PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

PSEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 1.
20 century is called The Golden Era of democracy. A trend towards democracy started among the Europeans. British and America remarked that first world war was fought for the security of demoracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries came into existence after 1st World War. These countries preferred to adopt democrative system. Those countries who were prey to imperialism expressed their desire to demolish imperialism and establish democracy.
But this golden period of democracy soon disappeared and democracy had to face adverse circumstances. After 1st World War, democracy had to face a set back in Italy and Germany due to the birth of two movements which were not in favour of democracy. The advent of ideology of Nazism in Germany and Facism in Italy proved disastrous for democracy. Both the ideologies were in the favour of dictatorship. Due to these ideologies, the tragedy of second world war happened between 1939-45.
(а) Which century is known as the Golden Era of democracy and why?
Answer:
20th century is known as the Golden Era of democracy because this was the time when European people started looking towards democracy. Even the first World War (1914-18) was fought for the security of democracy and the principle of self-decision. Many new countries were formed after the war and they all adopted the democratic set-up.

(b) Why did the Golden period of democracy end very soon?
Answer:
The Golden era of democracy ended after first World War because it faced adverse circumstances. Nazism and fascism started in Germany and Italy respectively and dictatorship established over there. This dictatorship encouraged the imperial policy and that’s why second World War started which lasted till 1945.

Question 2.
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Like India, there was colonialism in Ghana, (African Continent) : Firstly, it was known as Gold Coast. It was among the first country of Africa which got independence from the Britishers in 1957. This country inspired other countries of Africa for independence. A great personality of Ghana, who was the son of a goldsmith (Name- Kqame Nkrumah)-led this freedom movement and got his country freed. He became 1st Prime Minister and later on became the President of Ghana. He was a friend of Pt. Nehru. He inspired the people of other countries of Africa continent to establish democracy. He got himself elected as President for the ‘lifetime’. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy 3Military dictatorship was established in Ghana. Like Ghana the Countries which adopted democracy after Independence could not retain it continuously but in India working of democracy is still continue after independence.
(a) Tell something about Ghana’s struggle for independence.
Answer:
Ghana was earlier known as Gold Coast which is situated in Africa. Ghana was also a victim of Colonialism and was under the occupation of the British. Kagame Nkrumah led the freedom struggle of Ghana and got the country independent from the British in 1957 A.D.

(b) Briefly tell about Kqame Nkrumah.
Answer:
Kqame Nkrumah was the son of a goldsmith. He led Ghana’s freedom struggle against the British and got his country independent. He became the first Prime Minister of Ghana and later on became the President for the lifetime. But soon in 1966, he was dethroned by a military conspiracy. Military dictatorship was then established in Ghana.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 3.
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Democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power. In democarcy the people control the government. Sometime democracy is called as the rule of masses (entire public). But it is merely a hypothesis as all the people are not of the same opinion. Democracy is sometimes called the government of the majority. This is also not appropriate. For example, many times an anarchist becomes successful to win the support of the majority on the basis of violence or misuse of power. Shall we call such a government as democratic?
The freedom to elect is the root or base of democracy. The existence of democracy lies in the difference of opinion. Every person has .his own view to solve national problems. In democracy difference of opinion is shown through ballots and not bullets. There is no place for violence in democracy. In election any ideology becomes successful to win the support of majority of people and becomes successful to hold political power.
(a) What is meant by democracy?
Answer:
Democarcy is a type of government in which government is elected for a fixed period of time through Universal Adult Franchise and this government works for the welfare of people. In this way democracy is such a structural arrangement where free and fair participation of people is ensured to get the political power.

(b) Give features of democracy?
Answer:

  • Democracy is a type of government.
  • Right to choose is the main base of democracy.
  • Government is elected for a fixed period of time.
  • Every person has the right to cast one vote and value of each vote is same.
  • Democracy allows us to correct our mistakes.

Question 4.
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In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian. In democracy the principle of ‘One person—one vote—one value’ is applicable. Therefore, we can’t call Fiji as a democractic country.
Now we will take an example of Mexico. It became independent in 1930. Mexico holds elections after every six years to elect its President. The power of government never remains in the hands of military or dictator. But until 2000 every election was won by PRI party. Other parties were free to contest the election. But being in power, PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) party was known to use unfair means. Government officials and officers were forced to attend meeting of PRI Party. Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI Party. The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leader might not be successful to cast their votes. All these examples reveal that only periodical elections are not sufficient but free and fair poll is essential. If a party wins the election by unfair or suppressive means we will not call it true democracy.
(а) What is meant by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the elections must take place impartially and without any impact or pressure. Ruling party must not use unfair means to win 6ver the votes and people must choose their representatives without any fear.

(b) Which unfair methods were used in Mexico to win elections?
Answer:
From 1930 to 2000 A.D., only one party in Mexico won elections and the party was PRI. It used following unfair means to win elections.

  • Government officials were forced to attend meetings of PRI.
  • Government teachers were directed to insist the parents to cast their votes in favour of PRI.
  • The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the eleventh hour on polling day so that the opposition leaders might not be successful to cast their votes.

Question 5.
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India became independent on 15 August, 1947. But the process of making constitution for India had been started before independence. Leaders of India adopted Parliamentary democratic system for India which is the main feature of our constitution. The constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly which was elected indirectly. It took two years, eleven months and eighteen days to frame the constitution.
The demand for the Constituent Assembly for framing Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. The British Government accepted it in 1940. The election of Constituent Assembly was made on Nov. 19, 1946 indirectly from the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 389, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces (British India) and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.
(a) From whom and when India got independence?
Answer:
India got independence from the British on 15th August 1947 A.D.

(b) Give two main features of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:

  • Indian Constitution is the written constitution and is the lengthiest in the world.
  • Parliamentary form of government is adopted in India.

(c) How were the members of the Constituent Assembly elected?
Answer:
The demand for framing the Indian Constitution was raised by Congress for the first time in 1935. According to the recommendations of the Constituent Assembly, the members of Constituent Assembly were indirectly elected by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members, of whom 93 were representatives from the Indian States, 292 from the Provinces of the British India and 4 from the area of Chief Commissioners.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 6.
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The Preamble to the constitution states the objects which the constitution seeks to establish and promote. It is the window of the constitution from which we can have a glimpse of objectives, principles and features of our constitution.
It is considered to be a part of constitution because it can be amended like other articles of constitution. Though the preamble is not enforceable in a court of Law, it provides a key to the understanding and interpretation of the constitution.
The Preamble declares India as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political. It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all. It declares fraternity assuming the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.
(a) What is meant by the Preamble?
Answer:
Preamble is nothing but the nutshell of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble tells us about the basic objectives and features of the constitution. The Preamble is known as the part of the Indian Constitution.

(b) What is the importance of the Preamble of the Constitution?
Answer:

  • The Preamble declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.
  • It ensures to all its citizens justice, social, economic and political.
  • It ensures them liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • It ensures them equality of opportunity and status among them all.

Question 7.
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The constitution of India is the largest and the most comprehensive of all the written constitutions of the world. Originally, it consists of 395 Articles and 8 schedules. Now it exists of 12 schedules and many new articles have been added under the original articles. It is extended due to a number of amendments. After 42nd constitutional amendment two new parts 4A & 14A were added to it. The 9th schedule was added in 1951 under first amendment. The 10th schedule regarding ‘Anti Defection Law’ was added in 1985 by 52nd Constitutional Amendment. The 11th schedule regarding power, authority and responsibility of Panchayati Raj Institution was added under 73rd constitutional amendment in 1992. The 12th schedule was added in 1992 under 74th Constitutional Amendment. It is realed to local self-government in Urban area (Municipalities.)
(a) Why is the Indian Constitution lengthiest in the world?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution is lengthiest in the world as originally it had 395 articles and 8 schedules. Later on many new schedules and articles were added in it. Now there are 450 articles and 12 schedules in it. Every minute detail is given in it. Many Constitutional Amendments were added in it and that’s why it has become more lengthy.

(b) What were 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments?
Answer:
To establish local Self Government in the country, 73rd and 74th Amendments were made in the Constitution. According to 73rd Amendment, a three tier structure of Local Self Government was established in rural areas. According to 74th Amendment, Local Self Government was established in urban areas.

Question 8.
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In Parliamentary System, Head of the state is President, Governor General, King or Queen. In India, France and Austria, President is the head of the State. In Canada, Australia, New Zealand Governor-General is the head of state while in Japan, England, Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Norway King or Queen is the head of the State. The head of these-countries are titular or nominal executive. The main features of the Parliamentary System is that constitutionally head of the country has enormous powers but practically he does not use these powers. Practically, the cabinet exercises these powers. The hea,d of Parliamentary form of Government is like India’s President. The cabinet runs the administration in the name of State Head but the entire responsibility of Government lies on its shoulder.
(a) What do you mean by Parliamentary form of government.
Answer:
Parliamentary form of government in which government is elected from within the Parliament. It means that the Parliament will be elected by the people and then government will be elected from within the Parliament. The Parliament will keep control over the government which will take Parliament’s permission for every work.

(b) Give features of Parliamentary systeng.
Answer:

  • In Parliamentary system there is a Head of the State such as the President of India. He is the nominal Head of the country.
  • Constitutionally, Head of the country is given enormous powers but practically, he does not use all of his powers.
  • Council of Ministers uses all the powers of the Head of the country. In this way Council of Ministers is responisble to run administration of the country.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 9.
Read the source and answer the given questions :
In the Parliamentary system, Prime-Minister leads the cabinet. In the lower house of the Parliament-Prime Minister is the leader of the party with majority. Therefore, he is the leader of the Parliament also. Chief of the state appoints ministers at his recommendations. He presides over the meetings of the cabinet. He decides dates and agenda of cabinet meetings. He consults the cabinet but his decision is final on disputable issues. He distributes the departments among ministers. The Prime- Minister coordinates and supervises the works of ministers. If any minister does not cooperate or is not agreed at his policies then he has to resign. If he does not resign then Prime-Minister can request the President to remove him from his designation. He is the main spokesman of the Government. He informs the President about the decision of the cabinet. He takes the opinion of the President on some specific and important matters. Though he is not bound to follow the opinion of the President yet he thinks over it very seriously.
(a) What is the role of Prime Minister in Parliamentary System?
Answer:
Prime Minister holds the most important position in Parliamentary system because he is the Real Executive Head of country. The President acts only on his advice. Even the President appoints council of ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. He is answerable to the Parliament for his government’s acts. He is actually spokesperson of government.

(b) Discuss functions of Prime Minister.
Answer:

  • He gets his Council of Ministers appointed by the President.
  • He divides different departments to Ministers. He can change their departments and, if required, can remove them.
  • He acts as a link between the President and Council of Ministers.
  • He informs the President about the decisions of the cabinet.
  • He represents India at International level.
  • He presides over the meeting of Council of Ministers.

Question 10.
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All the ministers of the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Parliament. If the parliament passes ‘Censure Motion’ against one minister then whole Council of Ministers, have to resign. If a policy is framed for one department in the Council of Ministers then its responsibility lies on the whole Council of Ministers.
Every minister is personally responsible for his department. If the work of any department is not up to the mark the Prime Minister can ask the minister, of the concerned department to resign. If the minister does not submit his resignation then the Prime Minister can ask the President to remove that minister.
(a) What do you mean by Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of Collective Responsibility of Council of Ministers is that they are collectively responsible towards Parliament. If a non-confidence motion passes against any minister, the whole of the Council of Ministers will have to resign. It is often said that the Council of Ministers swim and sink together.

(b) What is individual responsibility of Ministers?
Answer:
The meaning of individual responsibility of Ministers is that every minister is responsible for the functioning of his department. If any minister’s department is not working properly, he can be called for an explanation. Members of Parliament can ask any question related to their department and it is must for the ministers to reply. In this way ministers are individually responsible to the Prime Minister and Parliament for the functions of their respective departments.

Question 11.
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Fair and free election is the pillar of democracy. Fair and free election implies that voters should cast his/her vote without any fear or pressure. Secondly, he should not misuse his vote under any temptation. The election commission played a significant role in holding fair and free elections. The evils of elections cannot be eradicated till the voter is not awaken. Undoubtedly, the government made many reforms in this direction, for example under the Anti defection act there is complete prohibition on defection. If a winning candidate changes his party then his candidature will be cancelled. But defection still survives in one or the other form. Before election many candidates are competent for election ticket. Those candidates who are not alloted tickets by their party, join other political parties.
(а) What do you mean by free and fair elections?
Answer:
The meaning of free and fair elections is that the voters must cast their vote without having any fear or pressure. Secondly, they must not sell their vote in lieu of money or anything else. Free and fair elections is one of the important base of democracy and in its absense, democracy cannot work smoothly.

(b) What steps have been taken to eradicate evils of elections?
Answer:
Many evils prevail in election system such as use of money, threatening voters, defection of leaders from one party to another etc. Many efforts are made to remove these evils such as:

  • According to Anti-Defection Laws, no elected M.P. or M.L.A. can change his party. If he will, his membership would be cancelled.
  • While filling a nomination form, a candidate will have to fill an affidavit containing information about his wealth, moveable and immoveable property and criminal cases pending against him. It tells the people about the character of that leader.
  • Each political party has to file Income Tax Return so that people must come to know that how money comes to parties.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 12.
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Periodical Election is an essential feature of the Parliamentary democracy. To establish democracy without election is merely a hypothesis. The basic principle of democracy is to entrust the every citizen right to vote at his/her will. There is clear provision in our constitution about the election of President and Vice President. For the remaining elections, Parliament makes provision from time to time. Single voter list is prepared for the election of Lok Sabha, the State Legislative Assemblies and Local bodies. On the basis of regional representation people of all religions and groups elect the candidate. No constituency is made on the basis of any particular religion or group.
(а) What do you mean by Regular or Periodic Elections?
Answer:
The meaning of regular or periodic elections is that the elections must be conducted after a fixed period of time which can be different in different countries. In India, it is 5 years. If elections are not conducted after a fixed period of time, it is a great danger to democracy. So, periodic elections are must and people must get regular chance to elect their leader.

(b) What is the relation of democracy and elections?
Answer:
Democracy and elections are directly related as the former cannot be maintained without the presence of later. In democracy, representatives are directly elected by the people and democracy sustains only because of elections. If there are no elections, there is no democray. The main base of democracy is to provide the people right to elect their representatives. In this way they both are closely related to each other.

Question 13.
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While living in sociey man enjoys many facilities. For example, he is having freedom of speech and expression. He can convey his ideas through speech and writings. He can move freely throughout the territory of India. He can practise any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business. He can profess or practise any religion. Man can celebrate his rituals and festivals collectively. People have been blessed with the facility to live with their family. But man can enjoy all these facilities while living in the society. In simple language, these facilities can be named as rights. But, no one can enjoy that facility which is not in the interest of the whole society. So, Rights are those genuine demands by Individual or group of Individuals which are recognised by society and state.
(a) What do you mean by Rights?
Answer:
Rights are those genuine demands by an individual or a group of individuals which are recognised by society and state. In other words, rights are such conditions which are must for an individual to live a happy life. In their absence, we cannot live a happy and prosperous life.

(b) What is the importance of Rights in our lives?
Answer:
Rights play an important role in our lives because :

  • Rights are the facilities to give us a better life.
  • Rights give us equality in society.
  • Only with rights, we can express our feelings and can do anything whatever we want.

Question 14.
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In Indian constitution there are some motives for the personality development of citizens and to ensure their honour. Therefore, the maker of our constitution tried to fulfil these motives by enlisting the fundamental rights in the constitution. The democractic nature of any country is known by the fundamental rights entitled to the citizens of that country.
Indian citizens did not have fundamental rights before independence. But demand of fundamental rights was raised time to time in India’s freedom movement. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak asked the British Government to pass the ‘Swaraj Bill’. The Bill included right to freedom of thought and expression, equality before law and some other rights for Indian people. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through ‘Nehru Report’. But the British Government rejected all these demands. In the Government of India Act 1935, the list of fundamental rights for Indian citizens was not incorporated.
(a) How can we come to know that any country is democratic or not?
Answer:
We can only come to know about any country is democratic or not by looking at the fundamental rights provided to the people. If people are provided with all the fundamental rights we can call that country as democratic.

(b) What was the condition of fundamental rights before independence?
Answer:
Before Indian Independence, people had no rights at all because the British government always followed repressive policies. That’s why many a times, basic rights were demanded from the government. In 1895, Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded from the government to pass Swaraj Bill and certain rights as well. In 1928, a demand for equal rights for men and women was also raised through Nehru Report. But the British Government did not accept the demands. Even rights were not included in the Government of India Act, 1935. But after 1947, when Indian constitution was formed, people were given all the fundamental rights.

Question 15.
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Art. 25 provides freedom of conscience and faith in any religion. This right has been given to justify the aims of India’s being secular as mentioned in the preamble of our constitution. Right to freedom of religion is given to foreigners also.

Art. 26 provides :

  • Establish and maintain institution for religious and charitable purposes and to preach any religion.
  • Manage its own affairs in matters of religion and administer such moveable and immoveable .property in accordance with law.

Art. 27 refers that the state cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.
Under Art. 28, no religious instructions can be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds. However educational institutions of private sector can give religious education. But they can’t compel any students to participate in it.
(a) What is Right to Freedom of Religion?
Answer:
All the citizens of India are given right to freeedom of religion under Articles 25-28. According to this right, citizens are free to adopt, profess and propagate their religion. No one can force them to adopt any other religion.

(b) Explain Articles 26 and 27 of the Indian constitution.
Answer:
Article 26 :

  • It establishes and maintains institutions for religious and charitable purposes and preaches any religion.
  • Manages its own affairs in matters of religion and administers such moveable and immoveable property in accordance with law.

Article 27: It refers that the State cannot compel any citizen to pay any taxes or donations for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institutions.

PSEB 9th Class SST Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers

Question 16.
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Power of Judicial review means to sit on judgement over the order of the executive and Laws of the Legislature for their constitutional validity. If any order passed by the executive and a Law passed by a legislature violates the constitution or is not in accordance with the constitution the Supreme Court can declare such an order or Law null and void. The power of judicial review has been entitled to the Supreme Court due to Federal System of the government and of fundamental rights in constitution. This power of judicial review ensures that centre and state government should work in their jurisdiction and should protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
(а) What is meant by the power of Judical Review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is given to judiciary in India. According to this, if judiciary feels that any law made by the Parliament is against the basic structure of the constitution, it can declare that law null and void or illegal. In this way judiciary can review any law which is its power of judicial review.

(b) What is the importance of the power of Judicial review?
Answer:
The power of judicial review is quite important because it helps in helping Legislature and Executive under control. If legislative passes any bill against the basic provisions of the Constitution, Judiciary can declare that bill illegal and can restore the basic provisions of the Constitution. Supreme Court is known as the Guardian of the Constitution and through the power of judicial review, constitutional provisions are protected. Due to this power of Judiciary, Central and State governments never violate their jurisdiction and fundamental rights of the citizens.

Punjab State Board PSEB 9th Class Social Science Book Solutions Civics Source Based Questions and Answers.

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