PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB India’s Parliamentary Democracy Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the blanks :

Question 1.
_________ appoints the judges of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
The President.

Question 2.
The President of India exercises all his powers only on the advice of _________
Answer:
Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which is the final authority for making laws in India?
(i) The Cabinet
(ii) The Parliament
(iii) The Lok Sabha
(iv) The President.
Answer:
(ii) The Parliament.

Question 2.
Who chairs the cabinet meetings?
(i) The President
(ii) The Governor
(iii) The Prime Minister
(iv) The Party President.
Answer:
(iii) The Prime Minister

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) statements :

Question 1.
The Prime Minister is the Constitutional Head of our country.
Answer:
False.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 2.
Indian Parliament comprises the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the President of India.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In India which form of the government has been adopted in centre and states?
Answer:
In India parliamentary form of government has been adopted at central and state level.

Question 2.
In parliamentary system, who is the real executive of the country?
Answer:
Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers.

Question 3.
Who is nominal executive in India?
Answer:
The President is the nominal executive in India.

Question 4.
Who is included in the electoral college for the Indian President?
Answer:
The elected members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha (M.P.’s) and State Legislative Assemblies (including Delhi and Puducherry.)

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 5.
Name any two features of the Parliamentary system.
Answer:

  1. In the Parliamentary system, there is a nominal head of the country.
  2. After elections whichever party gets clear cut majority in Parliament (Lok Sabha) forms the government.

Question 6.
What is called the lower house of the Parliament?
Answer:
Lok Sabha is called the lower house of the Parliament.

Question 7.
How many members can be nominated by the President in the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
12 members are nominated by the President to the Rajya Sabha.

Question 8.
What is the tenure of the members of the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Rajya Sabha members are elected for six years but one third retire after every two years.

Question 9.
What is the name of the Head of the State in Canada and Australia?
Answer:
Governor General is the Head of State in Canada and Australia.

Question 10.
Who makes an oath to the Prime Minister and other ministers?
Answer:
The President makes an oath to the Prime Minister and other ministers.

Question 11.
Who presides over the meetings of the cabinet?
Answer:
Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the cabinet.

Question 12.
Give the names of two forms of Govt; on the basis of relationship between executive and legislative.
Answer:

  1. Parliamentary Govt.: In this Council of Ministers is responsible to Legislature for its actions.
  2. Presidential form of Govt.: In this executive cannot be removed by Legislature.

Question 13.
From which country Parliamentary system in India has been taken?
Answer:
Parliamentary form of Government is taken from the Constitution of England.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 14.
What is the name of the lower and upper house of Parliament in England?
Answer:

  • Lower House-House of Commons.
  • Upper House-House of Lords.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is the Prime Minister elected?
Answer:
After the general elections of Lok Sabha whichever party or group gets majority, elects its leader who is called by the President to form the government. The President appoints him the Prime Minister and on his advice he also appoints the Council of Ministers.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of the collective responsibility of the ministers?
Answer:

  1. The council of ministers is responsible towards the Parliament or legislature. It means that it does not matter whether any minister is happy with the decision of council of ministers or not, he is required to support the decision in the Parliament.
  2. If the Parliament (Lok Sabha) passes no-confidence motion against any minister, it is considered no confidence against the whole council of ministers. In this case Prime Minister and his council of ministers are bound to resign.
  3. Members of parliament can ask ministers any question regarding their departments.

Question 3.
How does the legislature control over the activity of ministers?
Answer:

  1. The council of ministers is responsible towards the Parliament or legislature. It means that it does not matter whether any minister is happy with the decision of council of ministers or not, he is required to support the decision in the Parliament.
  2. If the Parliament (Lok Sabha) passes no-confidence motion against any minister, it is considered no confidence against the whole council of ministers. In this case Prime Minister and his council of ministers are bound to resign.
  3. Members of parliament can ask ministers any question regarding their departments.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 4.
Explain briefly any three duties of the Prime Minister.
Answer:

  1. Prime Minister creates the Council of Ministers.
  2. He distributes different portfolios to different ministers.
  3. He acts as a link between the President and Council of Ministers.
  4. He can advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the completion of his term.
  5. He presides over the meetings of Council of Ministers.

Question 5.
Write a short note on the structure of the parliament.
Answer:
The two Houses of the Parliaments are :

  1. Lok Sabha and
  2. Rajya Sabha.

Term of the Lok Sabha: The Lok Sabha is elected for 5 years. But the President can dissolve it earlier too. During emergency due to external aggression or internal insurrection its term can be extended.

Term of the Rajya Sabha: Rajya Sabha is a permanent house. But after every two years one third (l/3rd) of its members retire and new ones are elected in their place. Thus every member is elected for a term of six years.

Question 6.
How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected?
Answer:
The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha can be 250. Out of these 12 members are nominated by the President. The remaining 238 members represent the States and Union Territories. The representatives of the States are elected by the elected members of their Legislative Assemblies and in case of Union Territories are chosen in such a manner as the Parliament may by law determine. At present Rajya Sabha consists of 245 members.

Question 7.
Describe any four powers of the President.
Answer:

  1. The President can Summon, prorogue the Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
  2. He can address the two Houses of the Parliament jointly or he may address them independently.
  3. He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two members to the Lok Sabha.
  4. No bill passed by the Parliament can become an Act without the assent of the President.
  5. He gives approval to many bills passed by the State Legislatures.

Question 8.
Write a note on the structure of the council of ministers.
Answer:
Article 75 of the Constitution says that the President shall appoint the Prime Minister and on his advice, he shall also appoint the Council of Ministers. But he cannot appoint any of the minister of his own. It is the discretionary power of the Prime Minister as to whom he wants to get appointed as minister.

There are three types of ministers.

  1. Cabinet Ministers. They are the most trustworthy ministers and are given independent charge of an important portfolio.
  2. Minister of State. They may or may not be given independent charge of any portfolio or can be asked to assist any cabinet minister.
  3. Deputy Minister. They are not given any independent charge but are asked either to assist any cabinet minister or minister of state.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief note on the structure of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha can be 250. Out of these 12 members are nominated by the President. The remaining 238 members represent the States and Union Territories. The representatives of the States are elected by the elected members of their Legislative Assemblies and in case of Union Territories are chosen in such a manner as the Parliament may by law determine. At present Rajya Sabha consists of 245 members.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 2.
Write a brief note on the leadership of Prime Minister in the Parliamentry system.
Answer:
As a leader the Prime Minister has following powers :
(a) Leader of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet.

(b) Powers regarding Appointment. He exercises very vast powers of patronage which are the following :

  • Appointment of Ministers.
  • Appointment of Ambassadors.
  • Appointment of Governors.
  • Appointment of Attorney General.
  • Appointment of C.A.G.
  • Appointment of various Commissions and Committees.

(c) Powers regarding the Parliament. He has many important powers by which he controls the Parliament :

  • To recommend to the President about summoning and proroguing of the Parliament.
  • To advise the President to dissolve Lok Sabha.
  • To issue ordinances and propose Legislation.
  • To make details of skeleton Laws made by the Parliament.
  • To act as a Leader of the Parliament.

(d) Powers regarding the Party. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party. He guides the policy formulation of his party.

Pt. Nehru combined in himself the powers of a party chief and the leader of the majority party.

  • He is the leader of his party.
  • He popularises his party among the masses.
  • He cares that the opposition does not have any complaint against him.

(e) Powers as an Advisor. The Prime Minister exercises a good deal of advisory powers :

  • He is the Chief Advisor of the President.
  • He exercises practically all the powers of the President.
  • He serves as a link between the President and the Council of Ministers.

Question 3.
Explain in brief qualifications, election and tenure for the President of India.
Answer:
Election. The President is elected indirectly by an electoral college. Elected members of both the Houses of Parliament and elected members of Legislative Assemblies of States (including Delhi and Puducherry) constitute the Electoral College. The voting is held on the basis of proportional representation by the single transferable vote system.

Qualifications :

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed the age of 35 years.
  • He must be qualified to be elected as member of the Lok Sabha.
  • He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any State Government or local authosrity.

Tenure: The President is elected for a period of five years. The President can be removed from office by impeachment only. He can be impeached for violation of the Constitution. The impeachment charge may be initiated by either House of Parliament. If a resolution is passed by a two-third majority of the total membership of the House then the resolution is sent to the other House. If the other House also passes the resolution by a two-third majority then the President is removed from his office.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 4.
What do you mean by the collective and individual responsibility of the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Collective Responsibility-Article 75 (3) of the Indian Constitution clearly says that the council of ministers is collectively responsible towards Lok Sabha. Council of Ministers can remain on their post till they have majority in Lok Sabha or they have confidence of Lok Sabha. If the majority of Lok Sabha votes against them, they all collectively will have to resign. Council of Ministers acts as a unit and if no confidence motion is passed against any minister, they all will have to resign. It has been said that the “Council of Ministers swim and sink together.”

Individual Responsibility. If all the ministers are collectively responsible then they also have some individual responsibilities. All the ministers are individually responsible for their departments. If any department is unable to function in a better way, Prime Minister can ask for the resignation of the concerned minister. If he refuses to resign, Prime Minister can get him removed by the President.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide India’s Parliamentary Democracy Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Indian Parliament consists of _________
(a) 1
(b) 2.
(c) 3
(d) 4
Answer:
(b) 2.

Question 2.
Upper House of the Parliament is known as
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Lok Sabha
(c) Vidhan Sabha
(d) Vidhan Parishad.
Answer:
(a) Rajya Sabha.

Question 3.
Lower House of the Parliament is known as
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Vidhan Sabha
(c) Lok Sabha
(d) Vidhan Parishad.
Answer:
(c) Lok Sabha.

Question 4.
Who is the President of India?
(a) Narendra Modi
(b) Pranav Mukherjee
(c) Pratibha Patil
(d) Ramnath Kovind.
Answer:
(d) Ramnath Kovind.

Question 5.
Who is the Prime Minister of India?
(a) Narendra Modi
(b) Manmohan Singh
(c) Rahul Gandhi
(d) Pranav Mukherjee.
Answer:
(a) Narendra Modi.

Question 6.
Who appoints the Prime Minister of India?
(a) President
(b) Speaker
(c) Governor
(d) Vice President.
Answer:
(a) President.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 7.
Who was elected as the speaker of 17th Lok Sabha in 2019?
(a) Om Birla
(b) Hamid Ansari
(c) Sonia Gandhi
(d) P. Thambi Durai.
Answer:
(a) Om Birla.

Question 8.
Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court?
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) President
(d) Vice President.
Answer:
(c) President.

Question 9.
Who protects the fundamental rights of the citizens?
(a) President
(b) Supreme Court
(c) Speaker
(d) Prime Minister.
Answer:
(b) Supreme Court.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In India _________ is known as the Head of country.
Answer:
President

Question 2.
After the elections of Lok Sabha in 2014, _________ formed the government.
Answer:
Narendra Modi

Question 3.
In India real powers are in the hands of _________
Answer:
Prime Minister

Question 4.
Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and _________ are included in Parliament.
Answer:
President

Question 5.
Lok Sabha can have maximum _________ members.
Answer:
552

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 6.
Rajya Sabha can have maximum _________ members.
Answer:
250

Question 7.
The President can appoint 2 members of,_________ community to Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Anglo-Indian

Question 8.
The age of _________ years is required to become the President of India.
Answer:
35.

True/False:

Question 1.
There is presidential form of govt, in India.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
After the passing of No Confidence Motion, government needs to resign.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
It is not compulsory to be a member of parliament to become a minister.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Lok Sabha is just like house of commons in England.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 5.
The President can nominate 12 members to Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Head of Lok Sabha is known as the Speaker.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
For ordinary bill, prior permission of the President is required.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the two Houses of Parliament.
Answer:
Lower House is called Lok Sabha and Upper House is called Rajya Sabha.

Question 2.
What constitutes the Indian Parliament?
Answer:
The President,, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Question 3.
Who is represented by Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Rajya Sabha respresents the States.

Question 4.
What is the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha? What is the present strength of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Rajya Sabha can have maximum of 250 members. Presently it has 245 members.

Question 5.
How many members can the President nominate to Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The President an nominate 12 members Cb Rajya Sabha.

Question 6.
What is the tenure of Rajya Sabha members?
Answer:
6 years but one third members retire after every two years.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 7.
Who is the presiding officer of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The Vice President is ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Question 8.
Who calls the session of Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The President calls the session of Lok Sabha.

Question 9.
Which house of the parliament is more powerful?
Answer:
Lok Sabha.

Question 10.
In which house can an ordinary bill be first introduced?
Answer:
An ordinary bill can be introduced in any of the house.

Question 11.
In which house can a money bill be first introduced?
Answer:
Lok Sabha.

Question 12.
Who is the presiding officer of Lok Sabha?
Answer:
Speaker is the presiding officer of Lok Sabha.

Question 13.
What is the term of Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The members of Lok Sabha are elected for a tenure of 5 years.

Question 14.
Give one power of the parliament.
Answer:
The parliament makes laws for the country.

Question 15.
What is the maximum strength of Lok Sabha? What is its present strength?
Answer:
Lok Sabha can have a maximum strength of 552. Presently it is 545.

Question 16.
Give one function of the presiding officer of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
He presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 17.
Give a restriction on the supremacy of Parliament.
Answer:
Indian Constitution is written which restricts the supremacy of the Parliament.

Question 18.
Under which conditions, a joint session of Parliament is called?
Answer:
To resolve a dispute between both the houses, a joint session can be called. Question 19. Give one qualification to become the member of Rajya Sabha. Answer:The person must have minimum age of 30 years.

Question 20.
Give one special power of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
It can declare a subject of state list as of national importance and can authorise the parliament to make laws on the subject.

Question 21.
Give one qualification to become the member of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The person must have the age of 25 years.

Question 22.
Is Rajya Sabha a nominal house? Give one reason in its favour.
Answer:
Rajya Sabha is not given any power concerning money.

Question 23.
What is the difference between the elections of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Members of Lok Sabha are directly elected whereas the members of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected.

Question 24.
Give one equal power of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
For the passing of an ordinary bill, both the houses have equal power.

Question 25.
Give one special power of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Bypassing no-confidence motion, Lok Sabha can remove the government.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 26.
Give one function of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
He regulates the proceedings of the housfe

Question 27.
How is the Speaker of Lok Sabha elected?
Answer:
He is elected by the members within themselves.

Question 28.
Who was elected as the Speaker of 16th Lok Sabha in 2014?
Answer:
Sumitra Mahajan.

Question 29.
Give one difference between money bill and an ordinary bill.
Answer:
An ordinary bill can be introduced in any of the house but money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.

Question 30.
What is meant by collective responsibility?
Answer:
It means that ministers are collectively responsible towards parliament. If no confidence motion passes against one minister, whole of the council of ministers need to resign.

Question 31.
Which government system is adopted in India?
Answer:
India has adopted parliamentary form of government.

Question 32.
How can the Parliament remove the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
By passing no confidence motion in Lok Sabha.

Question 33.
Who can dissolve Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The President can dissolve Lok Sabha on the advice of Prime Minister.

Question 34.
Who decides whether a bill is a money bill or an ordinary bill?
Answer:
The Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Question 35.
Who are included in the central executive?
Answer:
In the central executive, the President, Vice President, Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers are included.

Question 36.
Who elects the President of India?
Answer:
The President is elected by an electoral college.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 37.
Who are included in the electoral college?
Answer:
The elected members of parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) and the elected members of state legislative assemblies (including Delhi and Puducherry).

Question 38.
What is the tenure of President? Can he be elected again?
Answer:
The tenure of President is 5 years and he can be re-elected.

Question 39.
Name the first and present President of India.
Answer:
The first President of India was Dr. Rajendra Prasad and the present President of India is Ramnath Kovind.

Question 40.
Who appoints the Prime Minister of India?
Answer:
The Prime Minister of India is appointed by the President.

Question 41.
Who appoints the minister?
Answer:
The ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of Prime Minister.

Question 42.
What is the tenure of Prime Minister?
Answer:
Prime Minister does not have a definite tenure. His tenure depends upon the majority of Lok Sabha.

Question 43.
What is the salary of the President of India?
Answer:
The Indian President gets ₹ 5 lac per month.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 44.
When can the President declare national emergency?
Answer:
The President can declare national emergency in case of war, foreign attack or an armed rebellion.

Question 45.
How many types of emergencies are there?
Answer:
Emergency is of three types.

Question 46.
When can the President issue an ordinance?
Answer:
In case of recess of the Parliament the President can issue an ordinance. Question 47. How many members can the President nominate to Lok Sabha? Answer:The President can nominate two Anglo Indian members to Lok Sabha.

Question 48.
Give one executive power of the President.
Answer:
He appoints the leader of majority party as the Prime Minister of’India.

Question 49.
Give one legislative power of the President.
Answer:
He signs the bills passed by the parliament.

Question 50.
Give one financial power of the President.
Answer:
He gives prior sanction to the money bill before its introduction to Lok Sabha.

Question 51.
Give one feature of the council of ministers.
Answer:
There is a great relation between parliament and the council of ministers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 52.
Give one function of the central council of ministers.
Answer:
It makes internal and external policy of India.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the membership of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The maximum membership of Lok Sabha is 552 but presently it is 545. Out of these 545, 543 are the directly elected members and 2 are nominated by the President from Anglo-Indian Community. The maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is 250 but presently it is 245. Out of 245 members. 233 are elected by the state legislative assemblies and 12 are nominated by the President.

Question 2.
Give any three functions of the chairman of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:

  1. He presides over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.
  2. He is responsible to maintain peace in the house and also to carry on its smooth functioning.
  3. He permits the members to speak in the Rajya Sabha.

Question 3.
What is the difference between the elections of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people and every citizen with the age of 18 years or more have the right to vote. One candidate is elected from a parliamentary constituency and whosoever gets maximum votes is declared as the winner. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies. In this way, the members of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected.

Question 4.
Give three powers of Lok Sabha.
Answer:

  1. By passing no confidence motion, it can remove the government.
  2. Money Bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.
  3. In case of any deadlock between both the houses on any ordinary bill, a joint session of parliament is called in which Lok Sabha’s will prevails due to its more numerical strength.

Question 5.
What are the qualifications of the members of Lok Sabha?
Answer:

  1. He must b§ a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed 25 years of ago.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State.
  4. He must possess such other qualifications as may he prescribed by the parliament.
  5. No person can be a member of both Houses of Parliament.

Question 6.
What are the qualifications required for the membership of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed 30 years of ago.
  • He must possess such other qualifications as are prescribed by the Parliament.
  • He should not hold any office of profit under the government of India or any State government.

Question 7.
Write a note on the Speaker.
Answer:
The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the House ; maintains order in the House and conducts the business of the House in accordance with the rules of the House. The Constitution also provides for the office of the Deputy Speaker.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 8.
What do you understand by the supremacy of the Parliament?
Answer:
The meaning of the supermacy of the Parliament is that the ultimate authority of making laws in the country lies in the hands of the Parliament. The bill passed by the Parliament is signed by the President. It makes laws on the subjects of union list, concurrent list, residuary powers and in case of emergency from the state list as well. It takes part in the process of election of the President and Vice President. It can request the President to remove any judge of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. It keeps control over the income and expenditure of the government. It can amend the Constitution. Except this, it keeps control over the government through different methods. So, it is clear that the Parliament is supreme in the country.

Question 9.
What is meant by Parliament? Name its houses and their tenure.
Answer:
The central legislature is known as parliament. It has two houses Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. It is the institution which make laws on the subjects of national importance. Laws made by the parliament are implemented in whole of the country.

  • Tenure of Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha is elected for five years but it can be dissolved by the President (on the advise of P.M.) even before the completion of its term. During emergency, its tenure can be increased.
  • Tenure of Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha is a permanent house which cannot be dissolved in any case. Its members are elected for six years but one third of the total members retire after every two years.

Question 10.
What is meant by No-confidence Motion?
Answer:
No-confidence means that the leader of the House has lost the confidence of the majority of members and is no longer wanted to lead the party and the government. The no-confidence motion is a formal resolution tabled in the houses to see whether the leader enjoys the confidence of the members of the house. If the motion is passed the leader resigns and is replaced by the new incumbent.

Question 11.
Explain the election process of the members of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Indian Parliament. Its member are directly elected by the people. Every Indian citizen with the age of 18 years or more has the right to vote during Lok Sabha election. Few seats in Lok Sabha are reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. If the President feels that the Anglo Indian community is not represented in Lok Sabha, he can nominate 2 Anglo Indians to Lok Sabha.

Members of Lok Sabha are elected on the basis of population. For the purpose of elections, whole of the country is divided into equal parts. That’s why larger states send more members to Lok Sabha.

Question 12.
Give financial powers of Lok Sabha.
Answer:

  • Budget and money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • Rajya Sabha can delay a money bill maximum upto 14 days or it will be considered automatically passed.
  • Money of the country is kept under the control of the Lok Sabha.

Question 13.
Give three powers of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
Under the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha has been vested with two special and exclusive powers.

They are :

  1. Under Article 249 the Rajya Sabha may declare by resolution, passed by two-third majority of its members present and voting, that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.
  2. Rajya Sabha is competent to create one or more All India Services if it passes a resolution by two-thirds majority.
  3. Rajya Sabha alone can initiate the proposal for removing the Vice-President.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 14.
How is the Indian President elected?
Answer:
The President is elected indirectly by an electoral college. Elected members of both the houses of Parliament and elected members of Legislative Assemblies of States constitute the Electoral College. The voting is held on the basis of proportional representation by the single transferable vote system.

Question 15.
The President is the nominal head of the state. How?
Answer:
Whole of the administration runs on the name of the President but he is the nominal head of the country. There is parliamentary form of government in India where the President is given enormous powers but he cannot use them of his own. He can use these powers on the advice of Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. Actual powers are in the hands of Council of Ministers. The President is the constitutional but nominal head of the country.

Question 16.
Write down the legislative powers of the President.
Answer:

  • The President can convene, prorogue and dissolve the parliament.
  • He can address the two Houses of the parliament jointly or he may address them independently.
  • He nominates 12 persons to the Rajya Sabha and two persons to the Lok Sabha.
  • No bill passed by the Parliament can become an act without the assent of the President.

Question 17.
Can the President become a dictator?
Answer:
The President cannot become a dictator. Even during the times of emergency, he cannot become a dictator. Its major reason is that the parliamentary system of government is adopted in India in which he is the nominal head. Actually his powers are used by the Prime minister and his council of ministers. If he tries to work according to his wish, he can be removed through £he process of impeachment. He can declare emergency only on the written advice of the cabinet. Parliament can remove emergency only by passing a resolution with simple majority.

Question 18.
Whom does the President appoint as the Prime Minister?
Answer:
The President appoints the Prime Minister. He invites the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha and appoints him the Prime Minister. If no single party has a majority, many parties may form a coalition to make a majority and elect a leader. Then the leader of the coalition will be appointed as the Prime Minister.

Question 19.
Mention any two functions of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
1. Formation of the Council of Ministers. First and important function of the Prime Minister is the formation of the Council of Ministers. He prepares the list of the ministers according to his sweet will. Nobody can be appointed a minister against the wishes of the Prime Minister.

2. Distribution of Portfolios. Another major function of the Prime Minister is to distribute portfolios among the ministers. He decides what department is to be allotted to a particular Minister.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 20.
Why it is said that the Prime Minister is at the head of the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
The Prime Minister is at the head of the Council of Ministers because the Council of Ministers has no existence without the Prime Minister. He can make or unmake the Council of Ministers. The resignation or death of the Prime Minister leads to the dissolution of the Council of Ministers.

Question 21.
What is the relationship between the President and the Prime Minister in our country?
Answer:
India has Parliamentary form of government. Therefore, the Prime Minister enjoys a better position than the President. The President is the head of Executive but all of his powers are exercised by the Prime Minister. According to 42nd Amendment it has become binding on the President to accept the Prime Minister’s advice. The Prime Minister submits his list of Ministers to the President and the President appoints them. The Prime Minister keeps the President informed of the proceedings of the cabinet. Thus, he serves as a link between the President and the Cabinet.

Question 22.
Discuss about the types of Ministers.
Answer:
There are three types of ministers.

  1. Cabinet Ministers. They are the most trustworthy ministers and are given independent charge of an important portfolio.
  2. Minister of State. They may or may not be given independent charge of any portfolio or can be asked to assist any cabinet minister.
  3. Deputy Minister. They are not given any independent charge but are asked either to assist any cabinet minister or minister of state.

Question 23.
Give any three functions of the cabinet.
Answer:
Following are the functions of the cabinet :

  1. Making national policy: The most important function of the cabinet is to make internal policy and to formulate the policy of public welfare.
  2. Regulating foreign relations: Cabinet forms the foreign policy and regulates the relations with other countries.
  3. Control over administration: Every department is under the control of a minister and the concerned minister tries to run the administration in a proper way.

Question 24.
Give three features of the Indian cabinet.
Answer:
Following are the features of the Indian cabinet :

  1. Nominal head. The President is the nominal head. Whole of the country’s administration is run on the name of the President but actually, it is run by the cabinet.
  2. Relation between executive and legislature. In parliamentary form of government, council of ministers is the executive and it has close relations with the legislature.
  3. Prime Minister Leader. Indian cabinet works under the guidance of the Prime Minister. Every minister has to accept the order of the Prime Minister or he can be removed.

Question 25.
Can the Prime Minister become a dictator?
Answer:
The Prime Minister cannot become a dictator because :

  1. He is responsible towards the Parliament which can remove him if he tries to do so.
  2. Parliament (Lok Sabha) can remove him by passing a no-confidence motion.
  3. He cannot work against the public opinion.
  4. He is required to care about the opposition party.

Question 26.
Discuss the mutual relations between the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in Lok Sabha. He gets the Council of Ministers appointed by the President and distributes them different portfolios. He presides over the meetings of the council of Ministers. If any minister does not work according to the Prime Minister, he can be asked to resign. If any minister refuses to resign, he can dissolve whole of the Council of Ministers and can create it again sans that minister.

Question 27.
Give judicial powers of the President.
Answer:

  1. The President appoints the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  2. The President has the powers to grant pardon or reduce the sentence awarded to a criminal.
  3. The President has the power to reprieve (temporarily suspend) the sentence.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the powers of the Union Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the main powers of the Union Parliament :

  1. Legislative Powers. The Parliament can frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain special circumstances the Parliament gets the right to frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List.
  2. Financial Powers. The Parliament controls the finances of the country. The budget is passed by the Parliament.
  3. Executive Power’s. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Parliament for their actions and policies. The Parliament has the power to remove the Council of Ministers by passing a vote of no-confidence.
  4. Judicial Powers. The Parliament can remove the President from office through impeachment. The Parliament can remove the judges of the High Courts and Supreme Court by passing a resolution to that effect.
  5. Electoral Powers. The elected members of Parliament participate in the election of the President. The Vice President is elected by the members of both the Houses of Parliament.
  6. Amendment of the Constitution. Under Article 368 .the Parliament can make any amendment in the Constitution but it has no. power to change the basic structure of the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 2.
Write down the Executive powers of the President.
Answer:
The President is the Chief Executive or Head of the State. According to Art. 53 (1) of the Constitution, the executive powers of the Union have been vested in the President. He may exercise these powers himself or get them exercised through officers subordinate to him.
1. Administration is run in the name of the President. The entire administration of India is conducted in his name and all government decisions are formally announced as his decisions. Laws passed by the Parliament are promulgated in his name.

2. Appointments. (i) He appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister, (ii) He appoints the Attorney General, the Comptroller and the Auditor General. Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, the Chairman and Members of the Union Public Service Commission, the Chairman and Members of Joint Public Service Commission, the Election Commission, Finance Commission, the Official Language Commission and Commission for the Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes, etc. He also appoints the State Governors, Lt. Governors and Chief Commissioners of the Union Territories. He also sends and receives diplomatic representatives.

3. Military Powers. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but the exercise of military powers of the President is regulated by the Parliament. The President cannot declare war or employ forces without the sanction of the Parliament or in anticipation of the sanction by the Parliament.

4. Powers Relating to Foreign Affairs. The President has extensive diplomatic powers. He represents his country in International affairs. He appoints Indian representatives to foreign countries and also receives diplomatic representatives of other states which have been recognised by the Parliament.

5. Power of Direction, Control and Co-ordination. The President has the power of direction, control and co-ordination of the work in the states. He can issue directions to the states for the compliance of union law.

Question 3.
Explain the .legislative powers of the Indian President.
Answer:
Following are the legislative powers of the Indian President provided by Art. 123 of the Constitution.
1. Power to Summon, Prorogue and Dissolve the Parliament. The President can convene, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament. He can order fresh elections to the Lok Sabha on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. He must call the session of the Parliament within 6 months.

2. Address to the Parliament. He can address the two Houses of the Parliament jointly or he may address them independently. The first session of the Parliament after the General elections is inaugurated by the President. He also addresses the first session of the Parliament every year. In his address the President explains the policy of the Government- to the House.

3. Nominates the Members to the Parliament. He nominates 12 persons to the Rajya Sabha. These persons must have distinguished themselves in the fields of art, literature, science and social service. He can nominate two persons of the Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha if he feels that the community has not got adequate representation.

4. Assent on Bills. No bill passed by the Parliament can become an Act without the assent of the President. He can reject an ordinary bill only once and when passed for the second time, the President is to give his assent.

5. Approval to Money Bills. He gives approval to money bills passed by the State Legislatures.

6. Joint Session. He can call a joint session of the two Houses of the Parliament. If the two Chambers differ on an ordinary bill, only then he calls a joint session.

7. Power to Send Messages. He can send messages to any House from time to time.

8. Ordinance. During the intervals of the session of the Parliament, he can issue ordinances. These ordinances have the force of laws.

Question 4.
Discuss the Legislative’s control over the Executive.
Answer:
Our country has adopted the parliamentary form of government. Parliament can keep control over the Council of Ministers in many ways. It can force the Council of Ministers to work in its way.

  • Questions: The members of parliament can ask any question to any minister regarding the functioning of their department and it is must for the concerned ministers to reply.
  • Discussion: Parliament can discuss the presidential address to the parliament and can criticise all of its policies.
  • Adjournment Motion: To discuss any serious problem, members of parliament can raise adjournment motion. Its aim is to stop the normal preceedings and firstly discuss that problem. In this government can be criticised.
  • To remove the Council of Ministers: If parliament is not satisfied with the working of the council of ministers, it can remove whole of the council by passing no-confidence motion in Lok Sabha.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy

Question 5.
Give few features of the parliamentary form of government.
Answer:
Parliamentary form of govenment is a system in which council of ministers is responsible towards the parliament for its political policies and functions. Head of the state is the nomical head and is not responsible towards parliament.

Features:

  • Nominal Executive. In parliamentary system, head of the country i.e. the President is the nominal head because real powers lie in the hands of prime minister and his council of ministers.
  • Clear Majority. In parliamentary form, government is run by the political party which gets majority in elections. This party elects its leader who is called by the President to form the government.
  • Compulsory Membership of Parliament. To become a minister, it is must for a person to be the member of parliament. If any one is not the member of parliament, on the advice of Prime Minister, the President can make him a minister. But it is must for him to acquire the membership within 6 months or he will have to leave his post.
  • Collective Responsibility. The council of ministers is collectively responsible towards legislature. They can be asked any question within the parliament. If parliament (Lok Sabha) passes no-confidence motion against them, they can be removed from their post.
  • Leadership of Prime Minister. In parliamentary form of government, Prime Minister is the leader of the council of ministers. The President appoints different ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. Prime Minister looks after the functioning of different ministers and tries to maintain balance among them

India’s Parliamentary Democracy PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • There are three organs of government-legislature, executive and judiciary. The major function of legislature is to make laws, executive is to implement the laws and judiciary is to use the laws.
  • Our country has the parliamentary form of government which means that the members of council of ministers must be the members of Parliament.
    Any minister can remain on his post until he enjoys majority in Legislature.
  • In the parliamentary form of government, there is a constitutional Head of the country who is given enormous powers. But practically he cannot use his powers. On his name, his powers are used by the Council of Ministers.
  • In this system, administration of the country is run by the political party, for a fixed period of time which enjoys majority in the Parliament (Lok Sabha).
  • In Parliamentary form of government, Prime Minister is the leader of Council of Ministers and the leader of majority party. He uses all the powers assigned to the President.
  • Article 79 of the Indian Constitution has made arrangement of the Parliament which consists of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and the President.
  • Lok Sabha is elected by the whole public on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise and it represents the people. Rajya Sabha represents the states and its members are elected indirectly by the members of State Legislative Assemblies.
  • The Constitutional Head of the country is the President who is elected by the elected memebrs of an electoral college. Whole of the country’s administration is run on the name of the President.
  • The Constitution has given many powers to the President but an arrangement has been made that he will use all of his powers on the advice of council of ministers. He is given many legislative, executive, financial, judicial, emergency powers etc.
  • To aid Prime Minister, a council of ministers is appointed which consists of three types of ministers-Cabinet Minister, Minister of state and Deputy Minister.
  • In Parliamentary form of government, actual power lies in the hands of Prime Minister. Whichever political party gets clear cut majority after Lok
    Sabha elections, elects its leader who is appointed as the Prime Minister by the President.
  • After looking at the powers of Prime Minister, it seems that he is above all but it’s not that. His powers are limited to an extent and he cannot oppose public opinion.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 4 India’s Parliamentary Democracy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Democracy and Election Politics Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Chief Election Commissioner and ohter Election Commissioners are appointed by the
Answer:
President.

Question 2.
First Lok Sabha Elections were held in _________
Answer:
1952.

Question 3.
Elected Member of Parliament is known as _________ in India.
Answer:
M.P.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
People’s representatives are
(i) Appointed
(ii) Elected by the people for a specific period
(iii) Permanently elected by the people
(iv) Selected by the President.
Answer:
(ii) Elected by the people for a specific period.

Question 2.
Which of the following is not the pillar of Democracy?
(i) Political Parties
(ii) Fair and free elections
(iii) Poverty
(iv) Adult Suffrage.
Answer:
(iii) Poverty.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) Statements :

Question 1.
There is a Multi Party System in India.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 2.
The function of Election Commission is to direct, to control and to supervise the election.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the designation of the elected representatives of the Gram Panchayat?
Answer:
They are called Panch.

Question 2.
What is the designation of the elected representatives of the State Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
They are designated as M.L.A.

Question 3.
Give the names of the election methods.
Answer:
Direct elections and Indirect elections.

Question 4.
Name the election method by which President and Vice President of India are elected.
Answer:
They are elected by indirect elections. They are elected by the representatives of the people.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 5.
Which institution is responsible for holding elections in India?
Answer:
Election Commission is responsible for holding elections in India.

Question 6.
Enumerate any two features of Indian Electoral System.
Answer:

  1. Elections in India are conducted on the basis of adult franchise.
  2. One candidate is elected from one electoral constituency.

Question 7.
Where can the petition regarding election dispute be filed?
Answer:
Election dispute related petition can be filed in the High Court.

Question 8.
Describe any two functions of the Election Commission.
Answer:

  1. Election Commission prepares voters’ list and even changes it from time to time.
  2. Election Commission gives recognition to different political parties.

Question 9.
How many seats are there in Punjab for State Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
There are 117 seats in Punjab State Legislative Assembly.

Question 10.
Who conducts the election process in India?
Answer:
The election process in India is conducted by the Election Commission in India. .

Question 11.
Who appoints the election commissioner and deputy election commissioners?
Answer:
They are appointed by the President of India.

Question 12.
What is the tenure of the office of the Chief Election Commissioner and Deputy Election Commissioners? °
Answer:
They are appointed for a period of 6 years or’till they attain the age of 65 years whichever comes earlier.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the significance of election in democratic countries.
Answer:

  1. Without election, democracy is not possible. Without election, rule of the people is neither possible nor desirable.
  2. Without election it is not possible to select the representatives. It is not possible for all the people to sit at one place and select the representatives on the basis of knowledge and education. Hence elections are needed for a democratic system.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 2.
Draw the flow chart of the stages of election process.
Answer:

  • Demarcation of the constituencies
  • Declaration of date of election
  • Filing of the nomination form
  • Withdrawal of nomination form
  • Election campaign
  • Closure of canvassing
  • Polling of votes
  • Counting of votes
  • Declaration of results.

Question 3.
What is meant by election campaign?
Answer:
After the last date of the withdrawal of nomination papers, all the candidates are given minimum of 20 days for canvassing. It is called election campaign. During the time of election campaign, all the candidates campaign for themselves to get maximum votes. Political parties and candidates announce their election manifesto to impress the public. Big promises are made with the public. Election campaign comes to an end 48 hours before the beginning of elections.

Question 4.
What do you mean by booth capturing?
Answer:
Enclosure of polling booth by one person or a group, forcing the polling staff to surrender, forcible possession on the polling booth is called booth capturing. According to law if anyone forcibly does so he will get minimum of 6 months of imprisonent and fine and the punishment can be increased upto 2 years. If any government official does so, he will get imprisonment of one year along with fine. This punishment can be increased up to 3 years.

Question 5.
Describe the role of political parties in election.
Answer:
In a train called democracy, political parties act as its wheels without which elections are not possible. We cannot think democracy without political parties. Whichever type of government is there, political parties are always there. It hardly matters whether a dictatorship like North Korea is there or a democratic set up like India, political parties are always there. In India, there is multiparty system. In India, there are 7 National parties and about 58 regional parties. If one counts all the political parties registered with the Election Commission, this number reaches up to 1700.

Question 6.
Name any four National Political Parties.
Answer:

  1. Indian National Congress
  2. Bhartiya Janta Party
  3. Bahujan Samaj Party
  4. Communist Party of India.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 7.
Name any four Regional Political Parties.
Answer:

  1. Shiromani Akali Dal (Punjab)
  2. Shiv Sena (Maharashtra)
  3. Aam Aadmi Party (Delhi and Punjab)
  4. Telugu Desham Party (Andhra Pradesh.)

Question 8.
How can the Chief Election Commissioner be removed from his office?
Answer:
The tenure of Chief Election Commissioner is 6 years or age of 65 years, whichever comes earlier but he can be removed even before the completion of his term. If both the houses of Parliament pass a censure motion with two-third majority and send that motion to the President, who can then remove him from his post.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the salient features of Indian Electoral System.
Answer:
The main features of Indian Electoral System are :

  1. Universal Adult Franchise: In India the system of universal adult franchise has been adopted for the election of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. Every person who is a citizen of India and who is not less than eighteen years of age has the right to exercise his/her vote in election of members of the House of the People and State Legislative Assemblies.
  2. Direct Election: The Constitution provides for the system of direct election of the members of the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly of every state by the eligible voters.
  3. Joint Electoral System: The Constitution of India provides for a system of joint electorates. Under the joint electorate system every voter in constituency is entitled to participate in electing representative from the constituency.
  4. Single Member Constituency: The Constitution of India provides for a single member constituency. For this purpose the entire country is divided in 543 contituencies. Belonging voters elect their representatives. But only one representative represents his/her constitutency.

Question 2.
Explain in brief the function of Election Commission.
Answer:

  • Election Commission supervises, directs and controls the elections. Such elections include elections to Parliament, the legislature of every state and to the offices of the President and Vice-President.
  • Election Commission prepares electoral rolls and delimitations of constituencies. It also considers the objections raised in this regard. Revision of electoral rolls takes place before every general elections.
  • Election Commission appoints returning officers and assistant returning officers to conduct the election.
  • Election Commission allots election symbols to political parties and to the independent candidates.
  • The Election Commission is responsible to conduct free and fair election.
  • The Election Commission is authorised to recognise a political party.
  • The Election Commission fixes the timetable for the election.
  • The Election Commission prepares a code of conduct for all political parties and candidates and independent candidates who. are contesting election.
  • All election results are announced by the Election Commissioner.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 3.
Explain in brief the stages of Election Process.
Answer:
India is a democratic country. But India has adopted indirect democracy. The administration is run by the representatives of the people, who are elected for a fixed term. In India election procedure is as follows :

  1. Constituencies: The first important task in election is delimitation of constituencies.
  2. List of Voters: First, a temporary list of voters is prepared. If anybody’s name is excluded in the list, he can ask for inclusion of his/her name. But such a request is to by made within a fixed time.
  3. Appointment: Senior and Junior staff for election purposes are appointed and supervised.
  4. Polling Station: In each constitutency polling stations are established and fixed number of voters are directed to cast their votes there.
  5. Filing of the Nomination Papers: After the appointment of the date of election, nomination papers are field in favour of candidate.
  6. Withdrawal of Nomination: Candidates are allowed to withdraw their name from election. But this is to be done befsore the last date for withdrawal.
  7. Scrutiny and Objections: On the fixed date nominations papers are scrutinised and those papers, which are not proper, are rejected and the names of eligible candidates are announced.
  8. Propaganda. With the announcement of election, political parties and independent candidates start propaganda and try to influence the voters.
  9. Polling: On the day of the polling, holiday is declared so that each voter can cast his vote. At polling booth voters are given ballot paper and the voter stamps against the name of the candidate, whom he/she wants to vote. After that the voter puts the ballot paper in the ballot box.
  10. Counting of Votes: On the fixed date, ballot boxes are opened in the presence of the representatives of the candidates and votes are counted. A candidate getting the highest votes is declared elected. If a candidate fails to get one-sixth of the votes then he loses his security also.

Question 4.
Write a note on the importance of Elections.
Answer:
The election system is a political device through which a democratic state creates among its citizens a sense of involvement and participation in public affairs. The importance of election is as under :

  1. Elections give chance to voters to take part in the political affairs of the country.
  2. The election serves as a plebiscite, referendum or a mandate. Elections are the instruments for choosing the leaders and also determining the will of the people. Through election voters approve or reject the policies of the government.
  3. Rosenan uses the term support-building as an all-embracing function of election. Through election legitimacy of the government is established.
  4. Elections provide political stability.
  5. Another important function of the elections is to bring the individual citizen into closer contact with the political system. It gives them the feeling that they are important part of the political system of the country.
  6. Elections provide a means of protection to every voter.
  7. Elections provide education to the voters. In fact, elections are training grounds for the people in the art of government.
  8. Elections serve important functions in the area of political recruitment and training.
  9. Elections are important agencies of political communications between the people and the government.
  10. In a democratic state, elections are the means through which the will of people is expressed. Voters decide who shall govern them. Conflicts are decided by ballots and not by bullets.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Democracy and Election Politics Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What type of democracy exists in India?
(а) Representative Democracy
(b) Direct Democracy
(c) Monarchical Democracy
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Representative Democracy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 2.
After how many years elections in India are held for Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies?
(a) 2 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 5 years
(d) 7 years.
Answer:
(c) 5 years.

Question 3.
What is the age to cast vote in India?
(a) 15 years
(b) 18 years
(c) 20 years
(d) 25 years.
Answer:
(b) 18 years.

Question 4.
Election Commission has members.
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4.
Answer:
(c) 3.

Question 5.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?
(a) President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Speaker
(d) Vice President.
Answer:
(a) President.

Question 6.
How many Lok Sabha elections have been conducted till today?
(a) 12
(b) 13
(c) 14
(d) 16.
Answer:
(d) 16.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 7.
When were first elections held in India?
(a) 1950
(b) 1951
(c) 1952
(d) 1955.
Answer:
(c) 1952.

Question 8.
When were 16th Lok Sabha elections held in India?
(a) 2006
(b) 2008
(c) 2007
(d) 2014.
Answer:
(d) 2014.

Question 9.
Name the state which used voter’s card for the first time.
(a) Haryana
(b) Punjab
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
(a) Haryana.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
_________ are of great importance in a democratic country.
Answer:
Elections

Question 2.
Chief Election Commissioner is appointed for_______ years.
Answer:
Six

Question 3.
Elections of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are held after _________ years.
Answer:
Five

Question 4.
There are _________ national parties in India.
Answer:
Seven

Question 5.
The elected members of Municipalities are known as _________
Answer:
Municipal Councillors

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 6.
Election Commissioners are appointed by the _________
Answer:
President.

True/False:

Question 1.
Prime Minister can remove Chief Election Commissioner.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Elections are conducted by the government.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Elected members of Lok Sabha are known as M.L.A.S.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
The function of amending voters’ list is of the Election Commission.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 5.
Election Commission gives sanction to political parties.
Answer:
True.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which system of government was adopted in India in 1950?
Answer:
Democratic form of government.

Question 2.
Which representative system is adopted in India?
Answer:
Regional Representative System.

Question 3.
After how many years elections for Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly are held?
Answer:
5 years.

Question 4.
How many members of Lok Sabha are elected by the people?
Answer:
543.

Question 5.
Give one condition of democratic elections.
Answer:
Every one has the right to cast one vote and value of each vote is same.

Question 6.
Give one demerit of electoral competition.
Answer:
It leads to the creation of factionalism in the constituency.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 7.
What do you understand by general election?
Answer:
When election takes place after a fixed term, it is called general election. It is a democratic method used for choosing people’s representatives.

Question 8.
What is mid-term election?
Answer:
When the general election is held before the completion of term, it is called mid-term election.

Question 9.
What is by-election?
Answer:
When election is held to fill a particular seat, it is called by-election.

Question 10.
Give one feature of the Indian election system.
Answer:
Integrated election system is adopted in India.

Question 11.
Who is a voter in India?
Answer:
One who is of the age of 18 years and is registered with the election commission is a voter.

Question 12.
What is meant by voters’ list?
Answer:
The list in which names of voters’ of a constituency are given is known as Voters’ List.

Question 13.
Can Election Commission derecognise any political party?
Answer:
Yes, Election Commission can derecognise any National or regional party if they are unable to fulfil the required conditions.

Question 14.
In which part and Articles of the Constitution, the mention of Election is given?
Answer:
15th part and Articles 324-329A.

Question 15.
How many members does Election Commission have?
Answer:
Election Commission has 3 members-Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.

Question 16.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?
Answer:
The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President.

Question 17.
Give the tenure of Election Commissioners.
Answer:
They are appointed for a time period of 6 years.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 18.
Give one functions of the Election Commission.
Answer:
Election Commission conducts elections in the country and prepares voters’ list.

Question 19.
What is the importance of Election Symbol?
Answer:
Many of the Indian voters are illiterate. That’s why, just by looking at election symbol, they can cast their vote to their candidate.

Question 20.
What is meant by Election Petition?
Answer:
If any candidate uses wrong means to win election, opposition parties can file a case in the High Court and this is known as election petition.

Question 21.
Who hears the dispute related petition to election?
Answer:
The petition related to the dispute of election is heard in the High Court or the Supreme Court.

Question 22.
Give one demerit of the Indian election system.
Answer:
Communalism greatly affects the election process which is an obstacle in the way of social progress.

Question 23.
Give one way of bringing reforms in Elections.
Answer:
Those who try to capture booths must be severely punished.

Question 24.
In which year the first elections were held in India?
Answer:
In 1952.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 25.
Give one election-related reforms done by the Indian Government.
Answer:
Through 61 constitutional amendment, the age of casting vote was changed from 21 to 18 years.

Question 26.
Which methods are used for election campaigning?
Answer:
Election manifesto, meetings, door to door campaigning etc.

Question 27.
When does election campaign end?
Answer:
48 hours before the election.

Question 28.
Who conducts election in the country?
Answer:
Election Commission.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give any three qualities of the Indian voter.
Answer:

  1. He must be the citizen of India.
  2. He must be of the age of 18 years or more.
  3. His name must be in the voters’ list.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 2.
Tell something about the nature of elections in India.
Answer:

  • Due to 16 general elections in the country, election-related consciousness has aroused among the people.
  • Now people have started taking interest in elections.
  • Voters have come to know about the policies and programmes of political parties.

Question 3.
Write a short note on election symbols.
Answer:
Election Commission allots symbols to political parties participating in elections. These symbols are identification of political parties. In India maximum voters are illiterate. So by recognising election symbol they choose their favourite party and give vote to that party.

Question 4.
How does the independence of Election Commission affect the functioning of Indian democracy?
Answer:
To conduct elections in the country, the Constitution has arranged for an independent Election Commission. The independence of Election Commission has greatly affected Indian democracy. Its independence has given great contribution in strengthening and making Indian democracy a successful democracy. Due to its independence, it has been able to conduct free and fair 16 Lok Sabha elections. Only due to independent and impartial elections, people have great faith in democracy.

Question 5.
Explain two reforms to change the election process in India.
Answer:
Following reforms are necessary in the Indian election process:

  1. Impartiality: Elections must be conducted in a fair manner. Sitting government must not have any interference in election and it must not use official machinery to win elections.
  2. Expenses: People spend much more money than the fixed amount to win elections. It must be stopped.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 6.
What do you ‘mean by the cancellation of election?
Answer:
The meaning of cancellation of election is that if during campaigning, any candidate dies due to some reason, election for that constituency stands cancelled. In 1992, a change was rpade in the People’s Representative Act and it was said that in case of death of any independent candidate, election will not be cancelled.

Question 7.
Explain any two stages of the election process in India.
Answer:
Given below are the two stages of the election process in India :

  1. Electoral Notification: The election process is formally set into motion by a presidential announcement calling upon electors to elect their representatives to the Lok Sabha. At the same time the Election Commission issues notification specifying the timetable for nominations, scrutity, withdrawals and polling.
  2. Filing of Nomination Papers: The Election Commission fixes last date for filing the nomination papers for election. The nomination papers of the candidates are filed with the returning officer appointed by the Election Commission.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give five arguments in favour of adult franchise in India.
Answer:

  1. In democracy, power lies within the hands of the people. That’s why on the basis of equality, every one should have the right to vote.
  2. The impact of laws is same on all the citizens. That’s why all the citizens must have the right to vote.
  3. The right to vote is very much necessary for individual development.
  4. The government elected through adult franchise is more powerful because it is a type of government which is elected through the constitutional means.
  5. Adult franchise encourages political consciousness and people get political education with adult franchise.

Question 2.
Explain different methods of election campaign.
Answer:
As soon as Election Commission issues notification for the date of polling, different political parties and independent candidates start their election campaign within prescribed rules.

The following are the important techniques of election campaign :
1. Election Manifesto. Every main political party and sometimes independent candidates issue Election Manifesto. Election Manifesto is a document which contains the policies and programme of political parties. By comparing the election manifesto of the various political parties voters can understand the views and policies of different parties on different issues.

2. Public Meetings and Processions. Members of different political parties and candidates arrange public meetings and processions by which they try to persuade the voters in their favour through their speeches and personality. For example, Mr. Narender Modi, in his election campaign in 2014 of 45 days, addressed 285 scheduled public meetings, reaching out in person to more than 50 million people.

3. Wall-paintings’, Posters and Big Leaflets etc. Wall-paintings, posters etc. are other important techniques of election-campaign which not only make colourful different walls of cities, but also print the minds of common men.

4. T.V. and Radjo. In the present age, the most sophisticated way of campaigning is to broadcast speeches of leaders of political parties on T.V. and Radio. In 1977, it was started for the first time in India and the system continues till date.
5. Door to Door Canvassing. In this technique the leaders of different political parties go from door to door or area to area canvassing for their candidates.

6. Slogans. It is a very popular and influential technique of election campaign. In 1971, ‘Garibi Hatao’ and in 1980, ‘Indira Lao Desh Bachao’ were very popular slogans of Congress (I).

7. Flags and Banners. Flags and banners are another method of election campaign.

8. Loudspeakers and Gramophones. Different party-workers and candidates arrange different types of vechicles and fit loudspeakers and gramophones on them for noisy canvassing from mohalla to mohalla.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 3.
Write five reasons of less people’s participation in elections in India.
Answer:
Indian democracy is the largest democracy in the world. During the 16th Lok Sabha elections in 2014, the number of voters stood at more than 81 crore 40 lakhs. But many voters in India do not cast their vote.

The reasons for less people’s participation are given below :

  1. Illiteracy: A large number of Indian population is illiterate. An illiterate person cannot understand the meaning of voting right and he even hardly knows how to cast his caste to the best candidate.
  2. Poverty: Poor people cannot even think of contesting elections. They don’t even understand the importance of their vote and are even ready to sell their vote.
  3. Unemployment: A lot many individuals are unemployed. They don’t understand the value of their vote and generally sell their vote to the candidate whosoever wish to buy it.
  4. Non-participation in politics: People do not participate in political activities as they consider it a wastage of time.
  5. Election booths situated at far off places: Many a time election booths are situated at far off places and people don’t like to move to such places only to cast their vote.

Question 4.
Explain the composition of the Election Commission.
Answer:
In the Election Commission, there can be a Chief Election Commissioner and few more other members. This number is fixed by the President. In 1989, Congress government appointed two more election commissioners but the government of National Front changed this decision. On 1st October, 1993, two new Election Commissioners, M.S. Gill and G.V.G. Krishnamurthy were appointed and an important step was taken for making it a three member Commission. In December 1993, the Indian Parliament passed a bill and made it a multi member Commission. The Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners (total of 3) are appointed by the President.

Question 5.
Mention main drawbacks in Indian electoral system.
Answer:
Following are the major drawbacks in Indian electoral system :
1. The distortion df Seat-Vote Ratio. The first and foremost defect of the present electoral system is that there is no relationship between the votes secured by a party and its stsrength in the Assembly or the Parliament. The number of seats secured by a particular party is not proportionate to the votes polled in their favour.

2. Money Power. Another important drawback of Indian electoral system is the growing influence of money in elections. The expenses incurred on elections are so huge that parties tend to give ticket to a millionaire. The high cost of electioneering has resulted in corrupt practices.

3. Independent Candidates. Independent candidates are also proving headache for Indian electoral system. These candidates join hands with any particular party according to opportunity.

4. Role of Caste. Right from the selection of a candidate by a party to the election of a legislator by the voters the caste factor plays a key role.

5. Misuse of Public Media. It is being alleged that the Congress was using the governmnt monopoly in radio and television for the party. This thing has gone a long way in helping the party in power by projecting its image. These public media have thus been abused.

6. Importance of Individual Candidates. The existing system of election gives more importance to the individual candidates than the political party. The result is that these important individuals dictate their terms for remaining in the party.

7. Defect in Single Member Constituency System. Election on the basis of single-member constituency system results in tension and bitterness among different sections of the population.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics

Question 6.
Examine the major suggestions for electoral reforms.
Answer:
Following remedies are suggested to improve the Indian Electoral System.

  1. The present electoral system of single-member constituencies should be replaced by system of proportional representation.
  2. Strict action should be taken against those who indulge in booth capturing and bogus voting.
  3. There should be provision for recall.
  4. The elections including the polling should be so conducted that the people are in a position to exercise their franchise freely, without intimidation, coercion, interference, undue inducement by political parties and others.
  5. The number of polling booths in a constituency should be increased.
  6. The electoral rolls should be open for additions and deletions every three months after the general revision is completed.
  7. Every effort should be made to check the role of money in elections.
  8. Election petitions should be disposed of expeditiously. ‘
  9. The state must share election expense.
  10. Ministers and other officials must not misuse the official machinery.
  11. Eligible voters should be given identity cards.
  12. The Election Commission has suggested that election need not be countermanded on the death of any candidate.
  13. Every political party, registered with the Election Commission, should publish its accounts annually.

Democracy and Election Politics PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Our country is a democratic country and the most important feature of democracy is its electoral politics. In democracy, elections are held after a fixed period of time and a new government is elected.
  • To run the administration, few decisions are taken and the power to take decisions lies in the hands of those who are elected directly by the people.
  • People elect their representatives to solve their problems at local level or they will have to run from pillar to post for the solution of their problems.
  • Presently, elections are quite important because it helps in changing the government and it restricts the government from becoming autocratic.
  • In our country, a concept of one adult-one vote-one value is implemented to bring equality in electoral politics.
  • In our country, direct elections are conducted for Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies and for local self governments. To conduct all such elections, a voters’ list is prepared by the Election Commission.
  • In India, elections are conducted on the basis of adult franchise and those individuals who have attained the age ofT8 years have the right to vote.
  • Voters of the country are given the right to secretely cast their vote so that no one should come to know that to whom one has given his valuable vote.
  • The responsibility of conducting elections in our countrys is given to an independent and impartial Election Commission. It consists of three members who are appointed by the President of India.
  • Election Commission performs many important functions such as to prepare voters’ lists, to direct the elections, to frame election related rules, implementation of code of conduct, to allot election symbols, giving recognition to political parties, to conduct elections etc.
  • Independent and impartial elections are expected in democracy. That’s why government and election commission have made many changes in the process of elections.
  • The process of elections is quite lengthy which includes delimitation of constituencies, announcement of election dates, filing of nomination and withdrawal, election campaigning, to conduct elections, counting and declaration of results.
  • Political parties play a very important role in democracy because in then- absence, elections cannot be conducted. There is multi party system in India.
  • There are two types of parties in the country—National Parties and Regional Parties. There are 7 national parties and many regional parties in the country.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Democracy and Election Politics Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Fundamental Rights of Citizen Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
Indian Constitution provides fundamental rights to its citizens.
Answer:
Six.

Question 2.
Right to free and compulsory education to children of age group 6-14 is granted under _________ article by _________ constitutional amendment.
Answer:
21 A, 86th.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Child labour is banned under :
(i) Right to freedom
(ii) Right to equality
(iii) Right against exploitation
(iv) Right to constitutional remedies.
Answer:
(iii) Right against exploitation.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 2.
A secular state means :
(i) A state that recognises only one religion.
(ii) A state that has no religion.
(iii) A state that has multi religions.
(iv) A state that doesn’t establish any one religion.
Answer:
(ii) A state that has no religion.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) statements :

Question 1.
Rights are those essential conditions of life without which-no one can lead a full happy life.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Secularism means people are free to follow any religion.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which part of the Constitution Fundamental Rights are incorporated?
Answer:
Fundamental Rights are incorporated in Part-Ill of the Constitution.

Question 2.
Which power has been conferred on Indian judiciary for the protection of fundamental rights?
Answer:
Indian judiciary is given the power to issue writs for the protection of fundamental rights under Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Question 3.
Give the name of the bill in which Bal Gangadhar Tilak had demanded some rights for Indians from the British.
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilk asked for the Swaraj Bill.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 4.
In which report equal rights for women were demanded from Britishers?
Answer:
Nehru Report.

Question 5.
What is reasonable claim recognised by the society and enforced by the state called?
Answer:
They are called Fundamental Rights.

Question 6.
When and under which amendment the right to property was excluded from the list of fundamental rights?
Answer:
In 1978 through 44th Constitutional Amendment, right to property was excluded from the list of fundamental rights.

Question 7.
Name any two fundamental rights which have been provided to the foreigners also.
Answer:
Right to Freedom, Right to Equality before Law, Right to Freedom of Religion.

Question 8.
Under which article, right to education has been enlisted in the list of fundamental rights.
Answer:
Article 21-A.

Question 9.
From which article to which article fundamental rights have been enlisted (enumerated) in the Constitution?
Answer:
Articles 14-32.

Question 10.
Under which article provision has been made against the evil of untouchability?
Answer:
Article 17.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief ‘Right to Equality’.
Answer:
Right to equality is the base of democracy which is given under Articles 14-18 of the Constitution.

  • Article 14 says that everyone is equal in front of law.
  • Article 15 says that there shall be no discrimination with any one on the basis of religion, caste, colour, race, gender etc.
  • Article 16 says that equal opportunities will be provided in matters of public employment.
  • Article 17 has abolished untouchability in the country.
  • Article 18 says that no titles will be provided except military or educational titles.

Question 2.
Write a note on ‘Power of Judicial Review’.
Answer:
Judicial review is the power given to judiciary according to which it can review any law made by the Parliament and state legislative assemblies. If that law is against the basic structure of the Constitution, it can declare that law unconstitutional and illegal (null and void). It can even declare any clause of that law illegal. Courts can declare only that law unconstitutional which comes in front of it in the form of a case.

Question 3.
What provisions have been made in Indian Constitution for freedom of judiciary?
Answer:

  • The judges of Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President. Hence there is no scope of Executive’s interference.
  • Judges can only be removed by the Parliament through the process of impeachment which in itself is quite a difficult process.
  • Except Financial Emergency, the salary of the judges can never be reduced or stopped.
  • After retirement, judges are given handsome pension.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 4.
Explain in brief ‘Right to Freedom of Religion’.
Answer:
Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28). Articles 25-28 deal with the right to freedom of religion, Right to freedom of religion has been guaranteed to all persons residing in India. Art. 25 provides that subject to public order, morality and health, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate any religion.

Art. 28 prohibits imparting of religious instruction in any educational institution wholly maintained out -of State funds.

Question 5.
Which liberties have been given to the Indian citizens under Article 19?
Answer:
Right to Freedom (Articles 19 to 22). Articles 19-22 of the Constitution guarantee to the citizens Rights of Freedom. Article 19 guarantees six freedoms viz.

  1. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression;
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms;
  3. Right to form Associations;
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India;
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India;
  6. Right to practise any profession. Articles 20 to 22 guarantee personal liberty.

Question 6.
Write a note on Right against Exploitation.
Answer:
The Constitution of India recognises the dignity of the individual and protects him against any form of exploitation either by the State or by the privileged class in the Society. Traffic in human beings (Article 23) i.e. selling and buying of human beings and begar (forced labour) are prohibited. The Constitution prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine (Article 24). Children are the future of the country; hence they must be protected against any form of exploitation.

Question 7.
‘How our fundamental rights are fundamental in nature? Explain.
Answer:
There is great importance of the Fundamental Rights given in the Indian Constitution. The Fundamental Rights ensure the fullest physical, mental and moral development of every citizen and provide those basic freedoms and conditions which alone can make the life worth-living. The Fundamental Rights safeguard the individual by putting restriction on the arbitrariness of the Government.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the nature of fundamental rights.
Answer:
Part III of Indian Constitution contains the Fundamental Rights for the Indian citizens.

Following are the main features of Fundamental Rights given in the Indian Constitution.
1. All Citizens are equally entitled to the Fundamental Rigths. The
Constitution declares that rights contained in Part III are to be enjoyed by all the citizens of India. There can be no discrimination.

2. Fundamental Rights are not Absolute. Fundamental rights are not absolute. The Constitution imposes certain restrictions on these rights.

3. Fundamental Rights can be suspended. Fundamental Rights can be restricted or suspended as the circumstances demand.

4. Fundamental Rights are Justiciable. These are justiciable. Art. 32 of the Constitution provides that if state or any other authority encroaches upon the rights of a person, the later can move to the Supreme Court and the High Courts for the enforcement of his rights.

5. No Natural Right is enumerated in the Constitution. The Indian Bill of Rights is not based on the theory of natural rights. Our Fundamental Rights have been specified in the Constitution. A Right which is not incorporated in Part III is not fundamental right.

6. These can be Amended. Fundamental Rights can be amended by the procedure given in Article 368. According to this Article, only Parliament is competent to amend the provisions of the Fundamental Rights with two-third majority of the total membership of the Parliament.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 2.
Explain in brief the provisions made under Articles 20-22.
Answer:
The Right to Freedom is regarded as the most fundamental right. Articles 19 to 22 deal with this right. Article 19 provides six freedoms: freedom of speech and expression; freedom of assembly; freedom of association; freedom of movement; freedom of residence and settlement; freedom of profession, occupation, trade or business. These freedoms are not absolute. The guarantee of each of these freedoms is limited by the Constitution.

Personal Liberty. Articles 20-22 aim at protecting the individual’s life and personal liberty.
(a) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law.
(b) No person shall be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law.
(c) No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
(d) The State shall not deny to any person equality before law.
(e) No person can be arrested in an arbitrary manner, nor can he be detained for an indefinite period.
(f) The Constitution also provides some safeguards to persons arrested under the preventive detention law.

Question 3.
Explain in brief the provisions made under Articles 25-28 with reference to the right to freedom of religion.
Answer:

  1. Under Articles 25-28 of the Indian Constitution, citizens are given freedom of religion. Article 25 gives citizens the freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
  2. Article 26 gives every one the freedom to manage religious affairs.
  3. Article 26 gives the citizens freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
  4. Article 28 gives the freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions. It also says that [28(1)] no religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds.

Question 4.
What do you know about right to constitutional remedies? Explain in brief.
Answer:
Right to Constitutional Remedies is the most significant right mentioned in the Constitution. This right is often described as the most fundamental of all the Fundamental Rights. Because all other rights given under part-III of the Constitution would become meaningless without this right. Our other rights are not only implemented by this right but safeguarded also. That is why many constitutional experts describe this right as the heart and soul of Fundamental Rights.

VII. Match the following:

Question 1.

Activity Mach Options
(a) Article 15 (i) Freedom to profess any Religion, Freedom to Belief
(b) Article 23 (ii) Right to Constitutional Remedies
(c) Article 32 (iii) Right to Free and Compulsory Education
(d) Article 22 (iv) prohibition of Discrimination
(e) Article 21A (v) Prevention of Forced Labour and Traffic in Human beings
(f) Article 25 (vi) Rights to Prisoners of Conscience.

Answer:

Activity Mach Options
(a) Article 15 (iv) prohibition of Discrimination
(b) Article 23 (v) Prevention of Forced Labour and Traffic in Human beings
(c) Article 32 (ii) Right to Constitutional Remedies
(d) Article 22 (vi) Rights to Prisoners of Conscience.
(e) Article 21A (iii) Right to Free and Compulsory Education
(f) Article 25 (i) Freedom to profess any Religion, Freedom to Belief

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Fundamental Rights of Citizen Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
What is required for humans?
(a) Violence
(b) Ignorance
(c) Rights
(d) Unemployment.
Answer:
(c) Rights.

Question 2.
Fundamental Rights are given in part _________ of the Constitution.
(a) First
(b) Second
(c) Third
(d) Fourth.
Answer:
(c) Third.

Question 3.
How many fundamental rights are given in the Constitution?
(a) 5
(b) 6
(c) 7
(d) 8.
Answer:
(b) 6.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 4.
Right to Freedom is given under Articles _________
(a) 14-18
(b) 19-22
(c) 23-24
(d) 25-28.
Answer:
(b) 19-22.

Question 5.
Right to Equality is given under Articles _________
(a) 14-18
(b) 19-22
(c) 23-24
(d) 25-28.
Answer:
(a) 14-18.

Question 6.
Articles _________ give us right against exploitation.
(a) 14-18
(b) 19-22
(c) 23-24
(d) 25-28.
Answer:
(c) 23-24.

Question 7.
Right to freedom of religion is given under Articles _________
(a) 23-24
(b) 25-28
(c) 14-18
(d) 19-22.
Answer:
(b) 25-28.

Question 8.
Right to constitutional remedies is given under Article _________
(a) 32
(b) 31
(c) 30
(d) 29.
Answer:
(a) 32.

Question 9.
Article _________ of the Constitution has abolished untouchability.
(a) 15
(b) 16
(c) 17
(d) 18.
Answer:
(c) 17.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 10.
Which type of State is India?
(a) Secular State
(b) Hindu State
(c) Muslim State
(d) Sikh State.
Answer:
(a) Secular.

Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
In _________ A.D., Bal Gangadhar Tilak asked the British to pass Swaraj Bill.
Answer:
1895

Question 2.
In 1946 A.D _________ supported to give fundamental rights to Indian citizens.
Answer:
cabinet mission

Question 3.
Right to property was made a legal right with _________ constitutional amendment.
Answer:
44th

Question 4.
Right to education is kept under article _________
Answer:
21-A

Question 5.
_________ is abolished with Artick 17.
Answer:
untouchability

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 6.
Article _________ gives us equality before law.
Answer:
15

Question 7. Right to constitutional remedies is given under article
Answer:
32.

True/False:

Question 1.
Rights create obstacles in life.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Fundamental Rights are given under Articles 14-32.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Article 15 prohibits any type of discrimination.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 4.
Under Article 19, the freedoms are given to the citizens.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
We don’t have freedom to choose occupation.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Article 24 is for the protection of children.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are rights?
Answer:
Humans need certain facilities for their development and such facilities are called rights.

Question 2.
Give one definition of rights.
Answer:
According to Bosanquet, “A right is a claim recognized by the society and enforced by state.”

Question 3.
Give an important fact of rights.
Answer:
Rights are given by society and enforced by state.

Question 4.
Give one feature of rights.
Answer:
Rights are the claims of independence to do any work which one gets from society.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 5.
What are legal rights?
Answer:
Legal rights are the rights which are sanctioned by the state and that person is punished who tries to disobey them.

Question 6.
Give two important political rights of citizens.
Answer:

  1. Right to vote
  2. Right to contest elections.

Question 7.
Give meaning of fundamental rights.
Answer:
The legal rights explained in the Constitution are called fundamental rights.

Question 8.
Why are rights necessary for an individual?
Answer:
Because they greatly help in all-round development of an individual.

Question 9.
In which part and articles of the Constitution .fundamental rights are mentioned?
Answer:
In 3rd part and under 12-35 Articles.

Question 10.
How many fundamental rights are given to the Indian citizens?
Answer:
Six fundamental rights (after 44th amendment).

Question 11.
With which fundamental right articles 14-18 are related?
Answer:
Articles 14-18 are related to the right to equality.

Question 12.
Under which articles, right to freedom is given?
Answer:
Right to freedom is given under articles 19-22.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 13.
Under which articles, right to freedom of religion is given?
Answer:
Articles 25-28.

Question 14.
Under which articles, the right against exploitation is given?
Answer:
Articles 23-24.

Question 15.
What do you mean by right to constitutional remedies?
Answer:
According to Article 32, if any one’s rights are violated then under this right, one can approach court to get his rights.

Question 16.
Give one feature of fundamental rights.
Answer:
Fundamental rights are justiciable and one can approach court if they are violated.

Question 17.
What do you mean by equality before law?
Answer:
It means that every one is equal in front of law and mo one can be discriminated on any basis.

Question 18.
Which titles can be given to the Indian citizens?
Answer:
Educational and Military titles.

Question 19.
Name any two freedoms given under Article 19.
Answer:

  1. Freedom of speech and expression.
  2. Freedom to form association.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 20.
Give one feature of right against exploitation.
Answer:
No one can force any one to do begar and no one can sell ahd purchase humans.

Question 21.
What is meant by right to freedom of religion?
Answer:
People are free to adopt, profess and propagate any religion arid they are free to establish religious institutions.

Question 22.
Name any two fundamental rights which make India a sec ular state.
Answer:

  1. Under right to equality, all the citizens are given equal rights.
  2. All the Indians are free to adopt any religion.

Question 23.
What is meant by cultural and educational right?
Answer:
Minorities are free to protect their language, script and culture and are free to establish educational institutions.

Question 24.
Name any two writs which can be filed in the Supreme Court to implement fundamental rights.
Answer:

  1. Habeas Corpus
  2. Mandamus.

Question 25.
With which constitutional amendment, the right to property was made the legal right?
Answer:
44th constitutional amendment.

Question 26.
Is there any limitation on fundamental rights?
Answer:
Yes, the Constitution has kept certain restrictions on fundamental rights. Parliament can limit them with the constitutional amendment.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 27.
What is meant by Habeas Corpus?
Answer:
Habeas Corpus is a Latin word that means “Let us have the body”.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Mandamus?
Answer:
Mandamus is a Latin word which means ‘We command’.

Question 29.
With which Article the Parliament is stopped to restrict fundamental rights?
Answer:
With Article 13, the Parliament is stopped from restricting fundamental rights.

Question 30.
Which fundamental right cannot be suspended even during emergency?
Answer:
The right of individual freedom cannot be suspended even during emergency.

Question 31.
With which constitutional amendment the right to education was included in fundamental rights?
Answer:
With 86th constitutional amendment.

Question 32.
Who appoints the chief justice of India and other judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
They all are appointed by the President.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the meaning of Rights.
Answer:
Rights are those conditions of social life without which human personality cannot develop. The rights are recognised by the state. According to Bosanquet, “A right is a claim recognised by society and enforced by the state.”

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 2.
Give two features of rights.
Answer:

  1. Rights are possible only in society: There is no existence of rights out of society and they are not required as well.
  2. Rights are limited: Rights cannot be unlimited and they are restricted powers which are necessary for individual development.

Question 3.
Give two definitions of rights.
Answer:

  1. According to T.H. Green, “Rights are those powers which are necessary for the fulfilment of man’s vocation as a moral being.”
  2. According to Wilde, “A right is a reasonable claim to the freedom in the exercise of certain activities.”

Question 4.
Give types of rights.
Answer:
Rights are of three types: Natural, Moral, and Legal.

  1. Natural Rights: These are the rights which one gets from nature itself.
  2. Moral Rights: Moral rights are based on one’s moral values. Such rights don’t have any legal sanction.
  3. Legal Rights: Legal rights are sanctioned by the state. Law of the state implements such laws.

Legal rights are of four types:

  1. fundamental rights,
  2. social rights,
  3. political rights and
  4. economic rights.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 5.
Give two features of the fundamental rights given in the Indian Constitution.
Answer:

  1. Detailed rights. Fundamental rights given in. the Constitution are quite wide in scope. Citizens are given 6 fundamental rights and each right is explained in detail.
  2. Right are for all the citizens. Fundamental rights given in the Constitution are for all citizens and no discrimination takes place while providing these rights.

Question 6.
What is meant by fundamental rights?
Answer:
Such legal rights which are given in the Constitution are known as fundamental rights. These are such rights which one gets right away after his birth and which are considered necessary for individual development. Citizens of India, U.S.A., Japan, France and other democratic countries are given fundamental rights.

Question 7.
Explain any two fundamental rights given to the Indian citizens.
Answer:

  1. Equality before Law. Equality before law means that all are equal before law and that the law does not discriminate against any one on the grounds of birth, wealth, caste, creed, religion, etc. Equality before law ensures the rule of law in the country.
  2. Right to Freedom of Religion. Right to Freedom of Religion means that all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate any religion.

Question 8.
Write down the names of Fundamental Rights given in our Constitution.
Answer:
Part III of our Constitution mentions the following Fundamental Rights :

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom.
  3. Right against Exploitation.
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion.
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights.
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Question 9.
Why was the Right to Property deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights?
Answer:
Right to Property was deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights because the right to property created obstacle in the goal of the achievement of socialist pattern of society. The word ‘Compensation’ was a great stumbling block. The Supreme Court struck down the Anti-Zamindari Laws. Hence by 44th Amendment, Right to Property was deleted.

Question 10.
Mention any two conditions under which ‘Fundamental Rights’ can be restricted.
Answer:

  1. During the proclamation of emergency caused by external aggression or armed rebellion, the President can by order suspend Fundamental Rights and their enforcement in the courts of law.
  2. During emergency caused by internal disturbance, Fundamental Rights under Article 19 are automatically suspended in the disturbed area.

Question 11.
Give any two demerits of the fundamental rights given in the Constitution.
Answer:

  1. Too much restriction. So many restrictions have been kept on the fundamental rights that their importance is reduced. There are so many restrictions on these rights that it is quite difficult for the citizens to understand the facilities given to them.
  2. Lack of economic rights. Fundamental rights are also criticised on the base that no economic right is given in them. But in socialist countries, they are given to the citizens.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 12.
Why are rights necessary to the individuals?
Answer:
Rights are necessary to the individuals because man can develop all his mental, physical and spiritual qualities only if he is given certain rights and privileges by the State. Each State gives certain rights to the citizens which are essential for the development of the personality of the individuals. In brief, we can say that rights are essential for all round development of the individuals.

Question 13.
Differentiate between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.
Answer:

  • Fundamental rights are justiciable but directive principles are not. Fundamental rights can be implemented by the courts but not the directive principles.
  • The objective of fundamental rights is political democracy but the objective of directive principles is economic democracy.
  • Fundamental rights are the rights of people but directive principles are duties of the state.
  • Fundamental rights can be restricted but directive principles cannot be restricted.

Question 14.
What provisions are kept under Articles 23 and 24?
Answer:
The Constitution of India recognises the dignity of the individual and protects him against any form of exploitation either by the State or by the privileged class in the Society. Traffic in human beings (i.e.) selling and buying of human beings and begar (forced labour) are prohibited. The Constitution prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine. Children are the future of the country ; hence they must be protected against any form of exploitation.

Question 15.
According to the right to constitutional remedies, which orders judiciary can issue?
Answer:
The Supreme Court and High Courts can issue five types of writs under Article 32 of the Constitution.

These writs are:

  • Writ of Habeas Corpus,
  • Writ of Mandamus,
  • Writ of Quo-Warranto,
  • Writ of Prohibition,
  • Writ of Certiorari.

Question 16.
Which provisions are kept under Articles 29 and 30 of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
1. Article-29 provides that any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part’thereof having distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have right to conserve the same.

2. Article-30 provides that all minorities, whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. The State shall not in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 17.
What is meant by Mandamus?
Answer:
‘Mandamus’ is a Latin word which means ‘We command’. Mandamus is an order from a superior court to a lower court or tribunal or public authority to perform an act, which falls within its duty. This writ does not apply to the President and the Governors.

Question 18.
Why are Fundamental Rights enumerated in the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Fundamental Rights are included in the Constitution to uphold the dignity of the individual. The object of enshrining Fundamental Rights in the Constitution is to sustain the proposition that the system of government recognised by the Constitution embodies the concept of limited government (i.e.) a government of laws and not of men. Another very important reason for the inclusion of Fundamental Rights in the Constitution of India is to create a climate of trust and confidence in the minds of minorities living in the country.

Question 19.
Explain the idea of equality before law.
Answer:
The meaning of equality before law is that every one is equal in front of law and no one is given special rights. No one is above the law of land. Everyone, irrespective of his/her position, is under law and he can be tried in the court of law.

Law will not discriminate with any one on any basis. Another meaning of equality before law is under normal circumstances, everyone will be treated equally.

Question 20.
Explain the right to freedom of speech and expression.
Answer:
Everyone is given the freedom of speech and expression. Anyone can express his views by giving speech or in writing. Freedom of press, giving speech are the methods of freedom of expression. But if any one will try to raise question mark on the sovereignty or integrity of the country, provoking violence or give speech to provoke the people to work against the state, it is strictly prohibited.

Question 21.
Explain the meaning of Writ of Quo-warranto.
Answer:
The writ of quo-warranto is used to prevent illegal assumption of any public office or usurpation of any public office by anybody. For example, a person of 60 years is appointed to fill a public office whereas the retirement age is 55. Now the appropriate High Court has a right to issue a writ of quo-warranto against that person and declare the office vacant.

Question 22.
Explain the Right to Education.
Answer:
In December, 2002, 86th constitutional amendment was passed and Article 21A was added in the Constitution. Under this Article, right to education was kept. Under this system, arrangements were made that all the children within the age group of 6 to 14 years must have the fundamental right of education. Along with this, arrangements were also made that it is the responsibility a of the parents to provide such opportunities to their children, with which they can get education. Government will also’make arrangements for providing education to the children above 6 years.

Question 23.
What is meant by independence of judiciary?
Answer:
The meaning of independence of judiciary is that the judges must be free, impartial and without any fear or pressure. Judges can only do impartial justice when they are not under any type of pressure. Judiciary must not be kept under legislature and executive and they must not have any right to interfere in the normal functioning of judiciary.

Question 24.
Write a short note on Supreme Court as the protector of Fundamental Rights.
Answer:
The Constitution makes the Supreme Court the ultimate guardian of Fundamental Rights and liberties of the people. Rights of the people have no meaning if they are not backed and upheld by judiciary. It is both the jurisdiction as well as the responsibility of Supreme Court to issue orders, directions and writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus. Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari, or any of them for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. However, this jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is not exclusive. State High Courts have also been given similar powers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 25.
What steps have been taken to make independent Judiciary in India?
Answer:

  • In India method of the appointment of the judges is deviced in such a way that only able persons could become the judges.
  • The judges of Supreme Court and High Courts are given a very good salary.
  • The judges are kept in service for a pretty long period.
  • Legal qualifications have been prescribed to become the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court.
  • Judiciary has been given vast powers in India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by Rights? Explain its features.
Answer:
Humans need certain facilities for their development. They get these facilities only in society and such facilities are called rights. In simple words, rights are those facilities and opportunities which are very much necessary for the development of one’s personality. These rights are sanctioned by society. In other words, rights are those facilities with which we get authority to do or not to do any work.

Different authors have defined rights and their definitions are :

  • According to Green, “Rights are those powers which are necessary for the fulfilment of man’s vocation as a moral being.”
  • According to Bosanquet, “A right is a claim recognised by the society and enforced by state.”
  • According to Prof. Laski, “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek to be himself at his best.”

Features:

  • Rights are possible only in society.
  • Rights are sanctioned by society.
  • Rights are claims of human beings.
  • Rights are logical and moral.
  • Rights are not unlimited.
  • Rights are used in public welfare.
  • Duties are also attached with rights.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 2.
Write an essay on ‘Fundamental Rights’ as incorporated in our Constitution.
Answer:
The Fundamental Rights enumerated in the Indian Constitution are the most elaborate in the world. The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental Rights by developing a complete and separate Part (Part III) and classifies them under six categories. Six Fundamental Rights are as follows :
1. Right to Equality (Articles 14 to 18.)
The Constitution declares all the citizens of India to be equal in the eyes of law. Law provides equal protection to all. The positive concept of equality is that special privileges of all kinds should be abolished. Untouchability is abolished.

2. Right to Freedom (Articles 19 to 22).
Articles 19-22 of the Constitution guarantee to the citizens Rights of Freedom. Article 19 guarantees six freedoms viz.

  1. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression;
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms;
  3. Right to form Associations;
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India;
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India;
  6. Right to practise any profession. Articles 20 to 22 guarantee personal liberty.

3. Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24).
The Constitution of India recognises the dignity of the individual and protects him against any form of exploitation either by the State or by the privileged classes in the society. Art. 23 provides that traffic in human beings and begar (forced labour) and similar other forms of forced labour are prohibited.

Art. 24. prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 in any factory, mine or any other hazardous (dangerous) employment.

4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28).
Articles 25-28 deal with the right to freedom of religion, Right to freedom of religion has been guaranteed to all persons residing in India. Art. 25 provides that subject to public order, morality and health, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate any religion.

Art. 28 prohibits imparting of religious instruction in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.

5. Cultural and Educational Rights. (Articles 29 and 30.)
Under Articles 29 and 30, the Constitution guarantees certain cultural and educational rights. No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

The Constitution protects the interests of the minorities in India. The Constitution provides that all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

6. Right to Constitutional Remedies. (Article 32.)
Art. 32 guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III of the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen

Question 3.
Discuss the Right to Equality as given in the Constitution.
Answer:
Right to Equality is the cornerstone of democracy: The Right to Equality is covered mainly by Articles 14-18. The

Right to Equality means :
1. Equality Before Law. Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees all persons equality before law and equal protection of law within the territory of India. There can be no discrimination between one citizen and another on the basis of caste, class, creed, sex or any of them. This ensures the Rule of Law in the country.

2. No Discrimination: Art. 15 provides that the State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. The same Article provides that all the citizens shall have access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment, the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads, etc.

3. Equality of Opportunity. The Constitution guarantees equality of opportunities for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for or discriminated against, in respect of any employment or office under the State.

4. Abolition of Untouchability. Untouchability has been a bane of the Indian society. Social Justice is impossible to achieve where untouchability is practised in any form. Article 17 abolishes untouchability and its practice in any form is forbidden.

5. Abolition of Titles. Art. 18 provides that no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. The Constitution prohibits citizens of India from accepting any title from any foreign country.

Fundamental Rights of Citizen PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • While living in society, people enjoy many facilities such as equality, expression of speech, to move anywhere, to adopt any occupation, to follow any religion etc. Such facilities are called rights.
  • We can say that the rights are such genuine demands of an individual or group of individuals which are recognized by society and state.
  • To give citizens a happy life and to maintain dignity of individuals, our Constitution has given us few rights which are known as fundamental rights. These are given in the 3rd part and under Articles 12-35 of the Constitution.
  • Our rights are quite lengthy and extensive, positive and negative, they are limited but justiceable and they cannot be violated.
  • Initially the Indian citizens were given seven fundamental rights out of which right to property was deleted in 1978 through 44th constitutional amendment and was made a legal right Consequently this number came down to six.
  • In 2002, through 86th constitutional amendment, children were given Right to Education (RTE) and it was kept under Article 21 A.
  • We are given six fundamental rights and these are :
    (i) Right to Equality (Articles 14-18)
    (ii) Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22)
    (iii) Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24)
    (iv) Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28)
    (v) Cultural and Educational Right (Articles 29-30)
    (vi) Right to Constitutional Remedy (Articles 32)
  • In our country, many provisions are kept to maintain security and independence of judiciary. This is done so that judiciary must give its decisions without any fear.
  • Our courts (Supreme Court and High Courts) are given the power of judicial review. It means that the judiciary can check any law made by legislature. If it feels that the law made by legislature is against the basic structure of the Constitution, it can declare that law illegal (null and void).
  • The power of judicial review is given so that the different organs of government must work according to their jurisdiction and according to the spirit of Constitution.
  • Fundamental Rights are fundamental because they are very much necessary for the all-around development of an individual.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Fundamental Rights of Citizen Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
20 century is called The Golden Era of democracy. A trend towards democracy started among the Europeans. British and America remarked that first world war was fought for the security of demoracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries came into existence after 1st World War. These countries preferred to adopt democrative system. Those countries who were prey to imperialism expressed their desire to demolish imperialism and establish democracy.
But this golden period of democracy soon disappeared and democracy had to face adverse circumstances. After 1st World War, democracy had to face a set back in Italy and Germany due to the birth of two movements which were not in favour of democracy. The advent of ideology of Nazism in Germany and Facism in Italy proved disastrous for democracy. Both the ideologies were in the favour of dictatorship. Due to these ideologies, the tragedy of second world war happened between 1939-45.
(а) Which century is known as the Golden Era of democracy and why?
Answer:
20th century is known as the Golden Era of democracy because this was the time when European people started looking towards democracy. Even the first World War (1914-18) was fought for the security of democracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries were formed after the war and they all adopted the democratic set-up.

(b) Why did the Golden period of democracy end very soon?
Answer:
The Golden era of democracy ended after first World War because it faced adverse circumstances. Nazism and fascism started in Germany and Italy respectively and dictatorship established over there. This dictatorship encouraged the imperial policy and that’s why second World War started which lasted till 1945.

Question 2.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Like India, there was colonialism in Ghana, (African Continent) : Firstly, it was known as Gold Coast. It was among the first country of Africa which got independence from the Britishers in 1957. This country inspired other countries of Africa for independence. A great personality of Ghana, who was the son of a goldsmith (Name- Kqame Nkrumah)-led this freedom movement and got his country freed. He became 1st Prime Minister and later on became the President of Ghana. He was a friend of Pt. Nehru. He inspired the people of other countries of Africa continent to establish democracy. He got himself elected as President for the ‘lifetime’. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy 3Military dictatorship was established in Ghana. Like Ghana the Countries which adopted democracy after Independence could not retain it continuously but in India working of democracy is still continue after independence.
(a) Tell something about Ghana’s struggle for independence.
Answer:
Ghana was earlier known as Gold Coast which is situated in Africa. Ghana was also a victim of Colonialism and was under the occupation of the British. Kagame Nkrumah led the freedom struggle of Ghana and got the country independent from the British in 1957 A.D.

(b) Briefly tell about Kqame Nkrumah.
Answer:
Kqame Nkrumah was the son of a goldsmith. He led Ghana’s freedom struggle against the British and got his country independent. He became the first Prime Minister of Ghana and later on became the President for the lifetime. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy. Military dictatorship was then established in Ghana.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power. In democarcy the people control the government. Sometime democracy is called as the rule of masses (entire public). But it is merely a hypothesis as all the people are not of the same opinion. Democracy is sometimes called the government of the majority. This is also not appropriate. For example, many times an anarchist becomes successful to win the support of the majority on the basis of violence or misuse of power. Shall we call such a government as democratic?
The freedom to elect is the root or base of democracy. The existence of democracy lies in the difference of opinion. Every person has .his own view to solve national problems. In democracy difference of opinion is shown through ballots and not bullets. There is no place for violence in democracy. In election any ideology becomes successful to win the support of majority of people and becomes successful to hold political power.
(a) What is meant by democracy?
Answer:
Democarcy is a type of government in which government is elected for a fixed period of time through Universal Adult Franchise and this government works for the welfare of people. In this way democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power.

(b) Give features of democracy?
Answer:

  • Democracy is a type of government.
  • Right to choose is the main base of democracy.
  • Government is elected for a fixed period of time.
  • Every person has the right to cast one vote and value of each vote is same.
  • Democracy allows us to correct our mistakes.

Question 4.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian. In democracy the principle of ‘One person—one vote—one value’ is applicable. Therefore, we can’t call Fiji as a democractic country.
Now we will take an example of Mexico. It became independent in 1930. Mexico holds elections after every six years to elect its President. The power of government never remains in the hands of military or dictator. But until 2000 every election was won by PRI party. Other parties were free to contest the election. But being in power, PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) party was known to use unfair means. Government officials and officers were forced to attend meeting of PRI Party. Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI Party. The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leader might not be successful to cast their votes. All these examples reveal that only periodical elections are not sufficient but free and fair poll is essential. If a party wins the election by unfair or suppressive means we will not call it true democracy.
(а) What is meant by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the elections must take place impartially and without any impact or pressure. Ruling party must not use unfair means to win 6ver the votes and people must choose their representatives without any fear.

(b) Which unfair methods were used in Mexico to win elections?
Answer:
From 1930 to 2000 A.D., only one party in Mexico won elections and the party was PRI. It used following unfair means to win elections.

  • Government officials were forced to attend meetings of PRI.
  • Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI.
  • The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leaders might not be successful to cast their votes.

Question 5.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
India became independent on 15 August, 1947. But the process of making constitution for India had been started before independence. Leaders of India adopted Parliamentary democratic system for India which is the main feature of our constitution. The constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was elected indirectly. It took two years, eleven months and eighteen days to frame the constitution.
The demand for the Constituent Assembly for framing Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. The British Government accepted it in 1940. The election of Constituent Assembly was made on Nov. 19, 1946 indirectly from the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 389, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces (British India) and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.
(a) From whom and when India got independence?
Answer:
India got independence from the British on 15th August 1947 A.D.

(b) Give two main features of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:

  • Indian Constitution is the written constitution and is the lengthiest in the world.
  • Parliamentary form of government is adopted in India.

(c) How were the members of the Constituent Assembly elected?
Answer:
The demand for framing the Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. According to the recommendations of the Constituent Assembly, the members of Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces of the British India and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
The Preamble to the constitution states the objects which the constitution seeks to establish and promote. It is the window of the constitution from which we can have a glimpse of objectives, principles and features of our constitution.
It is considered to be a part of constitution because it can be amended like other articles of constitution. Though the preamble is not enforceable in a court of Law, it provides a key to the understanding and interpretation of the constitution.
The Preamble declares India as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political. It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all. It declares fraternity assuming the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.
(a) What is meant by the Preamble?
Answer:
Preamble is nothing but the nutshell of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble tells us about the basic objectives and features of the constitution. The Preamble is known as the part of the Indian Constitution.

(b) What is the importance of the Preamble of the Constitution?
Answer:

  • The Preamble declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.
  • It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political.
  • It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all.

Question 7.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
The constitution of India is the largest and the most comprehensive of all the written constitutions of the world. Originally, it consists of 395 Articles and 8 schedules. Now it exists of 12 schedules and many new articles have been added under the original articles. It is extended due to a number of amendments. After 42nd constitutional amendment two new parts 4A & 14A were added to it. The 9th schedule was added in 1951 under first amendment. The 10th schedule regarding ‘Anti Defection Law’ was added in 1985 by 52nd Constitutional Amendment. The 11th schedule regarding power, authority and responsibility of Panchayati Raj Institution was added under 73rd constitutional amendment in 1992. The 12th schedule was added in 1992 under 74th Constitutional Amendment. It is realed to local self-government in Urban area (Municipalities.)
(a) Why is the Indian Constitution lengthiest in the world?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is lengthiest in the world as originally it had 395 articles and 8 schedules. Later on many new schedules and articles were added in it. Now there are 450 articles and 12 schedules in it. Every minute detail is given in it. Many Constitutional Amendments were added in it and that’s why it has become more lengthy.

(b) What were 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments?
Answer:
To establish local Self Government in the country, 73rd and 74th Amendments were made in the Constitution. According to 73rd Amendment, a three tier structure of Local Self Government was established in rural areas. According to 74th Amendment, Local Self Government was established in urban areas.

Question 8.
Read the source and answer the following questions
In Parliamentary System, Head of the state is President, Governor General, King or Queen. In India, France and Austria, President is the head of the State. In Canada, Australia, New Zealand Governor-General is the head of state while in Japan, England, Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Norway King or Queen is the head of the State. The head of these-countries are titular or nominal executive. The main features of the Parliamentary System is that constitutionally head of the country has enormous powers but practically he does not use these powers. Practically, the cabinet exercises these powers. The hea,d of Parliamentary form of Government is like India’s President. The cabinet runs the administration in the name of State Head but the entire responsibility of Government lies on its shoulder.
(a) What do you mean by Parliamentary form of government.
Answer:
Parliamentary form of government in which government is elected from within the Parliament. It means that the Parliament will be elected by the people and then government will be elected from within the Parliament. The Parliament will keep control over the government which will take Parliament’s permission for every work.

(b) Give features of Parliamentary systeng.
Answer:

  • In Parliamentary system there is a Head of the State such as the President of India. He is the nominal Head of the country.
  • Constitutionally, Head of the country is given enormous powers but practically, he does not use all of his powers.
  • Council of Ministers uses all the powers of the Head of the country. In this way Council of Ministers is responisble to run administration of the country.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
Read the source and answer the given questions :
In the Parliamentary system, Prime-Minister leads the cabinet. In the lower house of the Parliament-Prime Minister is the leader of the party with majority. Therefore, he is the leader of the Parliament also. Chief of the state appoints ministers at his recommendations. He presides over the meetings of the cabinet. He decides dates and agenda of cabinet meetings. He consults the cabinet but his decision is final on disputable issues. He distributes the departments among ministers. The Prime- Minister coordinates and supervises the works of ministers. If any minister does not cooperate or is not agreed at his policies then he has to resign. If he does not resign then Prime-Minister can request the President to remove him from his designation. He is the main spokesman of the Government. He informs the President about the decision of the cabinet. He takes the opinion of the President on some specific and important matters. Though he is not bound to follow the opinion of the President yet he thinks over it very seriously.
(a) What is the role of Prime Minister in Parliamentary System?
Answer:
Prime Minister holds the most important position in Parliamentary system because he is the Real Executive Head of country. The President acts only on his advice. Even the President appoints council of ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. He is answerable to the Parliament for his government’s acts. He is actually spokesperson of government.

(b) Discuss functions of Prime Minister.
Answer:

  • He gets his Council of Ministers appointed by the President.
  • He divides different departments to Ministers. He can change their departments and, if required, can remove them.
  • He acts as a link between the President and Council of Ministers.
  • He informs the President about the decisions of the cabinet.
  • He represents India at International level.
  • He presides over the meeting of Council of Ministers.

Question 10.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
All the ministers of the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Parliament. If the parliament passes ‘Censure Motion’ against one minister then whole Council of Ministers, have to resign. If a policy is framed for one department in the Council of Ministers then its responsibility lies on the whole Council of Ministers.
Every minister is personally responsible for his department. If the work of any department is not up to the mark the Prime Minister can ask the minister, of the concerned department to resign. If the minister does not submit his resignation then the Prime Minister can ask the President to remove that minister.
(a) What do you mean by Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers is that they are collectively responsible towards Parliament. If a non-confidence motion passes against any minister, the whole of the Council of Ministers will have to resign. It is often said that the Council of Ministers swim and sink together.

(b) What is individual responsibility of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of individual responsibility of Ministers is that every minister is responsible for the functioning of his department. If any minister’s department is not working properly, he can be called for an explanation. Members of Parliament can ask any question related to their department and it is must for the ministers to reply. In this way ministers are individually responsible to the Prime Minister and Parliament for the functions of their respective departments.

Question 11.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Fair and free election is the pillar of democracy. Fair and free election implies that voters should cast his/her vote without any fear or pressure. Secondly, he should not misuse his vote under any temptation. The election commission played a significant role in holding fair and free elections. The evils of elections cannot be eradicated till the voter is not awaken. Undoubtedly, the government made many reforms in this direction, for example under the Anti defection act there is complete prohibition on defection. If a winning candidate changes his party then his candidature will be cancelled. But defection still survives in one or the other form. Before election many candidates are competent for election ticket. Those candidates who are not alloted tickets by their party, join other political parties.
(а) What do you mean by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the voters must cast their vote without having any fear or pressure. Secondly, they must not sell their vote in lieu of money or anything else. Free and fair elections is one of the important base of democracy and in its absense, democracy cannot work smoothly.

(b) What steps have been taken to eradicate evils of elections?
Answer:
Many evils prevail in election system such as use of money, threatening voters, defection of leaders from one party to another etc. Many efforts are made to remove these evils such as:

  • According to Anti-Defection Laws, no elected M.P. or M.L.A. can change his party. If he will, his membership would be cancelled.
  • While filling a nomination form, a candidate will have to fill an affidavit containing information about his wealth, moveable and immoveable property and criminal cases pending against him. It tells the people about the character of that leader.
  • Each political party has to file Income Tax Return so that people must come to know that how money comes to parties.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 12.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Periodical Election is an essential feature of the Parliamentary democracy. To establish democracy without election is merely a hypothesis. The basic principle of democracy is to entrust the every citizen right to vote at his/her will. There is clear provision in our constitution about the election of President and Vice President. For the remaining elections, Parliament makes provision from time to time. Single voter list is prepared for the election of Lok Sabha, the State Legislative Assemblies and Local bodies. On the basis of regional representation people of all religions and groups elect the candidate. No constituency is made on the basis of any particular religion or group.
(а) What do you mean by Regular or Periodic Elections?
Answer:
The meaning of regular or periodic elections is that the elections must be conducted after a fixed period of time which can be different in different countries. In India, it is 5 years. If elections are not conducted after a fixed period of time, it is a great danger to democracy. So, periodic elections are must and people must get regular chance to elect their leader.

(b) What is the relation of democracy and elections?
Answer:
Democracy and elections are directly related as the former cannot be maintained without the presence of later. In democracy, representatives are directly elected by the people and democracy sustains only because of elections. If there are no elections, there is no democray. The main base of democracy is to provide the people right to elect their representatives. In this way they both are closely related to each other.

Question 13.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
While living in sociey man enjoys many facilities. For example, he is having freedom of speech and expression. He can convey his ideas through speech and writings. He can move freely throughout the territory of India. He can practise any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business. He can profess or practise any religion. Man can celebrate his rituals and festivals collectively. People have been blessed with the facility to live with their family. But man can enjoy all these facilities while living in the society. In simple language, these facilities can be named as rights. But, no one can enjoy that facility which is not in the interest of the whole society. So, Rights are those genuine demands by Individual or group of Individuals which are recognised by society and state.
(a) What do you mean by Rights?
Answer:
Rights are those genuine demands by an individual or a group of individuals which are recognised by society and state. In other words, rights are such conditions which are must for an individual to live a happy life. In their absence, we cannot live a happy and prosperous life.

(b) What is the importance of Rights in our lives?
Answer:
Rights play an important role in our lives because :

  • Rights are the facilities to give us a better life.
  • Rights give us equality in society.
  • Only with rights, we can express our feelings and can do anything whatever we want.

Question 14.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
In Indian constitution there are some motives for the personality development of citizens and to ensure their honour. Therefore, the maker of our constitution tried to fulfil these motives by enlisting the fundamental rights in the constitution. The democractic nature of any country is known by the fundamental rights entitled to the citizens of that country.
Indian citizens did not have fundamental rights before independence. But demand of fundamental rights was raised time to time in India’s freedom movement. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak asked the British Government to pass the ‘Swaraj Bill’. The Bill included right to freedom of thought and expression, equality before law and some other rights for Indian people. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through ‘Nehru Report’. But the British Government rejected all these demands. In the Government of India Act 1935, the list of fundamental rights for Indian citizens was not incorporated.
(a) How can we come to know that any country is democratic or not?
Answer:
We can only come to know about any country is democratic or not by looking at the fundamental rights provided to the people. If people are provided with all the fundamental rights we can call that country as democratic.

(b) What was the condition of fundamental rights before independence?
Answer:
Before Indian Independence, people had no rights at all because the British government always followed repressive policies. That’s why many a times, basic rights were demanded from the government. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded from the government to pass Swaraj Bill and certain rights as well. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through Nehru Report. But the British Government did not accept the demands. Even rights were not included in the Government of India Act, 1935. But after 1947, when Indian constitution was formed, people were given all the fundamental rights.

Question 15.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Art. 25 provides freedom of conscience and faith in any religion. This right has been given to justify the aims of India’s being secular as mentioned in the preamble of our constitution. Right to freedom of religion is given to foreigners also.

Art. 26 provides :

  • Establish and maintain institution for religious and charitable purposes and to preach any religion.
  • Manage its own affairs in matters of religion and administer such moveable and immoveable .property in accordance with law.

Art. 27 refers that the state cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.
Under Art. 28, no religious instructions can be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds. However educational institutions of private sector can give religious education. But they can’t compel any students to participate in it.
(a) What is Right to Freedom of Religion?
Answer:
All the citizens of India are given right to freeedom of religion under Articles 25-28. According to this right, citizens are free to adopt, profess and propagate their religion. No one can force them to adopt any other religion.

(b) Explain Articles 26 and 27 of the Indian constitution.
Answer:
Article 26 :

  • It establishes and maintains institutions for religious and charitable purposes and preaches any religion.
  • Manages its own affairs in matters of religion and administers such moveable and immoveable property in accordance with law.

Article 27: It refers that the State cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 16.
Read the source and answer the following questions :
Power of Judicial review means to sit on judgement over the order of the executive and Laws of the Legislature for their constitutional validity. If any order passed by the executive and a Law passed by a legislature violates the constitution or is not in accordance with the constitution the Supreme Court can declare such an order or Law null and void. The power of judicial review has been entitled to the Supreme Court due to Federal System of the government and of fundamental rights in constitution. This power of judicial review ensures that centre and state government should work in their jurisdiction and should protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
(а) What is meant by the power of Judical Review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is given to judiciary in India. According to this, if judiciary feels that any law made by the Parliament is against the basic structure of the constitution, it can declare that law null and void or illegal. In this way judiciary can review any law which is its power of judicial review.

(b) What is the importance of the power of Judicial review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is quite important because it helps in helping Legislature and Executive under control. If legislative passes any bill against the basic provisions of the Constitution, Judiciary can declare that bill illegal and can restore the basic provisions of the Constitution. Supreme Court is known as the Guardian of the Constitution and through the power of judicial review, constitutional provisions are protected. Due to this power of Judiciary, Central and State governments never violate their jurisdiction and fundamental rights of the citizens.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The directive principles of Indian Constitution have been adopted from
Answer:
Ireland.

Question 2.
__________ was the chairman of the drafting committee of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Who was the chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(i) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi
(iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(iv) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Answer:
(iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Question 2.
Republic state has a head :
(i) hereditory successor
(ii) military dictator
(iii) directly or indirectly elected by people
(iv) nominated.
Answer:
(iii) directly or indirectly elected by people.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) Statements :

Question 1.
Socialist, Secular and integrity words were incorporated in our Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 2.
India is a sovereign, secular and democratic republic.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did India become free?
Answer:
On 15th August, 1947.

Question 2.
“A Constitution is the collection of principles according to which Government powers, rights of the governed and the relations between the two are adjusted.” Who is the author of this statement?
Answer:
Wooles.

Question 3.
How much time was taken to draft the constitution of India?
Answer:
2 years, 11 months and 18 days.

Question 4.
How many members were there in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
389 members (299 after 15 Aug, 1947).

Question 5.
When was the announcement of division of India made?
Answer:
It was announced on 3rd June, 1947.

Question 6.
How many members remain in the Constituent Assembly after the division of India?
Answer:
There remain 299 members in the Constituent Assembly after the division of India.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 7.
Write any two unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:

  1. There is only one Constitution for both Centre and States.
  2. All the citizens are given single citizenship.

Question 8.
Write any two federal features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
(i) Our Constitution is the written Constitution.
(ii) Powers are divided between Central and State governments.

Question 9.
Write any two freedom provided by the Constitution of India to its citizens.
Answer:

  1. Freedom to adopt any occupation.
  2. Freedom to move in any part of the country.

Question 10.
With which words the ‘Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins?
Answer:
We the people of India.

Question 11.
Which new words were incorporated to the Constitution of India under the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976?
Answer:
With the 42nd Constitutional Amendment, words Socialist, Secular and Integrity were incorporated to the Constitution.

Question 12.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
On which main objects the ‘Preamble to the Indian Constitution throw light?
Answer:
The Preamble throws light on the following features of the Indian Constitution.

  • It says that India is a sovereign, socialist, democratic, secular republic.
  • It resolves to give social, economic and political justice to all of its citizens.
  • It provides equality of opportunity and status and freedom to all the citizens, express, belief and profess.
  • It also declares to maintain individual integrity, national unity and integrity.

Question 2.
Which is a republic country?
Answer:
India is a republic country. The meaning of republic is that head of the country is directly or indirectly elected by the people. Head of the country is elected for a fixed period of time and there is no place of hereditary system in it. Republic is one of the important feature of the Indian Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
India is a secular state, give arguments in its favour.
Answer:

  • Preamble of the Constitution has declared India a secular state.
  • All the citizens are free to profess their religion and even to change their religion.
  • Under the Right to Equality, it is said that no one will be discriminated on the basis of religion.
  • All the religions in India are treated equally and there is no state religion.

Question 4.
What do you mean by federal structure or federal government? From the Constitution of which country this feature has been taken?
Answer:
The meaning of federal structure or federal government is the division of powers between two level of government and these two levels are central government and state governments. Powers are divided between the both but central government is given more powerful. The federal structure of the’ Indian Constitution is taken from the Canadian Constitution.

Question 5.
The Constitution of India was prepared on November 26,1949 but it came into force on Jan. 26, 1950. Why the date of January 26 was fixed? Comment.
Answer:
At the Lahore session of Congress, 1929, it was decided to celebrate India’s first independence day on 26 January, 1930 although India was not independent. From then onwards, 26 January was celebrated as independence day till 1947. But in 1947, India got its real independence as 15 August. So, to keep the historical importance of 26 January, it was decided to implement the Indian Constitution on this day. In this way 26 January became the Republic day of India.

Question 6.
What is the meaning of Sovereign State?
Answer:
The meaning of Sovereign state is that the country is completely free to take decisions on its external and internal matters. Whenever country is required to form its internal policy or keeping relations with other countries, it is free from any type of pressure. No one can force the country to take any decision.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution has given all its adult citizens, the right to vote and this is known as Universal Adult Franchise. All the Indian citizens with the age of 18 years more are given the right to vote without any discrimination. Initially it was 21 years but with the 61st Constitutional Amendment, the age of casting vote was reduced to 18 years.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 8.
Write any four unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:

  • All the Indian Citizens are given single citizenship.
  • All the governments are given single Constitution.
  • A single unified Judicial system is set up for the whole country.
  • The Indian Parliament is empowered to alter the boundaries and names of the states.
  • Governors of the states act as the representatives of Central Government and they are appointed by the Central government.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the preamble of Indian Constitution in the original form.
Answer:
We The People of India having solemly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular

  • Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizen :
  • Justice, social, economic and political:
  • Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship,
  • Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; –
  • In Our Constituent Assembly this twenty-Sixth day of November 1949 do Hereby Adopt, Enact And Give To Ourselves This Constitution.

Question 2.
India is a secular state. Explain the statement.
Answer:
By inserting the word ‘Secular’ in the Preamble of the Constitution by 42nd amendment. India is declared a secular state in clear words. Such a system is adopted in the Constitution that India is made secular state without any doubt. Right to freedom of religion has been granted to all persons residing in India under Articles 25-28 of Indian Constitution. According to this right, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate religion. State has no religion of its own. The state shows full neutrality in the religious matter. All this shows that India is a secular State.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
What do you mean by a Sovereign State? Explain in brief.
Answer:
By sovereign means that now, after the promulgation of .the Constitution. India is not subject to any foreign rule. India is now a sovereign state, internally as well as externally. No other country can compel India to follow or not to follow a particular policy. We can now make any law, remaining of course within the limits imposed by our own Constitution. We can also amend our Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The Constituent Assembly was set up under the recommendations of:
(a) Cripps Proposals
(b) C.R. Plan
(c) Cabinet Mission Plan
(d) Act of 1935.
Answer:
(c) Cabinet Mission Plan.

Question 2.
Which National Leader demanded in 1924 that a Round Table Conference should be called to frame a Constituent Assembly of India?
(a) Pt. Jawaharlal
(b) Pt. Motilal Nehru
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Dr. Ambedkar.
Answer:
(b) Pt. Motilal Nehru.

Question 3.
The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in :
(a) Jan. 1945
(b) July 1946
(c) August 1946
(d) Dec. 1946.
Answer:
(b) July 1946.

Question 4.
According to the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Constituent Assembly was to consist of:
(a) 285 Members
(b) 380 Members
(c) 389 Members
(d) 490 Members
Answer:
(b) 389 Members.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
The Constituent Assembly was not a sovereign body in the beginning but it became a sovereign body after :
(a) July 1946
(b) 15th August, 1947
(c) 26 Jan, 1950
(d) 19th Dec. 1946.
Answer:
(b) 15th August, 1947.

Question 6.
Who was the temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. Ambedkar
(c) Dr. Sachindanand Sinha
(d) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer:
(c) Dr. Sachindanand Sinha.

Question 7.
Who was permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. Ambedkar
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Sardar Patel.
Answer:
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Question 8.
Who moved the ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly?
(а) Dr. Ambedkar
(б) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Alladi Krishna Swami Ayyar
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Answer:
(b) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 9.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Pt. B.R. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Sardar Patel.
Answer:
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Question 10.
After a great labour, the Constitution was ready on :
(a) 26th Dec., 1949
(6) 26th Jan., 1950
(c) 25th Dec., 1949
(d) 26 Nov., 1949.
Answer:
(d) 26th Nov.,’1949.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 11.
How much time did it take to make the Indian Constitution?
(а) 1 year, 11 months and 18 days
(б) 2 years, 10 months and 18 days
(c) 2 years, 11 months and 18 days
(d) 2 years, 6 months and 18 days.
Answer:
(c) 2 years, 11 months and 18 days.

Question 12.
The Indian Constitution was enforced on :
(a) 15th August, 1947
(b) 26th Jan., 1950
(c) 9th Dec., 1950
(d) 15th August, 1950.
Answer:
(b) 26th Jan., 1950.

Question 13.
The Constitution of India was adopted by:
(a) The British Parliament
(b) The Governor General
(c) The Constituent Assembly
(d) Parliament of India.
Answer:
(c) The Constituent Assembly.

Question 14.
The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on :
(a) 26th January, 1950
(b) 25th January, 1950
(c) 26th November, 1949
(d) 25th November, 1949.
Answer:
(c) 26th November, 1949.

Question 15.
Which amendment of the Constitution added the words ‘Socialist’ and ‘Secular’ in the Preamble?
(a) 44th amendment
(b) 42nd amendment
(c) 46th amendment
(d) 50th amendment.
Answer:
(b) 42nd amendment.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 16.
What is the meaning of: “We, the people’ of India’?
(a) That the people of India are direct rulers of the country
(b) That the ultimate sovereignty is vested with the people
(c) That the power is in the hands of few.
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) That the ultimate sovereignty is vested with the people.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
The Indian Constitution was formed by the __________
Answer:
Constituent Assembly

Question 2.
The Constituent Assembly had __________ members.
Answer:
389

Question 3.
__________ was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Question 4.
In India __________ administrative system is adopted.
Answer:
Parliamentary

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
Parliamentary form of government in India is taken from __________
Answer:
England.

True/False:

Question 1.
The Indian Constitution was formed by the parliament.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
First meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Jawaharlal Nehru gave the objective resolution to the Constituent Assembly,
Answer:
True

Question 4.
After 15th August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly had 389 members.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
It took four years to prepare the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
False

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Under whose recommendation the Constituent Assembly was set up?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was set up on the recommendation of Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.

Question 2.
When was the Constituent Assembly of India established?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly was established in July, 1946.

Question 3.
Name the person who was chosen as temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Sachindanand Sinha, the oldest member of the Constituent Assembly was elected the temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 4.
When did the Constituent Assembly meet for the first time?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on December 9, 1946.

Question 5.
Who was the permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Rajindra Prasad was the permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 6.
Name the body that framed the Indian Constitution and state when it was constituted?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly and the Constituent Assembly was constituted in July, 1946.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 7.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

Question 8.
Who moved the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru moved the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly.

Question 9.
When was the Constitution of India adopted by the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on November 26, 1949.

Question 10.
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
Or
When was the Constitution of India promulgated?
Answer:
The Constitution of India came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Question 11.
How many members were there in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly consisted of 389 members (299 after 15th Aug. 1947).

Question 12.
Name the body which adopted the Constitution of India?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India.

Question 13.
How much time did Constituent Assembly take to make the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 14.
Mention the name of four countries where written Constitution exist.
Answer:

  1. U.S.A.
  2. France.
  3. India.
  4. South Africa.

Question 15.
What is meant by Preamble?
Answer:
The Preamble is a summary of the objectives and the basic philosophy of the Constitution. It helps in the interpretation of the Constitution.

Question 16.
With which words the Preamble of Indian Constitution starts?
Answer:
The Preamble of Indian Constitution starts with “We the People of India ”

Question 17.
What new words have been added to Preamble of our Constitution under the 42nd amendment?
Answer:
Socialist and Secular.

Question 18.
How many amendments have been made in the Preamble?
Answer:
Only one amendment (42nd) has been made in the Preamble so far.

Question 19.
What is the source of the authority according to the Preamble?
Answer:
The Preamble expresses in a very clear language that the people are the ultimate source of all authority.

Question 20.
For how many days, the draft of Indian Constitution was discussed in the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
114 days.

Question 21.
Name any four countries whose major features of constitution were incorporated in the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
England, U.S.A., Canada, Ireland.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 22.
Why is the Indian Constitution considered the alive Constitution?
Answer:
Because from time to time and according to needs, it has been changed and developed.

Question 23.
How is India a republic?
Answer:
India is a republic because the President is indirectly elected (by an electoral college) by the people for a fixed period.

Question 24.
Give two reasons to show that the Indian Constitution is a democratic country.
Answer:
(i) Government is run by the representatives of people.
(;ii) All the citizens are given equal political rights.

Question 25.
What do you mean by the Constitutional Amendment?
Answer:
The changes made in the Constitution are known as the Constitutional Amendments. .

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the meaning of Constitution.
Answer:
The Constitution is a collection of those rules and regulations according to which the administration of the state is run. The administration of each state is run in accordance with certain rules and regulations. It is the fundamental law reflecting the will of the people. It determines the powers Snd responsibilities of the state. It also states people’s rights and duties.

Question 2.
Why do we need a Constitution?
Answer:
All the democratic countries of the world have Constitutions. We need Constitution due to given below reasons :

  1. Supreme Law of the Country. The Constitution of a state is the supreme law of the land. The government at the State and Central level work within the sphere of powers given to them by the Constitution.
  2. Provide Basic Rules. The Constitution provides basic rules and principles on the basis of which government should be.
  3. Knowledge about the Nature of Government. It is the Constitution which decides how the government will be organised.
  4. Rule of Law. The Constitution of a state makes provision for rule of law.
  5. Limitations on the Government. The Constitution puts limitations on the three organs of the government so that no organ should become absolute and arbitrary.

Question 3.
Write a short note on the meaning of the Preamble.
Answer:
The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble. The Preamble serves the purpose of a window through which we peep into the intentions of the makers of the constitution. In short, the Preamble is a summary of the objectives and basic philosophy of a Constitution. It helps in the interpretation of the Constitution. With the help of the Preamble we can understand the basic philosophy of the Constitution.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 4.
Mention the nature of state according to the Preamble of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
According to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution the nature of Indian State is as under :
(a) India is a Sovereign state;
(b) India is a Democratic state;
(c) India is a Secular state;
(d) India is a Socialist state and
(e) India is a Republic.

Question 5.
How is the Indian Constitution considered as the people’s Constitution?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is considered as the people’s Constitution. Members of the Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the provincial legislatures which were elected by the people. Actually all the important leaders were the members of the Constituent Assembly. Representatives of all the classes (Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, females) were included in it. If elections could have done on the basis of adult franchise, same people could have elected. In this way it is people’s Constitution.

Question 6.
Why there is more importance of the Constitution in democratic countries?
Answer:
In democracy, directly or indirectly people rule the country. In the constitution. On the one side complete description of the government’s powers is given and on the other side there are certain restrictions on it. People’s rights are completely explained in the constitution. No one can work against the Constitution. Courts are there to protect the Constitution and fundamental rights. That’s why the Constitution is of great importance in the democratic countries.

Question 7.
Discuss the circumstances which led to the formation of the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Our Constitution was drafted by a Constituent Assembly composed of Indian people. Mahatma Gandhi mooted the idea of Constituent Assembly in 1922 and the Indian National Congress put the demand in a concrete form in 1935. But this demand of the Congress Party remained unfulfilled for a number of years. It was incorporated in the Cripps Proposals of 1942 that after the end of war a Constitution-making body would be set up to frame a new constitution. However, for various reasons the Cripps Proposals did not meet the approval of the Indian people. The Cabinet Mission plan 1946 proposed the constitution of an Assembly to frame the Constitution. The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in 1946 according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. Its first meeting was held on 9 December, 1946.

Question 8.
What is meant by the Rigid and Flexible Constitution?
Answer:
Indian Constitution is rigid as well as flexible in nature. The meaning of rigid constitution is that it cannot be easily changed or amended. To amend the constitution, government needs great majority in the parliament which, most of the times, they don’t have. The meaning of flexible Constitution is that if government has the required majority, it can amend the Constitution very easily. If political parties will come together, they can also amend it quite easily.

Question 9.
Indian Constitution is lengthiest in the world. Clarify.
Answer:
Indian Constitution is the lengthiest Constitution among all the Constitutions of the world. Originally it had 395 Articles and 8 schedules. After 1950, many new clauses were added in it and that’s why presently it has 450 Articles and 12 schedules. 103 Amendments have been done in it. That’s why it has become more lengthy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 10.
What is meant by the written Constitution?
Answer:
Our Constitution is the written Constitution which was made with the great hard work of 2 years 11 months and 18 days of the Constituent Assembly. Federal structure of the government was kept over here and that’s why it was required to keep it in the written forms so that the disputes between the central government and state governments could be resolved with ease. On contrary to this, the British Constitution is an unwritten Constitution based on customs and conventions. Our Constitution is in written form and that’s why it is quite transparent.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly. In this context explain the following :
(a) Draft Committee
Answer:
Draft Committee: On August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly elected a Drafting Committee from among its members Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was its Chairman. Besides its Chairman, its other members were : N. Gopala Swamy Ayyangar, Alladikrishna Swamy Ayyer, Dr. K.M Munshi, N. Madhav Rao, Sayyad Mohammad Sadaulla and D.P. Khaitan, Sh. B.N. Rao was appointed adviser of the Drafting Committee. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar played a very important role in drafting the Constitution and he has rightly been called the father of the Draft Constitution.

(b) Adoption and promulgation of the Constitution of free India.
Answer:
A draft Constitution was prepared in February, 1948 and it was presented before the Constituent Assembly on February 21, 1948. Draft was published in all the leading newspapers of the country to elicit public opinion. A national debate was held on the Draft Constitution. On November 4, 1948 general discussion began on the Draft. It continued upto October 17, 1949.

During this time 7635 amendments were presented out of which 2473 amendments were discussed. At last on November 26, 1949 the Constituent Assembly adopted the new Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months, and 18 days to frame the Constitution. The new Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Question 2.
‘India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic’. Explain.
Answer:
The preamble proclaims that the people of India have resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.’
(а) India is a Sovereign State. It means that now, after the promulgation of the Constitution, India is not subject to any foreign rule. India is fully sovereign, internally as well as externally. No other country can compel India to follow or not to follow a particular policy.

(b) India is a Socialist State. Natural resources and wealth of the nation should be used for the welfare of the whole society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

(c) India is a Secular State. There is no official religion of the state. Freedom of religion has been granted to all persons residing in India. All persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to practise and propagate religion.

(d) India is a Democratic State. Indian polity is based on democratic principles. The people elect their representatives on the basis of adult franchise. All citizens enjoy equal political rights. The government is run according to some basic rules.

(e) India is a Republican State. The word ‘Republic’ means that the head of the state shall be an elected one for a fixed tenure.The head of the state (President) is elected for a period of five years. There is no room for a hereditary monarch like the one in England.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 3.
Examine the significance of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
The Preamble is not a part of the Constitution. It does not have any legal force. Still it has special significance.

The significance of the Preamble is as follows :

  1. Source of Authority. The Preamble expresses in a very clear language that people are the ultimate source of all authority. It is the people who have adopted and enacted the Constitution; It is the people who have given ‘the Constitution to themselves.’ The words, we the people of India, are very significant.
  2. Nature of Indian Polity. The Preamble emphasises the fact that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.
  3. Symbol of Objectives. The Preamble is the symbol of those objectives which the Constitution makers pledged to attain. The Preamble assures the people of India Justice—Social, Economic and Political.
  4. Key to the Constitution. The Preamble is the soul and spirit of the Constitution. The Preamble is the mirror of the Constitution. It is a jewel set in the Constitution.
  5. Guide to the Government. The Preamble to the Constitution provides guidelines to the government of the day.
  6. Guidelines to the Judiciary. Whenever a Court of Justice has to explain some articles of the Constitution then it takes the help of the ideas expressed through the Preamble of the Constitution.
  7. Yardstick to evaluate the performance of the Government. The Preamble enables the people to assess and evaluate the performance of the government in the light of the objectives laid down in the Preamble. It keeps the government on its toe.

Question 4.
Indian Constitution is taken from many sources. Explain.
Answer:
Before the making of Indian Constitution, Constituent Assembly studied different Constitutions of different countries. It also studied different laws made by the British Parliament for India. It took all the good aspects of different sources and their description is given below :

  1. Britain. Parliamentary system, process of making laws, special privileges of Parliament, Rule of law, Single citizenship, Cabinet system, System of two houses.
  2. U.S.A. Fundamental Rights, Structure and powers of Supreme Court, judicial review, post of Vice President, independence of judiciary, preamble.
  3. Canada. Federal structure, Residuary powers, Appointment of Governors by centre,.
  4. Ireland. Directive principles of state policy, The process of election of the President, Nomination of Rajya Sabha members by the President, the Process of Removal of the judges of Supreme Court and High Courts.
  5. Germany. Emergency powers of the President.
  6. U.S.S.R. Fundamental Duties.
  7. France. Republic, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  8. South Africa. Constitutional Amendment.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature

Question 5.
Describe some of the key features of Federalism.
Answer:
In the federal system, there are two types of governments central government and state governments. The central governments solves the national problems and state governments solve local problems. Actually in this type of system powers are divided among central authority and the different units of that union. There is one government for the entire country and different provinces have different governments.

Both levels have their own powers. Some of the main features of federalism are given below :

  • Written Constitution: A written Constitution is essential in a federation in the sense that both the centre and the states should be definite and about their sphere of action.
  • Division of Powers: The powers of the government in a federation are distributed between the centre and the states.
  • Independent Judiciary: The presence of an independent and powerful judiciary is most essential in a federation.
  • Bi-cameralism: Some people are of the opinion that the legislature in a federation should be bi-cameral.
  • Rigid Constitution: The Constitution should be rigid so that it is not easily changed by impatient hands. The amending procedure is invariably more difficult than the enactment of ordinary laws. In almost all federal states amendments require favourable action by the parliament and a large majority of states.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution: In a federation Constitution is supreme both the centre and the states should run the administration in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The supremacy of the constitution is maintained by the Supreme Court.
  • Double Citizenship: In some federal states citizens enjoy double citizens. An individual is citizen of the state as well as he is citizen of the whole country.
  • Federation exists in U.S.A., Switzerland, India etc. India has a federal system of government having all features of a federation.

Question 6.
On what basis division of powers is made between the union and the state governments in a fedesral system?
Or
How powers are divided in our country the Federal of India between centre and states? .
Answer:
In our country India, Constitution has clearly demorcated the powers between different levels. Every level is given certain subjects to make laws related to its jurisdiction and they are not allowed to interfere in other’s matters. Actually this distribution is a three folded. Three types of lists ark given in Constitution in which subjects are divided.

These three lists and their jurisdiction in given below :

  1. Union List. Union list is a list of 97 (presently 100) subjects on which Central government can make laws. Union list includes the subjects of national importance like defence, finance, foreign affairs, post and telegraph, banking, etc. Only Central government can take decisions regarding these matters.
  2. State List. State list is a list of 66 (presently 61) subjects on which state government can make laws, Central government has nothing to do with it. Matters of local importance like police, agriculture, irrigation, commerce trade, etc. are included in it. State governments alone can make laws on the subjects given in this list.
  3. Concurrent list. Concurrent list is a list of 47 (presently 52) subjects which are of common interest for both central and state government. Issues like forests, education, trade unions, etc. are included in it. Both Central and state governments can make laws on these issues. But if there will be any clash of laws then the laws made by Central government will prevail. In this way powers are divided in Central and state governments in Indian federal system.

Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Man is a social animal and while living in society, he is required to follow certain rules. It helps not only in one’s personality development but it also helps in the smooth functioning of society.
  • To run society smoothly, state forms certain rules which are formed according to the constitution of country.
  • The Constitution is a legal document or a book of rules and regulations according to which a country is governed.
  • The process of the making of the Indian Constitution was initiated even before the Indian independence. According to the clauses of the Cabinet Mission 1946, indirect elections for the Constituent Assembly were held. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members which remained 299 after the Indian Independence as a separate Constituent Assembly was formed for Pakistan.
  • Many individuals gave great contribution in the making of the Indian Constitution and some of them were Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Jawahar lal Nehru, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, J.B. kriplani, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, T.T. Kishnamachari etc.
  • On 26th November, 1949 rough sketch of the Indian Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly but it come into force on 26th January, 1950. With this, India became a Republic country.
  • The Constitution starts with the Preamble which can also be called as the essence of the Constitution. All the basic principles of the constitution are given in the Preamble.
  • Our Constitution is a written constitution in which all the rules of running the administration are given. That’ why it is the lengthiest among all the constitutions of the world.
  • Many sources were used in the making of our constitution. The constitution of Britain, U.S.A. Canada, Australia, Ireland, Germany, erstwhile U.S.S.R., South Africa, Japan etc. were consulted. The laws made by the British Parliament before 1947 also became its important parts.
  • Our constitution has given India the status of a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic, Socialist and Secular State.
  • Indian Constitution has given us a federal structure which means powers will be divided among Central and State governments. Along with this, few unitary features are also given according to which the Central government is more powerful.
  • Democratic set up has been established in India which gives all the citizens the right to elect its government. It is known as Universal Adult Franchise.
  • Our Constitution can be amended but for this, consent of the Parliament as well as of the states is required. First Constitutional Amendment was made in 1951 and till today, 103 amendments have been made.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Establishment of Indian Democracy and its Nature Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB Democracy: Meaning and Importance Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
According to “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.”
Answer:
Sealey.

Question 2.
The word Democray has been derived from two greek words ________ and ________
Answer:
Demos, Cratia.

II. Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
Which of the following conditions apply for the success of democracy?
(i) Enlightened citizens
(ii) literate citizens
(iii) Universal adult franchise
(iv) Above all.
Answer:
(iv) Above all.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 2.
Etymological meaning of democracy is :
(i) Rule of one man
(ii) Bureaucracy
(iii) Military dictatorship
(iv) Rule of people.
Answer:
(iv) Rule of people.

III. Read the statements carefully and write True/False against every statement:

Question 1.
There is no liberty to express different opinion in democracy.
Answer:
False.

Question 2.
Democracy clearly condemns use of means of violence although it may be used for the welfare of society.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
In democracy citizens are entitled different types of rights.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
Awareness of citizens is essential for democracy.
Answer:
True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain Etymological meaning of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is made of two Greek words ; Demos and Cratia. The meaning of Demos is people and of Cratia is rule. So its literal meaning is ‘rule of people’.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 2.
Why democratic form of government is popular?
Answer:

  1. It gives its citizens the right to express their views.
  2. In this, people have the participate in electing their government.

Question 3.
Write any two hurdles in the way of democracy.
Answer:
Regionalism, Casteism, Communalism are hurdles in the way of democracy.

Question 4.
Give any one definition of democracy.
Answer:
According to Dicey, “Democracy is a form of government in which the governing body to comparatively a large fraction of the entire nation.”

Question 5.
Mention any two conditions essential for democracy.
Answer:
Political freedom and economic equality are the two conditions essential for democracy.

Question 6.
Write any two principal of democracy.
Answer:

  1. In democracy, people have the right to express their ideas.
  2. Democracy is based on the principal of tolerance.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 7.
What is the source of power in a democracy?
Answer:
People are the source of power in a democracy.

Question 8.
Which are the two forms of democracy?
Answer:
Democracy is of two types-direct:

  1. Democracy and
  2. Indirect democracy.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain any two conditions for the success of democracy.
Answer:

  1. Political freedom: For the success of democracy, people must have political freedom. They must have the right to speech, to form association, to express ideas and to criticise wrong policies of the government.
  2. Moral Characters: To make democracy a success, people must have high moral character. If people and leaders will be corrupt then democracy will not be able to successfully do its work.

Question 2.
How poverty is a threat to democracy? Describe in brief.
Answer:
There is no denying the fact that poverty is an obstacle in the way of successful democracy. First of all people do not caste their vote because its more important for them to earn money instead of giving vote. Along with this, many times a poor person is forced to sell his vote. Rich people buy his vote to win the elections. A poor person even cannot express his ideas.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 3.
How illiteracy is a challenge for democracy? Describe in brief.
Answer:
One of the major enemy of democracy is illiteracy. An* illiterate person, who does not know the meaning of democracy, cannot play a part in its successful functioning. That’s why there is a decline of democratic value that every one participates in it. An illiterate person hardly knows about the political, economic and social problems of the country. That’s why he becomes a victim of false promises done by the leaders and is unable to cast his vote for the right candidate.

Question 4.
“Political equality is essential for democracy.” Explain this statement.
Answer:
It is true that the political equality is essential for the success of democracy. For the success of democracy, people must have the freedom of speech and freedom to form association. Along with this, they must have the right to criticise wrong policies of the government and freedom to express their views. All these freedom are available only in democracy because of which it becomes successful.

Question 5.
How the existence of political party is essential for democracy? Explain this statement.
Or
‘Political parties are wheels of democracy.’ Explain.
Answer:
The existence of political parties is very much necessary for democracy. Actually political parties are the means of a particular ideology and different political parties came into existence because of different ideas. Different views give way to the birth of political parties. Political parties keep public views in front of the government. They act as a link between the people and government. Except this we need political parties to- contest elections without them, elections are not possible in democracy.

Question 6.
How decentralization of power is essential for democracy?
Answer:
One of the basic feature of democracy is division of powers and the meaning of decentralisation is division of powers among all the levels of government. If there will be no decentralisation, powers will remain concentrated in few hands. There will come a danger of the advent of dictatorship in the country. If there will be division of powers, there will be no danger of dictatorship and the system will run smoothly so, decentralization of powers is very much necessary for democracy.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 7.
Explain any two principles of democracy.
Answer:

  1. Democracy is based on the concept of tolerance. In democracy, every one has the freedom to express his views.
  2. Democracy helps in enhancing the dignity of an individual. This is the reason that people have different rights in democracy.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the basic principles of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is based on the following democratic principles :

  1. The sovereignty of the people: Sovereignty resides in the people and the administration is run to accordance with the wishes of the people.
  2. Rule of People: The administration is run by the people other directly or indirectly.
  3. Rulers are Elected. Rulers are elected by the people. Final decision-making power must lie with those elected by the people.
  4. Free and Fair Election: Democracy must be based on a free and fair election. The ruling party should have a fair chance of defeat.
  5. Adult Franchise: In a democracy each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
  6. Interest of People: The administration is run in the best interests of the people.
  7. Rule of Law: Democracy is based on rule of law. Law is supreme. No body is above the law.
  8. Equality: Equality is a basic principle of democracy. Everybody enjoys the right of equality and liberty.
  9. Fundamental Rights: In a democracy citizens enjoy fundamental rights which are protected by the Judiciary.

Question 2.
Explain in brief the main obstacles in the way of democracy.
Answer:
In the whole world, democracy is the most prevalent form of government but there are few obstacles in the way of its successful functioning which are given below :

  1. Casteism and Communalism: Giving preference to one’s caste and considering one’s religion superiors than the other creates hurdles in the way of successful democracy.
  2. Regionalism: The meaning of regionalism is giving preference to own region over the other or country. It leads to conservation of human mentality and one never care about the national interests. It can become a danger to national integrity.
  3. Illiteracy: Illiteracy is also one of the obstacle is the way of democracy. As illiterate person cannot understand the importance of democratic values and his vote. Cousequently either he does not caste his vote or sells his vote. It raises doubts on the success oLdemocracy.
  4. Unhealthy people: If citizens of the country are not healthy then they cannot contribute towards the progress of the nation. Such people do not keep any interest in the public and political activities.
  5. Indifferent attitude: If people are indifferent in their attitude or they do not care about their social and political responsibilities, they are definitely obstacles in the way of democracy. They even are unable to use their right to vote in a proper way. They do not show interest in listening to the leaders and this is exactly opposite to the principles of democracy.

Question 3.
Describes any five conditions of the success of democracy.
Answer:
In order that democracy may work successfully in any state there are certain conditions which must be satisfied.

  1. Enlightened citizenship: The citizens should remain alert and protect their rights. They should perform their duties in a sincere manner.
  2. Education: Citizens should be educated. It is only the educated electorates that will elect the right type of persons to government,
  3. Local self-government: It is quite essential for the success of democracy that the administration should be decentralized one.
  4. Protection of Fundamental Rights: In a democratic state people should be given fundamental rights and their rights should be protected by the Constitution.
  5. Economic Equality and Security: Economic equality and security is also essential condition for the success of democracy. There should not be too much gulf between the rich and the poor.
  6. Social Equality: No discrimination should be made on the basis of caste, colour, race, sex, religion etc.
  7. High Moral Character: A high moral character of the people is very essential for the success of democracy.
  8. Free and Fair Election: For the success of democracy elections should he held free and fair.
  9. Freedom of Press: Democracy cannot flourish best without the freedom of press.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 4.
Give one definition of the democracy system and explain in brief the importance of democracy.
Answer:
Definitions of Democracy:

  1. According to Dicey, “Democracy is a government in which the governing body is comparatively a large fraction of entire nation.”
  2. According to Seeley, ‘Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.”
  3. According .to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

Importance of Democracy : Presently, most of countries have adopted the democratic form of government and that’s why the importance of democracy has increased.

The importance of democracy is given below ;

  1. Equality. In democracy, no one is discriminated on any bases as it is based on equality. In this everyone is given equal rights and value of every one’s vote is same.
  2. Representative of Public Opinion. Actually democracy is representative of the public opinion. Democratic government is elected by the people and it forms the law on the basis of public opinion. If the government does not work according to public opinion, it can be removed.
  3. Protector of Individual Liberty. Only democracy is a type of government in which individual liberties of the public are protected. In democracy, people have the right to express their opinion, to criticize and to form associations. Even the freedom of press is also protected in this system.
  4. Political Awareness. In democracy, elections are held on regular basis with which people become politically aware. Different political parties form public opinion and they continually evaluate the government. It leads to the development of political consciouness among the people.
  5. Development of Moral Qualities. Out of all the governments’ only democracy helps in the development of moral qualities among the people. It also helps in building their high character. It develops the qualities to co-operate, tolerence etc, among the people.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide Democracy: Meaning and Importance Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions :

Question 1.
The term democracy is derived from which of the following Greek words :
(a) Demos and Kratia
(b) Casta
(c) Famulus
(d) Pocta.
Answer:
(a) Demos and Kratia.

Question 2.
“Democracy is government of the people, for the people and by the people.” Who gave this definition?
(a) A.B. Hal
(b) Abraham Lincoln
(c) Aristotle
(d) Herodotus.
Answer:
(b) Abraham Lincoln.

Question 3.
Which of the following is the basis of democracy?
(a) Equality
(b) Liberty
(c) Fraternity
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 4.
Who is the real source of power in a democratic country?
(a) People
(b) Educated People
(c) Aristocratic people
(d) King.
Answer:
(a) People.

Question 5.
Which of the following is an obstacle in the way of democracy?
(а) Distinctions on the basis of caste, colour and creed.
(b) Lack of education
(c) Communication
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

Question 6.
Direct democracy is that government in which :
(a) All the citizens cannot participate in administration
(b) All the citizens directly take part in the administration
(c) All the citizens indirectly participate in administration.
(d) The representatives of the public run the administration.
Answer:
(6) All the citizens directly take part in administration.

Question 7.
Which of the following conditions are necessary for the success of democracy?
(а) Citizens should be educated.
(b) There should be economic equality in society.
(c) There should be no distinction on the basis of caste, colour and creed.
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 8.
Direct democracy exists in :
(a) India
(b) U.K.
(c) Switzerland
(d) U.S.A.
Answer:
(c) Switzerland.

Question 9.
In India exists :
(a) Indirect democracy
(b) Direct Democracy
(c) Referendum
(d) Initiative
Answer:
(a) Indirect democracy.

Question 10.
Which one of the following is not the method of direct democracy?
(a) Referendum
(b) Initiative
(c) Landsgemeinde
(d) Political parties.
Answer:
(d) Political parties.

Question 11.
Which one of the following is not a hindrance in the path of democracy?
(a) Poverty
(b) Illiteracy
(c) Ignorance
(d) Election.
Answer:
(d) Election.

Question 12.
Which of the following is a hindrance in the path of democracy?
(a) Illiteracy
(b) Education
(c) Equality
(d) Rule of Law.
Answer:
(a) Illiteracy.

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Damos and Kratia are the ________ words.
Answer:
Greek

Question 2.
In ________ rulers run the system as the representatives of the people.
Answer:
democracy

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 3.
Political parties are the tools of ________
Answer:
ideologies

Question 4.
Practically, democracy is the rule of ________
Answer:
majority

Question 5.
In ________ A.D., males and females were given equal rights.
Answer:
1950

Question 6.
In China, elections are held after every ________ years.
Answer:
five

Question 7.
Mexico became independent in ________ A. D.
Answer:
1930.

True/False:

Question 1.
In dictatorship, rulers are elected by the people.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Free elections are the base of democracy.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 3.
Democratic government does not work according to the Constitution.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Dictatorship protect, the individual liberty.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Parvez Mussharaf captured the power of Pakistan in 1999.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
There is only one communist party in China.
Answer:
True

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 7.
PRI is the political party of china.
Answer:
False.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
From which words the term ‘Democracy’ is derived?
Answer:
The term ‘Democracy’ is derived from the Greek words-Demos and Kratia.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of Democracy?
Answer:
The meaning of democracy is ‘power of the people’ or ‘rule of the multitude’.

Question 3.
Give one definition of Democracy.
Answer:
According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is a government of the people by the people and for the people.”

Question 4.
Explain one basic principle of Democracy.
Answer:
Sovereignty resides in the people and the administration is run in accordance with the wishes of the people.

Question 5.
What is Direct Democracy?
Answer:
In Direct Democracy, the people directly participate in the government of the country.

Question 6.
What do you understand by Indirect Democracy?
Answer:
In Indirect Democracy, the administration is run by the People’s representative.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 7.
Write one merit of Democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is based on the principal of equality.

Question 8.
Write one demerit of Democracy.
Answer:
Democratic government is a government by the incompetent and the ignorant.

Question 9.
Write any one condition that is essential for a successful Democracy.
Answer:
Enlightened citizenship is the first condition for the success of democracy.

Question 10.
Mention the terms that are often used to describe non-democratic government.
Answer:
Terms that are often used to describe non-democratic government are authoritarian, dictatorship and totalitarian.

Question 11.
Mention the names of two democratic states.
Answer:
India and U.S.A.

Question 12.
Give examples of various kinds of Dictatorship.
Answer:

  1. Military dictatorship,
  2. Party dictatorship,
  3. Benevolent dictatorship,
  4. Charismatic dictatorship.

Question 13.
Write down anyone characteristic of Dictatorship.
Answer:
Dictatorship is a Government by the powerful man who has right to exercise authority because of his superior physical force.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 14.
Mention any one merit of Dictatorship.
Answer:
The administration under a dictator is always very strong.

Question 15.
Write down any one demerit of Dictatorship.
Answer:
Individuals are not granted civil liberties and other rights in dictatorship.

Question 16.
Mention various devices adopted for Direct Democracy.
Answer:
There are four types of direct democratic devices i.e. Initiative, Referendum, Becall, Plebiscite.

Question 17.
What is Initiative?
Answer:
Initiative means, the power of the voters to get the laws passed in accordance with their wishes.

Question 18.
What do you understand by Referendum?
Answer:
The method of referendum gives the final authority to the people to accept or reject the laws passed by the legislature.

Question 19.
Which state is known as home of Direct Democracy?
Answer:
Switzerland.

Question 20.
Is it possible for all the voters in your parliamentary constituency to sit together and have a useful discussion?
Answer:
It is not possible for the voters of parliamentary constituency to assemble at one place and have meaningful dialogue.

Question 21.
Which is the most common form of Democracy in the world?
Answer:
Representative type of democracy.

Question 22.
What is the aim of true Democracy?
Answer:
The aim of true democracy is to remove poverty and unemployment.

Question 23.
Which party always forms government in China?
Answer:
Communist Party always forms the government in China.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 24.
Which party has won elections in Mexico from 1930 till 2000 A.D.?
Answer:
P.R.I.-Institutional Revolutionary Party.

Question 25.
What lacks in the democracy of Fiji?
Answer:
In Fiji, the value of the vote of Fijian people is more than the vote of the Indians living over there.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the word meaning of Democracy.
Answer:
The term ‘Democracy’ has been derived from the Greek words Demos and Kratos, the former meaning the people and latter ‘Power’. Democracy thus means ‘power of the people’ or ‘rule of the multitude. ‘Democracy means that the Government of the state is to be run by the people. In democracy the sovereignty resides in the people and the people either directly or indirectly govern over themselves.

Question 2.
What is Direct Democracy?
Answer:
Direct Democracy is the real or true democracy. In this system there is no difference between the rulers and ruled. In such a system of government the people directly participate in the government of the country. The entire population forms an assembly for the purpose of making laws. People discuss the problems of the state and control the state machinary. But it is not possible to practise direct democracy completely in the present age. Modern devices of direct democracy are initiative. Referendum, Recall and Plebiscite.

Question 3.
Give the meaning of Dictatorship.
Answer:
In dictatorship, power remains in the hands of one person. Dictator uses all the powers according to his wish and he is not responsible to any one. He remains on his post until the power to run the administration remains in his lands. Ford has defined dictatorship.” Dictatorship is the illegal attainment of power by the head of the country.

Question 4.
Write down any two charcteristics of Dictatorship.
Answer:

  1. Based on Physical Strength. Dictatorship is a Government by the powerful man who had right to exercise authority because of his superior physical scope.
  2. Arbitrary Rule. Dictatorship is an arbitrary rule. The dictator runs the government according to his own sweet will and the other people have no right to participate in the government. The dictator is not responsible to any other authority for all his actions and policies.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 5.
Mention any two merits of Dictatorship.
Answer:
1. Strong Administrative. The administration under a dictator is always very strong. The dictator suppresses disorder and opposition with a strong hand and he gives his country a strong government which can perform its functions well.

2. Less Expensive. Dictatorship is less expensive whereas democratic government is very costly. In dictatorship one does not find the luxuries of insecure and superfluous posts.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Direct and Indirect Democracy with examples.
Answer:
Democracy is of two types. Direct democracy and Indirect democracy. Following are the differences between the two:

  1. In direct democracy, people participate in the government of the country, while in indirect democracy people indirectly participate in the government.
  2. In direct democracy people directly participate in law-making, while in indirect democracy participation in law making’ is indirect.
  3. The selection of magistrates is directly in direct democracy, while in indirect democracy selection of magistrates is indirect.
  4. In direct democracy, the institutions of initiative, referendum and recall exist, but no initiative and referendum in an indirect democracy.
  5. Direct democracy is prevalent in Switzerland, while indirect democracy exists in India, U.K. U.S.A. etc.

Question 7.
What are the major hindrances in the successful working of the Democracy?
Answer:

  1. Illiteracy: Illiteracy is one of the major hindrance in the successful working of democracy.
  2. Poverty: The other major hindrance in the successful working of Democracy in poverty.
  3. Economic Inequality: Economic inequality is a great hindrance in the successful working of democracy.
  4. Social Inequality: Social inequality is a big hindrance in the successful working of democracy.

Question 8.
Why is democracy important?
Answer:

  1. Democracy recognises the Natural Rights of man in the street and raises him high on the peak of political.
  2. Democracy gives liberty to all the citizens of a democratic state.
  3. Democracy is the rule of the people, by the people and for the people.
  4. Democracy is based on public opinion.

Question 9.
What do you mean by one person one vote?
Answer:
The meaning of one person one vote is giving right to vote every one without any discrimination of caste, religion, class, gender etc. Actually one person one vote is the other name of political equality. For the progress and integrity of the country, all the citizens are given the right to vote and the value of every one’s vote is one or same.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 10.
How was democracy destroyed in Pakistan?
Answer:
In 1999, Pakistan Army head General Parvez Musharraf played a military conspiracy and dismissed the democratically elected government. He then, took power in his hands. With the help of parliament he reduced the powers of state Legislative Assemblies. He passed a law and declared himself the Chief Excutive of the country and later on as the President of Pakistan. He also made arrangement that the President can dissolve the Parliament at any time. In this way Parvez Musharraf destroyed democracy in Pakistan.

Question 11.
Why there is no democracy in China?
Answer:
Although elections in China, are held after every five years but there is only party i.e. the Communist Party. People are required to vote only to the Communist Party. Only the nominated candidates of the Communist Party are allowed to contest elections. Few of the members of Parliament are taken from the army as well. If there is no opposition party in the country to contest elections, how can democracy sustain over there. ‘

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give major features of Democracy.
Answer:
Following are the major features of democracy.

  1. Rule of Law:Democracy is based on rule of law. Law is supreme. No body is above the law.
  2. Equality: Equality is a basic principle of democracy. Everybody enjoys the right of quality and liberty.
  3. Fundamental Rights: In a democracy citizens enjoy fundamental rights which are protected by the Judiciary.
  4. Sovereignty of the people: Sovereignty resides in the people and the administration is run in accordance with the wishes of the people.
  5. Rule of people: The administration is run by the people either directly or indirectly.
  6. Rulers are Elected: Rulers are elected by the people. Final Decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people.
  7. Free and Fair Election: Democracy must be based on a free and fair election. The ruling party should have a fair chance of defeat.
  8. Adult Franchise: In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
  9. Interest of People: The administration is run in the best interest of the people.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 2.
Discuss the merits of Democracy.
Answer:
Following are the main merits of democracy.

  1. Government of the People. Democracy ensures people’s participation in government. Democracy is a government by the people.
  2. Equality. Democracy ensures the equality of political rights. Everybody has the opportunity to progress in life.
  3. Liberty. People enjoy freedom of speach and expression, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, freedom to hold meetings and to criticise the policies and actions of the government.
  4. Based on Public Opinion. Democracy rests on the consent of the people. The people feel that the laws in democratic governments are self-made and self-enforces.
  5. Stable and Responsible government. A democratic government is more stable and responsible. It avoids revolution because the people themselves are the makers and the breakers of laws governments. If the people indicate a lack of confidence over the government will have to resign.
  6. No possibility of Revolutions. People can change the government whenever they so desire. Therefore, the democratic government changes with the change in time.
  7. Political Education. The democratic government gives political education to the people. The entire procedure of elections gives the people political education.
  8. National Unity and Patriotism. The democratic form of government increases the spirit of nation unity and patriotism in the people.

Question 3.
Give arguments against democracy.
Or
Explain the demerits of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is not without defects and weaknesses. Following are the arguments which are given against democracy.

  1. Government of the Ignorants and Incompetents: It is said that a democratic government is a government by the incompetent and the ignorant. The common man is neither politically intelligent nor sufficiently educated.
  2. More importance to quantity: Democracy gives more importance to quantity rather than to quality. All persons are not capable of taking part in the government of the country. On polling day a wise man and a fool are on the same level.
  3. Government of the Rich: In theory democracy is a government by the common man but actually is a government by the rich. The candidates spend lakhs of rupees to win an election. The poor man cannot afford to spend this much amount on elections and hence his right to contest elections become meaningless.
  4. Instability: Leaders keep changing in a democracy and this lead to instability.
  5. Corruption: Democracy leads to corruption because it is based on electoral competition.
  6. The dictatorship of the Majority: The majority party may develop despotic tendencies which are harmful to the development of human personality.
  7. The interest of the People not safeguarded: Even elected leaders of the people do not know the best interest of the people.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance

Question 4.
‘Democracy is better than any other form of government.’ Give arguments in favour of your answer.
Answer:
Modern age is an age of democracy. No doubt democracy is the best form of government. Democracy is better than any other form of government due to following reasons :

  1. Needs of the People. Democracy is the best type of government because it fulfils the needs of the people. In a democracy rulers have to attend the needs of the people.
  2. Responsible Government. A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government. The democratic government for all its action’s and policies are responsible to the people. ,
  3. Consultation and Discussion. Democracy is better because it is based on consultation and discussion.
  4. No Possibility of Revolutions. Democracy is better than other forms of government because there is no possibility of revolution.
  5. Willing Obedience of Laws. The people very willingly obey the laws of the state.
  6. Quality of Decisions. Democracy is better than other forms of government because it improves the quality of decision making.
  7. Solution of Problems. Democracy is the best type of government as it provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.
  8. Dignity of Citizens. Democracy is better than other forms of government because it enhances the dignity of citizens.
  9. Review its own decisions. It is better form of government because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.
  10. Less Chances of War. It is better because it reduces the chances of war.

Question 5.
How was democracy suppressed in Mexico?
Answer:
Mexico attained independence in 1930 and elections, for the President are held after every six years. But till the year 2000, only one party PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) won the elections.

The major reason of its winning all the elections were :

  • As the ruling party, PRI used many unfair means to win the elections.
  • Government officials and other officers were forced to attend the party meetings.
  • School teachers were asked to compel the parents of the students to vote in favour of PRI.
  • On the eleventh hour of the polling day, the polling booths were shifted from one place to another so that the people must not be able to cast vote in the favour of other parties.

In this way, there was no impartial and free voting and democracy was suppressed in Mexico.

Democracy: Meaning and Importance PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Democracy is a type of government elected by the people for a fixed period of time through universal adult franchise.
  • Democracy is an English word which is made up of two Greek words : Demos and Cratia. The meaning of Demos is people and Kratia means ‘Rule’. So the meaning of Democracy is the ‘rule of people’.
  • Democracy is an organisation system in which free and fair participation of the people is ensured to achieve political power.
  • The best definition of Democracy was given by the 16th President of U.S.A. Abraham Lincoln which says that “Democracy is a type of government elected of the people, *by the people and for the people.
  • The basic concept of democracy is that it gives freedom to every one to express his/her ideas and to criticise any one.
  • Presently, democracy is of great importance because it is the protector of individual freedom, symbol of peace and progress, represents the whole public etc.
  • In the present age, many obstacles are coming in the way of democracy such
    as casteism, communalism, regionalism, poverty, indifferent attitude towards social development etc.
  • There are few prerequisites for the success of democracy such as there should be political freedom, there must be economic and social equality, people must be educated and conscious, their moral character should be of high quality etc.
  • There are many countries where people are deceived on the name of democracy such as Pakistan, China, Fiji, Mexico etc. In Pakistan, army always controls democracy. In China, there is only one political party. In Fiji there is a difference in the value of a vote and in Mexico, government uses unfair means to win elections.
  • Democracy is of two types-direct and indirect. Indirect democracy is also known as the representative democracy in which people directly elect their leaders.
  • Presently, with the increase in population, direct democracy is not possible. It was possible in the republic states of Greece where population was only in thousands.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Democracy: Meaning and Importance Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

SST Guide for Class 9 PSEB History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Textbook Questions and Answers

I. Fill in the Blanks :

Question 1.
The smallest unit of administration during the Cholas Reign was ________
Answer:
Urr.

Question 2.
________ led the socialistic party in Chile.
Answer:
Salvador Allende.

II. Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Which of the following countries inspired other countries of the world to adopt Parliamentary system?
(i) Germany
(ii) France
(iii) England
(iv) China.
Answer:
(iii) England.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
Which of the following country doesn’t have the Veto Power?
(ii) India
(ii) U.S.A
(iii) France
(iv) China.
Answer:
(i) India.

III. Write T (for True) and F (for False) Statements :

Question 1.
India is a permanent member of the Security Council of UNO.
Answer:
F-False

Question 2.
Democracy is surviving continuously in our neighboring country- Paskistan.
Answer:
T-True.

IV. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which form of ruling system is being adopted in majority of the nations of the world these days?
Answer:
These days, most of the nations adopt democratic setup of government.

Question 2.
Give the names of ideologies remained in Italy and Germany and were responsible for the set hack of democarcy after 1st World War.
Answer:
Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.

Question 3.
When was Allende elected President of Chile?
Answer:
Salvador Allende was elected the President of Chile in 1970 A.D.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
When did the reinstallation of democracy take place in Chile?
Answer:
In Chile, democracy was installed again in 1990 A.D.

Question 5.
Who led the strike for demand of democratic rights in Poland?
Answer:
Lech Walesa led the strike for the demand of democratic rights in Poland.

Question 6.
When did the election take place in Poland for Presidentship? Who was elected President?
Answer:
In 1990, the elections were held for the post of President and Lech Walesa was elected the President of Poland.

Question 7.
WTien was the universal adult franchise given to the citizens of India?
Answer:
In 1950, with the implementation of the Indian Constitution, Universal Adult Franchise was given to the Indian Citizens.

Question 8.
Which two big continents were fell prey to Colonialism?
Answer:
Asia and Africa were the victims of colonialism.

Question 9.
When did Ghana-a country of South Africa continent become independent?
Answer:
Ghana became an independent country in 1957 A.D.

Question 10.
Which military dictator took hold of the elected Government in 1999 in our neighbouring country Pakistan?
Answer:
General Parvez Musharraf.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 11.
Give the names of two international organisations.
Answer:
United Nations Orgnisation and International Monetary Fund.

Question 12.
What is the function of International Monetary Fund?
Answer:
It provides loan to various countries for development projects.

Question 13.
How many countries are members of the UN?
Answer:
UN has 193 member countries.

Question 14.
Give the names of different ruling system prevailing in the world.
Answer:
Monarchy, totalitarianism, authoritarianism, dictatorship, military dictatorship and democracy.

V. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by adult Franchise?
Answer:
All the Indian citizens, irrespective of their caste, gender, varna, race etc after attaining a fixed age, are given a right to vote in elections. It is known as Universal Adult Franchise. In India, citizens after attaining the age of 18 years, without any discrimination, are given right to vote.

Question 2.
Write a note on the democracy at local level in Chola Kingdom.
Answer:
To run the administration smoothly, Chola rulers divided whole of their kingdom into different units and such administrative units had independent rights. To run the local administration they started a Samiti system which was known as ‘Wariam System’. Different Samitis were formed for different purpose. The smallest unit of administration was ‘Urr’ and to run its administration a samiti of 30 members were elected by the adults of Urr for one year. Each Urr was divided into wards whose members were elected by the people.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of ‘Veto Power’? Give the names of countries having Veto Power.
Answer:
The meaning of Veto Power is to ‘say no’. It means that who so ever is given the right to use Veto Power, no resolution can be passed without its approval. Five members of the Security Council of U.N.O. have the right to use veto power. If any of the five members of the Security Council uses veto, against any resolution, it cannot be passed. The Countries with veto power are-United States of America, England, Russia, France and China.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
Write a brief note on the history of democracy in our neighbouring country Pakistan.
Answer:
Pakistan was formed in 1947 by dividing India and its history of democracy is not good. Army in Pakistan is quite powerful and it is quite influential in its politics. In 1958, Prime Minister Firoz Khan Noon was removed by the Army head General Ayub Khan who became head of the country. After this, in 1977, popular and elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ah Bhuto was again removed by Army General Zia-Ul-Haq and declared himself as the President of Country. In the same way, in 1999, elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was overthrown through a military coup by then Army General Parvez Mussharaf. In 2002, MusshaTaf declared himself as the President of Pakistan. In this way from time to time democratic governments were overthrown by the Army Generals.

Question 5.
Write brief note on the history of democracy in Chile.
Answer:
Chile is a South American country in which Salvador Allende’s Socialist party won President’s elections in 1970. Allende became the President of Chile and he started doing many welfare works for the people, brought many reforms in education and did many works which were opposed by the multi-national companies. On 11 September, 1973, Army head General Augusto Pinochet overthrew the government in which Allende was killed. Power came in the hands of General Pinochet. After ruling the country for 17 years, Pinochet conducted a referendum in which people voted him out of power. In 1990, elections were conducted in the country and democracy was restored in the country.

Question 6.
Who played a great role for the freedom of Ghana-a country of African continent? What was the influence of freedom of Ghana on other countries of African continent?
Answer:
Ghana got independence from the British in 1957 A.D., A person Kwame Nkrumah played the most important role in its freedom struggle. During the freedom

struggle, he along with the people, got the country independent. He became the first Prime Minister and later on the President of country. Ghana’s freedom had a great impact on the other African countries which got motivated by its independence. They along with the passage of time also got freedom from other colonial countries.

VI. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on International Monetary Fund.
Answer:
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are known? Brentton Wood institutions. International Monetary Fund started its economic operations in 1947 A.D. The decision making process of these institutions is controlled by the western countries. U.S.A. holds the major voting rights of I.M.F. and the World Bank.

This institution gives credit to different countries. It has 188 members and each country has voting rights. The power of giving vote for each country is fixed by the monetary contribution given by it to the institution. 52% voting rights of I.M.F. are controlled only by 10 countries and these are U.S.A., Japan, Germany, France, England, China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Russia. As a result, 178 members have very less rights of taking decisions in the institution. In this way we can say that the decision making process in this institution is not democratic.

Question 2.
Write a note on United Nations Organization.
Answer:
United Nations Organization is an international organization which was formed after second world war on 24th October, 1945. It had 51 original members and India was one of them. United Nations was a result of those efforts which were made by keeping in mind the world peace and to stop further wars. Presently it has 193 members.

United Nations has a Parliament which is known as United Nations General Assembly. Here each country is given equal voting rights and members here discuss all the issues related to the problems of world. The meeting of general Assembly is presided over by the Chairman. United Nations has one Secretriate whose head is known as ‘Secretary General’. All the decisions are taken by consulting the concerned members. It has six organs and these are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and the Secretriate.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 3.
Explain in brief the development of democracy in ancient period of Greece and Romans.
Answer:
If we look at the beginning of democracy in the whole world, it begin in the Greece and Roman republics. During ancient times, the cities of Greece had direct democracy, population of these states was quite less. The administrative decisions of the state were directly taken by the people. All the citizens of the state took part in the decision making process of making laws to solve economic, political and social problems, to pass annual budget of the state and to frame public policy.

But this democracy was a limited democracy because a large part of population of the state was of slaves. Slaves were not allowed to take part in the administrative functions of the state. Although the Roman Kings were elected by the people but they run the administration according to their will. Theoretically kings represented whole of the population but practically they run the administration according to their wish.

Question 4.
“Multinational Companies are posing a threat to democracy in the modern era.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
The present age is of globalisation and there has been an increased inter dependency between different countries. Many multinational companies have come forward which work and trade in different countries. But the question arises whether such companies are a threat to democracy?

Presently, most of the doveloping and under developed countries have adopted globalisation and open market policy. Under this policy, multinational companies are doing their business. The major motive of such companies is to earn more and more profit and consequently they continuely increase the price of their products. Such companies always try to exploit the people in one way or the other which is actually against the spirit of democracy.

Although our governments call themselves democratic but they are actually run by business sector. These multinational companies are completely controlled by business sector and they make government policies in ther favour. That’s why rich are becoming more rich and poor are becoming more poor. But this is actually exactly opposite to the spirit of democracy. In this way, such companies are a threat to democracy.

PSEB 9th Class Social Science Guide History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
Democracy exists :
(a) In 70 countries
(b) In Europe only
(c) In the majority countries of the world
(d) In the whole world.
Answer:
(c) In the majority countries of the world.

Question 2.
Who was the President of Chile, when his government was overthrown on 11 Sept. 1973?
(a) Salvador Allende
(b) Michelle Bachelet
(c) General Augusto Pinochet
(d) Lech Walesa.
Answer:
(a) Salvador Allende.

Question 3.
Military coup took place in Chile on :
(a) 11 September 1975
(b) 21 September 1976
(c) 11 September 1973
(d) 11 September 1974.
Answer:
(c) 11 September 1973.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
Poland had its first election in :
(a) April 1989
(b) October 1990
(c) April 1990
(d) October 1992.
Answer:
(b) October 1990.

Question 5.
Who was elected the President of Poland in 1990?
(a) General Augusto Pinochet
(b) Salvador Allende
(c) Michelle Bachelet
(d) Lech Walesa.
Answer:
(d) Lech Walesa.

Question 6.
In which year referendum was held in Poland on Pinochet’s military dictatorship?
(a) 1995
(b) 1988
(c) 1992
(d) 1982.
Answer:
(b) 1988.

Question 7.
In 1980 in Poland which was the ruling party?
(a) Solidarity Party
(b) Polish Socialist Party
(c) Communist Party
(d) Polish United Workers’ Party.
Answer:
(d) Polish United Workers’ Party.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 8.
Which one of the following was the feature of Walesa government of Poland?.
(a) No interference in economic affairs
(b) Foreign intervention in domestic affairs
(c) Govt, .control on all big industries
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) No interference in economic affaris.

Question 9.
Which of the following was the feature of Allende government of Chile?
(a) Widespread corruption
(b) Free Market
(c) Govt, control on big industries
(d) Foreign Intervention in domestic affairs.
Answer:
(c) Govt, control on big industries.

Question 10.
Which of the following was the common feature of Allende government of Chile and Michelle’s Chile?
(а) Power was exercised by the military rulers
(б) Direct democracy
(c) Rule of few persons
(d) Power was exercised by government elected by the people.
Answer:
(d) Power was exercised by government elected by the people.

Question 11.
Which of the following is a feature of Democracy?
(a) Franchise based on Property qualification
(b) Frachise based on educational qualification
(c) Landlords are the voters
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.
Answer:
(d) Universal Adult Franchise.

Fill in the Blanks:

Question 1.
Democracy begin in ________ the ________ and republics.
Answer:
Greece, Roman

Question 2.
The system of running the local administration under the Chola rulers was known as ________
Answer:
Wariam

Question 3.
________ said that the democracy is a govt, of the people, for the people and by the people.
Answer:
Abraham Lincoln

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 4.
A new country ________ was formed by dividing India in 1947.
Answer:
Pakistan

Question 5.
In Poland ________ was dismissed from the job in 1976 for demanding higher wages.
Answer:
Lech Walesa

Question 6.
In ________, Allende was elected as the President of Chile.
Answer:
1970

Question 7.
Universal Adult Frenchise was given in ________ with the implementation of its constitution.
Answer:
India.

True/False:

Question 1.
Iraq gained independence in 1932 from the American colonialism.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The 52% voting rights of I.M.F. are with the 10 countries.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
America became the only superpower in 1991 with the disintegration of U.S.S.R.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
15 members of the security council hag the veto power.
Answer:
False

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 5.
There were 100 primary members of the united nations.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
United Nations Organisation has 193 members.
Answer:
True

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When the government of President Salvador Allende was over thrown and who was the leader of military coup?
Answer:
The government was overthrown by General Augusto Pinochet on 11 Sept. 1973.

Question 2.
Does army has the right to arrest any one?
Answer:
No, army does not have the right to arrest anyone.

Question 3.
When did General Pinochet in Chile conduct referendum?
Answer:
General Pinochet conducted referendum in 1990 in Chile.

Question 4.
When was political freedom restored in Chile?
Answer:
In 1990.

Question 5.
Which party ruled Poland in 1980?
Answer:
Polish United Workers party ruled Poland in 1980.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 6.
Was there any other political party in Poland except Polish United Workers party?
Answer:
No, as no other party was allowed in Poland.

Question 7.
Who was elected as the President of Chile in January 2006?
Answer:
Michelle Bachelet.

Question 8.
Which trade union did strike in Poland in 1988?
Answer:
Solidarity did strike in Poland in 1988.

Question 9.
Give one feature of a non-democratic government.
Answer:
Here government is not elected by the people.

Question 10.
In 19th century, democracy in which country was constantly changed and was re-established again?
Answer:
In France, there was a complete turmoil during whole of the 19th century.

Question 11.
Name the two countries where non-democratic governments still exist.
Answer:

  1. North Korea
  2. China.

Question 12.
Which form of government mostly prevails in most of the countries?
Answer:
Presently, most of the countries prefer democratic form of government.

Question 13.
Which country was disintegrated in 1991 and it formed 15 independent countries?
Answer:
In 1991, U.S.S.R. was disintegrated and there formed 15 independent nations.

Question 14.
In which Asian country, a democratically elected government was dismissed in 2005?
Answer:
In 2005, the new king of Nepal dismissed her democratic government.

Question 15.
When was United Nations Organisation established?
Answer:
On 24th October, 1945.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 16.
Write names of all the organs of the United Nations.
Answer:
General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and the Secreteriate.

Question 17.
Give one basic objective of the United Nations.
Answer:
United Nations was established on the theory of equality among nations.

Question 18.
Name the permanent members of the Security Council.
Answer:
USA, U.K., Russia, France and China.

Question 19.
How many members of the United Nations are there?
Answer:
United Nations has 193 members.

Question 20.
Who gives credit to the members of U.N. if any need arises?
Answer:
International Monetai’y Fund and the World Bank gives credit to the members of U.N. if any need arises.

Question 21.
Which organ of the United Nations have the real power?
Answer:
Security Council.

Question 22.
What is Referendum?
Answer:
Referendum is the process in which laws made by the parliament are kept in front of public to know their opinion. Law will be applicable only if it is approved by the public.

Question 23.
What do you mean by the coalition government?
Answer:
When many political parties come together to form the government, it is called the coalition government.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 24.
What do you mean by coup?
Answer:
When a government is illegally thrown out of power, it is called coup.

Question 25.
What is the meaning of strike?
Answer:
When workers stop working to get their demands met it is called strike.

Question 26.
What do you understand by Trade Union?
Answer:
Group or union of workers is called trade union. It works for the welfare of workers.

Question 27.
When did workers strike at Lenin shipyard in Poland ?
Answer:
They did strike on 14th August, 1980.

Question 28.
Why did workers of Lenin shipyard do strike?
Answer:
The workers of Lenin shipyard did strike for illegally removing a woman Crane worker.

Question 29.
Presently, which type of government is there in Nepal and Pakistan?
Answer:
Presently there are democratic governments in Nepal and Pakistan.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which political work you were not allowed to do during the regime of Polish Workers Union Party of 1980 which you can do in your country?
Answer:
In 1980, few political functions were not allowed in Poland:

  • In Poland, it was not allowed to start a political party as it was ruled by a single party.
  • People had no right to elect the leader of the communist party according to their wish.
  • People had no freedom to elect and criticise the government.
  • People had no freedom of speech and to express their views.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
Do you think it is good to elect someone as the President for life? Or is it better to hold regular elections after every few years?
Answer:
It is not good to elect someone as the President for life. This is not democratic. Someone elected as the President for life become dictator and corrupt. The best example is of Ghana’s president N, Krumah. The elections of the President must be held after a regular interval of 4 or 5 years, so that people must elect their ruler freely at regular interval.

Question 3.
Do you think that the American invasion of Iraq encourages democracy? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer:

  • The American invasion of Iraq in no way encourages democracy.
  • No country has the right to interfere in the internal matters of other countries. Invasion cannot led to the establishment of democracy.
  • No external force can establish democracy in the other state for a longer period of time. People have to struggle themselves for the establishment of democracy.

Question 4.
Give four important features of democracy.
Answer:

  1. People elect their rulers themselves.
  2. Elections to elect the rulers are held after a fixed period of time.
  3. Democracy gives us a chance to correct our mistakes.
  4. People have the freedom of speech, to express their views and to form associations.

Question 5.
Write a short essay on the life of Aung San Suu Kyi.
Answer:
Myanmar (Burma) got freedom in 1948 and became a democratic country. But the democratic government was overthrown in 1962 and military rule was established. Elections were held in 1990. Aung San Suu Kyi was the national leader of Myanmar. Suu Kyi was the leader of National League for democracy. National League for democracy won the election under the leadership of Suu Kyi.

But military ruler instead of handing over the government to the elected leader, put all the leaders including Suu Kyi under house arrest. However Suu Kyi continued her campaign for democracy. According to her, “The quest for democracy in Myanmar is the struggle of the people to live whole, meaningful lives as free and equal members of the world community. She has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.”

Question 6.
“At the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, few countries were not completely democratic.” Give two reasons in its favour.
Answer:
On the following two basis we can say that at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century few countries *Were not completely democratic :

  1. Females had no voting rights in the countries like Switzerland, England, France.
  2. In the United States of America, Black people had no voting right.

Question 7.
How was democracy restored in Poland?
Answer:

  1. In 1988, to keep power with himself, Chile’s military rulers conducted a referendum.
  2. Democracy and the welfare works done by Allende were still fresh in the minds of the people. That’s why Pinochet lost the referendum.
  3. In Chile, President’s elections were held after 17 years and an elected person became the President of the country.

Question 8.
Explain the process of establishment of democracy in Poland?
Answer:

  1. In 1980, workers of Lenin Shipyard went on strike and the government was forced to sanction the strike.
  2. Workers formed their union called solidarity.
  3. Workers again conducted a strike again in 1988 which greatly pressurised the government.
  4. Finally government decided to hold elections in which communist government was defeated and solidarity formed the government.

Question 9.
What do you know about solidarity?
Answer:

  1. Solidarity was a worker’s organization formed by the workers of Poland.
  2. This organization was formed after a treaty signed between the workers and government.
  3. Within one year of its establishment, its members increased upto one crore.
  4. In 1989, elections were held in Poland in which solidarity won 99 out of 100 seats. Its leader Lech Walesa formed the government.

Question 10.
What was the impact of the end of colonialism on the newly independent nations after the cold war?
Answer:

  1. Newly independent countries had to face lot of problems in the establishment of their government and political institutions.
  2. Most of the newly independent countries adopted the democratic form of government but democracy did not get a success in these countries.
  3. In most of these countries, military rule was established and democracy came to an end.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 11.
What do you know about the decline of the U.S.S.R.?
Answer:

  1. After 1917, a communist government was formed in Russia. Due to many of its policies, U.S.S.R. was disintegrated in 1991 and divided into 15 independent nations.
  2. These newly independent countries adopted democratic system to remove communist system of government.
  3. Most of these republics recognised and adopted the multi party system.
  4. The impact of U.S.S.R. on the Eastern Europe completely came to an end.

Question 12.
Give some ways to establish a democratic set up at the international level.
Answer:

  • For the establishment of a democratic set up at the International level, there is a need to make international institutions more democratic.
  • People must be given political, social and economic rights so that they can live a happily life.
  • From time to time, independent and impartial elections must be conducted.
  • People must have the freedom of speech and expression.

Question 13.
Why did President Allende continually talk about the laborers? Why were rich people not happy with him?
Answer:
President Allende continuely talked about the interests of the labourers. He made many laws in the interests of labourers such as change in the educational system, distribution of land to peasants and providing free milk to children. For their welfare, he continuely to talk with the workers. Rich people were not happy with president Allende because they did not like his policies of public welfare.

Question 14.
Why did most of the countries gave right to vote quite late? Why did this not happen in India?
Answer:
Most of the countries gave females the right to vote quite late because they were not considered equal to males. In India, they took part in the freedom struggle along with males. During this time, many positive and democratic values came forward in India. In these values, females were considered equal to males. That’s why females got voting rights straight away with the formation of the constitution.

Question 15.
Why is direct democracy not possible in the present age?
Answer:
In modern times, direct democracy is not possible. Its reason is that the modern states are large in size and their population is in crores. It is not possible to adopt direct democracy in such countries. In a country like India, such a system is not possible because having a referendum is not an easy task and laws cannot be made by asking questions. It takes crores to conduct general elections in the country and it is a time-consuming process as well. That’s why it is not possible to implement the institution of direct democracy over here.

Question 16.
What do you mean by Adult Franchise?
Answer:
The meaning of universal Adult Franchise is the right to vote to the adult citizens of the country in an impartial and free manner. The age of achieving adulthood is fixed, by the state Initially this age was 21 years in England but later on they changed it to 18 years. This is also 18 years in the U.S.A. and Russia. In India also, initially, it was 21 years but by the 61 Constitutional Amendment, it was changed to 18 years.

Question 17.
Give two reasons in favour of Universal Adult Franchise.
Answer:

  1. Power is in the hands of the people. In democracy, power is in the hands of the people and administration is run with the wish and welfare of the public. So, everyone should have the right to vote.
  2. Everyone is under the effect of laws.’ Whichever laws are made in the state, they influence everyone equally. That’s why everyone should have the right to make laws.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“Democracy has continuely progressed during the 20th century.” Explain the statement.
Answer:
Present age is the age of democracy. Democracy in most of the countries have been evolved through out the 20th century. There is no part of the world in which democracy has not been progressed.

Europe, Asia, Africa, South America every where democracy has been established.

  1. Britain. It has been said that democracy in Britain was established with the Glorious Revolution on 1088. But actually it was established in 20th century. Adult franchise was implemented in England in 1928 A.D.
  2. France. French revolution took place in 1789 A.D. but democracy was established gradually in phases. During 18th and 19th centuries, gradually the powers of kings and Feudal Lords were reduced. A maximum number of people were given right to vote. But actual democratic set up was established to 1944 A.D. with the implementation of adult franchise.
  3. The U.S.A. America declared itself independent in 1776 A.D. With the freedom of other states, United States of America was formed. The Constitution in U.S.A. come into force in 1787 and democracy was established. Adult franchise in U.S.A. was established in 1965.
  4. New Zealand. Adult franchise, in New Zealand, come into force in 1893.
  5. End of Colonialism. After the second world war, many of the Asian and African countries gained freedom from British imperialism. India gained independence on 15th August, 1947 and then democracy was established over here. In the same way democracy was also established in Pakistan, SriLanka and Ghana.
  6. The disintegration of U.S.S.R.. In 1991, the elsewhere USSR was disintegrated USSR was divided into 15 independent nations and democracy was established over there.
    Presently more, than 140. countries are democratic countries but many countries have military dictatorship or rule of one party.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy

Question 2.
What did Augusto Pinochet do after becoming the President of Chile?
Answer:
After becoming the president of Chile, Augusto Pinochet did many non-democratic functions :

  • Pinochet established his dictatorship in Chile.
  • He killed many of the supporters of Allende.
  • Pinochet arrested wife and daughter of General Bachelet, Airforce chief, and send them to Jail.
  • He killed Airforce head General Bachelet and other officials.
  • He killed almost 3000 innocent persons.

History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy PSEB 9th Class SST Notes

  • Since ancient times, there have been many types of administrative systems in the whole world such as Monarchy, Dictatorship, Authoritarianism, Totalitarianism but democracy is most prevalent in the modern world.
  • Democracy in the whole world started in the republics of Greece and Rome where direct democracy was available. Here citizens of the state directly participated in the decision-making process of administration.
  • During ancient times in India, many states adopted the republican system. During the times of Chola Kings, there had been some sort of democracy at the grass root level.
  • Medieval period is also known as feudal period when feudal lords were of great importance. Consequently, democracy did not have a chance to come forward.
  • During modern times, the autocratic systems of kings were challenged and their powers were either removed or restricted by the Parliament.
  • 20th century is known as the golden era for democracy when after the end of imperialism, many countries established democracy as the alternate system to imperialism.
  • After second world war, many countries got freedom from the imperialist powers and they established democracy. India was one of such countries.
  • In Chile, Salvador Allande established democracy and did many works of social welfare. But rich people didn’t like his works and with the help of army general Augusto Pinochet, overthrew Allende’s government and established military rule over there. After 17 years of his rule, Pinochet decided to have referendum from the public which they opposed and he was forced to relinquish the power.
  • Poland was a communist country where workers did a strike that spread on a large scale. Government accepted their demands and workers formed a trade union called ‘Solidarity’. In 1989, independent elections were held in Poland in which solidarity won complete majority. In this way, democracy was established in Poland.
  • Many Asian and African countries were the victims of Colonialism and European countries made them their calonies. After second world war, when their power was reduced, colonial countries started giving freedom to their colonies. India was one of such country. Ghana in Africa was the first country which gained independence from the British in, 1957 A.D.
  • At international level, there is an institution called United Nation Organisation where all the decisions are taken in a democratic way. Each country is having equal voting right. It has 193 members.
  • There is one of the six organs of the United Nations Organisation which tries to solve the disputes between the countries. Security Council has 15 members out of which 5 members (U.S.A., U.K., France, Russia and China) are the permanent members and 10 are temporary members elected for a term of two years.
  • There is another organization at an international level called the International Monetary Fund with 188 members. All these countries have voting rights in it but their power of voting is fixed according to their financial contribution to the organisation.
  • After looking at the functioning of the International Organisations although it seems that they work for the establishment of democracy but they don’t have democracy in their normal functioning.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Chapter 1 History, Development and Expansion of the Modem Democracy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.