware and software start-up costs
  • Damage to database affects virtually all applications programs
  • Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system
  • Initial training is required for all programmers and users.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 4 Introduction to DBMS Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Welcome Life Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Welcome Life Guide for Class 10 PSEB Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Textbook Questions and Answers

Choose True/False

1. Repeated practice sharpens the skills.
Answer:
True

2. Singing can be refined with practice.
Answer:
True

3. Skills are given to lucky people by birth. He who has not got his boon cannot do anything.
Answer:
False

4. Talent should also be trained to be carved.
Answer:
True.

Think and Tell

Question 1.
Upon which thing, a good choice of career depends?
Answer:
The choice of a good career depends on one’s own inclination that in which field he is most inclined. If a person chooses a career that he does not like, then that career will not be good for him. It also depends on the circumstances of the person’s home and the need of the hour which career he chooses.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 2.
How many types of counseling did the career counselor suggest?
Answer:
The career counselor suggested three types of counseling

  • Personal Counselling. When a counselor councils an individual personally, it is called personal counseling.
  • Group counseling. When some students or individuals interact with a counselor, it is called group counseling.
  • Class counseling. When the counselor talks to the whole class together and tells them about their career choices, it is called class counseling.

Question 3.
About which thing Navdeep was happy?
Answer:
Navdeep was happy that the school is now doing well as the students are being made career conscious.

Question 4.
Nowadays, why is it become good to move with a lot of career options?
Answer:
Nowadays, it is becoming good to move with a lot of career options because :

  • Maybe the person may lose interest in that occupation in the near future.
  • It is possible that in the future, the importance of a particular career in society will be lost.
  • Maybe in another job, a person starts to get self-satisfaction and more money.

Question 5.
What good things do you notice in your school?
Answer:

  • Our school focuses on the multifaceted development of students.
  • Students are introduced to a range of future career choices.
  • Students are told to think not just about one career but about at least three career options.
  • The school teachers have a good relationship with the children and counsel them from time to time.

Question 6.
Which quality do you find in Manisha?
Answer:
In Manisha, we saw the quality of knowing. She wanted to know why the kids were asked to fill three choices in the form. This quality should be in every child that why should he do any work. The advantage of this is that the child develops the quality of rational thinking.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Guide Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Skill conies with ………….. in person.
(a) Practice
(b) Study
(c) Wandering
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) Practice

2. How can we improve one’s singing skills?
(a) By learning songs
(b) By practice
(c) By listening to songs
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) By practice

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

3. How to find someone’s skills?
(a) With hard work
(b) With a concentration
(c) With practice
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

4. Human nature is …………..
(a) changeable
(b) same
(c) static
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) changeable

5. An individual with narrow mindedness :
(a) Spreads negativity
(b) Never becomes happy
(c) Never accepts criticism
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

6. An individual’s thinking :
(a) should be open
(b) should be closed
(c) should be same
(d) should be unsatisfied
Answer:
(a) should be open.

7. Which of these is a feature of a good personality?
(a) Sociable
(b) Accept the challenge
(c) Ready to learn
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

8. Everyone must keep ………………… career options.
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five
Answer:
(b) Three

9. Which of these is a type of counseling?
(a) Individual
(b) Class
(c) Group
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

10. One must choose a career according to his
(a) Ability
(b) Interest
(c) Needs
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Fill in the Blanks:

1. Varinder Kumar was a teacher and a ………………. as well.
Answer:
Counselor

2. One must keep …………… career options.
Answer:
three

3. An individual’s ……………… nature becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress.
Answer:
rigid

4. ………………. has given great progress to society;
Answer:
Technology

5. …………………. is the law of nature.
Answer:
Change

True / False:

1. A narrow-minded person always makes progress.
Answer:
False

2. Not every child is skilled.
Answer:
False

3. Practice enhances one’s skills.
Answer:
True

4. An individual should openly accept his own criticism.
Answer:
True

5. Individuals should choose a career according to their interests.
Answer:
True

Match the Column:

Column A Column B
(a) Talent (i) Trend
(b) Foreigner (ii) Quality
(c) Point of view (iii) British
(d) Personality (iv) Outlook
(e) Interest (v) Individual’s outlook

Answer:

Column A Column B
(a) Talent (ii) Quality
(b) Foreigner (iii) British
(c) Point of view (iv) Outlook
(d) Personality (v) Individual’s outlook
(e) Interest (i) Trend

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What makes a Person Special?
Answer:
The skills presented in a person make him a person special from the ordinary.

Question 2.
How do a person’s skills shine?
Answer:
A person’s skills shine only with practice.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 3.
How can we improve one’s singing skills?
Answer:
The singing skills of an individual can be improved only with continuous practice.

Question 4.
What is needed to improve a person’s talent?
Answer:
Continuos practice, hard work, and concentration can improve one’s talent.

Question 5.
What kind of human nature should it be?
Answer:
Human nature must be changeable.

Question 6.
Give one demerit of narrow-mindedness.
Answer:
A narrow-minded person always spreads negativity.

Question 7.
What is the advantage of open-mindedness?
Answer:
An open-minded person always remains happy and keeps others happy.

Question 8.
Can a narrow-minded person maintain a relationship?
Answer:
No, he cannot maintain a relationship.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Question 9.
What is meant by openness?
Answer:
Openness is the quality of one’s nature that helps, us to think openly.

Question 10.
Give one quality of an open-minded person.
Answer:
An open-minded person is always sociable.

Question 11.
Give one flaw in a narrow-minded person.
Answer:
He is critical of everything.

Question 12.
How can the stubborn nature of a person is detrimental to him?
Answer:
Because stubborn nature becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress.

Question 13.
What kind of stubbornness should the person have?
Answer:
The stubbornness of doing work with honesty, hard work, not to take a bribe, etc.

Question 14.
How can we become responsible citizens of society?
Answer:
By following social rules and removing wrong things from society, we can become responsible citizens.

Question 15.
How many career options a person should have?
Answer:
He must have a minimum of three career options.

Question 16.
What should a person keep in mind while choosing a career?
Answer:
His interest and need of the hour.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
How can we master a task? Explain with an example.
Answer:
Every person has some other skill and there is a need to polish that skill. To polish one’s skill, there is a need to do the practice. One cannot be a master of a skill if he is short of practice. For example, the writing of a first-class student can never be good but can be after writing continually. As children, we did not know how to ride a bicycle but with practice, we learned to ride a bicycle. In this way, practice is a must to masterwork.

Question 2.
What should a person keep his mind open?
Answer:
A person must keep his mind and perspective open. As the saying goes, running water looks good but stagnant water becomes dirty. In the same way, a narrow-minded person cannot make progress in life. He neither makes himself happy nor allows others to be happy. He can’t even handle relationships properly. He never accepts his criticism which actually he should do. One should keep his thinking open and must accept criticism positively.

Question 3.
What are the benefits of being open-minded?
Answer:

  • An open-minded person always accepts a change.
  • He accepts his criticism positively and brings changes in himself.
  • He contributes to social progress and does his own progress as well.
  • He keeps himself happy and keeps others happy too.
  • Does he maintain relationships in a better way?

Question 4.
What is the role of technology in our lives?
Answer:
Nowadays new technology is coming before us and we own it in a positive manner. Life is constantly progressing with technology. The older generation is not as fast as today’s youth in adopting modem technology. That’s why today’s generation is progressing so fast with this technology, we can do all our work easily. For example., clothes used to be washed by hand but now the machine washes them easily. In this way, we can say that technology plays a very important role in our lives and makes our work quite easy.

Question 5.
“The person should be stubborn or flexible”, Give a reason in favor of your answer.
Answer:
The person should not be stubborn but flexible in nature. His stubbornness becomes an obstacle in the way of his progress such as not accepting boys and girls as equals. People start to discriminate and pay a heavy price for it. Such stubbornness should be changed. One can contribute to the family’s progress, society’s progress, and national progress by changing according to changed circumstances.

Question 6.
What are the duties of a responsible citizen?
Answer:

  • He must change himself according to changed circumstances.
  • He must not accept Social evils. Instead, he must try to eliminate them.
  • He must remain within social boundaries.
  • He must motivate others to follow social rules.
  • He must try to bring social change and change himself as well.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Give merits and demerits of an individual’s personality.
Answer:
Merits.

  • First of all, he must be ready to learn something new so that he could change himself according to changed circumstances.
  • He must be sociable and keep healthy relationships with others.
  • He must accept every challenge because if he will not, he will become static and will not be able to do individual progress.
  • He must follow all the social rules and must motivate others to do the same.

Demerits.

  • A stubborn person never takes anyone’s advice. He always does his own thing which is to his detriment.
  • A stubborn person always runs away from his responsibilities which can be harmful to his life.
  • He gets angry suddenly which can be dangerous.
  • He loses his temper very quickly.
  • Many times, he never follows the rules. Instead, he breaks the social norms.

Question 2.
Observe the following pictures and answer the given questions.
PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Img 1

  1. What is shown in picture 1?
  2. What do you observe in picture 2?
  3. What do we come to know from both the pictures?

Answer:
1. Picture 1 tells us about a person with narrow-mindedness. He always remains unhappy. He not only hurts himself but also hurts those around him. He cannot maintain his relationships as well.

2. Person in the second picture is of open thinking and nature who always accepts a change. He himself remains happy and keeps others happy as well. He maintains his relationships well.

3. After looking at both the pictures, we can say that an individual must not be stubborn but be of open mind and perspective. It makes his life happy. On contrary, the stubborn person remains sad every time which is not correct. So, we must take a vow that We must accept challenges and will remain happy.

PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline

Self-Awareness and Self Discipline PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Notes

  • Every individual is having some talent and this talent can be of any type.
  • There is definitely a need to polish the talent which an individual possesses and it can be polished through repeated practice.
    • To become a master of any work, repeated practice is a must. Without practice, no one can do any work in a proper way. That’s why practice is one of the means to polish someone’s talent.
  • Humans and their nature, both are changeable. The way in which change comes in nature, in the same way, the nature of an individual also changes with time.
  • An individual must be of flexible attitude and must welcome every change. A person with a rigid attitude cannot remain happy and make others unhappy as well.
  • A person with a rigid attitude cannot handle his relationships well. He cannot hear his criticism. An individual must develop quality within himself of listening to his criticism and must change that aspect of his life for which he is being criticized.
  • An open-minded individual accepts every change with an open heart and does progresses in life. Open-minded person adapts himself according to the changed situation and does progress. If we have adopted modem technology, it is because of our open-mindedness.
  • An individual must not be of rigid attitude. Instead, he must be of flexible nature. If something is going wrong around us, we must try to improve it so that our future generations do not have that problem.
  • Everyone must work to become responsible citizenship and must accept everything that comes in his way.
  • The most important thing is for the person to see his tendency. A person should work in the same field in which he is inclined otherwise he will not be able to do any work properly. After seeing the trends, he should work hard in that field. In this way, he will become aware of the career to come.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Welcome Life Book Solutions Chapter 1 Self-Awareness and Self Discipline Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

PSEB Solutions for Class 8 Physical Education Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Physical Education Guide for Class 8 PSEB Nutritious and Balanced Diet Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by food?
Answer:
Food is very important for our body because it helps in growth and development of our body. It repairs old cells and forms the new cells. Food prevents us from diseases. We consider such things as food which becomes part of our body after taking it and develops the body.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 2.
What do you mean by nutritious food?
Answer:
The following are the constituents of nutritious food:

  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Mineral Salts
  • Water.

Question 3.
What do you mean by balanced diet?
Answer:
Balanced Diet. Balanced diet is the diet which has all the nutrients in right proportion and which is capable of fulfilling all the needs of the body. It should have all nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, salts and water in proper proportion. Such a diet needs to be taken for the proper development of body, protection from diseases and good health. No single item of food is balanced diet in itself. Only milk is an exception, as it has got almost all nutrients.

Question 4.
What do you understand by protein? How many types of proteins are there?
Answer:
Proteins:
Protein is a complex compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen. It is of two kinds vegetable protein and animal protein.

Sources:
1. Vegetable Protein: It is available in soyabeans, groundnuts, cashew-nuts, pistachio, walnuts, wheat, millet, maize, etc.
2. Animal Protein: It is available in meat, fish, egg, cheese, etc.
PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet 1
Advantages of Protein:

  • It ensures physical growth and development
  • It repairs broken tissues
  • It keeps the body temperature normal
  • It produces energy in case there is lack-of the quantity of carbohydrates or fats in the body.

Harms due to lack of Proteins:
The body catches the following diseases due to lack of proteins-
1. Kwashiorkor:
This disease is common in children in the age group of 1-3 years in case there is lack of proteins. At first, the child’s legs are affected. Then this disease causes swelling on the face and then the whole body. The skin of the child becomes rough and red. The child becomes irritated.

2. Rickets or Rachitis:
As a result of the lack of proteins children suffer from rachitis. A child affected with this disease looks very thin and weak. Bones are visible through his flesh.

3. Hunger Oedema:
Because of prolonged hunger and lack of protein, the body does not get nourishment, and water gets accumulated in cells, and body appears to be swelled up.

4. Pellagra: As a result of this disease, one’s skin appears to be rough and dry.

5. Defect in the Liver. Liver gets damaged due to the lack of protein in food.

Harms due to excess of Proteins:
One may suffer from kidney ailments in case of excessive intake of proteins. Blood vessels too get affected and one begins to have joint pains.

Proper quantity:
Children in the age group of 1-6 years are in dire need of proteins in large amount. A normal person should consume 70 to 100 gms. of proteins every day.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 5.
What are carbohydrates? What are the harmful effects of its deficiency and excess.
Answer:
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates provide heat and energy to the body. Indians, in general, compensate 70-80% of their food with this element.

Sources: Carbohydrates are available in wheat, rice, barley, maize, millet, jaggery, sugar, potatoes, etc.

Advantages of Carbohydrates:

  • Carbohydrates provide heat and energy to the body.
  • They help in digesting fat.
  • They cleanse intestines and liver.

Harms due to lack of Carbohydrates:

  • As a result of the lack of carbohydrates, blood loses its alkaline nature, and becomes more acidic. In such a condition, a person may become unconscious. In such a condition due to hunger one may get diabetes.
  • Intestines are not cleaned properly.
  • As a result of lack of carbohydrates, fats remain undigested in the body.
  • As a result of lack of carbohydrates acidic elements in the liver get cleansed, and it is harmful to the body
  • A person becomes very weak and may die in case there is excess of lack of carbohydrates in his food.
    PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet 2

Harms due to excess of Carbohydrates:
The excess of carbohydrates causes-

  • fatness
  • high blood pressure
  • joint pains and
  • diabetes.

Proper Quantity:
Our food has 50-80% of carbohydrates. 50-60% part of balanced diet consists of carbohydrates. A normal person should have 400 to 700 gms. of carbohydrates in his daily food.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 6.
What do you mean by fats? What are its types.
Answer:
Fats are of two types-
(i) vegetable fats
(ii) animal fats.

Sources.
1. Vegetable Fats. These are available in almonds, walnuts, soyabeans, groundnuts, coconut oil, mustard, etc.
2. Animal Fats. These are available in ghee, butter, milk, meat, fish, egg, etc.
PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet 3

Advantages:

  • It provides energy to the body.
  • It keeps the body temperature stable.
  • It protects all parts of the body against external injuries.
  • It keeps in reserve vitamins A, D and K according to the needs of the body.

Harms due to the lack of Fats:
The body suffers in the following ways in case there is lack of fats-

  • Skin becomes dry.
  • The deficiency of vitamins A, D and K follows.
  • The skin goes dry because of the lack of acids of fat.

Harms due to excess of Fats:
The excess of fats in one’s food also proves to be harmful in the following ways-

  • One suffers from obesity.
  • Heart diseases are caused.
  • Digestion weakens.
  • One suffers from diabetes.
  • Stones may form in the abdomen.

Proper Quantity: A normal person should have 50 to 75 gms. of fats in his daily food.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 7.
Milk is a complete food. Explain it?
Answer:
Milk:
Milk is an ideal and whole food. It has got all the essential nutrients. It has 3.6% fat, 3.4% protein, 4.8% carbohydrates, 0.7% salts and 7.5% water. Milk is given to growing children because it is a complete food. At home, patient is also given milk which acts as complete food.
For good health, milk serves as a balanced diet.

All the essential nutrients as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, salts, water, vitamins are available in milk in right proportion. All these nutrients have different functions to perform in our body. Milk is considered to be an ideal food as it has all the essential nutrients including vitamins, though it does not have iron.

Question 8.
What are the principles of cooking food?
Answer:
Cooking Food:
Properly cooked food is useful for health. Food must be cooked properly, if food is over cooked, it does loses some essential nutrients like vitamins C and D. Food must be cooked properly for the following reasons:

  • Properly cooked food becomes easily digestible.
  • By cooking food disease causing germs get killed.
  • Cooked food is tasty. One feels like eating it.
  • We can preserve the cooked food for long.

Methods of Cooking food:
The following methods for cooking food are generally followed-

  1. Boiling
  2. Cooking with steam
  3. Roasting
  4. Frying

These methods are explained in brief below:
1. Boiling:
In this method, food articles are cooked by boiling in water. But essential vitamins and mineral salts dissolve in water and are lost in this method of cooking. A little quantity of water should be used in boiling eatables. If water used in boiling is excessive, it should not be thrown. Rice, pulses, meat and vegetables are cooked by boiling.

2. Cooking with Steam:
Food is also cooked with steam. Essential nutrients do not get lost in cooking by this method. The food cooked in a steam cooker is nutritious and beneficial to health. So this method is considered to be better than other methods.

3. Roasting:
In this method, food is directly roasted on the fire. Excessive roasting also destroys essential nutrients. The roasted meat is tasty and easily digestible.

4. Frying:
There are many food items such as ‘pakora’, ‘samosa’ and “purian” which are fried. Food is cooked very soon by frying. But essential nutrients also get lost in this method. Moreover, fried food is not easily digestible, and is often harmful to one’s health. Best Method. Of all the methods of cooking, cooking with steam is the best. The food cooked in this way does not lose essential nutrients and it is very beneficial to one’s health.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 9.
Explain the rules of taking food.
Answer:

  • Always have your food at a fixed time. Untimely eaten food causes indigestion.
  • Wash your hands with soap before taking meals and always wear clean clothes. Nails should be cut and cleaned.
  • We should not eat too hot or too cold food. Hot food causes blisters or boils and cold food cannot be chewed properly.
  • Food should be taken in an adequate quantity, over-eating may cause indigestion.
  • Food should be chewed slowly and properly so that it can be digested easily.
  • Food should be nutritious and easily digestible.
  • Never take stale food because it causes food poisoning.
  • We should be happy while taking food. Never talk or watch T.V. while taking food.
  • Take dinner at least two hours before sleeping because it is dangerous to sleep immediately after taking a meal.
  • Rest a while after meals.

Question 10.
Right notes on the following:
(a) Roughage
(b) Water
(c) Minerals
(d) Cooking food.
Answer:
(a) Roughage:
Wheat, pulses, vegetables, fruits, dry fruits, milk, meat, fish are the main food products. The advantages of these are as under:
(i) Cereals:
Wheat, rice, grams, maize, barley are generally taken as food.

Advantages of Cereals:

  • These are helpful for the formation of our body.
  • Food provides energy to body.
  • They contain too much carbohydrates.
  • The outer parts of these food material provide iron, lime, vitamins and proteins.
  • They are very useful to remove constipation.

(ii) Pulses:
Soyabean, peas, turnip, almonds are counted in pulses. These pulses provide us vitamins A, B, and C. They also supply us with proteins, minerals, salt, iron and phosphorus.

Advantages of Pulses:

  • These provide energy.
  • Increase appetite.
  • Improve digestion.

(iii) Vegetables:
Cauliflower, palak, sarson ka saag, methi, carrots, walnut, turnip, tomatoes, potatoes, peas, cabbage and onion are the main vegetables.

Advantages of Vegetables:

  • Vegetables protect our body.
  • Vegetables maintain the health of a person.
  • They purify the blood.
  • They prevent constipation.

(b) Water:
Our body is composed of 2/3rd of water. It is formed of the combination of oxygen and hydrogen. It is as important as air for our body.
Sources. It is available in pure form in many nutrients also such as milk, fruit and vegetables.

Uses of Water:

  • Water helps in the formation of cells.
  • It carries nourishment to cells. It helps in the excretion of waste products from the body.
  • It helps in digestion of food.
  • It regulates the heat in our body.
  • It helps in mixing nutrients with blood.
  • It keeps the parts and joints of body soft.
  • It ensures blood circulation in the body.

Harms due to lack of Water:
There are many harms of drinking less water-

  • The food does not digest properly in case one drinks less water.
  • Liver remains heavy.
  • Constipation is caused.
  • One feels physical fatigue all the time.
  • The body gets weakened.
  • The face turns pale.
  • Waste products in the body do not get excreted properly.
  • One is afflicted with joint pains.
  • Stones are formed in kidneys.

Harms due to excess of Water:
Water should always be taken in right proportion. Liver remains filled by taking water in excess and one does not feel appetite. If one continues taking water with food, food does not digest properly.

Proper Quantity:
The quantity of water intake varies with season, exercise and food. Normally, 5-6 glasses of water a day are enough for a normal person.

(c) Minerals:
Our body has 4% of minerals and salts. Phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iodine and zinc are some prominent minerals.
PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet 4
Sources:
Minerals and salts are available in green vegetables, fruits, meat, milk. Milk has less amount of iron, but it has all other minerals.

Advantages of Minerals:
1. They help in the development of muscular tissues.
2. They make the blood red.
3. Calcium helps in blood clotting.
4. Iron is very important for the formation of blood.
5. Minerals help in the Topper functioning of all parts of the body.

Harms due to lack of Minerals:

  • The lack of calcium causes the weakening of teeth and bones.
  • Body loses its power of resistance to diseases.
  • The lack of iodine is the cause of goitre in the body.

(d) Cooking Food:
Properly cooked food is useful for health. Food must be cooked properly, if food is over cooked, it does loses some essential nutrients like vitamins C and D. Food must be cooked properly for the following reasons:

  • Properly cooked food becomes easily digestible.
  • By cooking food disease causing germs get killed.
  • Cooked food is tasty. One feels like eating it.
  • We can preserve the cooked food for long.

Methods of Cooking food:
The following methods for cooking food are generally followed-

1. Boiling
2. Cooking with steam
3. Roasting
4. Frying

These methods are explained in brief below:
1. Boiling:
In this method, food articles are cooked by boiling in water. But essential vitamins and mineral salts dissolve in water and are lost in this method of cooking. A little quantity of water should be used in boiling eatables. If water used in boiling is excessive, it should not be thrown. Rice, pulses, meat and vegetables are cooked by boiling.

2. Cooking with Steam:
Food is also cooked with steam. Essential nutrients do not get lost in cooking by this method. The food cooked in a steam cooker is nutritious and beneficial to health. So this method is considered to be better than other methods.

3. Roasting:
In this method, food is directly roasted on the fire. Excessive roasting also destroys essential nutrients. The roasted meat is tasty and easily digestible.

4. Frying:
There are many food items such as ‘pakora’, ‘samosa’ and “purian” which are fried. Food is cooked very soon by frying. But essential nutrients also get lost in this method. Moreover, fried food is not easily digestible, and is often harmful to one’s health. Best Method. Of all the methods of cooking, cooking with steam is the best. The food cooked in this way does not lose essential nutrients and it is very beneficial to one’s health.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Guide Nutritious and Balanced Diet Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Balanced diet contains:
(A) Protein
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Fats and Mineral Salts
(D) Above all.
Answers:
(D) Above all.

Question 2.
How the protein is made?
(A) Carbon
(B) Oxygen
(C) Hydrogen
(D) None of them.
Answers:
(A) Carbon
(B) Oxygen
(C) Hydrogen

Question 3.
How many types of Protein?
(A) Two
(B) Three
(C) Four
(D) Five.
Answers:
(A) Two

Question 4
Write the sources of Fat:
(A) Fruits .
(B) Soyabeans
(C) Groundnuts
(D) All above.
Answers:
(A) Fruits .
(B) Soyabeans
(C) Groundnuts

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 5.
Mention the types of carbohydrates
(A) Two
(B) Three
(C) Four
(D) Five.
Answers:
(A) Two

Question 6.
Important food is:
(A) Butter
(B) Fruits
(C) Almond or Milk
(D) None of these.
Answers:
(C) Almond or Milk

Question 7.
The rules of eating food:
(A) Always have your food at fix time.
(B) Wash your hands with soap before taking meal.
(C) Food should be chewed slowly.
(D) All above.
Answer:
(A) Always have your food at fix time.
(B) Wash your hands with soap before taking meal.
(C) Food should be chewed slowly.
(D) All above.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the meaning of food?
Answer:
Those eatable things which satisfy our hunger and develop our body are called food.

Question 2.
Write down the salts, which are found in our food?
Answer:
Calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iodine, chlorine, and sulphur are salts found in our body.

Question 3.
Why the food cooked on steam is considered well?
Answer:
Because the food cooked by steam does not destroy the nutritious elements.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 4.
What is the percentage of water in our body?
Answer:
There is 60% of water in the body of a human being.

Question 5.
How many types of proteins are there? Write their names.
Answer:
Proteins are of two types:

  • Animal proteins
  • Vegetable proteins.

Question 6.
Mention sources of Animal Proteins
Answer:
It is available in meat, fish and milk.

Question 7.
Mention the three sources of Vegetable Proteins.
Answer:
It is available in soyabeans, groundnuts and cashew-nuts.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 8.
What are Carbohydrates?
Answer:
Carbohydrates contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Question 9.
Mention the types of vitamins.
Answer:
Vitamins are of six types-A, B, C, D, E and K.

Question 10.
Lack of which vitamin causes night blindness?
Answer:
Lack of Vitamin A.

Question 11.
Lack of which vitamin causes Berry-Berry disease?
Answer:
Lack of Vitamin B.

Question 12.
Lack of which vitamin causes Scurvy disease?
Answer:
Lack of Vitamin B.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 13.
What is the cause of Pyoria?
Answer:
Lack of Vitamin C.

Question 14.
Lack of which vitamin causes infertility in women?
Answer:
Lack of Vitamin E.

Question 15.
Mention the vitamins which are not soluble in water?
Answer:
Vitamins C, D and K.

Question 16.
Which milk is useful for a child?
Answer:
Mother feed.

Question 17.
What are the various methods of cooking food? Name them.
Answer:

  • Boiling
  • Roasting
  • Frying
  • Cooking with steam.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 18.
How much quantity of proteins should we take in our daily meals?
Answer:
70 to 100 grams.

Question 19.
Describe the main constituents of carbohydrates.
Answer:
Starch and sugar.

Question 20.
Name the constituents of proteins.
Answer:
Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen and Sulphur.

Question 21.
To whom do we call life giving?
Answer:
Vitamins.

Question 22.
Which vitamins are soluble?
Answer:
Vitamins B and C.

Question 23.
How much Fat do we require in our meals?
Answer:
50 to 70 gms.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 24.
Which disease is caused by lack of iron?
Answer:
Lack of Haemoglobin.

Question 25.
What should be kind of Dinning site?
Answer:
Clean and airy.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the meaning of food?
Answer:
Food is very important for our body because it helps in growth and development of our body. It repairs olcfcells and forms the new cells.
Food prevents us from diseases. We consider such thing as food which becomes part of our body after taking it and develops the body.

Question 2.
Why it is necessary for our body?
Answer:
Everybody needs food for living. Daily we take part in many activities or perform so many types of work. To perform these activities we need energy. This energy is derived from food.

Question 3.
What are the advantages of food?
Answer:

  • Food provides energy to the body.
  • Food helps growth and development of the body.
  • Food helps in the formation of new cells.
  • Food helps in repairing the broken cells.
  • Food helps in preventing diseases.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 4.
Name the main nutrients of food.
Answer:
The following are the constituents of food:

  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Mineral Salts
  • Water.

Question 5.
How is water useful for our body?
Answer:
Our body needs water to live. We cannot live without water. Advantages of Water.

  • It carries nourishment to cells. It helps in the excretion of waste products from the body.
  • It regulates the heat in our body.
  • It helps digestion of food.
  • It helps in mixing nutrients with blood.
  • It keeps the parts and joints of the body soft.
  • It ensures blood circulation in the body.

PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Solutions Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet

Question 6.
Why it is compulsory to cook food?
Answer:
Need for cooking food. Properly cooked food is useful for health. Food must he cooked properly. If food is over cooked, it loses some essential nutrients like vitamins C and D. Food should be cooked for the following reasons:

  • Properly cooked food becomes easily digestible.
  • By cooking food disease causing germs get killed.
  • Cooked food is tasty, one feels like eating it.
  • We can preserve the cooked food for long.

Punjab State Board PSEB 8th Class Physical Education Book Solutions  Chapter 2 Nutritious and Balanced Diet Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Computer Science Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Computer Guide for Class 10 PSEB Operating Systems Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
An operating system is a:
(a) Terminal
(b) Software
(c) Storage system
(d) Processor
Answer:
(b) Software

Question 2.
The process of running multiple applications at the same time is known as:
(a) Multi application
(b) Multi processing
(c) Multi programming
(d) Multi timing
Answer:
(c) Multi programming

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 3.
It enables us to access internet securely and prevent unauthorized applications and people from accessing our PC:
(a) Anti-Virus
(b) Security
(c) Firewall
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Firewall

Question 4.
The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is:
(a) Response time
(b) Access time
(c) Output time
(d) Total time
Answer:
(a) Response time

Question 5.
Remote access to servers is possible from different locations in:
(a) Batch Processing System
(b) Time Sharing System
(c) Network Operating System
(d) Distributed system
Answer:
(c) Network Operating System

2. Fill In The Blanks

1. A …………………. represents a collection of related
Answer:
Pile, Information.

2. ………….. system use multiple processors to serve ………… multiple real-time applications and multiple users.
Answer:
Distributed, Central

3. …………..is the process of preventing and detecting ……….. use of our computer.
Answer:
Computer Security, Unauthorized

4. …………. provide access to accounts arid enable us to perform various activities linked with account like shopping, emailing, online transactions etc.
Answer:
Passwords, Online

5. …………. are used when there are time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data.
Answer:
Real Time Systems, Rigid.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

3. True or False

1. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time.
Answer:
True

2. Anti-virus software alone is enough to be secure from Internet Security threats.
Answer:
False

3. An Operating System cannot manage the communication between user and device drivers.
Answer:
False

4. Linux source code is freely available and it is community based development project.
Answer:
True

5. The OS manages all kinds of resources using schedulers.
Answer:
True

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
An interface between computer user and computer hardware is called?
Answer:
Operating System

Question 2.
What hides the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from the users?
Answer:
Drivers

Question 3.
A mechanism or a way to control the access of programs, processes, or users to the resources defined by a computer system is called?
Answer:
Protection

Question 4.
The process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of our computer is called?
Answer:
Computer Security

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is an operating system?
Answer:
Operating system is an interface between user and computer. It communicates whatever the user says to the hardware of computer.

Question 2.
List type of operating systems.
Answer:
Different types of operating system are:

  • Batch processing operating system.
  • Time sharing operating system.
  • Network operating system.
  • Real time operating system.
  • Distributed operating system.

Question 3.
Explain real time operating system.
Answer:
A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. In this type of operating system, the response time is very less as compared to online processing.
Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data. A real-time operating system must have well-defined, fixed time constraints, otherwise the system will fail.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 4.
What are the functions of operating system? Make a list.
Answer:
Following are the functions of operating system:

  • It provides programs an environment to execute.
  • It provides users the services to execute the programs in a convenient manner.

Following are a few common services provided by an operating system:

  • Program execution
  • I/O operations
  • File System manipulation
  • Communication
  • Error Detection
  • Resource Allocation
  • Protection.

Question 5.
What do you mean by computer security?
Answer:
Computer security is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of our computer. Prevention measures help us to stop unauthorized users (hackers) from accessing any part of our computer system. Detection helps us to determine whether or not someone attempted to break into our system, if they were successful, and what they may have done.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain functions of operating system
Answer:
Following are the functions of operating system:
1. Program Execution:
Operating systems handle many kinds of activities from user programs to system programs like printer spooler, name servers, file server, etc. Each of these activities is encapsulated as a process.

2. I/O Operation:
An I/O subsystem comprises of I/O devices and their corresponding driver software. Drivers hide the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from the users. An Operating System manages the communication between user and device drivers.

3. File System Manipulation:
A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to file management:

  • Program needs to read a file or write a file.
  • The operating system gives the permission to the program for operation on file.
  • Permission varies from read-only, read-write, denied and so on.
  • Operating system provides an interface to the user to create/delete files.
  • Operating system provides an interface to the user to create/delete directories.
  • Operating system provides an interface to create the backup of file system,

4. Communication:
In case of distributed systems which are a collection of processors that do not share memory, peripheral devices, or a clock, the operating system manages communications between all the processes. Multiple processes communicate with one another through communication lines in the network. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to communication:

  • Two processes often require data to be transferred between them.
  • Both the processes can be on one computer or on different computers, but are connected through a computer network.
  • Communication may be implemented by two methods, either by Shared Memory or by Message Passing.

5. Error Detection:
An error may occur in CPU, in I/O devices or in the memory hardware. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to error detection:
1. The OS constantly checks for possible errors.
2. The OS takes an appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing.

6. Resource Management.
In case of multi-user or multi-tasking environment, resources such as main memory, CPU cycles and files storage are to be allocated to each user or job. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to resource management:

  • It acts like a resource manager. The OS manages all kinds of resources using schedulers.
  • CPU scheduling algorithms are used for better utilization of CPU.

7. Protection:
Protection refers to a mechanism or a way to control the access of programs, processes, or users to the resources defined by a computer system. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to protection:

  • The OS ensures that all access to system resources is controlled.
  • The OS ensures that external I/O devices are protected from invalid access attempts.
  • The OS provides authentication features for each user by means of passwords.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 2.
What are the basic features of Linux?
Answer:
The basic features of Linux operating system are:
1. Portable:
Portability means software can works on different types of hardware in same way. Linux kernel and application programs supports their installation on any kind of hardware platform.

2. Open Source:
Linux source code is freely available and it is community based development project. Multiple teams work in collaboration to enhance the capability of Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving.

3. Multi-User:
Linux is a multiuser system means multiple users can access system resources like memory/ram/application programs at same time.

4. Multiprogramming: Linux is a multiprogramming system means multiple applications can run at same time.

5. Hierarchical File System:
Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files/user files are arranged. Files and directories are arranged in tree structure form.

6. Shell:
Linux provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs, etc.

7. Security:
Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection/controlled access to specific files/encryption of data.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Guide Operating Systems Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which one is function of operating system related to program management?
a) Execution
(b) Controt
(c) Loading
(d) All of above.
Answer:
(d) All of above.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 2.
Main function of shared memory is:
(a) to use primary memory efficently
(b) to do intra process communication
(c) to do inter process communication
(d) none of above
Answer:

Question 3.
Memory protection is normally done by:
(a) the processor and the associated hardware
(b) the operating system
(c) the compiler
(d) the user program
Answer:
(a) the processor and the associated hardware

Question 4.
Which of the following operating system does not implement the multitasking truly?
(a) Windows 98
(b) Windows NT
(c) Windows XP
(d) MS DOS
Answer:
(d) MS DOS

Question 5.
What are the functions of operating system?
(a) Memory management
(b) Process management
(c) Device management
(d) All of above
Answer:
(d) All of above

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Fill in the Blanks

1. Operating system is …………. software.
Answer:
System

2. Memory management is function of ……………
Answer:
Operating System

3. File management is function of ……………
Answer:
Operating System.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

True or False

1. Operating system in application software.
Answer:
False

2. Windows is uni-tasking operating system.
Answer:
False

3. Unix is not an operating system.
Answer:
False

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the function which deals with hardware.
Answer:
Device management.

Question 2.
Name the most important system software
Answer:
Operating system.

Question 3.
Name the most famous operating system.
Answer:
MS Windows.

Question 4.
Name the most secured operating system proven.
Answer:
UNIX.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain advantages of time sharing operating system.
Answer:
Following are advantages of time sharing operating system.
1. Immediates response is available.
2. It is best suitable operating system for system who need quick response.

Question 2.
Explain disadvantages of time Sharing Operating System.
Answer:
Following are disadvantages of time sharing operating system.
1. It is not suitbale for long tasks
2. Important job may be completed in long time.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain distributed operating system in detail.
Answer:
Distributed Operating System:
Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly.The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred as sites, nodes, computers, and so on. The advantages of distributed systems are as follows:

  • With resource sharing facility, a user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another.
  • Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail.
  • If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating.
  • Better service to the customers.
  • Reduction of the load on the host computer.
  • Reduction of delays in data processing.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 2.
Discuss network operating system along with its advantages and disadvantages.
Answer:
Network Operating System:
A Network Operating System runs on a server arid provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks.
Examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare and BSD.

The advantages of network operating systems are as follows:

  • Centralized servers are highly stable.
  • Security is server managed.
  • Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
  • Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems

The disadvantages of network operating systems are as follows:

  • High cost of buying and running a server.
  • Dependency on a central location(server) for most operations.
  • Regular maintenance and updates are required.

Multi Programming:
Multi Programming Operating System is the name given to the interleaved execution of two or more different and independent programs by the same computer. Interleaving of programs mean chain of programs that are either in running phase, ready or blocked phase. It is an efficient way to improve the system performance.

Multi programming approach permits more than one job to utilize the CPU time at any moment by applying the scheduling techniques like first come first serve, shortest job first etc . The more the number of programs requesting for system resources, resource utilization would be better. The operating system picks up any of the programs as scheduled and starts execution.

An OS does the following activities related to multiprogramming.

  • The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time.
  • This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool.
  • The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the memory.
  • Multiprogramming operating systems monitor the state of all active programs and system resources using
  • memory management programs to ensure that the CPU is never idle, unless there are no jobs to process.

Advantages:

  • High and efficient CPU utilization.
  • User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost simultaneously.

Disadvantages:

  • CPU scheduling is required.
  • To accommodate many jobs in memory, memory management is required.

PSEB 10th Class Computer Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems

Question 3.
Discuss Real Time Operating System in detail.
Answer:
Time Sharing:
A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time.

So in this method, the response time is very less as compared to online processing. Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data. A real-time operating system must have well-defined, fixed time constraints, otherwise the system will fail.

Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Computer Book Solutions Chapter 6 Operating Systems Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.